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International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) reference for English


(see the following video to hear all the sounds):

http://youtu.be/o8KppNXfx2k
Comments / special characters:

The start and the end of the transcription. Example: cat = /kt/
The stressed syllable of a word.

The start of a new syllable. Example: football (2 syllables) = /ft.bl/


This is not an official IPA sound. It means that we pronounce the r sound only if the

Example: prefer (we stress the second syllable) = /prf/

next word starts with a vowel. Example: prefer = /prf/


I prefer apples. (we pronounce the final r sound)
I prefer pears. (we do not pronounce the final r sound)

The consonant l is pronounced as a separate syllable. Example little = /

t. /
In American English, the letter t sounds like a d Example butter = /b ./

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Vowels (long)

Dipthongs

IPA

examples

IPA examples

i:

tree, green

u:

shoe, food

pure, tourist

arm, car

door, four

boy, choice

girl, nurse

ear, beer

my, five

go, joke

e there, chair in some dictionaries

Vowels (short)
IPA

examples

sit, fish

pull, good

mug, duck

hot, stop

amount, cinema

red, dead

cat, fat

mother

girl

a now, lounge
e
o

in some dictionaries

they, say
nose

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Consonants (voiceless and voiced pairs)


Consonants (voiceless)

Consonants (voiced)

IPA examples
apple, stop
p
tree, want
t
t chair, teacher
cat, walk
k
fish, if
f
think, both

stop, fast
s
she, fish

IPA examples
bad, beer
b
door, food
d
d joke, lounge
green, dog
g
vote, five
v
they, mother
zoo, noise
z
pleasure, vision

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Other consonants
IPA examples
m man, money
never, ten
n
sing, drink

hot, head
h
love, pull
l
red, tree
r
w want, window
yes, yellow
j

(see the following video to hear all the sounds):

http://youtu.be/o8KppNXfx2k