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Fault Level

Calculations

Fault Level Calculations


What is ahead?

Overview of transmission network.


What is mean by fault level
PU Concept
Network Modeling
Fault Level Calculation
Example

Fault Level Calculations

Step-1
Overview of power system
grid and transmission
network

Fault Level Calculations


Typical State Level Power System & our area of interest

Fault Level Calculations


Typical State Level Power System & our area of interest

Fault Level Calculations


Local Network or Sub-Transmission System
400kV
S/S - A
S/S - C

220kV

S/S - B

220kV
132kV

S/S - F
33kV

132kV
11kV

220kV

S/S - E

S/S - D

33kV

33kV

Fault Level Calculations

Step-2
What is mean by fault level

Fault Level Calculations


What is fault level
S/S - A
S/S - B

14530
MVA

11300
MVA

18290
MVA

9700
MVA
8400
MVA

9730
MVA

6400
MVA
4630
MVA

7200
MVA

5800
MVA

S/S - C
2700
MVA

1185
MVA

3670
MVA

ABC Transmission Co. Ltd.


3 Ph Fault Levels For 2010-2011

Fault Level Calculations


What is fault level-Continued.

S/S - B 2450 MVA

2200 MVA

2450 MVA

2200 MVA

14530 MVA

1465 MVA
2300 MVA

8700 MVA

9730 MVA
1030 MVA

1465 MVA

Fault Level Calculations

Step-3
Understanding Per-Unit
Measurements

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Fault Level Calculations


PU Concept

PU impedance values are calculated by


For Transformers
%Impedance = Ohmic Value * ( Base MVA / Name Plate MVA )

For Lines
%Impedance = Ohmic Value * ( Base MVA / BasekV2

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Fault Level Calculations


PU Concept

PU impedance values are calculated by


For Transformers
%Impedance = Ohmic Value * ( Base MVA / Name Plate MVA )

For Lines
%Impedance = Ohmic Value * ( Base MVA / BasekV2

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Fault Level Calculations


PU Concept

Base MVA = 200 MVA


Sec A

Sec B

400kV
220kV

Sec C

132kV
T1

L1

Sec D

33kV
T2

L2

T3

L3
12 Ohm

400/220 kV

15% 315 MVA

0.4
ohm/Km
200 Km

220/132 kV

14% 200 MVA

0.4
ohm/Km
50 Km

132/33 kV

0.4
ohm/Km
30 Km

9.33% 25 MVA

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Fault Level Calculations


PU Concept

T1

400/220 kV
15% 315 MVA

L1

0.4
ohm/Km
200 Km

T2

L2

220/132 kV

0.4
ohm/Km
50 Km

14% 200 MVA

T3

132/33 kV

L3

0.4
ohm/Km
30 Km

9.33% 25 MVA

Fault Level Calculations


Short Circuit Current

3 Phase Short Circuit MVA at fault point

Base MVA x 100


= ----------------------------------------------------

Percentage Impedance

(from source to fault point)

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Fault Level Calculations


PU Concept-Continued

XT1

9.52%

XL1
33.05%

XT2

14%

XL2
22.96%

XT3
74.64%

XL3
220%

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Fault Level Calculations


PU Concept

75 Ohm

80 Ohm

34 Ohm

20 Ohm

65 Ohm
12 Ohm

400/220 kV
15% 315 MVA

0.4
ohm/Km
200 Km

220/132 kV
14% 200 MVA

0.4
ohm/Km
50 Km

132/33 kV

0.4
ohm/Km
30 Km

9.33% 25 MVA

Fault Level Calculations

Step-4
Finding Source Impedance

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Fault Level Calculations


Typical State Level Power System & our area of interest

4630 MVA
Xs(pu)
Base MVA= 100

4630
Xs(pu)

Xs (pu) = 0.0216
Or
Xs% = 2.16%

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Fault Level Calculations


Solved Example

220/132kV
Padegaon

132kV

2850
MVA

0.4 Ohms / Km
8 Km

33kV
50 MVA
10.21% 132/33-11 kV
50 MVA
10.88 %
25 MVA
9.73 %

Harsool
132kV

25 MVA
10.04 %
11kV
0.4 Ohms / Km
5 Km

132/33-11 kV
Chikalthana
33kV
50 MVA
10.03%
25 MVA
10.52 %
25 MVA
10.21 %
25 MVA
9.84 %
11kV

220/132kV
Padegaon
2850
MVA

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Fault Level Calculations


Solved Example
132kV

2257
MVA

132/33-11 kV
33kV
Harsool

668
MVA

132/33-11 kV
Chikalthana
132kV

11kV

1998
MVA

33kV

538
MVA

11kV

Fault Level Calculations


Unsymmetrical Faults-Sequence Network

Up till now we have discussed 3 Phase


faults which are rear. Most of the fault in
power system are single line to ground
faults.
To find out the short circuit MVA due to
single phase to ground fault it is necessary
to use Sequence Network
Let us have a closer look of sequence
network

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Fault Level Calculations


Unsymmetrical Faults-Sequence Network
M1
T2

T1

G
XM11

M2

XM21

XT21

XL1

SLD

XT11

Xg1

+Ve Sequence Network

XM10

XM20

XM12
XT20

XL0

XT10

Zero Sequence Network

Xg0

XM22
XT22

XL2

XT12

-Ve Sequence Network

Xg2

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Fault Level Calculations


Single Line to Ground Fault-Sequence Network Connections

XM11

XM21

X1XL

XT21

XT11

Xg1

XL2

XT12

Xg2

XM12

XM22

X2

XT22

Ia = 3 / (X1 + X2 + X0)

X0

XM20
XT20

XL0

XT10

Xg0

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Fault Level Calculations


220/132kVSingle Line to Ground Fault-Solved Example
Padegaon

132kV

3Ph 2850
MVA
1Ph 2230
MVA

0.4 Ohms / Km
8 Km

33kV
50 MVA
10.21% 132/33-11 kV
50 MVA
10.88 %
25 MVA
9.73 %

Harsool
132kV

25 MVA
10.04 %
11kV
0.4 Ohms / Km
5 Km

132/33-11 kV
Chikalthana
33kV
50 MVA
10.03%
25 MVA
10.52 %
25 MVA
10.21 %
25 MVA
9.84 %
11kV

Fault Level Calculations


Single Line to Ground Fault-Solved Example

3Ph 2850
MVA
1Ph 2230
MVA

3Ph 2850
MVA

1 Ph Short
Circuit MVA at
132kV
Harsool Bus

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3*BaseMVA*100

2*( XS1 + (XL11 || XL21) )

( XS0 + (XL10 || XL20) )

220/132kV
Padegaon
3Ph 2850
MVA
1Ph 2230
MVA

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Fault Level Calculations


Solved Example
132kV

132/33-11 kV
33kV
Harsool

3Ph 2257
MVA

3Ph 668
MVA

1Ph 1662
MVA

1Ph 604
MVA

132/33-11 kV
Chikalthana
132kV

11kV

1998
MVA

33kV

538
MVA

11kV

Fault Level Calculations

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