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BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO

NUEVA TECNOLOGIA DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE


CRUDOS PESADOS
JOSE CORDOVA
Universidad Central de Venezuela
CCPP-UCV
Septiembre 2014
MOTIVACIN
1 Billn Barriles CP
2,5 Billones Barriles CP
Venezuela posee el reservorio de Crudos Pesados (< 10 API) ms
grande del mundo. Este reservorio contiene cerca de 1,5 millones
de millones de barriles de crudos pesados en sitio, de los cuales
se pueden recuperar cerca de 300 mil millones de barriles con las
tecnologas actuales de produccin.

Debido a la declinacin actual de produccin de crudos livianos
y medianos a nivel mundial, podemos considerar a los crudos
pesados como los CRUDOS DEL FUTURO.
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
1 Billn Barriles CP
2,5 Billones Barriles CP
1 Billn Barriles CP
2,5 Billones Barriles CP
1,5 Billnes Barriles CP
Reservas Mundiales de Crudos Pesados (CP)
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
1 Billn Barriles CP
2,5 Billones Barriles CP
1 Billn Barriles CP
2,5 Billones Barriles CP
650 Km Largo y 70 km Ancho (55.000 Km
2
)
1,5 Billones Barriles
de Crudos Pesados
FPO
Ubicacin de Crudos Pesados en Venezuela
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Tabla 1. Propiedades Fsicas y Qumicas del Bitumen Cerro Negro

Gravity
0
API 8,4
Saturates (%) 11,8
Aromatics (%) 45,8
Resins (%) 30,9
Asphalthenes (%) 11,5
Carbon (%) 80,3
Hydrogen (%) 9,9
Sulfur (%) 3,7
Nitrogen (ppm) 6.188
Nquel (ppm) 95,5
Vanadio (ppm) 367,4
Acidity (mg KOH/g) 3,02
Carbn Conradson (%) 17,2
Combustibles : 30 %

Residuo de Vacio : 70 %
Naphtha, IBP-20 0
o
C 0,56 %
Jet, 200-250
o
C 0,59 %
Diesel, 250-350
o
C 9,05 %

VGO, 350-500
o
C 23,37 %
VR, 500
o
C 66,99 %
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
1 Billn Barriles CP
2,5 Billones Barriles CP
1 Billn Barriles CP
2,5 Billones Barriles CP
NUESTRA VISION



CP < 10
o
API
CLS > 39
o
API
300 MMMB Crudos Pesados (CP) >300 MMMB Crudos Livianos Sintticos (CLS)
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
FPO CLS



BIOCONVERSION
Arte Previo
8
0
API
36
0
API
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS

Distillates of the
Biotreated crude
Distillates of the
control Cerro Negro
crude
o
API 36 24
Sulfur (%) 2.99 3.22
Nitrogen (%) 0.26 0.29
TABLE 5
This example corresponds to the process with the
Bacterial Consortium No. CVCM 1774, 1776, 1777,
1752 and 1753
Biotreated crude Cerro Negro
control crude
Naphtha, IBP-200
o
C 0.94 0.56
Jet, 200-250
o
C 2.86 0.59
Diesel, 250-350
o
C

12.45 9.05
VGO, 350-500
o
C 27.37 23.37
VR, 500
o
C 56.38 66.99
TABLE 6
This example corresponds to the process with the
Enzymatic Extract of the consortium described in TABLE 5
Distillation (%)
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
Nutrientes:
Acido Flico
Tiamina
Riboflavina
Acido Flico
Vitamina B12
Otros

BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
Catalizadores:
Oxidos de Rutenio
Oxidos de Manganeso
Oxidos de Cromo
Otros

BioMateriales:
Bacterias Metanognicas
Otras Bacterias
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
United States Patent 6,541,240
Kilbane, II , et al. April 1, 2003
Inventors: Kilbane, II; John J. (Woodstock, IL), Ribeiro; Claudia Maria Soares (Rio de Janeiro, BR),
Linhares; Monica Moreira (Rio de Janeiro, BR)
Assigne: Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.-Petrobras (Rio de Janeiro, BR)
Appl.
No.:
09/449,613
Filed: November 30, 1999
Bacterial cleavage of only organic C-N bonds of carbonaceous materials to reduce nitrogen content

Abstract
A microbial process is provided for selective cleavage of only organic C--N bonds while leaving C--C bonds intact which may
be used for reducing the nitrogen content of nitrogen-containing organic carbonaceous materials. Microorganisms of Pseudomonas
ayucida have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C--N bonds. A particularly preferred microorganism
is Pseudomonas ayucida strain ATCC No PTA-806. Other microorganisms useful in the cleavage of organic C--N bonds are
Aneurinibacillus sp, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Yokenella sp. and Pseudomonas nitroreducens.

BioOxidacin
BioReduccin
NH
3

NO
2

BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
United States Patent 5,726,056
Xu , et al. March 10, 1998
Inventor: Xu; Guo-Wei (The Woodlands, TX), Mitchell; Kenneth W. (The Woodlands, TX),
Monticello; Daniel J. (The Woodlands, TX)
Assigne: Energy BioSystems Corporation (The Woodlands, TX)
Appl.No. 08/819,590
Filed: March 17, 1997
Fuel product produced by demetalizing a fossil fuel with an enzyme

Abstract
The invention relates to a method of removing metals from a fossil fuel comprising the steps of contacting the fossil fuel with a
biocatalyst selected from the group consisting of an enzyme which degrades porphyrin molecules under conditions suitable for the
removal of the metals from the fossil fuel; and separating the metals from the fossil fuel. Preferred embodiments of the biocatalyst
include heme oxygenase and cytochrome C reductase, such as cytochrome C reductase from Bacillus megaterium, Catharanthus
roseuse, Escherichia coli, animal cells, plant cells or yeast cells. The cytochrome C reductase can be contacted with the fossil fuel
in an aqueous medium as a substantially cell-free preparation or cell preparation. In one embodiment of the invention, the metals
are recovered from the resulting metal containing stream.

BioDM
Porfirina
Oxido Metlico
Petroporfirina
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Enzimas
Arte Previo
United States Patent 4,799,545
Silver , et al. January 24, 1989
Inventors:
Silver; Richard S. (Allentown, PA), Bunting; Pamela M. (Cheswick, PA), Moon; William G. (Newton, NJ), Acheson;
Willard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)
Assignee: Chevron Research Company (San Francisco, CA)

Appl.No.
07/140,892
Filed: December 29, 1987
Bacteria and its use in a microbial profile modification process

Abstract
The present invention is a bacteria and its use in a Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) process. Any one of two newly
isolated strains of bacteria are injected downhole in a petroleum reservoir to modify its profile. This bacteria has the capability to
plug the zones of higher permeability within the reservoir so that a subsequent waterflood may selectively enter the oil bearing
less permeable zones. The injected water is used to drive this oil to an area where it may then be recovered.

BIOPOLIMEROS
BIOSURFACTANTES
Bacterias submarinas
Roca
Crudo
Agua
Arte Previo
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
United States Patent 6,543,535
Converse, et al. April 8, 2003
Inventors: Converse; David R. (Houston, TX), Hinton; Stephen M. (Chester, NJ), Hieshima; Glenn B. (Houston, TX), Barnum; Robert S.
(Sugar Land, TX), Sowlay; Mohankumar R. (Phillipsburg, NJ)
Assigee: ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company (Houston, TX)

Appl. No.:
09/789,019
Filed: February 20, 2001

Process for stimulating microbial activity in a hydrocarbon-bearing, subterranean formation

Abstract
A process is disclosed for stimulating the activity of microbial consortia in a subterranean formation to convert hydrocarbons to
methane, which can be produced. Fluid and rock of the formation are analyzed. The presence of microbial consortia is determined
and a characterization made (preferably genetic) of at least one microorganism of the consortia, at least one being methanogenic
microorganism. The characterization is compared with at least one known characterization derived from a known microorganism
having one or more known physiological and ecological characteristics. This information, together with the information obtained
from the analysis of the fluid and rock, is used to determine an ecological environment that promotes in situ microbial degradation
of formation hydrocarbons and promotes microbial generation of methane by at least one methanogenic microorganism of the
consortia. This information is then used as the basis for modifying the formation environment to produce methane.

.

Arte Previo
Genmica de Fondo de Pozo
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Bacterias Metanognicas
United States Patent 6,060,287
Rocha , et al. May 9, 2000
Inventors: Rocha; Carlos Ali (Caracas, VE), Gonzalez; Dosinda (Caracas, VE), Iturralde; Maria Lourdes
(Caracas, VE), Lacoa; Ulises Leonardo (Caracas, VE), Morales; Fernando Antonio (Maracaibo,
VE)
Assigne: Universidad Simon Bolivar (Caracas, VE)
Appl.No. 09/233,061
Filed: January 20, 1999
Production of oily emulsions mediated by a microbial tenso-active agent

Abstract
The present invention is directed to methods for preparing biosurfactants for use in stabilizing emulsions of high viscosity
hydrocarbons such as high viscosity crude oil wherein the biosurfactant is a metabolite of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (USB-CS1).
The resulting biosurfactant can be used to produce stabilized emulsions having a viscosity of below about 500 centipoise and,
more preferably, below about 100 centipoise at ambient temperatures.

Arte Previo
ORIMULSIN
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
BIOTECNOLOGIA del PETROLEO
United States Patent Application 20080196892
Kind Code A1
Lau; Philip Y. ; et al. August 21, 2008
Enzyme enhanced oil recovery (EEOR) for waterflooding operations

Abstract
The present disclosure involves the release or recovery of subterranean hydrocarbon deposits and, more specifically, to a
system and method for secondary and/or enhanced oil recovery (EOR), by utilizing waterflooding compositions that include
enzymes as well as methods for injecting
waterflooding compositions into subterranean formations for oil recovery operations.
Inventors:
Lau; Philip Y.; (Houston, TX) ; Gray; John L.; (Houston, TX)
Correspondece:
Name and
Address:
GUERRY LEONARD GRUNE
84 S VILLIER CT. VIRGINIA BEACH VA 23452 US
Serial No.:
708238
Series Code:
11
Filed: February 20, 2007
BioNano-Catalizador
10 nm
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
United States Patent 5,083,610
Sheehy January 28, 1992
Inventors Sheehy; Alan (Giralang, AU)
Assigne: B. W. N. Live-Oil Pty. Ltd. (Dandenong, AU)
:
Appl.
No.:
07/514,121
Filed: April 25, 1990
Recovery of oil from oil reservoirs

Abstract
This invention relates to a process for recovery of oil from oil reservoirs with assistance from microorganisms. More particularly,
the present invention contemplates a method for recovering oil from a reservoir comprising increasing the population of endogenous
microorganisms in said reservoir, said microorganisms having surface active properties, to a level sufficient to effect enhanced oil
recovery.

The Titan Process was created by Noel Carroll, Bob Carroll, Bill Carroll, and Alan Sheehy, Ph.D. The process was originally
known as Biological Oil Stimulation (BOS) and was later changed to the Titan Process
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
Original Oil Field Oil Field After Several Years
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
Thief Zones and Falling Production Titan Process Nutrients Injected
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
Before the Titan Process
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
1 m
Figura 4. Microorganismo Mejorador de Crudo Pesado
Exoenzimas
Endoenzimas
Enzimas de Membrana
BACTERIAS
Aerbicas
Anaerbicas
Facultativas
40x10
6
UFC/g Suelo
1x10
6
UFC/ mL Agua
Micro-Reactores
Nano-Catalizadores
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Arte Previo
AQC & DC
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
PROCESO DE BIOCONVERSIN IN-SITU y COMBUSTIN IN-SITU de CRUDOS PESADOS
(Proceso BISCIS)

Crdova Jos, Morocoima Dubravska, Gainza Andrea, Trebbau Gabriela, Luis Luis, Martinez Andry,
Franco Hector, Gonzalez Gema y Bolivar Carmelo.

Resumen

Se presenta un proceso de biomejoramiento cataltico de crudos pesados In-Situ en presencia de
nutrientes y aditivos catalticos novedosos y mtodo de recuperacin mejorada (EOR/IOR).

BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
PROCESO DE BIOCONVERSIN IN-SITU y COMBUSTIN IN-SITU de CRUDOS PESADOS
(Proceso BISCIS)

Crdova Jos, Morocoima Dubravska, Gainza Andrea, Trebbau Gabriela, Luis Luis, Martinez Andry,
Franco Hector, Gonzlez Gema y Bolvar Carmelo.

BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Condiciones de Proceso: 60 - 90 C, 600 1300 psi CP (8 API) CLS (39 API)
PROCESO DE BIOCONVERSIN IN-SITU y COMBUSTIN IN-SITU de CRUDOS PESADOS
(Proceso BISCIS)



(60 - 90 C, 600 1300 psi)
SCO 36 API
CXP 8 API
SCO 39 API
XHO 8 API
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
INTELIGENCIA TECNOLGICA

.
PDVSA
ENCANA
PETROCANADA
EXXONMOBIL, CHEVRONTEXACO,
CONOCOPHILLIPS, UOP, FW, Otras
PETROBRAS
IMP
BP (UK)
TOTAL (Fr)
REPSOL (Es)
ENI(It)
CSIRO
STATOILHYDRO (Nw)
SAUDI ARAMCO
CNPEC
LUKOIL, GAZPROM
SHELL (Ho)
NIOC
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
TRANSFERENCIA TECNOLGICA
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
LICENCIA
EXCLUSIVA NO EXCLUSIVA
AGRADECIMIENTOS

Centro de Nanotecnologa e Ingeniera de Materiales (CNIM)
del IVIC.

Centro de Catlisis, Petrleo y Petroqumica (CCPP) de la
UCV.

Postgrado de Ingeniera Qumica (UCV).

Postgrado de Ingeniera de Petrleo (UCV).
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Back Up
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
CONVERSIN DE RESIDUO DE VACIO
Nafta

Kerosene

Diesel

GOV
Residuo de Vaco
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
Nafta

Kerosene

Diesel

GOV
CONVERSIN DE ASFALTENOS
Asfalteno
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
146 Kcal/mol
< 146 Kcal/mol
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS

BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS

BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS

BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS

Propiedad Invencin Viscorreduccin
Conv. 500 C+ (%) 35,00 15,00
API 14,80 11,90
Azufre (%) 2,96 3,12
Carbono (%) 85,54 85,80
Hidrgeno (%) 10,90 10,54
Niquel (ppm) 340 ,00 87,00
Nitrgeno (%) 0,40 0,49
Vanadio (ppm) 409,00 411,00
Asfaltenos (%) 7,71 11,80
C. Conradson (%) 10,30 15,10
Visco 122 F (cSt) 53,20 62,30
Tabla 5 Comparacin entre AQC

y Viscorreduccin
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS
BIOCONVERSION IN-SITU / COMBUSTION IN-SITU COMO NUEVA TECNOLOGIA
DE RECUPERACION MEJORADA DE CRUDOS PESADOS