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I would like to express a deep sense of

thanks and gratitude to my chemistry
teachers Mrs. Mandakrantha Basu and
Mrs. Ayesha Tasneem for guiding me
immensely through the course of my
project. Their constructive advice and
constant motivation have been
responsible for the successful
completion of my project.
My sincere thanks to my parents for
their motivation and support. I must
thank my classmates for their timely
help and support for compilation of this

1. Introduction
2. Objective
3. Requirements
4. Procedure
5. Conclusion
6. Bibliography


Dyes are colored substances which can
adhere to the surface of materials and
are used to give color to paper, food-
stuffs, and various textiles such as
cotton, wool, synthetic fibres, silk etc.
For example, alizarin, indigo, congo
red, etc. Chemically, a dye contains:
i. Some group (such as azo, indigoid,
triphenylmethyl, anthraquinone,
etc.) which is responsible for the
color of the dye.
ii. Some groups (such as NH
, -SO
-COOH, etc) which makes the dye
stick to the fabric by formation of
some salt.
Dyeing is the process of adding color
to textile products like fibres, yarn and
fabrics. The temperature and time
controlling are two key factors in
The primary source of dye, historically
has been nature, with the dyes being
extracted from plants and animals.
Since the 18
century, humans
produced artificial dyes to achieve a
broader range of colors and to render
the dyes more stable to resist washing
and general use.
The dyed fabrics appear to be colored
because a particular dye absorbs
radiations of some specific
wavelengths from the visible region of
electromagnetic radiations which fall
on the surface. The remaining
radiations (complementary colors) of
light are reflected. The color which we
observe is due to the reflected light.
For example, if a dye absorbs the light
in the wavelength region
corresponding to red, then it would
appear green, which is the
complementary color of red. Similarly,
if a dye absorbs blue color, it would
appear orange.

Methods to apply dye
Dyes are applied to textile goods by
dyeing from dye solutions and by
printing from dye pastes. Methods
1. Direct application
2. Yarn dyeing

Characteristics of a dye
1. It must have a suitable color.
2. It must be capable of being fixed
to the material.
3. When fixed it must be fast to
detergents, soaps, water, dry-
cleaning solvents, light and dilute

Types of dye
The dyes are classified by dye
manufacturers for marketing into the
following types:
1. Acid dyes: These are azo dyes and
are characterized by the presence
of acidic groups. The presence of
soluble and serves as the reactive
points for fixing the dye to the
fibre. They are chiefly used for
dyeing wool, silk and nylon. For
example, Orange I and Orange II.
2. Basic dyes: These dyes contain NH
or NR
. In acidic solutions, these
form water soluble cations and use
the anionic sites on the fabric to
get used for dyeing wool, silk and
nylon. For example, aniline yellow,
butter yellow.
3. Direct dyes: These are also azo
dyes and are used to dye fabrics
directly by placing in aqueous
solution of the dye. These dyes
attach to the fabrics by means of
hydrogen bonding.
4. Disperse dyes: These dyes are
applied in the form of dispersion of
minute particles of the dye in a
soap solution in the presence of
phenol or benzoic acid. These dyes
are used to dye rayons, Dacron,
nylon, polyesters etc. For example,
celliton fast pink B and celliton
fast blue B.
5. Fibre ractive dyes: These dyes are
linked to the fibre by OH or NH
group present on the fibre. These
dyes induce fast color on fabrics
which is retained for a longer time.
These dyes are used for dyeing
cotton, wool and silk.
6. Insoluble dyes: These dyes are
directly synthesized on the fibre.
The fabric to be colored is soaked
in an alkaline solution of phenol
and then treated with a solution of
diazotized amine to produce azo
dye. The color induced by such
dyes is not so fast. These dyes are
used for dyeing of cotton, silk,
polyester nylon, etc. For example,
nitroaniline red.
7. Vat dyes: These dyes are water-
insoluble and before dyeing these
are reduced to colorless compounds
in wooden vats by alkaline
reducing agents. The fibre is then
soaked in the solution of the dye.
Fibre is then exposed to air or an
oxidizing agent. By doing so the
colorless compound gets reoxidized
to colored dye on the fabric. For
example, indigo.
8. Mordant dyes: These dyes are
applied after treating the fabric
with precipitates of certain
substances (mordant material)
which then combines with the dye
to form a colored complex called
lake. Some of the mordants are
salts of aluminium, iron and
tannic acids. Depending on the
mordant used, the same mordant
dye can give different colors and
shades. For example, alizarin gives
red color with aluminium and
black violet with iron mordant.
Mordant dyes are used for dyeing
of wool, silk and cotton.

To dye wool and cotton with malachite

500 ml beakers, tripod stand, wire
gauze, glass rod, spatula, wool cloth
and cotton cloth.
Chemicals required: Sodium carbonate,
tannic acid, tartaremetic acid, and
malachite green dye.

1. Preparation of sodium carbonate
solution: Take about 0.5 g of solid
sodium carbonate and dissolve it in
250 ml of water.
2. Preparation of tartaremetic
solution: Take about 0.2 g of
tartaremetic and dissolve it in 100
ml of water by stirring with the
help of glass rod.
3. Preparation of tannic acid solution:
Take 100 ml of water in a beaker
and add about 1.0 g of tannic acid
to it. Heat the solution. On heating
a clear solution of tannic acid is
4. Preparation of dye solution: Take
about 0.1 g of malachite green dye
and add to it 4oo ml of water. On
warming a clear solution of the dye
5. Dyeing of wool: Take about 200 ml
of dye solution and dip it in the
woolen cloth to be dyed. Boil the
solution for about 2 minutes. After
that remove the cloth and wash it
with hot water 3-4 times, squeeze
and keep it for drying.
6. Dyeing of cotton: Cotton does not
absorb malachite green readily,
therefore it requires the use of a
mordant. For dyeing a cotton cloth
dip it in sodium carbonate solution
for about 10 minutes and then rinse
with water. Then put the cloth in
hot tannic acid solution for about 5
minutes. Now take out the cloth
from tannic acid solution and keep
it in tartaremetic solution for about
5 minutes. Remove the cloth and
squeeze it with spatula to remove
most of the solution. Now place the
cloth in boiling solution of the dye
for about 2 minutes. Remove and
wash the dyed cloth thoroughly
with water, squeeze and keep it for
7. Dyeing of cotton directly: Take
another piece of cotton cloth and
pit it directly into boiling solution
of the dye. Keep it dipped for about
2 minutes. Remove the cloth, wash
with water, squeeze and keep it for
Compare the color of this cloth with
that dyed by using mordant.

1. The color of wool cloth dyed
directly by dipping in hot
solution of malachite green dye
is fast.
2. The color of cotton dyed cloth
directly (without using mordant)
by dipping in hot solution of
malachite green is not so fast to
washing and is of low intensity.
3. The color of cotton cloth dyed
indirectly by using mordant and
then by dipping in hot solution
of malachite green is fast to
washing and is of high intensity.
1. Comprehensive practical
chemistry (class 12)
2. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyeing
3. www.scribd.com