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II.

Instructional Phase
MINI-UNIT #1: Scorching in the Sahara
1. Label important physical landform and countries on a topographical map of North Africa
and the Middle East. (Knowledge level)
2. Explain the variety of landforms and climates that make the Middle Eastern and North
African culture diverse and distinct. (Comprehension level)

IV. DIRECTED TEACHING


1. Teacher will use the structured overview of unit to familiarize students with the first
mini-unit: Middle-East Introduction. Students will see what will be introduced in this
section, including physical features, countries, and relevant information about these
locations. The structured overview also includes important assessment dates. Students
have multiple options to know when their assignments are due, which teaches
responsibility.
2. The teacher will play Middle Eastern music to prime the brain of being in a different
culture. The teacher then shall lead a discussion on this region, asking the following
questions:
What is the Middle East? Where did the term come from? (Is it in the middle of
anywhere?)
Is it a defined landmark, or can it have different definitions?
What is the Middle East? Why do we study this region?
3. Teacher projects map on the screen to show students where the Middle East and North
Africa are in relevance to the United States. The teacher will then pass out topographical
maps for students to complete and study.
4. After a short time working on the maps, the teacher will lead a mini-lecture on some of
the physical features in this region and why we learn about the Middle East and North
Africa. The teacher will ask if students have ever heard of or visited the regions of the
North African and Middle Eastern Region.
V. GUIDED PRACTICE
1. The teacher will serve as a guide when maps are reviewed. After students have
individually worked on their maps, the teacher will project the map on the screen. Using
the ELMO, the teacher will point to a country or physical feature. Volunteers will be
called on for each location. This allows students to check this work and comprehend
where important physical features are located. It also serves as a motivator to encourage
students when they correctly answer the location.
2. Guided practice will be used as the class reads information about water scarcity. The
teacher will begin reading the paragraph and have students chunk the text. It is imperative
the teacher guides the reading process as a way to assess students reading levels and set

a high, but manageable expectation. Guided reading allows students to see, hear, and
practice reading skills.
3. After the teacher guides students through the reading, the teacher will lead a discussion in
the importance of water and the impact of water scarcity. Students will have the
opportunity to discuss in a think, pair, share activity as well as a whole group discussion.
This also allows the teacher to connect students with the content information.
VI. INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
1. After the teacher as given students the basic understanding of the topography in the
Middle East, students will use their Chromebooks or a World Atlas to complete their own
country and topography maps. As students work on this individually, they connect the
relative and absolute location of the Middle Eastern and North African countries. This
independent practice will be used as part of the closing for the lesson. (See Appendix A)
2. Students will take notes during the practice of direct teaching. Each student has their own
note page to write down notes from the lecture and any additional information they might
find helpful for the remainder of the unit. Students will also individually write their
thoughts down from the class discussion on a separate sheet of paper.
3. Students will complete two reading comprehension worksheets with teacher designed
comprehension questions. The water scarcity worksheet will be completed in class
individually whereas the Sahara Desert worksheet will serve the students as homework.
Their homework must be completed individually to check their understanding of the
lecture today.

VII. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT


1.

Formative assessment will occur throughout the lesson in direct


teaching, guided practice, and independent practice. The teacher will ask
questions throughout the lecture to assess whether students understand the content and
comprehending the readings. The teacher will monitor through walking around the room
as students are labeling physical features, writing notes, and completing worksheets to
determine if students are able to explains and see how climate affects culture in the
Middle Eastern and North African region. During guided practice, the teacher will use
reading a discussion as an approach towards assessing students comprehension of
content.
2. Formative evaluation will take place throughout the lecture as well. The teacher will
ask questions throughout the lecture to assess whether students are understanding the
topic. This also serves as an assessment for the teacher to reevaluate their explanation of
the content. The teacher will also listen to students during discussion to evaluate their
comprehension of water scarcity and life in the Middle East and North Africa.
3. The water scarcity worksheet and Sahara worksheet also serves as a formative
assessment. This will serve as the evaluation for the lecture, and discussions since
students must complete the worksheet individually. The teacher will use the worksheet as
a tool to examine students reading comprehension in order to reteach strategies and
information as well as an assessment to see where students can be more challenged.

VII. DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION


1. Re-Teaching Activities:
Based on student performance to lecture and formative assessment, students will be re-taught
whole group, or individually. The concepts and vocabulary terms are essential for understanding
and building upon throughout the remainder of the unit.
Extension Activities:
Vertical Extension- Students in need of a vertical extension on reading comprehension and
lecture will be given another passage and empty chart to practice their analysis skills and notetaking skills.
Horizontal ExtensionStudents in need of horizontal extension will create a travel brochure of the variety of landforms
and climate in the Middle Eastern and North African region. They will include definitions, a
variety of facts, and use sources and illustrations pre-approved by the teacher.
Accommodations and Modifications:
There may come a point where students with IEPs or at risk seem to be not understanding like
the majority of class. For students that struggle with the combination of auditory instruction and
writing things down during lecture, accommodated note outlines will be provided. The teacher
can also arrange their desks closer to the teacher desk or projector screen. With an aide, students
can have the Prezi on their Chromebooks to follow along with. Students can work one on one or
in small groups to complete their notes for lecture.
2. Re-Teaching Activities:
Students who struggled with reading comprehension and map labeling from the worksheets will
be in need of re-teaching strategies. They might have a visual or auditory impairment. The
teacher will walk around the classroom and monitor independent work to examine re-teaching
concepts through one-on-one instruction.
Extension Activities:
Vertical Extension- Students who have met the days expectations and objectives and are in need
of a challenge through cognitive extension will be given permission to use their Chromebooks to
research information on how climate impacts culture. They will be given the opportunity to write
a short paragraph comparing their findings of the Middle East and North Africa to the United
States climate and culture. They may also read another passage, create, and complete, and
graphic organizer.
Horizontal Extension- To provide extension for students who show signs of struggle with
reading comprehension and labeling maps, students will be given the option to have the readings
read to them as well as the comprehension questions. Students can color code or cut out the map
to help with identification. If they have difficulty writing down what they read, students have the
option to talk with the teacher or create a role-play of life in the Sahara.
Accommodations and Modifications:
For students who have an IEP, a reading comprehension activity with need to be modified. The
information can be read aloud by the aide, or they may watch a video on the climate of the

Middle East and North Africa. For students with extreme reading disabilities, a coloring page of
animals and life in the desert with discussion questions will be provided.
For students who have difficulty labeling maps, they may use the Chromebooks to type in
locations on a computer-generated map or play map games approved by the school and the
teacher,

Appendix A
Resources for Mini Unit #1
Middle East and North Africa Countries Maps

A1

Bell Ringer

A2

Sahara Notes

A3

Sahara Worksheet

A4

Accommodation Coloring Page

A5

Water Scarcity Worksheet

A6

The Middle East & Sahara Notes


1. What do you think the Middle East means?
________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________.
2. The Middle East is between ________________________________________________.
3. The ___________sea is the lowest point in the world. It is _________feet below
sea level. Located in __________________and _______________. Nothing lives
in the sea because of its salinity.
In Birmingham, Alabama, we sit_______________________level.
4. Sahara means _________________ in Arabic.
5. Temperatures can rise above ______, which makes this desert the hottest
place on earth!
6. Only _________inches of rain falls ever year. We get ______ in March alone.
Water is a scarcity in this area.
7. The Sahara also divides the contintent ___________to ______________. The
Sahara is roughly as big as the United States!
8. Because of the extreme temperatures, few animals make their homes here.
Some animals in the Sahara include:
a. ________________________________
b.________________________________
c.________________________________
9. Water is available in an area called an ______________________. Oasis is a _____________ or green spot made by presence of water.
10. Bedouins
________________
ethnic-________________ , desert- dwelling group.
The Nile River
_________________ of population lives near the Nile River.
Longest river in the world.
The beginning, or ______________ is in Central Africa and flows ___________.
The _______________is the Mediterranean Sea.

Name:___________________________

Period:_________

Sahara Worksheet
The Sea of Sand: In ancient times, Egypt and Kush did
very
Africa had
Africa
the

little trade with West Africa. They had heard that West
wonderful things gold, salt, ivory. They knew that West
needed iron. They wanted to trade with West Africa, but
Sahara Desert was in the way.
Can you imagine a desert that stretches all the way from
New York to California? Or one that runs all the way from
Maine to Mexico? The Sahara Desert is the largest desert in
the world!

The Sahara Desert is not only big - it's also hot. It's one of the hottest places on earth. During the
day, the temperature can be 130 degrees. As miserable as you would be from the heat, its the
dryness that makes it a desert. There is so little water. It hardly ever rains. The Sahara perhaps
enjoys three inches of rain a year, and even that is speckled. It might rain in one place and not
rain again in the same place for years. Its no wonder that the Sahara Desert is called the Sea of
Sand.
What were some of the items that areas in Eastern Africa (Egypt and Kush) wanted from West
Africa?

What stood in the way of trade between East and West Africa?
How hot can the temperature get in the Sahara?

Oasis: An oasis is a wet rest stop. Its a small section of


desert that is fed by underground streams of water. In these
tiny sections of the desert, there are green plants and cool
water. Even though there are many oases in the Sahara, the
Sahara is so big that you might have to travel a day or even
weeks to reach one. In the meantime, you are exposed to
hot, very hot shifting sand dunes that seem to run forever.

Desert Life: In spite of the horrible conditions for humans, there is life in the desert. There
are poisonous snakes and poisonous spiders. There are many animals and plants in the desert, but
the Sahara is not a geographically friendly place for humans. You can see why people were a bit
reluctant to cross the Sahara in search of anything, including trading partners.

What is an Oasis?

Why were people reluctant to cross the Sahara?

Camels: Around 750 CE, everything changed


in northern Africa when Islamic traders began to
use camels to transports goods across the Sahara
Desert. The use of camels made it possible to
get from Kush to West Africa overland, to
literally get from here to there.
Camels were the perfect answer. Camels can
carry heavy loads. They can keep their footing
in sliding sand. They can go a long time without
water. If treated well, theyre patient beasts. On
flat ground, they can run very fast. In fact, they
run so fast that if you stopped at an oasis, you
might find a camel race in progress. Every
trader knew his camels were the best!
Camels soon were nicknamed the Ships of the Desert.

Caravans - The Trans-Sahara Trade Route: Caravans of camels were loaded with
trade goods. They carried many wonderful products including spices from India and iron tools
and weapons from Kush. The day the first caravan of camels headed west into the Sahara Desert
was the day that marked the opening of the Trans-Sahara Trade Route.
Trans-Sahara Trade Route Towns: In no time, anywhere there was an oasis in the
desert, cities and towns sprang up. New occupations were born in West Africa, including camel
dealers and caravan traders.
Why were camels nicknamed Ships of the Desert?

What were some qualities that made camels perfect for desert transportation?

What kinds of goods did camels carry across the Sahara?

Where did trade-route towns open up?

Thought Question:
How would your life be different if you lived in the region of the Sahara?

Name:____________________________Date:______________Period:___________

Water & Early Civilizations


Everyone needs water to survive. We drink water to stay hydrated. We use water to
grow crops for food. We use water for sanitation to prevent disease. Because we are so
dependent on water, it is not surprising that two of the first major human civilizations
Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamiabegan around water.
The people of Mesopotamia (c. 35001200 BCE) lived in the valley near the Tigris and
Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq. Although it is surrounded by desert, this area is
known as the Fertile Crescent because it has access to water and rich soil. Many
kingdoms, including the Sumerians, the Akkadians [uh Kay dee ons], and the
Babylonians [ba buh LOH nee uns] lived in Mesopotamia.
The people of Ancient Egypt (c. 30001200 BCE) lived in the valley along the Nile
River, the longest river in the world. Every year rains cause the Tigris, Euphrates, and
Nile rivers to flood over their banks. When the floods end, the rivers return to their
normal size, but the water leaves behind silt, which is damp, fertile soil. Ancient people
in Mesopotamia and Egypt learned to use the fertile silt along the river banks to
cultivate crops. They also developed new technologies to irrigate, or provide water, to
their crops between floods. Their years of careful planning resulted in large harvests of
wheat and other food.
The food produced by these river valleys allowed these civilizations to become large
and powerful. They built large cities with temples and pyramids that still stand today.
They fed armies that conquered neighboring lands and encouraged trade from across
the region.
Today, the population along these rivers remains very high. Along the Nile River, the
population density is one of the highest in the world. In regions where the land is dry
and less fertile, the total population is lower. People still need to live near areas where
there is an available water supply.

Directions: After reading and annotating this article, answer the following questions in
complete sentences.
1. How did the Fertile Crescent earn its name?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________.
2. Name two ancient kingdoms that lived in Mesopotamia.
a._________________________________________
b. ________________________________________
3. In what ways did these civilizations use fertile silt? ______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________.
4. Why do you think that population is more dense around water sources, like the Nile?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
_______________________.

1. What animals do you see?

2. Do you think this a warm or cold climate?

Mini-Unit #2: Ancient of Days


3. Recognize the impact and influence of government, trade, water, religion, culture, and
inventions in Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt civilizations. (Comprehension level)
IV. DIRECTED TEACHING
1. In order to share the content of the Ancient Civilizations, the teacher will begin this miniunit with a timeline. According to Alabama COS Standards, Ancient Greece and Ancient
Rome were taught in the European unit prior to the Middle Eastern unit. Student have
prior knowledge of Ancient Civilizations, but this specific group was formed before the
Greeks and Romans. The teacher will explain differences of dates and the concept of
chronological order.
2. Using a teacher-designed Prezi made before the beginning of the unit. Using the Prezi,
the teacher will project the second mini-unit on the board. The teacher will instruct
students that while there may seem to be a large amount of information, they will be
given time to both listen and write down the information from the lecture. The teacher
will lecture incorporating content knowledge not seen in their notes and will encourage
students to write as much extra information from the lecture as they can. The teacher will
pause before moving onto the next slide to ensure the information is written down.
3. On the second day of this mini-unit, the teacher will finish the lecture of the Ancient
Civilizations. After the students have a background on the societies of Mesopotamia and
Ancient Egypt, the teacher will give a short lecture on importance of language to culture
and to history, also sharing the importance of archeological work.

V. GUIDED PRACTICE
1. The teacher will guide students through the timeline activity. Students have used
timelines before, but the concept needs to be modeled. The teacher will model the first
two dates in chronological order with the ELMO. The teacher will do the first one, but
the next example will be modeled using class participation. After students work for a
few minute individually, the teacher will guide the class through a review and fill in the
correct answers.
2. Guided practice is also used during the cuneiform activity. The teacher will lead the
class in a discussion of different languages and how historians and archeologists use
languages as the gateway to past culture. The teacher will ask discussion questions such
as:
a. How do we know what we know about history, sports, culture, etc?
b. Have you heard of archeologists? What would you study if you were
archeologists?
c. What is the importance of languages to cultures of the past and present?
d. What did citizens write on prior to the invention of paper?

The teacher will then give students some time to complete a writing activity to answer
these questions after discussion.
3. After the lecture and discussion questions, the teacher will model the cuneiform activity.
The teacher will give instruction and explain the use of cuneiform. Using the clay that
students will be given in each group, the teacher writes her name using a safe etching
tool. The teacher will also model how to use the cuneiform alphabet chart before giving
students time to work on their worksheet. Students will not be given clay until the
worksheet is complete.
VI. INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
1. As the teacher is lecturing over Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, each student
will complete a note-taking guide that corresponds to the Prezi. Students will write down
their own notes on what they see and hear throughout the teacher-develop presentation
and lecture. Students will also use lecture time to answer some of the discussion
questions.
2. After clear instruction, students will individually complete their own timeline over
importance dates discussed during the lesson Ancient Civilizations. The teacher will
guide them in the formation of this timeline and model how to fill it in. Students will
have five minutes to complete the remainder of the timeline before the timeline is
reviewed in whole group.
3. With proper content background and clear instruction, students will work on their
cuneiform as well as creating their own cuneiform tablet. The worksheet will be used as a
classwork assessment as well as a study tool for students to better understand the class
discussion and lecture. The writing of cuneiform in clay tablets is a fun activity to engage
students and connect them with different languages and cultures.
4. Another form of independent practice used in this mini-unit is the exit slip. For closure of
the activity, each student will complete an exit slip with the 3-2-1 strategy. Students will
write down 3 things they learned, 2 questions they have, and 1 connection they made.
Students must turn this on before they leave the classroom. The exit slip gives students
the opportunity to reflect on the activity and content from the days lesson.
VII. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
1. Formative assessment will occur throughout the lesson in direct
teaching, guided practice, and independent practice. The teacher will ask
questions throughout the lecture to assess whether students understand the content.
During the lecture, the teacher will ask student content questions, but also questions
about student experience. The teacher will monitor through walking around the room as
students are writing notes, decoding cuneiform, and creating their artifacts to determine if
students are able to explain the objectives for the day.
2. Formative evaluation will take place throughout the lecture as well. The teacher will
ask questions throughout the lecture to assess whether students are understanding the
topic. The teacher also listens during instruction to keep students on task, focused, and to
evaluate their understanding. If students are having a difficult time discussing the

questions, the teacher can ask another one in a different way. If students are showing
great interest, the teacher can evaluate and ask more challenging questions.
3. Individual practices like writing response, timeline activity, notes, and the exit slip serve
as another approach to formative assessment for this lesson. The teacher will use the
writing, notes, worksheet, and exit to address needs for re-teaching. The writing response
during discussion allows the teacher to assess the effectiveness of the lecture, and
students comprehension aside from group work. The exit slip is a great form of
assessment for the teacher. The teacher can use the information from the exit slip to see
areas of concern as well as areas of interest. The teacher will use this evaluation to better
future lessons and to focus on students who may lack connections. The individual
practice also allows for the teacher to assess how students are performing apart from the
whole group setting.

VII. DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION


1. Re-Teaching Activities:
Students who have a difficult time in the lecture setting will be given re-teaching activities.
Extension Activities:
Vertical ExtensionStudents in need of a vertical extension on reading and lecture will be given another passage and
empty chart to practice their analysis skills and note-taking skills. As another form of extension,
students may use the literacy strategy of a one-pager to present to the class.
Horizontal ExtensionStudents in need of horizontal extension may be paired together to develop a poem, story, or
picture that summarizes the different language or the life of an archeologist of the day. They will
be asked to share these with the other students.
Accommodations and Modifications:
There may come a point where students with IEPs or at risk students seem to not understand
information like the majority of class. For students that struggle with the combination of auditory
instruction and writing things down during lecture, accommodated note outlines will be
provided. The teacher can also arrange their desks closer to the teacher desk or projector screen.
With an aide, students can have the Prezi on their Chromebooks to follow along with. Students
can work one on one or in small groups to complete their notes for lecture.
If students have difficulty reading, the information may be read to them. They may use
dictionaries or other resources to aide in their comprehension.
2. Re-Teaching Activities:
Students who struggled with discussion and the worksheet will be in need of re-teaching
strategies. They might have a visual or auditory impairment. The teacher will walk around the

classroom and monitor independent work to examine re-teaching concepts through one-on-one
instruction.

Extension Activities:
Vertical Extension- Students who have met the days expectations and objectives and are in need
of a challenge through cognitive extension will be given permission to use their Chromebooks to
research information on the impact of languages to culture. Students will create a story of a
person living in a region of their choice in the Middle Eastern or North African Region
Horizontal Extension- To provide extension for students who show signs of struggle with
reading comprehension and labeling maps, students will be given the option to have the readings
read to them as well as the comprehension questions. Students can color code or cut out the map
to help with identification. If they have difficulty writing down what they read, students have the
option to talk with the teacher or create a role-play of life in the Sahara.
Accommodations and Modifications:
For students who have an IEP, a reading comprehension activity with need to be modified. The
information can be read aloud by the aide, or they may watch a video on the climate of the
Middle East and North Africa. For students with extreme reading disabilities, a coloring page of
animals and life in the desert with discussion questions will be provided.
For students who have difficulty labeling maps, they may use the Chromebooks to type in
locations on a computer-generated map or play map games approved by the school and the
teacher,

Appendix B
Resources for Mini-unit #2
Prezi Ancient Mesopotamia Notes

B1

Prezi Ancient Egypt Notes

B2

Cuneiform Activity Instructions

B3

Cuneiform Alphabet

B4

Ancient Civilizations Timeline

B5

Exit Slip

B6

Ancient Mesopotamia Notes


1. Mesopotamia was located in between the __________________ and ___________________ Rivers.
a. Part of the_______________________________________.
b. Mesopotamia means __________________________________ in Greek
2. In order to predict the coming of the floodwaters, a 12-month calendar based
on the __________________________ was used.
3. What is a city-state? ________________________________________________.
Religion
4. Many of the earliest civilizations were polytheistic.
a. polytheism is _______________________________.
Government
5. Originally ________________________, or government controlled by religious
leaders. Eventually controlled by military leaders who became _________________.
What country the modern day Mesopotamia be located? ____________________________
Sumer
6. Sumer was the _______________________ city- state. Sumerians grew wealthy
from __________________________. Items traded included:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
7. Two of the Sumerians inventions included _____________________ and the
________________________.
How did the wheel and sailboat make a big impact on society?

8. Sumerians were the first people to ________________________ and keep list of


records. Their form of writing was known as____________________.
a. World's first story was the ________________________________.
9. Around 2300 B.C, _________________ conquered Sumer and other city-states and
became the ____________ empire
10. _____________________________ conquered Akkad around 1800 BC.
Their king was ___________________. He built temples, irrigation canals, and
encouraged trade and ideas
a. Each city-state in Mesopotamia had its own __________, or collection of
laws. Hammurabi took what he believed as the best laws from each, put them

together, and issued them to everyone in his empire. This was called
______________________.
b. The laws were carved into stone and placed where all could read and know the
rules and punishment
11. After Hammurabi died, the empire split in two. In the 500s BC, _____________________ rebuilt the city and made it the center for trade and culture.
a. the royal palace was known for its _______________________________.
12. Who were the most important traders? ___________________________________.
a. Phoenicians became known for their ___________________and keeping
records.
b. Their alphabet gave rise to the three languages still used today/
1.
2.
3.

Ancient Egypt Notes


1. The majority of Egyptians lived near the ___________________ and its delta
a. Water provided _______________ soil
They were protected from invaders by the ____________ and _________.
Why do people settle around water sources?
2. Two Kingdoms formed along the Nile:
a. __________ Egypt (to the South)
b. Lower Egypt (around the ______________)
3100 BC- both were united
3. The Egyptian ruler held the title of ________________, which means "great house"
a. Form of government: __________________, which is a form of government,
controlled by ____________________________________
b. believed their pharaoh was a
1.
2.
3.
4. Pharaoh owned all the land, chose government officials, and commanded Egypt's
armies.
First female pharaoh was _______________________.
Religion
5. Egyptians practiced ___________________________.
Most important gods:
Re- ______________ god
Hapi- river god
Horus- ___________ god
6. Egyptians believed in life after death, but they thought the soul couldn't survive
without the body, so they preserved the body by ___________________ it
a. Rich people were placed in _____________________, while the poor were
buried in caves or sand
Society
7. Traded with the _____________________ and ______________________
8. Used hieroglyphics, which is a form of writing using _________________ for words
or sounds.
a. wrote on a form of paper called _______________________.
Traded:
1.
2.
3.

Received:
1.
2.
3.

9. Egyptians used a number system based on the number 10. They used
______________ and whole numbers
a. created ___________________ to survey land
First to use:
1.
2. splints
3. compresses
10. Highly skilled at sewing cuts and setting broken bones
11. Egypt was eventually conquered by __________________ and by _____________

Names:__________________________________________________________ Period:________
Creating Cuneiform
Directions: Attention all archeologists! In your groups, write your names, in English, on the top
of this page. EVERYONE will answer the questions on this page.
Using your cuneiform alphabet, translate the word into that was given to you. After you translate,
write the words definition in a complete sentence.
Take your clay, and mold flat into a tablet. Then, write your initials in the clay using the cuneiform
alphabet.
1. What is cuneiform?

2. Why is writing important to cultures?

Word translated to English:________________________________________________________________


Word
definintion:___________________________________________________________________________
__
____________________________________________________________________________________
_

Write your name on this sheet of paper in cuneiform:


_______________________________________________________________

Name:_________________ Period:______ Date:_________________

Ancient Civilizations Timeline

Directions: Look at the following events below. Place them in chronological order. Cross each
event after you place it. Remember that BC comes before A.D. Look closely at the dates.

Greece reaches Golden Age- 400 B.C.


Akkad conquers Sumer- 2300 B.C.
Islam founded- 632 A.D. or C.E.
Octavius becomes 1st emperor- 31 B.C.
Babylon conquers Akkad- 1800 B.C.
Judaism founded- 3000 B.C.

3100 B.C.- Upper & Lower Egypt united


Nomads began settling along Fertile Crescent- 4500 B.C
Christianity founded- 33 A.D. or C.E
Rome settled- 1000 B.C.

Name:__________________ Period:_________

Mini-Unit #3: Touring Through the Three Religions


4. Illustrate an original travel brochure in a Problem Based Learning lesson about the
foundation, similarities, and differences of Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.
(Application level)
IV. DIRECTED TEACHING
1. Directed teaching will be used, but only a limited amount due to the nature of a ProblemBased Learning activity. The teacher will explain the difference between monotheism
and polytheism and give examples of why studying these religions is relevant and
important to todays world. The teacher will then ask the class to researching and think
why Jerusalem is important to Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
2. The teacher will also distribute rubrics to the class as a way of setting and explaining
expectations. Through directed teaching, the teacher creates an environment conducive
to the Problem-Based Learning practice. (See Appendix C for handouts)
V. GUIDED PRACTICE
1. To incorporate the component of guided practice, the teacher will guide the class through
theWebQuest. The teacher will project the WebQuest on the projector and model the
expectations for each page. The teacher will distribute handouts needed for the activity.
Through the walkthrough of the WebQuest, the teacher can show relevancy of the three
monotheistic religions through sharing the hook. The teacher will walk around the room
to ensure students are remaining on task and in the right place. The teacher will guide
students through a variety of research and will also model looking through a source.
2. Guided practice is also manifested through modeling. The teacher will model a graphic
organizer and project it using the ELMO. The teacher will walk through an example of
finding information on the date of Judaism.

VI. INDEPENDENT PRACTICE


1. Students will complete a Bell Ringer with a few vocabulary terms important to this miniunit. As students enter the room, the teacher will display the words imam, priest,
rabbi, monotheism, and polytheism on the board. Students with use their own
working definitions for the terms.
2. With the proper modeling and given content information, students will use their Google
Chromebooks to research information using resources from the WebQuest or resources
from the Discovery Education Techbook. Each student takes on a role as an imam, priest,
or rabbi and finds information about Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. It is their

responsibility to individually find their information for their travel brochure and graphic
organizer.
3. Upon researching information using their Google Chromebooks, students will
individually complete the graphic organizer. The graphic organizer encourages students
to take their own notes and write their research. Their individual graphic organizer also
serves as their notes for this section on the test. (See Appendix C for handout).
4. After students have researched and completed their graphic organizer, each student will
share their information with their partners, serving their role as a priest/imam/rabbi tour
guide.
5. The last individual responsibilities students are given during this lesson is the
responsibility to complete a peer evaluation. The evaluation prompts students to reflect
on their contribution and peers effort in group work and allows them to see areas that
may need improvement. (See Appendix C for handout).
VII. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
1. Formative assessment is used as the teacher reviews vocabulary terms and names from
their Bell Ringer as well as terms used in the graphic organizer.
2. As the teacher implements guided practice and direct teaching, evaluation through
formative assessment will occur through teacher questioning. The teacher will ask
questions to assess whether students comprehend the topic before they began illustrating
their travel brochures. The teacher will also assess through group work while monitoring
and walking around the room. This type of formative assessment will reveal if any
students are struggling to find information and if the group work is effective.
3. Individual practice also incorporates variations of formative assessment. Students will be
assessed through their graphic organizers. The teacher will use graphic organizers to see
effort and performance put into research and note-taking. The peer-evaluations also serve
as a formative assessment. After the research and travel brochures are complete, students
will turn in their evaluations, graphic organizers, and travel brochures to assess student
work as well as teaching practices. The teacher will record assessment through the rubric
given to the students at the beginning.
VIII. DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION
1. Re-teaching activities:
Based on student responses to formative assessment in the graphic organizer, students
will be re-taught whole group, or individually based on the level of need for vocabulary
and reading comprehension re-teaching. Because the words are important to the
understanding of the concepts of the unit, the teacher may re-teach as a class.
a. Extension Activities: Vertical Extension-Students in need of a vertical extension will
be given a short passage not on the Internet and empty graphic organizer to practice their
comprehension analysis skills. Students will then be asked to create another graphic
organizer of the content, and share their findings with the assigned group and the teacher.

b. Horizontal Extension-Students in need of horizontal extension may work in their


groups or with another partner at their same level. In the pairs or pods, students will
create a newspaper article about the differences of the monotheistic religions
Accommodations and Modifications:
1. For students that struggle with transferring information and writing things down, the
graphic organizer may be completed through typing instead of writing. The graphic
organizer will be on the WebQuest, so students may download and work on in class
as well as have extended time at home.
2. According to the instructions in students IEP, the student may be removed from the
classroom and work with the instructional aide or teacher to complete a chart about
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
3. For visually impaired students, the information on the Internet can be read to them by
the computer or by the teacher.

Appendix C
Resources for Mini-Unit #3
Bell Ringer Directions and Questions
Graphic Organizer
Peer Evaluation
Rubric for Travel Brochure

C1
C2
C3
C4

Bell Ringer
Welcome to class! As you enter the classroom, look and reflect on
these terms. Take out your notebooks and write you own
definitions on your sheet of paper.
Define the following:
1. Monotheism
2. Polytheism
3. Imam
4. Priest
5. Rabbi

Name:____________________________

Role:__________________ Period:________

Directions: After receiving your role, use the WebQuest and other given sources to fill in your
section of the graphic organizer. By the end of the lesson, you will have completed and shared
your findings with your group

Religion
Judaism

Christianity

Islam

Teacher Date
founded

Founder

Basic Beliefs

Major
Holidays

Founding Followers Symbol Other


story
Facts

Peer Evaluation Form for Group Work


Your name ____________________________________________________
Write the name of each of your group members in a separate column. For each person, indicate
the extent to which you agree with the statement on the left, using a scale of 1-4 (1=strongly
disagree; 2=disagree; 3=agree; 4=strongly agree). Total the numbers in each column.
Evaluation Criteria

Group member:

Attends group meetings regularly


and arrives on time.
Contributes meaningfully to group
discussions.
Completes group assignments on
time.
Prepares work in a quality manner.
Demonstrates a cooperative and
supportive attitude.
Contributes significantly to the
success of the project.
TOTALS

Group member:

Group member:

Feedback on team dynamics:


1. How effectively did your group work?

2. Were the behaviors of any of your team members particularly valuable or detrimental to the
team? Explain.

3. What did you learn about working in a group from this project that you will carry into your
next group experience?

Touring through the Religions Rubric


Content

Comments

Points

Title Page and Information Page


- Includes title
- Name(s)
- Colored
- Monotheism defined
- Jerusalem importance
Judaism Page
Includes:
- Date founded, Location,
Religious teacher title, 2 basic
beliefs, at least 2 religious
holidays, symbol, Holy book.

Christianity Page
Includes:
- Date founded, Location,
Religious teacher title, 2 basic
beliefs, at least 2 religious
holidays, symbol, Holy book.
Islam Page
Includes:
- Date founded, Location,
Religious teacher title, 2 basic
beliefs, at least 2 religious
holidays, symbol, Holy book.

Total:______________/40

Names:________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Period:_____

Mini-Unit #4: No
Ordinary Oil

5. Compare the Middle Eastern and North African economies and the importance of oil
with the United States. (Analysis level)
6. Test Middle Eastern and North African concepts in a Pre-Post Test including physical
features, ancient civilizations, oil economy. (Analysis level)

IV. DIRECTED TEACHING


1. To incorporate the use of directed teaching, the teacher will share a mini-lecture of the
definition of oil and the importance of oil to the economies of the Middle East and the
world. To engage and maintain student attention, the teacher will distribute a graphic web
tree for notes. Students will listen to the lecture and class discussion instead of only
copying down a PowerPoint, or Prezi.
V. GUIDED PRACTICE
1. The use of guided practice is used by teacher during the lecture. The teacher will lead the
class in a discussion with various questions including:
a. What type of resources does oil produce?
b. Have your parents ever complained about the high gasoline prices?
c. How would your life look different if the world had little access to oil reserves?
d. Based off of your knowledge of climate and culture, in what ways do you think
oil helps the Middle Eastern economies?
2. The teacher will also use the lecture as an opportunity for guided practice since there is
not a PowerPoint being displayed. As the teacher lectures and leads discussion, the notes
will be projected on the ELMO. The teacher will fill in some of the key terms but have
students take their own notes. The teacher will model how to fill in the Main Idea Tree,
so that students have a clear understanding of how to take their own notes.
3. Before students work on their independent activity, the teacher will guide students
through a reading on the online techbook. The teacher will project the passage on the
screen and have students follow along. The teacher will stop and elaborate on certain key
concepts as well as show pictures that visually depict the reading. There will be another
short discussion after the reading.
4. Modeling will be the manifest of guidance practice for the next activity. After a clear
understanding of the terms and concepts of this lesson, the teacher will distribute two
handouts. One has a chart with questions while the other is a pie chart. The teacher will
asks who has used a pie chart before. Using the ELMO, the teacher will model to the
class how to read the chart and transfer the data to the pie chart. Students will create their
own key, and the teacher will demonstrate how by showing his/her own key.

VI. INDEPENDENT PRACTICE


1. Students will create and complete their own Main Idea Tree as the teacher guides the
class through the lecture. Students will listen to the teacher and watch the model
demonstrated. The student will take personal notes and practice short handing
information. Students will also write their own opinion of how their lives would be

different if the world had little access to oil. Students will share with their partner in a
think, pair, share.
2. After the teacher guides the class through the OPEC data table and pie chart, students will
have the remainder of class to finish their creations. Students will use the chart to transfer
data onto the pie chart. They will also create their own key/legend that will allow them to
identify what country holds a certain percentage of oil. Students will also answer the four
review questions at the bottom of the chart.
VII. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
1. As the teacher implements guided practice and direct teaching, evaluation through
formative assessment will occur through teacher questioning as the teacher is lecturing.
The teacher will ask questions to assess whether students comprehend the topic as they
are writing down guided notes.
2. The teacher will also assess monitoring and walking around the room. This type of
formative assessment will reveal if any students are struggling to find information or
make connections. The teacher can assess who needs a deeper understanding or a
different explanation of the content.
3. The OPEC pie charts and date table will be used as a formative assessment. Students will
individually complete their graphs during class and finish for homework, so the teacher
will collect the worksheet. Completing this worksheet will allow the student to assess
their understanding of interdisciplinary content (math and science) as well as apply their
knowledge of OPEC learned from the days lecture.

VII. DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION


1. Re-Teaching Activities:
Based on student performance to lecture and formative assessment, students will be re-taught
whole group, or individually. The concepts and vocabulary terms are essential for understanding
the purpose of OPEC and how to compare and contrast the world economies.
Extension Activities:
Vertical Extension- Students in need of a vertical extension on note-taking will be given the
techbook with highlighted key terms and empty chart to practice their analysis skills and notetaking skills.
Horizontal ExtensionStudents in need of horizontal extension may work individually be paired together r to read more
sources given by the teacher and researched on their own to create a Venn Diagram or other
graphic organizer. They may also answer a real world, current issue of the shortage of oil and
answer the question if the United States should drill oil from the natural reserves.
Accommodations and Modifications:

For students that struggle with the combination of auditory instruction (lecture) and writing
personal notes, accommodated note outlines will be provided. Student may type their notes in an
different classroom or have assistance from the teacher or aide.

2. Re-Teaching Activities:
Students who struggled with reading comprehension and labeling the pie charts from the
worksheet will be in need of re-teaching strategies. They might have a visual or auditory
impairment. The teacher will walk around the classroom and monitor independent work to
examine re-teaching concepts through one-on-one instruction.
Extension Activities:
Vertical Extension- Students who have met the days expectations and objectives and are in need
of a challenge through cognitive extension will be given permission to use their Chromebooks to
research information on OPEC impacted Middle Eastern and North African society. They will be
given the opportunity to write a short paragraph comparing their findings of the Middle East and
North Africa to the United States climate and culture. Using the graph, students may also create a
short presentation on the impact of the highest producing oil companies.
Horizontal Extension- To provide extension for students who show signs of struggle with
reading comprehension and labeling graphs, students will be given the option to have the
readings read to them in a small group. Students may choose to work with a partner in order to
exchange ideas and be challenged.
Accommodations and Modifications:
For students who have an IEP, a reading comprehension activity with need to be modified. The
information can be read aloud by the aide, or they may watch a video on the significance of the
Middle East and North Africa oil economy. For students with extreme reading disabilities, a
coloring page of products the use oil as well as a map of OPEC countries. Students may also
reproduce the graphs using Microsoft Word.

Appendix D
Resources for Mini-Unit #4

OPEC Pie Chart and Table

D1

OPEC Fact Sheet

D2

Main Idea Tree

D3

Accommodation Coloring Page

D4

In 1960, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (known


as OPEC) formed to increase the sale of oil.

The oil rich countries of the Middle East include: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait,
Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates.

Oil has helped these countries increase the standard of living by:
- building schools, hospitals, roads, and airports.
- Free education and healthcare

Oil is an important resource to our world today.


- Gasoline is made from crude oil.
- Lubricating oil is also used to keep our automobile engines from
getting too hot and to ensure that all moving parts of the machinery
are kept in good working order. W
Tractors, factories, cars, and airplanes all need oil to run and work
correctly.

Today, OPEC countries supply 40 percent of the worlds oil.

Fossil fuels are the worlds leading sources of energy for transportation,
heating, and creating electricity. They are created from the remains of
animals and plants that lived long ago in the ocean. After these living
things died, layers of sand and silt covered their remains. As these layers
stacked on top of one another, heat and pressure helped transform the
animal and plant remains, called fossils, into deposits of different types
of fossil fuels, including petroleum (also known as crude oil), coal, and
natural gas.

Read your TECHBOOK. Explore Tab 6.5 pages 1-6 for more information, and
graphs about the oil economy and OPEC!