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Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

LIBRO TERCERO

PROCESOS ESPECIALES
3.1 EL PROCESO EJECUTIVO
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3.1.2 El ttulo ejecutivo


3.1.2.1 Caractersticas generales
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MV]VUQ[UW\y\]TWTWY]MIK\]ITUMV\MKWZZM[XWVLMILQ^MZ[W[XZWKM[W[MTMRMK]\Q^WaMTLM
MRMK]KQ~VNWZbW[I#aKWUWPMUW[IX]V\ILWMT+8+5LQ[\QVO]MXWZ]VTILWMTXZWKM[W
MRMK]\Q^WaTW[\y\]TW[MRMK]\Q^W[aXWZW\ZWTIMRMK]KQ~VNWZbW[IaTW[\y\]TW[LMMRMK]KQ~V
-V MT [Q[\MUI LMT R]QKQW MRMK]\Q^W LMT +8+ [M ZMO]TIJI TI MRMK]KQ~V LM TI WJTQOIKQ~V LM
PIKMZ KWVKMLQuVLW[M QVQKQITUMV\M ]V XTIbW XIZI MT K]UXTQUQMV\W ^MVKQLW MT K]IT a LM
XMZ[Q[\QZ MT QVK]UXTQUQMV\W [M M[\IJTMKyI TI UWLITQLIL LM MRMK]KQ~V Y]M XWLyI QVKT][W
LMZQ^IZ MV TI MRMK]KQ~V XWZ ]V \MZKMZW I M`XMV[I[ LMT LM]LWZ ;QV MUJIZOW MV ]V UIZKW
VWZUI\Q^W KWUW MT LMT IK\]IT R]QKQW MRMK]\Q^W MV MT +8+5 TI[ UMLQLI[ Y]M X]MLMV
adoptarse inicialmente se limitan al embargo para asegurar el cobro de la suma de dinero
ILM]LILIQV\MZM[M[KW[\I[aKW[\W[
4IQV\MZXZM\IKQ~VZIbWVIJTMLMTIVWZUI[MO]VLWQVKQ[WLMTIZ\ +8+5MVK]IV\W
XMZUQ\M ZMKTIUIZ I \ZI^u[ LMT R]QKQW MRMK]\Q^W MT K]UXTQUQMV\W LM WJTQOIKQWVM[ LM PIKMZ
KWV\MVQLI[ MV TW[ \y\]TW[ Y]M QVLQKI KWVL]KM I IZUIZ Y]M [Q MT \y\]TW MRMK]\Q^W KWV\QMVM
]VIWJTQOIKQ~VLMPIKMZMTR]MbLMJMZnM[\IJTMKMZMTZM[XMK\Q^WUIVLIUQMV\WMVMTI]\WLM
ILUQ[Q~V IZ\  Y]M ]VI ^Mb ZUM XWZ NIT\I LM WXW[QKQ~V W XWZ LM[M[\QUIKQ~V LM TI
WXW[QKQ~VLMTLMUIVLILWIZ\[a XWLZnMRMK]\IZ[MXWZTI^yIXMZ\QVMV\MMRMK]KQ~V
LM WJTQOIKQWVM[ LM PIKMZ IZ\[  a [[# MV M[M [MV\QLW KIJM IX]V\IZ Y]M MT IZ\yK]TW 
XZM^uUMLQLI[LMOIZIV\yIXIZII[MO]ZIZMTK]UXTQUQMV\WLMTIWJTQOIKQ~VLMPIKMZMV\ZM
TI[Y]MUMVKQWVIM`XZM[IUMV\MMTMUJIZOW
;QV XMZR]QKQW LM M[M M^MV\]IT KWV\MVQLW a ZM\WUIVLW MT IVnTQ[Q[ LMT WJRM\W \ZILQKQWVIT LMT
XZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^WLMT\y\]TWKWZZM[XWVLQMV\MLMJMMUIVIZ]VIWJTQOIKQ~VLMXIOWM`QOQJTM
TyY]QLI W TQY]QLIJTM KWV ^Q[\I LMT LWK]UMV\W XZM[MV\ILW IZ\   +8+5 ,MJM
MV\MVLMZ[M KWUW KIV\QLIL TQY]QLIJTM IY]MTTI Y]M X]MLI KWV^MZ\QZ[M MV ]VI []UI TyY]QLI
UMLQIV\M ]VI W Un[ WXMZIKQWVM[ IZQ\Uu\QKI[ XIZI LM\MZUQVIZ XWZ MRMUXTW TW[ QV\MZM[M[
LM^MVOILW[ ) [] ^Mb TI WJTQOIKQ~V LM XIOW M[ M`QOQJTM K]IVLW VW M[\n []RM\I I XTIbW VQ
condicin pendiente.
487

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


Una interesante cuestin puede plantearse en torno a los contratos bilaterales o
[QVITIOUn\QKW[ IY]MTTW[ Y]M QUXWVMV WJTQOIKQWVM[ ZMKyXZWKI[ I TI[ LW[ XIZ\M[ +~LQOW
+Q^QTIZ\-TX]V\WPI[QLWIVITQbILWMVTILWK\ZQVIaR]ZQ[XZ]LMVKQI]Z]O]IaIKWV
]VUIZKWVWZUI\Q^W[QUQTIZITLMT+8+5IZUnVLW[MIUWLWLM[yV\M[Q[TIXW[QJQTQLIL
LMZMKTIUIZI\ZI^u[LMTXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^WMTK]UXTQUQMV\WLMWJTQOIKQWVM[LMXIOWQV[MZ\I[
MV KWV\ZI\W[ JQTI\MZITM[ [QMUXZM Y]M MV M[M KI[W MT IKZMMLWZ LMU]M[\ZM MT K]UXTQUQMV\W
LM [][ WJTQOIKQWVM[ KWZZMTI\Q^I[ LM M`QOQJQTQLIL IV\MZQWZ W [QU]T\nVMI I TI Y]M KWVNWZUI MT
WJRM\W LM [] XZM\MV[Q~V MRMK]\Q^I 4I K]M[\Q~V []MTM XTIV\MIZ[M MV =Z]O]Ia MV ZMTIKQ~V I
TI[ XZWUM[I[ LM KWUXZI^MV\I LM QVU]MJTM[ ZM[XMK\W LM TI WJTQOIKQ~V LM XIOW LMT XZMKQW
I[]UQLI XWZ MT XZWUQ\MV\M KWUXZILWZ OMVMZITUMV\M XIK\ILI MV K]W\I[# MV K]aW KI[W a
[QO]QMVLW TI KWZZQMV\M LM WXQVQ~V UMVKQWVILI MT XZWUQ\MV\M ^MVLMLWZ XWLZn IK]LQZ IT
R]QKQWMRMK]\Q^WXIZIMTKWJZWLMTI[K]W\I[ILM]LILI[[QMUXZMY]MIKZMLQ\MMTK]UXTQUQMV\W
XWZ[]XIZ\MLMTI[WJTQOIKQWVM[Y]MMTKWV\ZI\WXWVMI[]KIZOWLMM`QOQJQTQLILIV\MZQWZW
[QU]T\nVMIITILMXIOWLMTXZMKQW
;M IZUI \IUJQuV Y]M TI WJTQOIKQ~V LM XIOW LMJM [MZ LM XMZ[WVI LM\MZUQVILI I NI^WZ LM
W\ZIXMZ[WVILM\MZUQVILII[XMK\W^QVK]TILWKWVTITMOQ\QUIKQ~VIK\Q^IaXI[Q^IY]MXWZ
la especial estructura de este proceso debe acreditarse desde el inicio para obtener una
ZM[WT]KQ~VNI^WZIJTMKWUWZM[]T\IXWZW\ZIXIZ\MLMTIZ\yK]TWLMT+8+5
-T \y\]TW MRMK]\Q^W LMJMZn IKWUXI}IZ[M I TI LMUIVLI MRMK]\Q^I [QV TW K]IT VW [M TM LIZn
IVLIUQMV\W ,MJM XZM[MV\IZ[M MT \y\]TW MV [] LWK]UMV\W WZQOQVIT XWZ IXTQKIKQ~V LM TW
LQ[X]M[\W MV MT IZ\yK]TW  LM TI 4Ma LMT -RMZKQKQW 6W\IZQIT LM TI 2]ZQ[LQKKQ~V >WT]V\IZQI a
de Otras Diligencias.

3.1.2.2 Enumeracin de los ttulos ejecutivos


-VK]IV\WITIMV]UMZIKQ~VLMTW[LWK]UMV\W[Y]MX]MLMVKWVO]ZIZ]V\y\]TWMRMK]\Q^W
TI TQ[\I VW [M TQUQ\I I TW[ XZM^Q[\W[ MV MT IZ\yK]TW  MV \IV\W MT QVKQ[W VIT KWV\QMVM ]VI
ZMUQ[Q~V OMVuZQKI I W\ZI[ TMaM[ Y]M KWVMZIV IT IKZMMLWZ MT LMZMKPW I XZWUW^MZ R]QKQW
MRMK]\Q^W
4W[ QV[\Z]UMV\W[ XJTQKW[ KWV[\Q\]aMV \y\]TW[ MRMK]\Q^W[ [QMUXZM Y]M LM TW[ UQ[UW[ ZM[]T\M
]VI WJTQOIKQ~V LM XIOW M`QOQJTM TyY]QLI W TQY]QLIJTM# KWV MT IOZMOILW aI UMVKQWVILW
LM TI[ LM]LI[ OMVuZQKI[ ] WJTQOIKQWVM[ LM PIKMZ K]aW K]UXTQUQMV\W \IUJQuV X]MLM [MZ
ZMKTIUILW I \ZI^u[ LMT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W 4I VWKQ~V LM QV[\Z]UMV\W XJTQKW ZM[]T\I LMT
IZ\yK]TW  LMT +~LQOW +Q^QT" M[ MT I]\WZQbILW KWV TI[ [WTMUVQLILM[ TMOITM[ XWZ MT
KWUXM\MV\M N]VKQWVIZQW a MT W\WZOILW IV\M 6W\IZQW W 2]Mb KIZ\]TIZQW [M TTIUI M[KZQ\]ZI
pblica.
4W[ QV[\Z]UMV\W[ XZQ^ILW[ NMPIKQMV\M[ \IUJQuV KWV[\Q\]aMV \y\]TW MRMK]\Q^W [QMUXZM Y]M
LM TW[ UQ[UW[ ZM[]T\M WJTQOIKQ~V LM XIOW M`QOQJTM TyY]QLI W TQY]QLIJTM W K]IVLW M[\uV
ZMNMZQLW[ I LM]LI[ OMVuZQKI[ ] WJTQOIKQWVM[ LM PIKMZ +WV IZZMOTW I TW LQ[X]M[\W MV MT
IZ\yK]TW  LMT +~LQOW +Q^QT MT QV[\Z]UMV\W XZQ^ILW ZMKWVWKQLW R]LQKQITUMV\M XWZ TI
XIZ\M I Y]QMV [M WXWVM W Y]M [M PI UIVLILW \MVMZ XWZ ZMKWVWKQLW MV TW[ KI[W[ a KWV TW[
488

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


ZMY]Q[Q\W[XZM^MVQLW[XWZTMa\QMVMMT^ITWZLMM[KZQ\]ZIXJTQKIZM[XMK\WLMTW[Y]MIXIZMKMV
W[MZMX]\IVPIJMZTW[][KZQ\WaLMTI[XMZ[WVI[IY]QMVM[[MPIV\ZIV[NMZQLWTI[WJTQOIKQWVM[
aLMZMKPW[LMu[\W[
) MNMK\W[ LMT ZMKWVWKQUQMV\W R]LQKQIT LMT QV[\Z]UMV\W XZQ^ILW XWLZn ZM[]T\IZ VMKM[IZQI
TI LQTQOMVKQI XZMTQUQVIZ ZM[XMK\Q^I XZM^Q[\I MV MT IZ\yK]TW  V]UMZIT ! LMT +8+5
KWV[Q[\MV\MMVTIKQ\IKQ~VIZMKWVWKQUQMV\WLMTLWK]UMV\WXZQ^ILWXWZIY]uTIY]QMV[MTM
I\ZQJ]aII]\WZyIWZUIJIRWIXMZKQJQUQMV\WLM\MVuZ[MTWXWZZMKWVWKQLW
-V KI[W LM XZWL]KQZ[M MT ZMKWVWKQUQMV\W M`XZM[W W \nKQ\W XWZ XIZ\M LMT WJTQOILW W []
ZMXZM[MV\IV\M [M PIJZn KWVO]ZILW MT \y\]TW MRMK]\Q^W a XWLZn ZMKTIUIZ[M MT KWJZW LMT
KZuLQ\W I \ZI^u[ LMT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W# LM TW KWV\ZIZQW [Q MT KQ\ILW VQMOI TI I]\MV\QKQLIL LM
TI ZUI Y]M [M TM I\ZQJ]aM LMJMZn MT IKZMMLWZ QV\MV\IZ MT KWJZW XWZ MT XZWKM[W LMKTIZI\Q^W
Y]MKWZZM[XWVLIKWUVWIJZM^QILWWMV[]KI[WUWVQ\WZQWITVWLQ[XWVMZLM]V\y\]TW
MRMK]\Q^WXWZNIT\ILMTZMY]Q[Q\WLMI]\MV\QKQLILXZM^Q[\WMVMTIZ\yK]TW+IJZyIIVITQbIZ
KWUW W\ZI IT\MZVI\Q^I NZMV\M IT LM[KWVWKQUQMV\W LMT LWK]UMV\W XZQ^ILW XWZ XIZ\M LMT
KQ\ILWTI[WTQKQ\]LLMXMZQ\IRMKITQOZnKWKWUWLQTQOMVKQIXZMTQUQVIZKWUXTMUMV\IZQIXIZI
LM\MZUQVIZTII]\WZyIY]M[MI\ZQJ]aMITKQ\ILWaM[\IZMVKWVLQKQWVM[LMZMKTIUIZMTKWJZW
LMTILM]LII\ZI^u[LMTR]QKQWMRMK]\Q^W#[WT]KQ~VY]MVWKWV[QLMZIUW[KWV^MVQMV\M\WLI^Mb
Y]MTIXZ]MJIZMNMZQLILMJMZn\ZIUQ\IZ[MLMV\ZWLMTXZWKM[WXZQVKQXITaVWKWUWLQTQOMVKQI
XZMTQUQVIZ [QMVLW Y]M ILMUn[ VW M[\n XZM^Q[\I KWUW M^MV\]IT LQTQOMVKQI XZMTQUQVIZ MV MT
IZ\yK]TWLMT+8+5
-T QVKQ[W  LMT IZ\yK]TW  ZMMZM I TW[ \y\]TW[ ^ITWZM[ Y]M \IUJQuV X]MLMV KWV[\Q\]QZ
\y\]TW[ MRMK]\Q^W[ ;M \ZI\I MV M[MVKQI LM QV[\Z]UMV\W[ XZQ^ILW[ [][KZQX\W[ XWZ MT WJTQOILW
XMZW KWV KIZIK\MZy[\QKI[ M[XMKQITM[ LMZQ^ILI[ LM TI ZMO]TIKQ~V [][\IV\Q^I Y]M LIV WZQOMV
IT LMVWUQVILW R]QKQW MRMK]\Q^W KIUJQIZQW W UMZKIV\QT 4W[ KIZIK\MZM[ LQ[\QV\Q^W[ LM M[\W[
\y\]TW[ [WV TI TQ\MZITQLIL I]\WVWUyI a IJ[\ZIKKQ~V a [M XZWaMK\IV MV MT XTIVW XZWKM[IT
determinando la limitacin de las defensas o motivos de oposicin.
,MIK]MZLWKWVTWXZM^Q[\WMVMTIZ\yK]TWLMT+~LQOWLM+WUMZKQW[WV\y\]TW[^ITWZM[
TW[ LWK]UMV\W[ VMKM[IZQW[ XIZI PIKMZ ^ITMZ MT LMZMKPW TQ\MZIT a I]\~VWUW Y]M MV MTTW[ [M
KWV[QOVI +WUW ^QMVM LQKPW TI[ LQNMZMVKQI[ M[MVKQITM[ LMT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W KIUJQIZQW W
UMZKIV\QT ZM[XMK\W LMT MRMK]\Q^W KWUV [M KWVKZM\IV MV TI XZMXIZIKQ~V W KIZIK\MZy[\QKI[
LMT \y\]TW a MV TI[ LMNMV[I[ ILUQ[QJTM[ -V K]IV\W IT XZQUMZW LM TW[ I[XMK\W[ [M}ITILW[
KWZZM[XWVLMZnLQ[\QVO]QZ[MOV[M\ZI\MLM]VKPMY]MTM\ZILMKIUJQWWXIOIZu[QO]QuVLW[M
TI[ZMOTI[XZM^Q[\I[MVMT+~LQOWLM+WUMZKQWY]MX]MLMVPIKMZVMKM[IZQWMTXZW\M[\WXIZI
KWV[MZ^IZ TI[ IKKQWVM[ KIUJQIZQI[ ZM[XMK\Q^I[ 8IZI UMVKQWVIZ ]V MRMUXTW \ZI\nVLW[M LM
KPMY]M[MTIZ\yK]TW!LMT+~LQOWLM+WUMZKQWLQ[XWVMY]MMTKPMY]MTQJZILWXWZY]QMV
VW \MVOI NWVLW[ LQ[XWVQJTM[ MV TI QV[\Q\]KQ~V I K]aW KIZOW [M MUQ\M XZW\M[\ILW MV \QMUXW
[MZnLWK]UMV\WMRMK]\Q^W#a[QVWPI[QLWXZW\M[\ILWMV\QMUXWMTKPMY]M[QVXZW^Q[Q~V
LM NWVLW[ LQ[XWVQJTM[ ^ITLZn KWUW LWK]UMV\W XZQ^ILW KWV\ZI [] TQJZILWZ # I]VY]M MT
IZ\yK]TW  LMT ZMNMZQLW +~LQOW QVLQKI Y]M TI VW\I Y]M MT JIVKW TQJZILW I]\WZQKM MV MT
KPMY]M UQ[UW LM Y]M N]M XZM[MV\ILW MV \QMUXW a VW XIOILW []Z\QZn QO]ITM[ MNMK\W[ Y]M
el protesto.
489

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


+IJM IX]V\IZ Y]M MT +8+5 IZ\  LMZWOI TI 4Ma LM 8ZWKMLQUQMV\W[ 5MZKIV\QTM[
485 Y]M KWV\MVyI ]VI UQV]KQW[I ZMO]TIKQ~V [WJZM M[\W[ I[XMK\W[ IZ\  8WZ TW Y]M
LMJM IK]LQZ[M I TI[ LQ[XW[QKQWVM[ LMT +~LQOW LM +WUMZKQW XIZI LM\MZUQVIZ TW[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[
LMT\y\]TWIKTIZIVLWVWWJ[\IV\MY]MTI^QOMVKQILMTI[LQ[XW[QKQWVM[XZWKM[ITM[KWV\MVQLI[
MV MT ++WU MV XIZ\QK]TIZ TI[ ZMTI\Q^I[ I TI[ LMNMV[I[ W UW\Q^W[ LM WXW[QKQ~V ILUQ[QJTM[
\IUXWKWZM[]T\IKTIZIMV^QZ\]LLMTILMZWOIKQ~VXZM^Q[\IMVMTIZ\yK]TWLMT+8+5
Y]MKWUXZMVLM\WLI[IY]MTTI[TMaM[WLQ[XW[QKQWVM[KWV\MVQLI[MVW\ZW[K]MZXW[VWZUI\Q^W[
ZMNMZQLW[ I TI[ UI\MZQI[ Y]M ZMO]TI M[\M K~LQOW# I]VY]M MT XZWXQW +8+5 ZMUQ\M I TW
M[\IJTMKQLW MV W\ZI[ TMaM[ IT ZMO]TIZ TI[ LMNMV[I[ ILUQ[QJTM[ MV MT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W IZ\
KWVTWY]MMVV]M[\ZIWXQVQ~VUIV\QMVM^QOMVKQIMTIZ\yK]TW!LMT++WU
) UWLW LM MRMUXTW XIZI TI[ TM\ZI[ LM KIUJQW TW[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[ LMT \y\]TW [MZnV TW[ XZM^Q[\W[
MV TW[ IZ\yK]TW[  a KWVKWZLIV\M[ LMT ++WU KWV M[XMKQIT ZMNMZMVKQI I TI ZMO]TIKQ~V
KWV\MVQLI MV TW[ IZ\yK]TW[  a KWVKWZLIV\M[ LMT KQ\ILW K~LQOW ZMTI\Q^W[ I TI IKKQ~V
KIUJQIZQI# LQ[XW[QKQWVM[ Y]M KWV[QLMZIUW[ ^QOMV\M[ I XM[IZ LM TI LMZWOIKQ~V XZM^Q[\I MV
MT IZ\yK]TW  LMT +8+5 X]M[\W Y]M M[W[ I[XMK\W[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[ LMT \y\]TW ^ITWZ XZW\M[\W
IKKQWVM[ KIUJQIZQI[ VW M[\nV ZMO]TILW[ MV MT V]M^W K~LQOW XZWKM[IT -V K]IV\W I TW[
XIOIZu[ TI[ LQ[XW[QKQWVM[ I \MVMZ MV K]MV\I [MZnV TW[ IZ\yK]TW[   a KWVKWZLIV\M[ LMT
C.Com.
:M\WUIVLW MT KI\nTWOW LM \y\]TW[ MRMK]\Q^W[ TW[ XZM^Q[\W[ MV TW[ QVKQ[W[   a  LMT
IZ\yK]TWVWO]ZIJIVMVTI^MZ[Q~VWZQOQVITLMT)V\MXZWaMK\WVQMVTI^MZ[Q~VLMT
UQ[UW I]VY]M M[\IJIV XZM^Q[\W[ MV TI 4Ma LM 8ZWKMLQUQMV\W[ 5MZKIV\QTM[ LMZWOILI XWZ
MT V]M^W K~LQOW XZWKM[IT ;M \ZI\I LM TI[ KWV[\IVKQI[ TQJZM\I[ W ZMKQJW[ M`\MVLQLW[ XWZ TI[
QV[\Q\]KQWVM[ TMOITUMV\M I]\WZQbILI[ K]IVLW ZMKQJIV LMX~[Q\W[ LM IPWZZW W LM K]ITY]QMZ
W\ZIKTI[M#TI[IKKQWVM[Y]M\MVOIVLMZMKPWI[MZIUWZ\QbILI[#aTI[X~TQbI[LM[MO]ZWaLM
reaseguro.
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KWV LMZMKPW I [MZ IUWZ\QbILI[ \MVLZyIV N]MZbI MRMK]\Q^I I]VY]M M[W[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[ VW [M
reiteran en la nueva regulacin procesal.
,M TI UQ[UI NWZUI MT IZ\yK]TW  LM TI 485 KWVNMZyI KITQLIL LM \y\]TW MRMK]\Q^W I TI[
KWV[\IVKQI[ TQJZM\I[ W ZMKQJW[ M`\MVLQLW[ XWZ TI[ QV[\Q\]KQWVM[ TMOITUMV\M I]\WZQbILI[
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MTXZM^QWZMY]MZQUQMV\WR]LQKQITLMXIOW#ZMY]Q[Q\WY]MMT+8+5VWZMQ\MZIMVZMTIKQ~VI
M[W[LWK]UMV\W[MVMTQVKQ[WLMTIZ\yK]TW
4I[ X~TQbI[ LM [MO]ZW a LM ZMI[MO]ZW \IUJQuV KWV[\Q\]aMV \y\]TW[ MRMK]\Q^W[  [QMUXZM Y]M
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aY]MMTM^MV\WI[MO]ZILW[MPIZMITQbILWI[yKWUWTIK]IV\yILMTW[LI}W[+8+5IZ\
QVKQ[WZMO]TIKQ~VY]MZMQ\MZITIXZM^Q[\IMVTILMZWOILI485IZ\
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P]JQMZM TTMVILW TI[ NWZUITQLILM[ ZMY]MZQLI[ XIZI PIKMZ NM MV -T ;IT^ILWZ LM IK]MZLW KWV
490

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


TI[ LQ[XW[QKQWVM[ LM LMZMKPW QV\MZVIKQWVIT LM N]MV\M QV\MZVI W KWV^MVKQWVIT MV\ZM TI[ Y]M
KIJMUMVKQWVIZXZQVKQXITUMV\MMT+WV^MVQWLM4I0IaILM![WJZMTI-TQUQVIKQ~VLMT
:MY]Q[Q\WLMTI4MOITQbIKQ~VLM,WK]UMV\W[8JTQKW[-`\ZIVRMZW[
+IJM IX]V\IZ XIZI VITQbIZ KWV TI ZM[M}I LM TW[ \y\]TW[ MRMK]\Q^W[ Y]M VW [M TQUQ\IV I
TW[ XZM^Q[\W[ MV MT IZ\yK]TW  LMT +8+5 [QVW Y]M KWUXZMVLMV \IUJQuV TW[ LMUn[
LWK]UMV\W[Y]MXWZLQ[XW[QKQ~VLMTMa\MVOIVZMKWVWKQLWM[MKIZnK\MZIZ\QVKQ[W 

3.1.3 Objeto del proceso ejecutivo.


-TWJRM\WLMTXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^WTWKWV[\Q\]aMTIXZM\MV[Q~VLQZQOQLIITK]UXTQUQMV\WLM]VI
WJTQOIKQ~VLMXIOWM`QOQJTMTyY]QLIWTQY]QLIJTMKWV\MVQLIMV]V\y\]TWMRMK]\Q^W#\IUJQuV
X]MLM M[\IZ ZMNMZQLW IT XIOW LM LM]LI[ OMVuZQKI[ W IT K]UXTQUQMV\W LM WJTQOIKQWVM[ LM
PIKMZ[QMUXZMY]MZM[]T\MVLMT\y\]TWMRMK]\Q^W
En la doctrina uruguaya se alude a una pretensin de condena al pago de una suma de
LQVMZW KWUW WJRM\W LMT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W Y]M LIZn T]OIZ I ]VI [MV\MVKQI LM KWVLMVI
MRMK]\IJTM I \ZI^u[ LMT XZWKMLQUQMV\W XZM^Q[\W XIZI TI MRMK]KQ~V NWZbILI LM [MV\MVKQI[# [M
LQ[\QVO]M I[y LM TI XZM\MV[Q~V LM MRMK]KQ~V \WLI ^Mb Y]M MT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W [M ZMO]TI
KWUW ]V XZWKM[W KWOVQ\Q^W M[XMKQIT XWZ [] M[\Z]K\]ZI XMZW [QV Y]M XWZ MTTW ^IZyM []
M[MVKQIaMVM[MUIZKWTIXZM\MV[Q~VI]VY]MVW[MNWZU]TMM`XZM[IUMV\MMVM[W[\uZUQVW[
M[\IZyI LQZQOQLI I WJ\MVMZ TI KWVLMVI IT XIOW LM ]VI []UI LM LQVMZW TyY]QLI a M`QOQJTM
K]UXTQUQMV\WLMTIWJTQOIKQ~VKWV\MVQLIMVMT\y\]TWMRMK]\Q^WXIZIMRMK]\IZXW[\MZQWZUMV\M
M[I[MV\MVKQIMVKI[WLMUIV\MVMZ[MTIZM[Q[\MVKQIITXIOW)]VY]M\IUXWKWM`Q[\MKWV[MV[W
MV TI LWK\ZQVI ]Z]O]IaI IKMZKI LM TI VI\]ZITMbI LM TI XZM\MV[Q~V MRMK]\Q^I a LM[LM ]VI
XMZ[XMK\Q^I XZnK\QKI TI LMUIVLI MRMK]\Q^I VW []MTM KWV\MVMZ ]VI XZM\MV[Q~V LM KWVLMVI
M`XZM[I Y]M \IUXWKW [M QVKT]aM MV MT LMKZM\W QVQKQIT LM MUJIZOW +WUW PMUW[ IZUILW
IV\M[TIKI\MOWZQbIKQ~VLMTIXZM\MV[Q~VMRMK]\Q^IaLMTI[MV\MVKQIMRMK]\Q^IVWZM[]T\IKTIZI
MV MT +8+5 [Q \MVMUW[ XZM[MV\M MT KWV\MVQLW Y]M TI TMa I[QOVI IT LMKZM\W LM MUJIZOW
Y]M VW QVKT]aM TI KWVLMVI M`XZM[I IT XIOW LM TI []UI ZMKTIUILI# XMZW TW Y]M [y LMJM
ZMIZUIZ[M M[ Y]M TI XZM\MV[Q~V MRMK]\Q^I VW [M QLMV\QKI KWV TI XZM\MV[Q~V LM MRMK]KQ~V
Y]MXWLZnM^MV\]ITUMV\MXTIV\MIZ[MXIZITIMRMK]KQ~VLMTI[MV\MVKQILQK\ILIMVMTXZWKM[W
MRMK]\Q^W[Q[MUIV\QMVMMTQVK]UXTQUQMV\W
-TMUJIZOWUMLQLIKIZIK\MZy[\QKILMTXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^W\QMVMXWZVI[MO]ZIZMTXIOWWMT
K]UXTQUQMV\WLMW\ZI[WJTQOIKQWVM[Y]MX]MLMVZMKTIUIZ[MI\ZI^u[LMM[\MXZWKM[WI]VY]M
KWV KIZIK\MZM[ XZWXQW[ Y]M TW LQNMZMVKQIV LMT MUJIZOW XZM^MV\Q^W ZMO]TILW MV MT KIXy\]TW
LMTI[UMLQLI[KI]\MTIZM[XWZMRMUXTWVW[MM`QOMKI]KQ~VMVM[\MKI[WVQTIIKZMLQ\IKQ~V
LMTXMTQOZWLMTM[Q~VWNZ][\ZIKQ~VLMTLMZMKPW
+WUW PMUW[ IX]V\ILW IV\M[ R]V\W IT KWV\MVQLW \yXQKW LM TI XZM\MV[Q~V MRMK]\Q^I MT V]M^W
+~LQOWZMKWOQMVLWTI\ZILQKQ~VLMTIV\MZQWZ+8+XMZUQ\MZMKTIUIZXWZM[\I^yIMTXIOWLM
LM]LI[OMVuZQKI[aMTK]UXTQUQMV\WLMWJTQOIKQWVM[LMPIKMZ[MOVTWLQ[XWVMMTQVKQ[WVIT
LMT IZ\yK]TW   IT Y]M aI [M PQbW ZMNMZMVKQI -[I M^MV\]IT ^IZQIV\M MV MT KWV\MVQLW \yXQKW
LMT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W [M ^MZn ZMMRILI MV MT KWV\MVQLW LMT LMKZM\W W XZW^QLMVKQI QVQKQIT a
491

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


MV MT MUJIZOW# I[XMK\W Y]M MT IV\MZQWZ +8+ ZMO]TIJI M`XZM[IUMV\M MV [][ IZ\yK]TW[ 
a-TXZQUMZWLMTW[KQ\ILW[IZ\yK]TW[LQ[XWVyIY]M[QTIMRMK]KQ~V[MMV\IJTIXWZLM]LI
OMVuZQKI ^ O KQMV ZM[M[ KQVK]MV\I KIJITTW[ LQMb KIJITTMZyI[ LM \QMZZI M\K [M \ZIJIZn MT
MUJIZOW MV TI[ Y]M \]^QM[M LM LQKPW OuVMZW MT LM]LWZ TI[ K]ITM[ VW [M []JI[\IV [QVW Y]M
[MLIVMVXIOW#MVZMTIKQ~VITI[WJTQOIKQWVM[LMPIKMZMTIZ\yK]TWLMT+8+LQ[XWVyI
TW[QO]QMV\M"[QTIWJTQOIKQ~VM[LMPIKMZaMTIKZMMLWZXQLMY]MMTLM]LWZMRMK]\MMTPMKPW
KWV^MVQLWMT2]MbI\MVLQLITIVI\]ZITMbILMTPMKPWWZLMVIZn[]K]UXTQUQMV\W[M}ITIVLW
]V \uZUQVW XZ]LMV\M XIZI Y]M [M ^MZQY]M ;Q MT MRMK]\ILW VW K]UXTM LMV\ZW LMT \uZUQVW
[M}ITILW[M[MO]QZnVTW[LMUn[\ZnUQ\M[LMTR]QKQWMRMK]\Q^WPI[\ITI[MV\MVKQIWUQ\QuVLW[M
las diligencias de embargo.
) XM[IZ LM VW ZMQ\MZIZ[M M[I[ LQ[XW[QKQWVM[ MV MT V]M^W K~LQOW XZWKM[IT KWV[QLMZIUW[ Y]M
MT KWV\MVQLW LMT I]\W LM ILUQ[Q~V LM TI LMUIVLI MRMK]\Q^I [MZn MV M[MVKQI MT UQ[UW Y]M
MT XZM^Q[\W MV TI[ LQ[XW[QKQWVM[ KQ\ILI[ LMT IV\MZQWZ +8+ XIZI I\MVLMZ IT M[XMKQIT WJRM\W
LMTIXZM\MV[Q~VMRMK]\Q^IMVM[W[KI[W[

3.1.4 Trmite del proceso ejecutivo


3.1.4.1 La demanda ejecutiva
+WV IZZMOTW I TI M[XMKQIT M[\Z]K\]ZI LMT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W TI LMUIVLI LMJMZn XZM[MV\IZ[M
IKWUXI}ILILMT\y\]TWMRMK]\Q^WWZQOQVITaLMTW[LWK]UMV\W[Y]MXMZUQ\IVLM\MZUQVIZKWV
XZMKQ[Q~VTIKIV\QLILZMKTIUILI+8+5IZ\!#4-62>,IZ\
-V TI LMUIVLI [M [WTQKQ\IZn MT MUJIZOW LMT LM]LWZ XWZ TI KIV\QLIL LMJQLI a VW XIOILI
)[yZM[]T\ILMTWLQ[X]M[\WMVMTIZ\yK]TW!LMT+8+5Y]MXIZMKMTQUQ\IZMTWJRM\WLM
TI XZM\MV[Q~V IT KWJZW LM ]VI []UI LM LQVMZW X]M[ VW KWV\QMVM ZMNMZMVKQI[ I TI[ LM]LI[
OMVuZQKI[]WJTQOIKQWVM[LMPIKMZ[MO]ZIUMV\MXWZY]MVWO]ZIJIVMVTI^MZ[Q~VWZQOQVIT
LMT )V\MXZWaMK\W KWUW XW[QJTM WJRM\W LMT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W# [QV MUJIZOW a KWUW PMUW[
^Q[\W TI LMUIVLI MRMK]\Q^I \IUJQuV XWLZn \MVMZ XWZ WJRM\W TI XZM\MV[Q~V LM KWJZW LM ]VI
LM]LI OMVuZQKI W MT K]UXTQUQMV\W LM ]VI WJTQOIKQ~V LM PIKMZ -T WJRM\W LM TI XZM\MV[Q~V
[M ^MZn ZMMRILW I [] ^Mb MV TI UMLQLI KI]\MTIZ MUJIZOW [WTQKQ\ILI# UMLQLI Y]M MV
XZQVKQXQW VW XIZMKM LMT \WLW ILMK]ILI XIZI I[MO]ZIZ MV M[\I M\IXI TI MRMK]KQ~V LM TI
WJTQOIKQ~V LM PIKMZ QVK]UXTQLI I]VY]M MT IZ\yK]TW  LMT +8+5 XZM^u TI M^MV\]IT
solicitud de embargo como medida de garanta para el cumplimiento de obligaciones de
PIKMZMVMTUIZKWLMTIMRMK]KQ~VLMWJTQOIKQWVM[LMM[IyVLWTM
-V MT R]QKQW MRMK]\Q^W MT \ZQJ]VIT ZM[]MT^M [WJZM TI XM\QKQ~V LM MUJIZOW KWV\MVQLI MV TI
LMUIVLI[QVXZM^QII]LQMVKQILMTLMUIVLILWY]QMVXWLZnLMNMVLMZ[M]VI^MbVW\QKILW
del decreto de embargo.

'HFUHWRGHHPEDUJR\QRWLFDFLyQDOGHPDQGDGR
8ZM[MV\ILI TI LMUIVLI MT R]Mb LMJMZn M`IUQVIZ MT LWK]UMV\W Y]M [M TM XZM[MV\I XIZI
LM\MZUQVIZ[Q[M\ZI\ILM]V\y\]TWMRMK]\Q^Wa[QLMTUQ[UWZM[]T\IIKZMLQ\ILITITMOQ\QUIKQ~V
492

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


IK\Q^I a XI[Q^I a MT UWV\W LM TI LM]LI# MV KI[W IZUI\Q^W LMKZM\IZn TI ILUQ[Q~V LM TI
LMUIVLIaMTMUJIZOWZMY]MZQLWWZLMVIVLWVW\QKIZITLMUIVLILW
)MTTWZMMZMMTIZ\yK]TWLMT+8+5MVK]IV\WLQ[XWVMY]MZMKWVWKQLITITMOQ\QUQLIL
LMT LMUIVLIV\M a TI N]MZbI MRMK]\Q^I LMT \y\]TW MT R]Mb LIZn \ZnUQ\M I TI LMUIVLI [QV
KQ\IKQ~V LM TI XIZ\M KWV\ZIZQI LMKZM\IZn MT MUJIZOW M QVUMLQI\IUMV\M M`XMLQZn MT
UIVLIUQMV\W Y]M KWZZM[XWVLI MV MT Y]M LM\MZUQVIZn TI XMZ[WVI W XMZ[WVI[ KWV\ZI TI[
Y]M [M XZWKMLM a M[\IJTMKMZn TI KIV\QLIL Y]M LMJM MUJIZOIZ[M XIZI MT XIOW LM TI LM]LI
QV\MZM[M[ a OI[\W[ LMUIVLILW[ 6~\M[M Y]M TI VWZUI ZMMZM IT LMKZM\W LM MUJIZOW
M`KT][Q^IUMV\M MV ZMTIKQ~V I WJTQOIKQWVM[ LM XIOW LM LQVMZW QVK]UXTQLI[# XMZW aI PMUW[
^Q[\W Y]M TI XZM\MV[Q~V MRMK]\Q^I X]MLM \MVMZ XWZ WJRM\W W\ZW \QXW LM WJTQOIKQWVM[ MV K]aW
KI[WTIXZW^QLMVKQIQVQKQITLMJMZn\MVMZMVK]MV\IM[IXIZ\QK]TIZQLIL
+WV IZZMOTW I TI VWZUI KQ\ILI [Q MT R]Mb IL^QZ\QMZI TI M`Q[\MVKQI LM LMNMK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[
[]J[IVIJTM[ KWVKMLMZn IT LMUIVLIV\M ]V XTIbW LM \ZM[ LyI[ XIZI []J[IVIZTW[ ;Q TW[
^QKQW[ IL^MZ\QLW[ N]MZIV QV[]J[IVIJTM[ LMKTIZIZn TI QUXZWXWVQJyTQLIL LM TI LMUIVLI KWV
constancia de los fundamentos de su decisin.
4I ZM[WT]KQ~V Y]M ZMKPIKM TI \ZIUQ\IKQ~V LM TI LMUIVLI ILUQ\M ZMK]Z[W LM IXMTIKQ~V
IZ\  KWVNWZUM ILMUn[ KWV MT ZuOQUMV OMVMZIT LM TI IXMTIKQ~V +WV\ZI MT I]\W Y]M
ILUQ\M TI LMUIVLI a LMKZM\I MT MUJIZOW VW XZWKMLM ZMK]Z[W ITO]VW [QV XMZR]QKQW LM TI
WXW[QKQ~VY]MX]MLINWZU]TIZMTLMUIVLILW]VI^MbVW\QKILW#MVM[M[MV\QLWTIWXW[QKQ~V
del demandado cumple la doble funcin de oposicin a la demanda e impugnacin del
LMKZM\W QVQKQIT a M[ XWZ MTTW Y]M ITO]VW[ I]\WZM[ ZMMZMV IT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W KWUW ]V
contradictorio de impugnacin.
-T MUJIZOW VW ZMY]QMZM MV M[\M KI[W TI R][\QKIKQ~V LM TW[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[ OMVMZITM[ LM TI[
UMLQLI[ KI]\MTIZM[ M[ LMKQZ TI IXIZQMVKQI LM J]MV LMZMKPW a MT XMTQOZW LM TM[Q~V W
NZ][\ZIKQ~VXWZTILMUWZII]VK]IVLWM[W[XZM[]X]M[\W[X]MLIVXZM[]UQZ[MMVOMVMZITMVMT
XZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^WITUMVW[MTZMTI\Q^WITIIXIZQMVKQILMJ]MVLMZMKPWMVN]VKQ~VLMT\y\]TW
MRMK]\Q^W-VK]ITY]QMZKI[WZM[]T\IKTIZWY]MVWKIJMM`QOQZITLMUIVLIV\MTIXZM[\IKQ~V
de caucin en estos procesos. La regulacin de la medida de embargo se encuentra en los
IZ\yK]TW[a[QO]QMV\M[LMV\ZWLMTUIZKWZMO]TI\WZQWLMTIMRMK]KQ~VNWZbW[I
;QMTR]MbKWV[QLMZIJI[\IV\MMT\y\]TWaTILMUIVLIZMVMTW[ZMY]Q[Q\W[TMOITM[[MLIZnK]Z[W
ITIUQ[UIUMLQIV\MTIZM[WT]KQ~VQVQKQITITIY]M[MPQbWZMNMZMVKQIa]VI^MbMNMK\Q^QbILW
MT MUJIZOW [M VW\QKIZn IT LMUIVLILW -[\I ZM[WT]KQ~V QVQKQIT M[\n KWVLQKQWVILI MV []
MKIKQIITINIT\ILMWXW[QKQ~VLMTLMUIVLILWLMV\ZWLMTXTIbWTMOIT
4I VW\QKIKQ~V LMT LMKZM\W LM MUJIZOW MY]Q^ITM IT MUXTIbIUQMV\W XIZI Y]M MT LM]LWZ
KWUXIZMbKI I M[\IZ I LMZMKPW a X]MLI KWV\M[\IZ TI LMUIVLI MV MT XTIbW LM LQMb LyI[ IZ\
 +8+5# IT PIKMZTW XWLZn NWZU]TIZ [] WXW[QKQ~V XWZ TW[ UW\Q^W[ [M}ITILW[ MV MT
IZ\yK]TWLMTKQ\ILWK~LQOWaXWLZnI[QUQ[UWWXWVMZTI[M`KMXKQWVM[XZWKM[ITM[XZM^Q[\I[
MVMTIZ\yK]TW! LMT+8+5LMNMK\W[XZWKM[ITM[

493

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


-T \ZnUQ\M XW[\MZQWZ ^IZyI LMXMVLQMVLW LM TI NWZU]TIKQ~V LM TI WXW[QKQ~V LMT LMUIVLILW
LMV\ZWLMTKQ\ILWXTIbWTMOIT;QMTLMUIVLILWVWNWZU]TIWXW[QKQ~VITILMUIVLIMRMK]\Q^I
[M LQK\IZn [MV\MVKQI [QV Un[ \ZnUQ\M a [M XZWKMLMZn KWVNWZUM I TW M[\IJTMKQLW MV MT TQJZW
Y]QV\WLMTK~LQOWZMTI\Q^WITIMRMK]KQ~VNWZbW[I#MVM[MKI[WMT\y\]TWLMMRMK]KQ~VTW[MZn
TI[MV\MVKQIXZWV]VKQILIMVMTXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^WXWZNIT\ILMWXW[QKQ~VLMTLMUIVLILW
-[I[MV\MVKQIVWM[\nXZM^Q[\IKWUWIXMTIJTMMVMTUIZKWZMO]TI\WZQWLMTXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^W
Y]MXIZMKMZM[MZ^IZTIIXMTIKQ~VITI]\WY]MZMKPIKMTI\ZIUQ\IKQ~VLMTILMUIVLIIZ\
a I TI [MV\MVKQI Y]M [M XZWV]VKQI [WJZM TI WXW[QKQ~V LMT LMUIVLILW IZ\ !# \MVQMVLW
XZM[MV\M ILMUn[ Y]M [Q MT LMUIVLILWVW NWZU]TI WXW[QKQ~V MV MTXTIbWTMOITTI[MV\MVKQI
[MN]VLIZnM`KT][Q^IUMV\MMVLQKPIKQZK]V[\IVKQIaVWXIZMKMZIbWVIJTMY]MMTLMUIVLILW
X]MLIQV^WKIZ]VN]VLIUMV\W^nTQLWXIZILQKPIQUX]OVIKQ~VK]IVLWVWNWZU]T~WXW[QKQ~V
dentro del plazo legal.
;QVMUJIZOWXWLZyIKIJMZTIIXMTIKQ~V[QXWZMZZWZMTR]MbZMKPIbIZIXWZM`\MUXWZnVMITI
WXW[QKQ~V LMT LMUIVLILW NWZU]TILI MV \QMUXW PnJQT LQK\IVLW [MV\MVKQI MV TW[ \uZUQVW[
LMTIZ\yK]TWX]M[MVM[MKI[WTI[MV\MVKQIXWVMVITXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^WIVUMLQIVLW
WXW[QKQ~VMKIbLMTLMUIVLILW
;Q MT LMUIVLILW NWZU]TI WXW[QKQ~V [M [MO]QZn MT \ZnUQ\M XZM^Q[\W MV TW[ IZ\yK]TW[ 
a [QO]QMV\M[ Y]M NIK]T\IV IT R]Mb XIZI ZM[WT^MZ [WJZM TI WXW[QKQ~V [QV Un[ \ZnUQ\M W
citar a audiencia de prueba a peticin de una de las partes cuando fuera necesario el
diligenciamiento de prueba.

3.1.4.3 La oposicin del demandado


+WUW^QUW[MTLMKZM\WLMMUJIZOW[MZnVW\QKILWITLMUIVLILWY]QMVLQ[XWVLZnLM]V
XTIbWLMLQMbLyI[XIZINWZU]TIZWXW[QKQ~VXWZTW[UW\Q^W[XZM^Q[\W[MVMTIZ\yK]TWLMT
+8+5 ;Q MT LMUIVLILW VW NWZU]TI WXW[QKQ~V LMV\ZW LM M[M XTIbW [M LQK\IZn [MV\MVKQI
[QVUn[\ZnUQ\Ma[MXZWKMLMZnKWVNWZUMITI[ZMOTI[LMTIMRMK]KQ~VNWZbW[I
4I WXW[QKQ~V LMT LMUIVLILW XWLZn N]VLIZ[M MV ITO]VW LM TW[ UW\Q^W[ XZM^Q[\W[ MV MT
IZ\yK]TW  Y]M [M KWVKZM\IV MV TW[ [QO]QMV\M[" [WT]KQ~V W XIOW MNMK\Q^W# XT][XM\QKQ~V
XZM[KZQXKQ~VWKIL]KQLIL#NIT\ILMZMY]Q[Q\W[TMOITM[LMT\y\]TWMRMK]\Q^W#Y]Q\IM[XMZIWXIK\W
o promesa de no pedir; transaccin.
-VOMVMZITTW[UW\Q^W[LMWXW[QKQ~VXZM^Q[\W[MVTIVWZUIKQ\ILIZMMZMVITIM`\QVKQ~VLM
TIWJTQOIKQ~VMQVM`Q[\MVKQILM\y\]TWWITINIT\ILMZMY]Q[Q\W[TMOITM[LMT\y\]TWMRMK]\Q^W
-TXIOWMNMK\Q^WKWVTTM^ITIM`\QVKQ~VLMTIWJTQOIKQ~VZMKTIUILIaXWZMVLMTIQVM`Q[\MVKQI
LM\y\]TWMRMK]\Q^W#TIXT][XM\QKQ~VLM\MZUQVI]VIKIZMVKQILM\y\]TWZM[XMK\WLMTWZMKTIUILW
MVM`KM[WLMTWMNMK\Q^IUMV\MILM]LILW#TIXZM[KZQXKQ~VKWV[Q[\M\IUJQuVMV]VUWLWLM
M`\QVO]QZ TI[ WJTQOIKQWVM[ MV M[\M KI[W TI KWV\MVQLI MV MT \y\]TW# TI KIL]KQLIL I [] \]ZVW
KWVTTM^ITIM`\QVKQ~VLMTLMZMKPW#TI\ZIV[IKKQ~VLM\MZUQVITIQVM`Q[\MVKQILMWJRM\WTQ\QOQW[W
aXWZMVLMWJ[\IITXZWOZM[WLMTXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^W
494

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


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LMT \y\]TW K]M[\Q~V Y]M LMJMZn IVITQbIZ[M MV ZMTIKQ~V I TW[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[ XZM^Q[\W[ XIZI MT
KWVKZM\W\y\]TWQV^WKILW#M[\MUW\Q^WLMWXW[QKQ~VX]MLMQV^WKIZ[MILMUn[KWVZMNMZMVKQI
I TW[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ LMT \y\]TW LM UWLW Y]M MT LMUIVLILW XWLZyI ITMOIZ Y]M TI
WJTQOIKQ~V [M M`\QVO]Q~ XWZ ITO]VW LM TW[ UWLW[ LM M`\QVKQ~V LM WJTQOIKQWVM[ VW XZM^Q[\W[
M`XZM[IUMV\M MV MT KQ\ILW IZ\yK]TW  X]M[ MV M[M KI[W NIT\IZyI MT WJRM\W Y]M KITQKI IT
\y\]TWaXWLZyIQO]ITUMV\MQV^WKIZY]MTIWJTQOIKQ~VVWM[TyY]QLIVQTQY]QLIJTMWY]MVWM[
M`QOQJTMXWZVWPIJMZ[MK]UXTQLWMTXTIbWWTIKWVLQKQ~VXZM^Q[\IMVMT\y\]TW;Q[MP]JQMZI
XIK\ILW]VIM[XMZITIWJTQOIKQ~VVWZM[]T\IM`QOQJTM#a[Q[MP]JQMZIIKWZLILW]VIY]Q\ITI
WJTQOIKQ~VVWZM[]T\IZyIM`QOQJTMXWZMT\W\ITZMKTIUILW
4I WXW[QKQ~V \IUJQuV XWLZn M[\IZ N]VLILI MV TI M`Q[\MVKQI LM LMNMK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ TW Y]M
LMJMZn ITMOIZ[M LMV\ZW LMT UQ[UW XTIbW# KIJM ZMUQ\QZ MV M[M [MV\QLW I TW XZM^Q[\W MV TW[
IZ\yK]TW[ !  a KWVKWZLIV\M[ LMT +8+5 Y]M ZMO]TIV TW I\QVMV\M I TI LMV]VKQI LM TW[
LMNMK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ KWV TI[ XIZ\QK]TIZQLILM[ XZM^Q[\I[ MV MT UIZKW ZMO]TI\WZQW LMT XZWKM[W
MRMK]\Q^W
,MUWLWY]MMTLMUIVLILWLMV\ZWLMTXTIbWXIZINWZU]TIZ[]WXW[QKQ~VXWLZnLMV]VKQIZ
TW[ LMNMK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ Y]M M[\QUM LMT KI[W MV K]IV\W []XWVOIV ]V WJ[\nK]TW I TI ^nTQLI
KWV\QV]IKQ~V LMT XZWKM[W a I [] VITQbIKQ~V UMLQIV\M ZM[WT]KQ~V LM NWVLW QVKT]QLW[
TW[ ZMNMZQLW[ IT K]UXTQUQMV\W LM ITOV XZM[]X]M[\W XZWKM[IT ZMTI\Q^W I TI[ XIZ\M[ KWUW
TI KIXIKQLIL XIZI [MZ XIZ\M a TI KIXIKQLIL XZWKM[IT# IT ~ZOIVW R]ZQ[LQKKQWVIT KWUW TI
R]ZQ[LQKKQ~VQV\MZVIaM`\MZVIaTIKWUXM\MVKQIWJRM\Q^I\MZZQ\WZQITWLMOZILW#aITWJRM\W
XZWKM[IT KWUW TI TQ\Q[XMVLMVKQI TI KW[I R]bOILI TI []UQ[Q~V IT IZJQ\ZIRM MT KWUXZWUQ[W
XMVLQMV\MaMTXZWKMLQUQMV\WQVILMK]ILWIZ\! +8+5
-T IZ\yK]TW  LMT +8+5 XZM^u M`XZM[IUMV\M TI WXW[QKQ~V N]VLILI MV TI M`Q[\MVKQI
LM LMNMK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ a ZMO]TI TI[ IT\MZVI\Q^I[ Y]M X]MLMV XTIV\MIZ[M MV M[M KI[W" [Q
TI WXW[QKQ~V I TI LMUIVLI MRMK]\Q^I [M N]VLI MV TI M`Q[\MVKQI LM LMNMK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[
[]J[IVIJTM[ MT R]Mb KWVKMLMZn IT LMUIVLIV\M ]V XTIbW LM KQVKW LyI[ XIZI []J[IVIZTW[# [Q
XWZMTKWV\ZIZQW[MITMOIZMVLMNMK\W[W^QKQW[QV[]J[IVIJTM[MTR]MbLMKTIZIZnQUXZWXWVQJTM
TI LMUIVLI a XWVLZn V IT XZWKM[W =VI ^Mb []J[IVILW[ TW[ LMNMK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ ITMOILW[
[MKWVKMLMZnITLMUIVLILW]VXTIbWLMLW[LyI[XIZIY]MX]MLIIUXTQIZ[]KWV\M[\IKQ~V]
WXW[QKQ~VIZ\#LMLWVLMKIJMQVNMZQZY]MQVQKQITUMV\MMTLMUIVLILWXWLZnTQUQ\IZ[M
a la denuncia de los defectos procesales y reservar los restantes motivos de oposicin para
]VI ]T\MZQWZ M\IXI LMV\ZW LMT ZMNMZQLW XTIbW LM LW[ LyI[ XW[\MZQWZM[ I TI []J[IVIKQ~V LM
esos defectos.
,MV\ZWLMTXTIbWXZM^Q[\WXIZITIWXW[QKQ~VMTLMUIVLILWXWLZnTQUQ\IZ[MILMV]VKQIZTW[
UMVKQWVILW[LMNMK\W[XZWKM[ITM[MVK]aWKI[Wa[QN]MZIVVITUMV\M[]J[IVILW[LQ[XWVLZn
luego de un plazo suplementario de dos das para ampliar su oposicin por los motivos
XZM^Q[\W[ MV MT IZ\yK]TW  LMT +8+5 ;QV MUJIZOW VILI QUXQLM Y]M MT LMUIVLILW
QVKT]aI MV [] KWV\M[\IKQ~V aI LM[LM MT QVQKQW LMV\ZW LMT XTIbW TMOIT LM LQMb LyI[ LM[LM TI
VW\QKIKQ~V LMT LMKZM\W LM MUJIZOW ILMUn[ LM TI[ M`KMXKQWVM[ XZWKM[ITM[ [] WXW[QKQ~V
por motivos de fondo.
495

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


+WZZM[XWVLM ILMUn[ KWV[QLMZIZ TI[ M`KMXKQWVM[ W LMNMV[I[ XZM^Q[\I[ MV MT IZ\yK]TW ! LMT
+~LQOW LM +WUMZKQW K]IVLW MT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W [M N]VLM MV ]V \y\]TW ^ITWZ +]M[\Q~V
I TI Y]M [M PQbW ZMNMZMVKQI MV MT KIXy\]TW ZMTI\Q^W IT \y\]TW MRMK]\Q^W TQUQ\nVLWVW[ MV M[\I
WXWZ\]VQLIL I[M}ITIZY]MMV M[MKI[W TIWXW[QKQ~V LMTLMUIVLILW XWLZnN]VLIZ[MMV TW[
UW\Q^W[XZM^Q[\W[MVTIKQ\ILIVWZUII\MVLQMVLWITI[XIZ\QK]TIZQLILM[LMTW[\y\]TW[^ITWZM[
aITIZMOTIKWV\MVQLIMVMTXZWXQWIZ\yK]TWLMT+8+5Y]MZMUQ\MITWM[\IJTMKQLWMV
W\ZI[TMaM[ITZMO]TIZTW[UW\Q^W[LMWXW[QKQ~VMVMTXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^W
-VM[M[MV\QLWKWVIZZMOTWITWLQ[X]M[\WMVMTIZ\yK]TW!LMT+~LQOWLM+WUMZKQWY]M
KWV[QLMZIUW[^QOMV\MMV^QZ\]LLMTIZMNMZMVKQIKWV\MVQLIMVMTIZ\yK]TWLMT+8+5
MVMTXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^WXZWUW^QLWMVJI[MI]V\y\]TW^ITWZX]MLMVWXWVMZ[MTI[[QO]QMV\M[
M`KMXKQWVM[" TI[ LM QVKWUXM\MVKQI LM R]ZQ[LQKKQ~V a LM NIT\I LM XMZ[WVITQLIL LMT IK\WZ#
TI[ Y]M [M N]VLMV MV VW PIJMZ [QLW MT LMUIVLILW Y]QMV ZU~ MT LWK]UMV\W# TI[ LM NIT\I
LM ZMXZM[MV\IKQ~V LM XWLMZ JI[\IV\M W LM NIK]T\ILM[ TMOITM[ MV Y]QMV [][KZQJQ~ MT \y\]TW I
VWUJZM LMT LMUIVLILW [IT^W TW LQ[X]M[\W MV MT IZ\yK]TW !!# TI LM PIJMZ [QLW QVKIXIb MT
LMUIVLILW IT [][KZQJQZ MT \y\]TW# TI[ N]VLILI[ MV TI WUQ[Q~V LM TW[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[ Y]M MT \y\]TW
W MT IK\W QVKWZXWZILW LMJMV TTMVIZ W KWV\MVMZ a Y]M TI TMa VW XZM[]UI M`XZM[IUMV\M W
Y]M VW [M PIaIV [I\Q[NMKPW LMV\ZW LMT \uZUQVW Y]M [M}ITI MT IZ\yK]TW # TI LM IT\MZIKQ~V
LMT \M`\W LMT LWK]UMV\W W LM TW[ IK\W[ Y]M MV uT KWV[\MV [QV XMZR]QKQW LM TW LQ[X]M[\W MV
MT IZ\yK]TW # TI[ Y]M [M N]VLMV MV Y]M MT \y\]TW VW M[ VMOWKQIJTM# TI[ Y]M [M JI[MV MV TI
Y]Q\I W XIOW XIZKQIT Y]M KWV[\MV MV MT \M`\W UQ[UW LMT LWK]UMV\W W MV MT LMX~[Q\W LM []
QUXWZ\M# TI[ Y]M [M N]VLMV MV TI [][XMV[Q~V LMT XIOW W MV TI KIVKMTIKQ~V LMT \y\]TW^ITWZ
WZLMVILW[ R]LQKQITUMV\M# TI[ LM XZM[KZQXKQ~V a KIL]KQLIL a TI[ Y]M[MJI[MV MV TI NIT\I LM
TW[ LMUn[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[ VMKM[IZQW[ XIZI MT MRMZKQKQW LM TI IKKQ~V# TI[ XMZ[WVITM[ Y]M \MVOI MT
demandado contra el actor.
4ILMZWOILI4MaLM8ZWKMLQUQMV\W[5MZKIV\QTM[M[\IJTMKyIMV[]IZ\yK]TWQVKQ[W]VI
ZMUQ[Q~VITKQ\ILWIZ\yK]TW!LMT+~LQOWLM+WUMZKQW#aI]VY]MIY]uTTITMaN]MLMZWOILI
XWZMT+8+5TILMZWOIKQ~VVWITKIVbIITIZ\yK]TW!LMT+~LQOWLM+WUMZKQW#XWZY]M
M[M K~LQOW VW QV\MOZI TI V~UQVI LM TMaM[ LMZWOILI[ XWZ MT IZ\yK]TW  LMT +8+5 a
XWZY]M IV M[\IVLW ZMO]TILI TI UI\MZQI XWZ MT V]M^W +8+5 MT XZWXQW IZ\yK]TW 
LM M[\M V]M^W K~LQOW ZMUQ\M I TW M[\IJTMKQLW MV W\ZI[ TMaM[ MV ZMTIKQ~V I TI[ M`KMXKQWVM[
ILUQ[QJTM[ MV MT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W TW Y]M XMZUQ\M IZUIZ TI ^QOMVKQI LM TI [WT]KQ~V
VWZUI\Q^IKWV\MVQLIMVMTKQ\ILWIZ\yK]TW!LMT+~LQOWLM+WUMZKQW
7\ZI K]M[\Q~V LM KWUXTMRI QV\MZXZM\IKQ~V M[ TI ZMNMZQLI I TI XW[QJQTQLIL LM QV^WKIZ MV MT
XZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^WN]VLILWMV\y\]TW[^ITWZM[TW[UW\Q^W[LMWXW[QKQ~VXZM^Q[\W[MVMTIZ\yK]TW
 LMT +8+5# X]M[\W Y]M I \MVWZ LM TW LQ[X]M[\W MV MT IZ\yK]TW ! LMT +~LQOW LM
+WUMZKQW[~TW[MZyIVILUQ[QJTM[TI[M`KMXKQWVM[XZM^Q[\I[MVLQKPIVWZUITWY]MM`KT]QZyI
TIILUQ[QJQTQLILLMTW[UW\Q^W[LMWXW[QKQ~VUMVKQWVILW[MVMTIZ\yK]TWLMT+8+5
;QV MUJIZOW VW[ QVKTQVIUW[ ILUQ\QZ MV MT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W KIUJQIZQW TW[ UW\Q^W[ LM
WXW[QKQ~VXZM^Q[\W[MVMTIZ\LMT+8+5Y]MILMUn[VWINMK\IVTIXIZ\QK]TIZQLILLMT
XZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^WN]VLILWMV\y\]TW[^ITWZM[aMVKQMZ\IUMLQLIaI[MMVK]MV\ZIVXZM^Q[\W[
QUXTyKQ\IUMV\MMVTI[M`KMXKQWVM[ZMO]TILI[MVMTIZ\yK]TW!LMT+~LQOWLM+WUMZKQW

496

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


-V MNMK\W TI WXW[QKQ~V N]VLILI MV MT XIOW MNMK\Q^W [M MVK]MV\ZI KWUXZMVLQLI LMV\ZW LM
TI[ Y]M VI\]ZITUMV\M X]MLM WXWVMZ MT LMUIVLILW IV MV MT UIZKW TQUQ\I\Q^W LMT +~LQOW
LM +WUMZKQW I TW Y]M KIJM IOZMOIZ Y]M MT XIOW KWVTTM^I TI M`\QVKQ~V LM TI WJTQOIKQ~V
a MV KWV[MK]MVKQI LMT \y\]TW MRMK]\Q^W XZM[]X]M[\W QVMT]LQJTM LMT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W# TI
XZM[KZQXKQ~VWTIKIL]KQLIL\IUJQuVM[\nVXZM^Q[\I[MVMTKQ\ILWIZ\yK]TW!LMT+~LQOWLM
+WUMZKQWITQO]ITY]MTIY]Q\I
:M[XMK\W LM TI M[XMZI XZM^Q[\I MV MT IZ\yK]TW  LMT +8+5 LMJM ILUQ\QZ[M \IUJQuV
MV MT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W KIUJQIZQW XWZY]M MV M[M KI[W TI WJTQOIKQ~V VW [MZyI M`QOQJTM a MV
KWV[MK]MVKQI VW PIJZyI \y\]TW MRMK]\Q^W XZM[]X]M[\W LM TI XZM\MV[Q~V MRMK]\Q^I# TW UQ[UW
KIJM LMKQZ ZM[XMK\W LM TI \ZIV[IKKQ~V MV \IV\W KWV[\Q\]aM ]V XZM[]X]M[\W LM TI [MV\MVKQI
TI QVM`Q[\MVKQI LM KW[I R]bOILI W \ZIV[IKKQ~V .QVITUMV\M TI WXW[QKQ~V N]VLILI MV MT
QVK]UXTQUQMV\WLMTW[ZMY]Q[Q\W[TMOITM[LMT\y\]TWIZ\QVKQ[WLMT+8+5\IUJQuV
M[\n XZM^Q[\I MV MT IZ\yK]TW ! LMT +~LQOW LM +WUMZKQW XWZ TW Y]M VW XZM[MV\I L]LI[ []
admisibilidad en estos procesos.

3.1.4.4 Tramitacin de la oposicin


-T\ZnUQ\MXW[\MZQWZITIWXW[QKQ~VLMTLMUIVLILWXWLZn^IZQIZLMXMVLQMVLWLMTW[UW\Q^W[
LMTIWXW[QKQ~VaLMTI[XZ]MJI[Y]M[MP]JQMZMVWNZMKQLW
+WV IZZMOTW I TW LQ[X]M[\W MV MT IZ\yK]TW  [Q TI WXW[QKQ~V [M N]VLI MV TI M`Q[\MVKQI
LM LMNMK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ []J[IVIJTM[ MT R]Mb KWVKMLMZn IT LMUIVLIV\M ]V XTIbW LM KQVKW
LyI[ XIZI []J[IVIZTW[ ;Q VW [M XZWKMLM I MTTW MV LQKPW XTIbW [M LMKTIZIZn QVILUQ[QJTM TI
LMUIVLIMVM[\MM[\ILWa[M\MZUQVIZnMTXZWKM[W#[QTI[]J[IVIKQ~V[MLI[MZnVKWVKMLQLW[
LW[ LyI[ Un[ IT LMUIVLILW XIZI Y]M X]MLI IUXTQIZ [] KWV\M[\IKQ~V ] WXW[QKQ~V +]IVLW
TI WXW[QKQ~V [M N]VLM MV LMNMK\W[ W ^QKQW[ QV[]J[IVIJTM[ MT R]Mb LMKTIZIZn QUXZWXWVQJTM TI
LMUIVLI VITQbIZn MT XZWKM[W a LMRIZn [QV MNMK\W TI[ UMLQLI[ KI]\MTIZM[ Y]M [M P]JQM[MV
ILWX\ILWKWVQUXW[QKQ~VLMTI[KW[\I[ITLMUIVLIV\M
-V\WLWKI[WaI]VY]MTIVWZUIKWUMV\ILIVWTWQVLQY]MM`XZM[IUMV\MKWZZM[XWVLMZnWyZ
IT LMUIVLIV\M XZM^QW I ZM[WT^MZ [WJZM TW[ LMNMK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ ITMOILW[ XWZ [] KWV\ZIXIZ\M
MV IXTQKIKQ~V LMT XZQVKQXQW LM LMNMV[I a KWV\ZILQKKQ~V IZ\  +8+5 \MVQMVLW MV
K]MV\I TI[ KWV[MK]MVKQI[ Y]M X]MLMV LMZQ^IZ LM TI LMKQ[Q~V Y]M [M ILWX\M IT ZM[XMK\W
QUXZWXWVQJQTQLIL LM TI LMUIVLI TM^IV\IUQMV\W LMT MUJIZOW M QUXW[QKQ~V LM KW[\I[
IT LMUIVLIV\M +WV M[M V MT R]Mb LMJMZn KWVKMLMZ IT LMUIVLIV\M ]VI ZIbWVIJTM
WXWZ\]VQLIL LM LMNMV[I aI [MI MV I]LQMVKQI [Q N]M KWV^WKILI I XMLQLW LM ITO]VI LM TI[
XIZ\M[WN]MZILMI]LQMVKQIK]IVLWVWN]MZMUMVM[\MZTIKWV^WKI\WZQIII]LQMVKQIXWZVW
ZM[]T\IZVMKM[IZQWMTLQTQOMVKQIUQMV\WLMXZ]MJI[
1V[Q[\QMVLW MV M[M X]V\W MT IZ\yK]TW  LMT +8+5 XIZMKM QVLQKIZ Y]M TI WXW[QKQ~V
N]VLILI MV TI M`Q[\MVKQI LM LMNMK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ LMJMZn [MZ ZM[]MT\I [QV Un[ \ZnUQ\M XWZ MT
R]MbKWVKMLQMVLWITLMUIVLILW]VXTIbWXIZITI[]J[IVIKQ~VLMTW[LMNMK\W[WLMKTIZIVLW
QUXZWXWVQJTM TI LMUIVLI [Q TW[ LMNMK\W[ LMV]VKQILW[ N]MZIV QV[]J[IVIJTM[ W JQMV
LM[M[\QUIVLWTIWXW[QKQ~V#XMZWLMTKWV\M`\WVWZUI\Q^W[MQVMZMY]MMTLMUIVLIV\MXWLZn
497

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


[WTQKQ\IZTIKWV^WKI\WZQIII]LQMVKQIa\MVLZnLMZMKPWIKWV\M[\IZMVI]LQMVKQITW[LMNMK\W[
XZWKM[ITM[ ITMOILW[ X]M[ I[y TW M[\IJTMKM XIZI MT XZWKM[W IJZM^QILW MT IZ\yK]TW  LMT
+8+5IXTQKIJTMITXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^WXWZTIZMUQ[Q~VKWV\MVQLIMVMTIZ\yK]TWVWZUI
Y]MILMUn[M[\IJTMKMQUXTyKQ\IUMV\MY]MMTLMUIVLIV\M[MZnWyLWMVTII]LQMVKQIZM[XMK\W
LMTIWXW[QKQ~VLMTLMUIVLILW4ILQK]T\ILQV\MZXZM\I\Q^IZILQKIMVY]MTII]LQMVKQILMT
XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W [~TW [MZn KWV^WKILI XWZ MT R]Mb K]IVLW TW [WTQKQ\M ITO]VI LM TI[ XIZ\M[
a ZM[]T\M VMKM[IZQW MT LQTQOMVKQIUQMV\W LM XZ]MJI XMZW I V LM XZM[MZ^IZ TI OIZIV\yI LM
LMNMV[I KWV[QLMZIUW[ Y]M XWLZn [WTQKQ\IZ[M TI KWV^WKI\WZQI I I]LQMVKQI XIZI KWV\M[\IZ MV
MTTI TW[ LMNMK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ ITMOILW[ -V \WLW KI[W M[ VMKM[IZQW Y]M MT R]Mb KWVKMLI I TI[
XIZ\M[ TI XW[QJQTQLIL LM [WTQKQ\IZ M[I KWV^WKI\WZQI I I]LQMVKQI XZM^QW I ZM[WT^MZ [WJZM TW[
defectos procesales alegados por el demandado.
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TI LMUIVLI MRMK]\Q^I INMK\ILI XWZ LMNMK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ QV[]J[IVIJTM[ XWLZn [MZ IXMTILI
XWZMTLMUIVLIV\MX]M[M[\nKWUXZMVLQLIMVTIZMNMZMVKQIVWZUI\Q^ILMTIZ\yK]TW!LMT
+8+5MV\IV\W[MXZWV]VKQI[WJZMTIWXW[QKQ~V#XWZW\ZIXIZ\M[M\ZI\ILM]VI]\WY]M
XWVM V IT XZWKM[W KWV TW Y]M [MZyI IXMTIJTM XWZ IXTQKIKQ~V LM TW LQ[X]M[\W MV MT UIZKW
regulatorio general del recurso de apelacin.
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[QV Un[ \ZnUQ\M [Q TI K]M[\Q~V VW ZMY]QMZM XZ]MJI W T]MOW LM TI I]LQMVKQI LM XZ]MJI [Q
N]MZI VMKM[IZQW KWVNWZUM I TW XZM^Q[\W MV MT IZ\yK]TW  )]VY]M MV V]M[\ZI WXQVQ~V
KWZZM[XWVLMZn MV \WLW KI[W WyZ IT LMUIVLIV\M XZM^QW I ZM[WT^MZ IKMZKI LM TI WXW[QKQ~V
MV IXTQKIKQ~V LMT XZQVKQXQW LM LMNMV[I XZM^Q[\W MV MT IZ\yK]TW  LMT +8+5# \WLI ^Mb
Y]M MV M[\W[ XZWKM[W[ [M XZWL]KM ]V LM[XTIbIUQMV\W LM TI QVQKQI\Q^I LMT KWV\ZILQK\WZQW
Y]M KWZZM[XWVLM IT LMUIVLILW UMLQIV\M TI M^MV\]IT NWZU]TIKQ~V LM TI WXW[QKQ~V ) ^yI
LM MRMUXTW [Q MT LMUIVLILW WXWVM TI LMNMV[I LM XIOW a IOZMOI ]V ZMKQJW ZUILW XWZ MT
LMUIVLIV\MZM[]T\IZIbWVIJTMaIR][\ILWITXZQVKQXQWLMLMNMV[IaIUMVKQWVILWKWVKMLMZ
al demandante una razonable oportunidad de pronunciarse sobre esa defensa y aportar
M^MV\]ITUMV\M [][ XZ]MJI[# LMT UQ[UW UWLW [Q MT LMUIVLILW ITMOI ]VI Y]Q\I KWVKMLQLI
por el demandante.
-V \WLW KI[W MT LMUIVLIV\M XWLZn [WTQKQ\IZ TI KWV^WKI\WZQI I I]LQMVKQI I V LM IXWZ\IZ
XZ]MJI[ \MVLQMV\M[ I LM[IKZMLQ\IZ TW[ IZO]UMV\W[ W XZ]MJI[ LM [] KWV\ZIXIZ\M a MV M[I
I]LQMVKQI LMJM ZMKWVWKuZ[MTM MT LMZMKPW LM LMNMV[I MV [] Un`QUI M`XZM[Q~V KWUXZMV[Q^I
LMT LMZMKPW I IXWZ\IZ IZO]UMV\W[ NnK\QKW[ a R]ZyLQKW[ a [][ KWZZM[XWVLQMV\M[ XZ]MJI[
8WLZyI WK]ZZQZ \IUJQuV Y]M MT LMUIVLIV\M \MVOI QV\MZu[ MV QUX]OVIZ TI I]\MV\QKQLIL LM
TW[LWK]UMV\W[IXWZ\ILW[XWZMTLMUIVLILWXWZMRMUXTW]VZMKQJWLMXIOW#MVM[MKI[W
LMJMZnKWVKMLuZ[MTM]VIZIbWVIJTMWXWZ\]VQLILLMITMOIKQ~VaXZ]MJIL]ZIV\MTII]LQMVKQI
Y]M [WTQKQ\M IT MNMK\W XIZI TW K]IT M[ UMVM[\MZ Y]M MT R]Mb TM KWVMZI ^Q[\I LM TI WXW[QKQ~V
IV\M[LMLQK\IZ[MV\MVKQII]VK]IVLWTIVWZUII]\WZQKMIZM[WT^MZTI[QVUn[\ZnUQ\MMVJI[M
a la documentacin aportada.
-V [yV\M[Q[ NWZU]TILI WXW[QKQ~V XWZ MT LMUIVLILW TI[ XIZ\M[ LMJMV KWV\IZ KWV TI
WXWZ\]VQLILLM[WTQKQ\IZTIKQ\IKQ~VII]LQMVKQIMVNWZUIXZM^QIITLQK\ILWLMTI[MV\MVKQI
498

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


IV K]IVLW TI VWZUI I]\WZQKM I ZM[WT^MZ [QV Un[ \ZnUQ\M +WV M[M V LMJM KWVKMLMZ[M I
TI[ XIZ\M[ ]VI ZIbWVIJTM WXWZ\]VQLIL LM [WTQKQ\IZ M[I KQ\IKQ~V VW\QKIVLW IT LMUIVLIV\M
LM TI WXW[QKQ~V NWZU]TILI XWZ [] KWV\ZIXIZ\M XIZI Y]M M[\u MV KWVLQKQWVM[ LM [WTQKQ\IZ TI
KQ\IKQ~VII]LQMVKQI[QN]MZIVMKM[IZQW-VM[II]LQMVKQIMTLMUIVLIV\MXWLZnKWV\M[\IZTW[
LMNMK\W[XZWKM[ITM[ITMOILW[a\MVLZnLMZMKPWI[MZWyLWMVZMTIKQ~VITW[ZM[\IV\M[UW\Q^W[
LMWXW[QKQ~VY]MX]LQMZIPIJMZXTIV\MILWMTLMUIVLILW

3.1.4.5 La audiencia de prueba


4I I]LQMVKQI LM XZ]MJI Y]M PIJZn LM KMTMJZIZ[M LMV\ZW LM TW[ LQMb LyI[ LM MNMK\]ILI TI
KQ\IKQ~V M[ M^MV\]IT MV MT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W X]M[ [~TW \MVLZn T]OIZ K]IVLW TW [WTQKQ\MV
TI[ XIZ\M[ a ZM[]T\M VMKM[IZQW I KZQ\MZQW LMT R]Mb ZMKQJQZ XZ]MJI[ XIZI ZM[WT^MZ TI K]M[\Q~V
planteada.
6W WJ[\IV\M LMJM QV\MZXZM\IZ[M KWV IUXTQ\]L TI VWZUI KQ\ILI XIZI XMZUQ\QZ MV KI[W LM
L]LITIKWV^WKI\WZQIII]LQMVKQIaI[MO]ZIZLMM[INWZUITIMNMK\Q^I^QOMVKQILMTLMZMKPW
ITIXZ]MJIaLMTLMZMKPWLMLMNMV[IMVMTUIZKWLMTXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^W
,MT UQ[UW UWLW LMJM I[MO]ZIZ[M I IUJI[ XIZ\M[ ]VI ZIbWVIJTM WXWZ\]VQLIL LM [WTQKQ\IZ
TIKWV^WKI\WZQIII]LQMVKQIaMTLQTQOMVKQIUQMV\WLMXZ]MJI[XZM^QWITI[MV\MVKQILMTR]Mb
-V M[M [MV\QLW MT LMUIVLILW XWLZn [WTQKQ\IZ TI KWV^WKI\WZQI I I]LQMVKQI IT NWZU]TIZ []
WXW[QKQ~V I TI LMUIVLI LMV\ZW LMT XTIbW TMOIT LM LQMb LyI[ LM VW\QKILW MT LMKZM\W LM
MUJIZOW# XMZW MT LMUIVLIV\M \IUJQuV LMJM KWV\IZ KWV ]VI ZIbWVIJTM WXWZ\]VQLIL LM
LMNMV[I ZM[XMK\W LM TI WXW[QKQ~V NWZU]TILI XWZ [] KWV\ZIXIZ\M XIZI TW K]IT LMJMZn [MZTM
VW\QKILI M[I WXW[QKQ~V XZM^QW I Y]M MT R]Mb LQK\M ZM[WT]KQ~V IT ZM[XMK\W X]M[ [~TW I[y
M[\IZnMVKWVLQKQWVM[LM[WTQKQ\IZTIKWV^WKI\WZQIII]LQMVKQIaWNZMKMZXZ]MJI[\MVLQMV\M[I
desarticular la oposicin de su contraparte.
-TIZ\yK]TWLMT+8+5XZM^uMVNWZUIQVLQZMK\IXMZWQVL]JQ\IJTMTIWXWZ\]VQLILLMT
LMUIVLIV\MLM[MZWyLWMVI]LQMVKQIZM[XMK\WLMTIWXW[QKQ~VNWZU]TILIXWZ[]KWV\ZIXIZ\M
ITLQ[XWVMZY]M[QVWKWUXIZMKQMZMMTLMUIVLIV\MITII]LQMVKQIMTR]MbZM[WT^MZn[QVWyZTM
[WJZM TI WXW[QKQ~V# TW Y]M ZMIZUI TI QLMI M`X]M[\I MV MT [MV\QLW LM Y]M MT LMUIVLIV\M
\QMVM LMZMKPW I [MZ WyLW [WJZM TI WXW[QKQ~V LMT LMUIVLILW a XIZI M[W LMJM KWV\IZ KWV
]VIZIbWVIJTMWXWZ\]VQLILLM[WTQKQ\IZTIKQ\IKQ~VII]LQMVKQIXZM^QWIY]MMTR]MbLMKQLI
sobre la oposicin.
4I[ KWV[MK]MVKQI[ LM TI QVKWUXIZMKMVKQI I TI I]LQMVKQI M[\nV XZM^Q[\I[ MV MT KQ\ILW
IZ\yK]TW " [Q [M P]JQMZI KWV^WKILW TI I]LQMVKQI a VW IK]LQMZI I MTTI MT LM]LWZ [M
TM \MVLZn XWZ LM[Q[\QLW LM TI WXW[QKQ~V [M TM QUXWVLZnV TI[ KW[\I[ KI][ILI[ a [M TM
KWVLMVIZn I QVLMUVQbIZ IT LMUIVLIV\M KWUXIZMKQLW# [Q VW KWUXIZMKQMZM MT LMUIVLIV\M
MT R]Mb ZM[WT^MZn [QV WyZTM [WJZM TI WXW[QKQ~V -T LM[Q[\QUQMV\W LM TI WXW[QKQ~V MV KI[W LM
QVKWUXIZMKMVKQILMTLMUIVLILWITII]LQMVKQILM\MZUQVIY]MMTR]MbLMJILQK\IZ[MV\MVKQI
MVTW[\uZUQVW[XZM^Q[\W[MVMTIZ\yK]TWLMT+8+5KWUW[QVW[MP]JQMZINWZU]TILW
WXW[QKQ~VKWV\QV]nVLW[MT]MOWKWVTIMRMK]KQ~VNWZbW[ILMM[I[MV\MVKQI[QI[yTW[WTQKQ\IMT
demandante.
499

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


-V \WLW KI[W LMJM ZMKWVWKMZ[M I TI[ XIZ\M[ ]VI ZIbWVIJTM WXWZ\]VQLIL XIZI R][\QKIZ TW[
UW\Q^W[ LM [] QVKWUXIZMKMVKQI I TI I]LQMVKQI \MVQMVLW MV K]MV\I Y]M TI[ KWV[MK]MVKQI[
TMOITM[ UMVKQWVILI[ PIV LM IXTQKIZ[M [~TW IV\M ]VI QVKWUXIZMKMVKQI QVR][\QKILI I TI
I]LQMVKQI ZMOTI Y]M I]VY]M VW M[\u XZM^Q[\I M`XZM[IUMV\M MV TI VWZUI KWUMV\ILI
ZM[]T\ILMTIQV\MOZIKQ~VVWZUI\Q^IKWVW\ZI[LQ[XW[QKQWVM[Y]MZMO]TIVTIUQ[UI[Q\]IKQ~V
KWUXIZMKMVKQILMTI[XIZ\M[ITII]LQMVKQILMTXZWKM[WIJZM^QILWIZ\LMT+8+5
) UWLW LM MRMUXTW [Q MT LMUIVLILW VW X]LW KWUXIZMKMZ XWZ ZIbWVM[ LM MVNMZUMLIL a
TI[R][\QKIILMK]ILIUMV\MVWXZWKMLM\MVMZTWXWZLM[Q[\QLWLM[]WXW[QKQ~V[QVWKWV^WKIZ
nuevamente a las partes a audiencia.
;M IXTQKIV I[QUQ[UW TI[ ZMOTI[ OMVMZITM[ [WJZM KI][I[ LM [][XMV[Q~V M QV\MZZ]XKQ~V LM TI
I]LQMVKQIXZM^Q[\I[MVTW[IZ\yK]TW[ aLMT+8+5ITW[Y]M[MPQbWZMNMZMVKQIIT
comentar las reglas del proceso comn y del proceso abreviado.
;QKWUXIZMKMVIUJI[XIZ\M[[MLM[IZZWTTIZnTII]LQMVKQIKWVIZZMOTWITWXZM^Q[\WXIZIMT
XZWKM[W IJZM^QILW LMJQuVLW[M LQK\IZ I KWV\QV]IKQ~V TI [MV\MVKQI Y]M XZWKMLI ,M UWLW
Y]M[QO]QMVLWTI[MK]MVKQIXZM^Q[\IXIZIMTXZWKM[WIJZM^QILWMVTW[IZ\yK]TW[a[[LMT
+8+5MVTII]LQMVKQI[MQV\MV\IZnTIKWVKQTQIKQ~VLMTI[XIZ\M[a[QVWP]JQMZII^MVMVKQI
[M XI[IZn [MO]QLIUMV\M I TI ZI\QKIKQ~V LM TI LMUIVLI a LM TI WXW[QKQ~V [M WQZn IT
LMUIVLIV\MIKMZKILMTW[UW\Q^W[LMWXW[QKQ~VLMTLMUIVLILW\IV\WTW[UW\Q^W[LMNWVLW
KWUWTW[LMNMK\W[XZWKM[ITM[M^MV\]ITUMV\MITMOILW[[MZMKQJQZnVTI[XZ]MJI[WNZMKQLI[XWZ
TI[ XIZ\M[ a VITUMV\M NWZU]TIZnV TI[ XIZ\M[ [][ ITMOI\W[ VITM[ MV TW[ \uZUQVW[ XZM^Q[\W[
MVMTIZ\yK]TW!LQK\nVLW[MIKWV\QV]IKQ~VTI[MV\MVKQI
-V K]IV\W I TI XZ]MJI ZM[]T\I IXTQKIJTM TW LQ[X]M[\W MV MT IZ\yK]TW   LMT +8+5 Y]M
I [] ^Mb ZMUQ\M I TI[ ZMOTI[ LMT XZWKM[W KWUV XIZI TI XZnK\QKI LM TI XZ]MJI ,M IK]MZLW
KWV TW XZM^Q[\W MV MT IZ\yK]TW  TI[ XIZ\M[ LMJMZnV IK]LQZ I TI I]LQMVKQI KWV TW[ UMLQW[
XZWJI\WZQW[ LM Y]M QV\MV\MV ^ITMZ[M# MV TI I]LQMVKQI XZWXWVLZnV TI[ XZ]MJI[ LM TI[ Y]M
XZM\MVLIV^ITMZ[MaMTR]MbILUQ\QZnTI[\QTM[aXMZ\QVMV\M[IZ\ XI[nVLW[MT]MOWITI
XZnK\QKILMM[I[XZ]MJI[
4I[ XIZ\M[ XWLZnV \IUJQuV [WTQKQ\IZ IT UMVW[ KWV \ZM[ LyI[ LM IV\MTIKQ~V I TI NMKPI LM TI
I]LQMVKQI IY]MTTI[ XZ]MJI[ Y]M XIZI XZIK\QKIZ[M MV TI UQ[UI VMKM[Q\MV LQTQOMVKQI[ LM
KQ\IKQ~VWZMY]MZQUQMV\WIZ\ 
4IXZnK\QKILMTIXZ]MJIKWUW^QUW[[MZQOMXWZTWLQ[X]M[\WXIZIMTXZWKM[WKWUVXWZ
ZMUQ[Q~VLMTIZ\yK]TW 

3.1.4.6 La sentencia.
4I [MV\MVKQI Y]M ZM[]MT^M IKMZKI LM TI WXW[QKQ~V LMT LMUIVLILW XWLZn LQK\IZ[M IT VIT
LM TI I]LQMVKQI LM XZ]MJI W N]MZI LM I]LQMVKQI a [QV Un[ \ZnUQ\M K]IVLW VW [M P]JQMZI
[WTQKQ\ILWTIKMTMJZIKQ~VLMTII]LQMVKQIIZ\+8+5

500

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


;Q VW [M P]JQMZI [WTQKQ\ILW TI KQ\IKQ~V I I]LQMVKQI W MT R]Mb VW TI P]JQMZI KWV[QLMZILW
XZWKMLMV\M [M ZM[WT^MZn [QV Un[ \ZnUQ\M [WJZM TI WXW[QKQ~V KWV TI [IT^MLIL aI IX]V\ILI
MVK]IV\WIY]MLMJMZnKWVKMLMZ[MITLMUIVLIV\M]VIZIbWVIJTMWXWZ\]VQLILLM[MZWyLW
previo a dictar la sentencia.
-V M[M KI[W [Q JQMV TI VWZUI VW QVLQKI MT XTIbW LM Y]M LQ[XWVM MT R]Mb XIZI ZM[WT^MZ
a \IUXWKW TW ZMO]TI MT +~LQOW KWV KIZnK\MZ OMVMZIT X]M[ MV XZQVKQXQW TI ZMOTI M[ Y]M
TI [MV\MVKQI [M XZWV]VKQI MV I]LQMVKQI W [M IV]VKQI MT NITTW MV I]LQMVKQI IZ\ 
KWV[QLMZIUW[Y]MLMJMIXTQKIZ[MMTXTIbWLMY]QVKMLyI[XZM^Q[\WXIZIMTXZWKM[WKWUVa
MTXZWKM[WIJZM^QILWIZ\[a
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IZ\I]VY]MXWLZnIV]VKQIZ[M^MZJITUMV\MMTNITTWaXZWV]VKQIZ[MTI[MV\MVKQILMV\ZW
LMTXTIbWLMY]QVKMLyI[KWVIZZMOTWITWXZM^Q[\WKWVKIZnK\MZOMVMZITMVMTIZ\yK]TWa
MVMTIZ\yK]TWXIZIMTXZWKM[WIJZM^QILW
-V K]IV\W I [] KWV\MVQLW XWLZn M[\QUIZ W LM[M[\QUIZ TI WXW[QKQ~V LMT LMUIVLILW KWV
TI[ KWV[MK]MVKQI[ XZM^Q[\I[ MV MT IZ\yK]TW   a TI[ aI UMVKQWVILI[ LMT IZ\yK]TW  [Q TI
WXW[QKQ~VM[\]^QMZIN]VLILIMVTIM`Q[\MVKQILMLMNMK\W[XZWKM[ITM[
;Q [M LM[M[\QUI \W\ITUMV\M TI WXW[QKQ~V [M LQK\IZn [MV\MVKQI M[\QUIVLW TI XZM\MV[Q~V
MRMK]\Q^I KWV KW[\I[ a KW[\W[ XIZI MT LMUIVLILW WZLMVnVLW[M [MO]QZ ILMTIV\M LM IK]MZLW
KWVTI[VWZUI[Y]MZQOMVTIMRMK]KQ~VLM[MV\MVKQI
-V KI[W LM M[\QUIKQ~V XIZKQIT LM TI WXW[QKQ~V XWZ MRMUXTW TI LM XT][XM\QKQ~V [M [MO]QZn
ILMTIV\M KWV TI[ IK\]IKQWVM[ TI[ XZM^Q[\I[ XIZI TI MRMK]KQ~V LM [MV\MVKQI [WTIUMV\M XIZI
WJ\MVMZTIKIV\QLILLMJQLI[QVKWVLMVIMVKW[\I[
;Q [M M[\QUIZI TI WXW[QKQ~V MT R]Mb LMKTIZIZn [QV T]OIZ TI XZM\MV[Q~V MRMK]\Q^I a UIVLIZn
TM^IV\IZTW[MUJIZOW[aTI[UMLQLI[LMOIZIV\yIY]M[MP]JQMZIVILWX\ILWPIKQMVLW^WT^MZ
IT LM]LWZ I TI [Q\]IKQ~V IV\MZQWZ IT QVQKQW LMT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W a KWVLMVIVLW MV KW[\I[ IT
demandante.

3.1.4.7 Los recursos


)LUQ\MVIXMTIKQ~VMVMTXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^WTI[MV\MVKQIY]M[MXZWV]VKQM[WJZMTIWXW[QKQ~V
LMTLMUIVLILWIZ\!aMTI]\WY]MZMKPIKMTI\ZIUQ\IKQ~VLMTILMUIVLIIZ\
-V ZMITQLIL TI IXMTIKQ~V [M ZQOM XWZ TI[ LQ[XW[QKQWVM[ OMVMZITM[ MV TI UI\MZQI Y]M
LM\MZUQVIV TI XZWKMLMVKQI LMT ZMK]Z[W ZM[XMK\W LM TI[ [MV\MVKQI[ a TW[ I]\W[ Y]M XWVMV
V IT XZWKM[W 8WZ M[M UW\Q^W KWV[QLMZIUW[ Y]M \IUJQuV ILUQ\M IXMTIKQ~V TI [MV\MVKQI
XZWV]VKQILI IV\M TI NIT\I LM WXW[QKQ~V LMT LMUIVLILW X]M[\W Y]M XWVM V IT XZWKM[W
MRMK]\Q^W a LI T]OIZ I TI MRMK]KQ~V NWZbW[I# I]VY]M ZM[]T\I LQNyKQT QUIOQVIZ ]V N]VLIUMV\W
ZIbWVIJTM XIZI IXMTIZ LQKPI [MV\MVKQI X]MLM LIZ[M MT KI[W LM ]V MZZWZ Y]M TTM^M I
KWV[QLMZIZM`\MUXWZnVMITIWXW[QKQ~VLML]KQLIMV\QMUXWPnJQT<IUJQuVILUQ\MIXMTIKQ~V
501

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


TI[MV\MVKQIY]MM[\QUIVLWTIWXW[QKQ~VLMTLMUIVLILWN]VLILIMVTIITMOIKQ~VLMLMNMK\W[
XZWKM[ITM[ QV[]J[IVIJTM[ LMKTIZI QUXZWXWVQJTM TI LMUIVLI a XWVM V IT XZWKM[W IT QO]IT
Y]M TI [MV\MVKQI Y]M KWV[\I\I TI NIT\I LM []J[IVIKQ~V LM TW[ LMNMK\W[ XZWKM[ITM[ ITMOILW[
por el demandado.
-T IZ\yK]TW ! LMT +8+5 ZMO]TIJI ILMUn[ TW ZMTI\Q^W IT MNMK\W LM TI IXMTIKQ~V MV
\uZUQVW[ Y]M NIK]T\IJIV IT LMUIVLIV\M I [WTQKQ\IZ TI MRMK]KQ~V LM TI [MV\MVKQI IXMTILI
XZM[\IVLW KI]KQ~V# I[XMK\W[ Y]M N]MZWV []XZQUQLW[ MV XW[\MZQWZ ZMNWZUI LMT +~LQOW a
Y]M MV KWV[MK]MVKQI [M ZQOMV XWZ TI[ ZMOTI[ OMVMZITM[ MV UI\MZQI LM IXMTIKQ~V a MRMK]KQ~V
XZW^Q[QWVITY]MMVZMITQLILM[\IJTMKMVTIUQ[UI[WT]KQ~VIZ\[!aKK!
-V UI\MZQI LM KI[IKQ~V a [QV XMZR]QKQW LMT KWUMV\IZQW I TI VWZUI\Q^I ZM[XMK\Q^I LMJM
\MVMZ[M XZM[MV\M TW LQ[X]M[\W MV MT IZ\yK]TW  LMT +8+5 Y]M M`KT]aM TI KI[IKQ~V MV
XZWKM[W[ M[XMKQITM[ K]IVLW TI [MV\MVKQI VW XZWL]bKI MNMK\W[ LM KW[I R]bOILI UI\MZQIT# TW
Y]M LM\MZUQVI MT ZMKPIbW LM M[\M ZMK]Z[W MV MT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W XWZY]M TI [MV\MVKQI VW
XI[I MV I]\WZQLIL LM KW[I R]bOILI UI\MZQIT [IT^W K]IVLW TI XZM\MV[Q~V MRMK]\Q^I [M N]VLM
MV\y\]TW[^ITWZM[K]M[\Q~VITIY]MPIZMUW[ZMNMZMVKQIIKWV\QV]IKQ~V

(FDFLDGHODVHQWHQFLD
-V K]IV\W I TI MKIKQI LM TI [MV\MVKQI LQK\ILI MV MT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W LMJMZn M[\IZ[M I
TW LQ[X]M[\W MV MT IZ\yK]TW  KWV IZZMOTW IT K]IT VW XZWL]KQZn MNMK\W LM KW[I R]bOILI
a LMRIZn M`XMLQ\W MT LMZMKPW LM TI[ XIZ\M[ XIZI KWV\ZW^MZ\QZ TI WJTQOIKQ~V Y]M KI][~ TI
MRMK]KQ~V ;M M`KMX\I LM M[I ZMOTI MT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W N]VLILW MV \y\]TW[ ^ITWZM[ MV MT
K]ITTI[MV\MVKQIXZWL]KQZnTW[MNMK\W[LMKW[IR]bOILI
6W [QOVQKI MTTW Y]M TI [MV\MVKQI XZWV]VKQILI MV MT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W VW [MI MRMK]\IJTM
X]M[aIPMUW[^Q[\WY]MLMIK]MZLWKWVTWLQ[X]M[\WMVMTIZ\yK]TW TI[MV\MVKQIXWLZn
MRMK]\IZ[M[QO]QMVLWTI[ZMOTI[LMTIMRMK]KQ~VNWZbW[I
8MZWM[I[MV\MVKQI^MVKQLWMTXTIbWLMTIIXMTIKQ~VWZM[]MT\WMTZMK]Z[WVWXZM[MV\ITIVW\I
LM QVU]\IJQTQLIL Y]M KIZIK\MZQbI I TI KW[I R]bOILI UI\IMZQIT X]M[ XWLZn [MZ ZM^Q[ILI MV
W\ZWXZWKM[WMVMTY]MXWLZnKWV\ZW^MZ\QZ[MTIWJTQOIKQ~VY]MKI][~TIMRMK]KQ~V
4IVWZUIZMQ\MZITWXZM^Q[\WMVTILMZWOILI485K]aWIZ\yK]TWM[\IJTMKyITIUQ[UI
ZMOTI I]VY]M ZMUQ\yI IT XZWKM[W []UIZQW XIZI KWV\ZW^MZ\QZ TI WJTQOIKQ~V Y]M KI][~ TI
MRMK]KQ~V

! <M`\WLMTIZ\!LMT+8+5MV[]^MZ[Q~VWZQOQVIT")Z\!+WV\ZITI[MV\MVKQIY]M[MXZWV]VKQMXWLZn
QV\MZXWVMZ[MZMK]Z[WLMIXMTIKQ~VMTK]ITVW[][XMVLMZnTI[IK\]IKQWVM[K]IVLWTI[MV\MVKQIN]MZILM[M[\QUI\WZQI
LM TI WXW[QKQ~V [QMUXZM Y]M [M W\WZO]M KI]KQ~V XWZ XIZ\M LMT MRMK]\IV\M ;Q TI [MV\MVKQI P]JQMZI M[\QUILW
TI WXW[QKQ~V MT LMUIVLIV\M IT QV\MZXWVMZ TI IXMTIKQ~V XWLZn XMLQZ Y]M [M UIV\MVOIV TW[ MUJIZOW[ a TI[
UMLQLI[LMOIZIV\yIILWX\ILI[I[yKWUWY]M[MILWX\MVTI[Y]MXZWKMLIV#aMTR]MbTWWZLMVIZnLMKWV[QLMZIZTW
XMZ\QVMV\M [QMUXZM Y]M MT LMUIVLIV\M XZM[\M KI]KQ~V []KQMV\MXIZI I[MO]ZIZ TI QVLMUVQbIKQ~V Y]M X]LQMZI
KWZZM[XWVLMZMVKI[WLMY]MTIZM[WT]KQ~VN]MZIKWVZUILI
502

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


-TIZ\yK]TWLMT+8+5VWLMVMKTIZIUMV\MMTITKIVKMLMTV]M^WXZWKM[WY]MX]MLMV
XTIV\MIZ TI[ XIZ\M[ XIZI KWV\ZW^MZ\QZ TI WJTQOIKQ~V Y]M KI][~ TI MRMK]KQ~V# MV V]M[\ZI
WXQVQ~VM[MV]M^WXZWKM[WXWLZn\MVMZ]VKWV\MVQLWIUXTQWY]MXWLZnKWUXZMVLMZQVKT][W
I[XMK\W[ aI LMJI\QLW[ W Y]M X]LQMZWV [MZ LMJI\QLW[ MV MT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W [QMUXZM Y]M
TI KWV\ZW^MZ[QI M[\u ZMNMZQLI I TI WJTQOIKQ~V Y]M KWV[\Q\]a~ TI KI][I LMT IV\MZQWZ XZWKM[W
MRMK]\Q^W!
,MT UQ[UW UWLW KIJM KWVKT]QZ Y]M MT V]M^W XZWKM[W XWLZn [MZ XTIV\MILW XWZ K]ITY]QMZI
LMTI[XIZ\M[MVMTIV\MZQWZXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^W\IV\WMTLMUIVLIV\MKWUWMTLMUIVLILW!
4I XW[QJQTQLIL LM XTIV\MIZ ]V V]M^W XZWKM[W XW[\MZQWZ IT MRMK]\Q^W LM\MZUQVI TI
QUXZWKMLMVKQILMTZMK]Z[WLMKI[IKQ~VY]MMVKWV[MK]MVKQI[~TWXWLZnXTIV\MIZ[MZM[XMK\W
LMTI[[MV\MVKQI[LM[MO]VLIQV[\IVKQIMVTW[XZWKM[W[MRMK]\Q^W[N]VLILW[MV\y\]TW[^ITWZM[
X]M[MVM[MKI[WVWXZWKMLMMTXZWKM[WXW[\MZQWZ!

! -VMTLMZMKPWUWLMZVW[MM[\IJTMKMY]MTWLMKQLQLWMVR]QKQWMRMK]\Q^W[~TWPIKMKW[IR]bOILINWZUIT[QMVLW
XMZUQ\QLI[]LQ[K][Q~VMVR]QKQWWZLQVIZQWXW[\MZQWZIXWanVLW[MMVMTPMKPWLMY]MTI[]UIZQMLILLMTMRMK]\Q^W
X]MLMXZQ^IZLMTI[OIZIV\yI[VMKM[IZQI[XIZITILMNMV[IaMTV]M^WR]QKQWXMZUQ\MZMXIZIZTI[KWV[MK]MVKQI[LM]V
LMJI\MIXZM[]ZILW-VMTR]QKQWWZLQVIZQW[MX]MLMVIJIZKIZ\WLW[TW[X]V\W[Y]MX]MLIVKWV\ZQJ]QZIUWLQKIZ
TW[ZM[]T\ILW[LMTNITTWMVMTMRMK]\Q^WVWLMJQuVLW[MLMJI\QZIY]MTTI[K]M[\QWVM[LMKQLQLI[XWZKW[IR]bOILIY]M
XWZ[y[WTI[KIZMKMVLMXZWaMKKQ~V[WJZMMTNITTWXZWV]VKQILWMVMTMRMK]\Q^W;ITILMTW+Q^QTLMTI+WZ\M;]XZMUI
LM2][\QKQI;IV;IT^ILWZLWKMLM[MX\QMUJZMLM+

;M PI [M}ITILW Y]M Y]MLI M`KT]QLW LMT KWV\ZWT MV MT V]M^W XZWKM[W MT XTIV\MW LM M^MV\]ITM[ V]TQLILM[ Y]M
[MP]JQMZIVXZWL]KQLWL]ZIV\MMTR]QKQWMRMK]\Q^W-T2]QKQW-RMK]\Q^WVW[MX]MLMIV]TIZUMLQIV\M]V2]QKQW
;]UIZQW]WZLQVIZQWMV[]KI[WX]M[\ITV]TQLILM[LMKIZnK\MZXZWKM[ITa[~TWX]MLMXMLQZ[MaLMKTIZIZ[MLMV\ZW
LMTUQ[UWXZWKM[WMVMTK]Z[WLMTI[QV[\IVKQI[#MVM[M[MV\QLWTWY]M[MX]MLMKWV\ZW^MZ\QZWI\IKIZITXZWUW^MZ
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M`XMLQ\W[]LMZMKPWXIZIKWV\ZW^MZ\QZMVR]QKQWTIWJTQOIKQ~VY]MKI][~TIMRMK]KQ~V;ITILMTW+Q^QTLMTI+WZ\M
;]XZMUILM2][\QKQI;IV;IT^ILWZ^MQV\QWKPWLMR]TQWLM+
!  -T X]V\W [M ZMMRI MV LQ^MZ[W[ XZWV]VKQIUQMV\W[ LM TI +WZ\M ;]XZMUI LM 2][\QKQI KWUW MT Y]M KQ\IUW[ I
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[MLMRIM`XMLQ\WMTLMZMKPWLMTI[XIZ\M[XIZIKWV\ZW^MZ\QZMVR]QKQW[]UIZQWTIWJTQOIKQ~VUMZKIV\QTY]MKI][~
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demandados o terceros interesado. ;ITILMTW+Q^QTLMTI+WZ\M;]XZMUILM2][\QKQI;IV;IT^ILWZ, dieciocho de
WK\]JZMLMLW[UQTLW[

503

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

3.2 LOS PROCESOS POSESORIOS


Oscar Antonio Canales Cisco
SUMARIO: I. CONSIDERACIONES GENERALES. 1. mbito del proceso po
sesorio. II. PROCEDIMIENTO Y COMPETENCIA: 1. Rechazo de la demanda
posesoria; 2. Actuaciones previas a la audiencia en caso de suspensin de obra
V]M^I#  -UXTIbIUQMV\W LMT LMUIVLILW a WXW[QKQ~V#  +WUXIZMKMVKQI I TI
I]LQMVKQI#;MV\MVKQIaZMK]Z[W[R]LQKQITM[

3.2.1 Consideraciones generales


La nueva legislacin procesal civil y mercantil salvadorea retoma el tipo de proceso
XW[M[WZQW MT K]IT aI ^MVQI ZMO]TILW MV MT IZ\  +8+  KWUW ]VI M[XMKQM LM R]QKQW
LM TI[ LQ[\QV\I[ KTI[QKIKQWVM[ UIVMRI XWZ IY]MT K]MZXW VWZUI\Q^W 0IKQMVLW UMUWZQI
IT UQ[UW [M TM I\ZQJ]yI XWZ WJRM\W TI KWV[MZ^IKQ~V W ZM[\Q\]KQ~V LM TI XW[M[Q~V# I [] ^Mb [M
TM LQ^QLyI MV MT R]QKQW LM IUXIZW LM XW[M[Q~V a MT R]QKQW LM LM[XWRW -V OMVMZIT MT R]QKQW
XW[M[WZQWKWV]VIXZM\MV[Q~VM[XMKyKI[MMVUIZKIJILMV\ZWLMTIM[\Z]K\]ZILMTZMKWZLILW
R]QKQW[]UIZQW
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LM IY]MTTI \uKVQKI TMOQ[TI\Q^I LM ZMKWVWKMZTM KWUW ]V XZWKM[W M[XMKQIT KWV XZM\MV[QWVM[
XZWXQI[# I]VY]M [QMUXZM LM TI UIVW KWV ]VI M[\Z]K\]ZI XIZITMTI [QMVLW M[\I TI ILWXKQ~V
del proceso abreviado.

3.2.1.1 mbito del proceso posesorio


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TI XZW\MKKQ~V R]ZQ[LQKKQWVIT LM TI[ XZM\MV[QWVM[ XW[M[WZQI[ KWUXZMVLQLI[ MV TW[ IZ\[ ! 
IT!++,MJQLWITIZMUQ[Q~VLMTIKQ\ITMOQ[TI\Q^IQVLQKILIM[Y]MTIV]M^ITMOQ[TIKQ~V
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\QXW[LMXZWKM[W[LMVI\]ZITMbIXW[M[WZQIK]IVLWMVZMITQLILM[]VW[~TW\QXWLMXZWKM[W
pero con varias clases de pretensiones.

3.2.2 Procedimiento y competencia


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ITOVXZWKMLQUQMV\WLILWITINWZUIIJZM^QILIMTQV\uZXZM\MLMJMZnMV\MVLMZY]MMTUQ[UW
XWLZn[MZIXTQKIJTMITXZWKM[WXW[M[WZQW
4WM`XTQKILWITUWUMV\W[MZMO]TIM`XZM[IUMV\MI\ZI^u[LMTIZMUQ[Q~VPMKPIXWZMTIZ\
 QVKQ[W  +8+5 TI IXTQKIKQ~V LM TI M[\Z]K\]ZI IJZM^QILI VW M[ \W\ITUMV\M X]ZI MV
^QZ\]LY]MTIUQ[UIVWZUIR]ZyLQKIKWUMV\ILIZMKWVWKMY]MLMJQLWITIVI\]ZITMbILMTI[
504

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


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estructura principal.
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VW [~TW IT XZWKM[W LMKTIZI\Q^W IJZM^QILW XZWXQIUMV\M LQKPW# [Q VW ILMUn[ I TW[ XZWKM[W[
M[XMKQITM[ ZMOQLW[ JIRW M[\I M[\Z]K\]ZI MV\ZM M[\W[ MT XZWKM[W XW[M[WZQW IPWZI MV M[\]LQW
+WUWMRMUXTW[LMTI\uKVQKITMOQ[TI\Q^I]\QTQbILI[MKQ\IVTW[IZ\yK]TW[QVKQ[W#QVKQ[W
#aMT\WLW[LMT+8+5!
4I KWUXM\MVKQI WJRM\Q^I LMT XZWKM[W XW[M[WZQW M[ I\ZQJ]QLI IT KWVWKQUQMV\W LMT R]Mb LM
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MTIZ\QVKQ[W+8+54IIV\MZQWZIZUIKQ~VM[QVQKQITUMV\MZMOQ[\ZILIMVMTIZ\
WZLQVITLMTUQ[UWK]MZXWLMTMa
>ITMTIXZMKQ[Q~VY]MITW[R]MKM[LMXZQUMZIQV[\IVKQIITW[K]ITM[[MZMMZMVTI[VWZUI[LM
^WKIKQ~VWZOnVQKI[WVIY]MTTW[R]MKM[M[XMKQITQbILW[Y]MPIV[QLWKZMILW[KWVTI^QOMVKQI
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R]MKM[LMTWKQ^QTR]MKM[LMTWUMZKIV\QTaR]MKM[LMXZQUMZIQV[\IVKQIKWVKWUXM\MVKQIMVTW
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LMTMaZMKQuVZMNWZUILIITW[R]MKM[LMXZQUMZIQV[\IVKQILMUMVWZK]IV\yI
En cuanto a la postulacin en los procesos posesorios debe reconocerse la aplicacin de la
VWZUI OMVMZIT [WJZM TI KWUXIZMKMVKQI XZMKMX\Q^I XWZ UMLQW LM IJWOILW IT QO]IT Y]M MT
ZM[\WLMXZWKM[W[M[XMKQITM[\WUIVLWMVK]MV\ITWM[\IJTMKQLWMVMTIZ\+8+5

3.2.2.1 Rechazo de la demanda posesoria


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conviene traer a cuenta algunos tpicos de la peticin inicial.
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ZMKWVWKQUQMV\W Y]M LMJM K]UXTQZ XZQVKQXITUMV\M KWV TI[ M`QOMVKQI[ NQRILI[ XIZI TI
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M[\IJTMKQLW[MVTILMUIVLILMTXZWKM[WKWUVIZ\MVTWY]MN]MZMIXTQKIJTM8IZ\QMVLW
LMT K]UXTQUQMV\W LM TW[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[ LM TI LMUIVLI MT R]Mb MV MT XTIbW LM KQVKW LyI[ [IJZn
LM[KQNZIZLMTITMK\]ZIY]MIY]MTTIM[ILUQ[QJTMIZ\+8+5-`KMX\WY]MTILMUIVLI

! )XM[IZLMTIUIVMZIM[XMKQITLMTI[VWZUI[Y]M\ZI\IVLMQVKT]QZITW[XZWKM[W[M[XMKQITM[MV\ZMM[\W[MTXZWKM[W
XW[M[WZQWLMV\ZWLMTIM[\Z]K\]ZILMTXZWKMLQUQMV\WIJZM^QILW#\IUJQuVLMJMVMV\MVLMZ[MKWUWKQZK]V[KZQ\I[a
IXTQKIJTM[ITXW[M[WZQWIY]MTTI[W\ZI[VWZUI[Y]M[MM`XZM[MV[~TWKWUWXZWKM[WIJZM^QILW

505

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


KIZMbKI LM TI QVNWZUIKQ~V QVLQ[XMV[IJTM Y]M M^Q\M MT NMTQb QVQKQW LMT XZWKM[W M[XMKQIT
,MV\ZWTIQVNWZUIKQ~VILQKQWVITIKITQKIZR]LQKQITUMV\MaRILIMVMTIZ\[M\ZI\ILMT
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siendo estas las siguientes:
I

+]IVLW [M XZM\MVLI KWV[MZ^IZ W ZMK]XMZIZ TI XW[M[Q~V LM JQMVM[ ZIyKM[ W LM
LMZMKPW[ ZMITM[ KWV[\Q\]QLW[ MV MTTW[ [Q [M QVKWIZMV ]VI ^Mb \ZIV[K]ZZQLW MT XTIbW
LM ]V I}W KWV\ILW I XIZ\QZ LMT UWUMV\W MV Y]M \]^W T]OIZ TI XMZ\]ZJIKQ~V W MT
LM[XWRW

J

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transcurrido el plazo de tres meses LM[LM Y]M MT IK\WZ KWVWKQMZI TI M`Q[\MVKQI
de la obra.

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XIZI QV\MZXWVMZ TI LMUIVLI XW[M[WZQI#! MV ]VW a W\ZW KI[W [M TM[ LMJM ZMKPIbIZ XWZ
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virtud de su condicin supletoria.
Lo no dicho al momento es con referencia a la inclusin de la inadmisibilidad como tipo
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ministerio de ley.
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TI XZWKMLMVKQI LM TI IXMTIKQ~V IT XZM\MVLMZ QUX]OVIZ ]V I]\W LMVQ\Q^W# W JQMV [Q XIZI TI
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MV\ZMMTXZWKM[WXW[M[WZQWaMTXZWKM[WIJZM^QILWLMIPyY]MITKWUMV\IZTIQVILUQ[QJQTQLIL

! ,756/=-B57A)7La Tutela Sumaria para Retener y Recobrar la PosesinXX!a!

506

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


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alteracin alguna sobre las reglas generales de la impugnacin en el tema de los rechazos
de la demanda.
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IXMTIJTM[XWZMVKWV\ZIZ[MKWV\MVQLW[MV]VI]\WLMVQ\Q^W

3.2.2.2 Actuaciones previas a la audiencia en caso de suspensin de obra


nueva
Una de las particularidades propias en el proceso posesorio consiste en anticipar algunas
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ZMKWVWKQUQMV\W R]LQKQIT a MT  ZMKWVWKQUQMV\W XMZQKQIT W IUJW[ LM TI UIVMZI ZMO]TILI
MV MT IZ\  +8+5 )]VY]M M[ LM IL^MZ\QZ Y]M TW ZMNMZMV\M I XZIK\QKI LM TW[ UMLQW[
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XZWKM[W[ Y]M [M ZQOMV JIRW TW[ XZWKMLQUQMV\W[ IJZM^QILW[ LM TI UIVMZI Y]M QVLQKI MT IZ\
 +8+5
Realmente lo novedoso en este apartado viene a serlo la suspensin de una obra nueva;
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-T ZMY]MZQUQMV\W LM IK]MZLW IT KI[W VW LMXMVLMZn LM TI J]MVI ^WT]V\IL LMT L]M}W
W MVKIZOILW LM TI WJZI XIZI MT K]UXTQUQMV\W LM TI [][XMV[Q~V XWZ MTTW TW[ R]MKM[
perfectamente pueden solicitar la colaboracin de las autoridades policiales para darle
MNMK\Q^QLILITUIVLI\WR]LQKQIT[MOVMT\M`\WLMTIZ\+8+5

3.2.2.3 Emplazamiento del demandado y oposicin


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LMTLMUIVLILWILQNMZMVKQILMTW[XZWKM[W[[][\MV\ILW[XWZTW[XZWKMLQUQMV\W[IJZM^QILW[
en los cuales se suprime dicha etapa; pues una vez admitida la demanda se convoca a la
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-T MUXTIbIUQMV\W IJZM IT LMUIVLILW MT LMZMKPW I MRMZKMZ TI LMNMV[I M[KZQ\I MV MT XZWKM[W
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posesoria. El plazo para presentar el escrito de contestacin u oposicin a la demanda es de
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4I]\QTQbIKQ~VLMTXTIbWLMKWV\M[\IKQ~V]WXW[QKQ~VLMTILMUIVLILMXMVLMZnMTKIUQVWI
seguir en el desarrollo del procedimiento posesorio de la manera siguiente:
507

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


I

8ZM[MV\IKQ~V LM TI KWV\M[\IKQ~V WXWVQuVLW[M I TI LMUIVLI ;Q MT LMUIVLILW
QV\MZXWVM MT M[KZQ\W WXWVQuVLW[M I TI ZMKTIUIKQ~V XW[M[WZQI LMV\ZW LMT XTIbW
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VIT+8+5

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KWVKMLQLWITLMUIVLILWIZ\[QVKQ[Wa+8+5

3.2.2.4 Comparecencia a la audiencia


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Con la intencin de completar el panorama de los supuestos de incomparecencia de las
XIZ\M[ LMJMV [MZ QLMV\QKILW[ IY]MTTW[ 1VQKQITUMV\M ZM^Q[IZMUW[ MT \M`\W LMT IZ\ 
\Q\]TILWQVKWUXIZMKMVKQILMTI[XIZ\M[[Q\]ILWMVTI[ZMOTI[OMVMZITM[LMTXZWKM[WIJZM^QILW
-VTIKQ\ILIVWZUIN]VLIUMV\ILWZILMTXZWKM[WXW[M[WZQWZMKWVWKMMTZM[\WLM[]X]M[\W[LM
QVKWUXIZMKMVKQIY]MIXTQKILW[IV]M[\ZII]LQMVKQILMTW[K]ITM[[MXTIV\MIVTW[[QO]QMV\M["
I

1VKWUXIZMKMVKQILMTLMUIVLIV\M[MTM\MVLZnXWZLM[Q[\QLI[]LMUIVLI[QMUXZM
Y]M MT LMUIVLILW VW ITMOIZM QV\MZu[ TMOy\QUW MV TI KWV\QV]IKQ~V LMT XZWKM[W
posesorio.

J

1VKWUXIZMKMVKQILMTLMUIVLIV\MXMZWMTLMUIVLILWITMOIZMQV\MZu[TMOy\QUWMVTI
KWV\QV]IKQ~VLMTXZWKM[W*IRWM[\I[]X]M[\W[MQV[\ITIZnTII]LQMVKQIKWVTIVQKI
intervencin del demandado.

K

+]IVLWIUJI[XIZ\M[MT2]MbXWVLZnVITXZWKM[W[QVUn[\ZnUQ\MUMLQIV\MI]\W
LMVQ\Q^W[QMUXZMY]M\ITI][MVKQIVWM[\uLMJQLIUMV\MR][\QKILI

+WVK]ZZQMVLWK]ITY]QMZILMTW[[]X]M[\W[Y]MXMZUQ\IQV[\ITIZTII]LQMVKQI[MLM[IZZWTTIZn
KWVNWZUMITWLQ[X]M[\WXIZIMTXZWKMLQUQMV\WIJZM^QILW\IV\WMV[][LQ[\QV\I[VITQLILM[
como en la intervencin de los abogados de las partes.

3.2.2.5 Sentencia y recursos judiciales


+WVKT]QLI TI I]LQMVKQI ^QMVM MT XZWV]VKQIUQMV\W LM TI [MV\MVKQI Y]M XIZI M[\M \QXW LM
XZWKM[W IPWZI KWUMV\ILW XWLZn LQK\IZ[M MV MT IK\W LM UIVMZI yV\MOZI [Q TW XMZUQ\QMZI
TI KWUXTMRQLIL NnK\QKI a R]ZyLQKI LMT WJRM\W LMT XZWKM[W# [Q VW TW M[ XWLZn IV]VKQIZ
508

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


WJTQOI\WZQIUMV\M [~TW MT NITTW WZITUMV\M -V MT [MO]VLW KI[W XMVLQMV\M TI UW\Q^IKQ~V LM
TI [MV\MVKQI LMJMZn LQK\IZ[M MV MT XTIbW LM Y]QVKM LyI[ [QO]QMV\M[ I TI VITQbIKQ~V LM TI
I]LQMVKQI[MOVMTIZ\KWVZMTIKQ~VITIZ\+8+5
-TMNMK\WLMKW[IR]bOILIW\WZOILWITI[MV\MVKQIXZWV]VKQILI[WJZMTIXZW\MKKQ~VXW[M[WZQI
Y]M [M ZMKTIUI [W[\QMVM TI TMa XZWKM[IT VW XZWL]KQZn MNMK\W[ LM KW[I R]bOILI LMRIVLW
I [IT^W MT LMZMKPW LM TI[ XIZ\M[ XIZI IK]LQZ IT XZWKM[W LMKTIZI\Q^W KWZZM[XWVLQMV\M I[y
[M LM[XZMVLM LM TI TMK\]ZI LMT IZ\  )]VY]M M[ LM IL^MZ\QZ Y]M ZMITUMV\M TI V]M^I
TMOQ[TIKQ~V XZWKM[IT KQ^QT TW Y]M M[\I ZMO]TIVLW M[ MT MNMK\W LM TI KW[I R]bOILI NWZUIT LM
TIUIVMZIY]M[MKWUMV\WMVMTIXIZ\ILW[WJZMTIKW[IR]bOILIXWZTWY]MZMKWUMVLIUW[
la remisin al tema.
8WZ [] VI\]ZITMbI TI [MV\MVKQI M[ IXMTIJTM XMZW I LQNMZMVKQI LM W\ZW[ XZWKM[W[ KQ^QTM[ a
UMZKIV\QTM[ VW [M XZWL]KM MT MNMK\W [][XMV[Q^W ZMNMZQLW MV MT IZ\ ! +8+5 8WZ MT
KWV\ZIZQW M[\I ZM[WT]KQ~V LMVQ\Q^I MV TW[ XZWKM[W[ []UIZQW[ [M PIJQTQ\I I TI MRMK]KQ~V
XZW^Q[QWVITLMTI[MV\MVKQI[Q[MLQMZMKI]KQ~V[]KQMV\MKWVNWZUMITQVKQ[WLMTIZ\
C.P.C.M.
8IZI VITQbIZ M[\W[ KWUMV\IZQW[ [WJZM TI XZW\MKKQ~V XW[M[WZQI [QMUXZM MV TI UQ[UI TyVMI
LM XMV[IUQMV\W Y]M ILUQ\M MT XW[\MZQWZ XTIV\MIUQMV\W LM TI XZM\MV[Q~V MV ]V XZWKM[W
XW[\MZQWZ M[ Y]M TI V]M^I TMa XZWKM[IT M[\IJTMKM TI QUXZWKMLMVKQI LMT ZMK]Z[W LM KI[IKQ~V
I[yTWZMO]TIMTIZ\QVKQ[W+8+5

509

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

3.3 LOS PROCESOS DE INQUILINATO


Oscar Antonio Canales Cisco
SUMARIO: I. CONSIDERACIONES GENERALES: 1. mbito del proceso de
QVY]QTQVI\W118:7+-,151-6<7/-6-:)4A+758-<-6+1)",MUIVLI
LMQVY]QTQVI\WILUQ[Q~VaZMKPIbW[;MV\MVKQIaZMK]Z[W[MVW\ZW[XZWKM[W[LM
QVY]QTQVI\W1118:7+-;7,-,-;7+=8)+1687:+)=;),-57:)"
,M[IP]KQWa[WJZM[MQUQMV\W;MV\MVKQIaZMK]Z[W[R]LQKQITM[1>8:7+-;7,-
,-;7+=8)+1687:7*:);-6-4165=-*4-":MY]Q[Q\W[M[XMKQITM[LM
admisibilidad de la demanda. V. PROCESO DE DESOCUPACIN POR RUINA
O INSALUBRIDAD: 1. Contenido de sentencia.

3.3.1 Consideraciones generales


4I[VWZUI[ZMTI\Q^I[ITW[XZWKM[W[LMQVY]QTQVI\W]VQKIVTW[XZWKMLQUQMV\W[IXTQKILW[MV
OMVMZIT I TW[ IZZMVLIUQMV\W[ LM JQMVM[ QVU]MJTM[ M`KT][Q^IUMV\M I IZZMVLIUQMV\W[ XIZI
^Q^QMVLI[MOVMTIZ\ QVKQ[W+8+54WK]ITUWLQKIMTnUJQ\WLMIXTQKIKQ~VLM
TW[ XZWKM[W[ LM QVY]QTQVI\W ZMO]TILW[ MV TI[ VWZUI[ M[XMKQITM[ LM TI 4Ma LM 1VY]QTQVI\W
+WUW X]MLM ^MZ[M MT nUJQ\W LM IXTQKIKQ~V MV TW[ V]M^W[ XZWKM[W[ LM QVY]QTQVI\W Y]ML~
reducido a las pretensiones basadas en el arrendamiento para vivienda. Esta reduccin es
VW\IJTMIT[MZKWUXIZILIITW[[]X]M[\W[QVKT]QLW[MVMTIZ\41VY
8IZI MT ZM[\W LM XZM\MV[QWVM[ Y]M OQZMV MV \WZVW I TW[ IZZMVLIUQMV\W[ LM JQMVM[ QVU]MJTM[
KWV VM[ LQ[\QV\W[ I TI ^Q^QMVLI M[\IZnV []RM\W[ I TW[ \ZnUQ\M[ LM TW[ XZWKM[W[ LMKTIZI\Q^W[
Y]M KWZZM[XWVLI XWZ ZIb~V LM TI UI\MZQI W XWZ ZIb~V LMT WJRM\W TQ\QOQW[W LM IK]MZLW I TW
ZMO]TILWMVMTIZ\!QVKQ[W+8+51O]ITKWUMV\IZQWPMKPWITILMVWUQVIKQ~VXT]ZIT
LMTW[XZWKM[W[XW[M[WZQW[UMZMKMTILM[QOVIKQ~VMVTW[XZWKM[W[LMQVY]QTQVI\WX]M[KWUW
[M LQRW MV IY]MTTI WXWZ\]VQLIL TI U]T\QXTQKQLIL VW [M MVK]MV\ZI MV TW[ XZWKM[W[ [QVW MV
K]IV\WITI^IZQMLILLMXZM\MV[QWVM[Y]M[][\MV\IVITIZMKTIUIKQ~V

3.3.1.1 mbito del proceso de inquilinato


-T nUJQ\W LM IXTQKIKQ~V LMT XZWKM[W LM QVY]QTQVI\W ZMKIM MV TI[ XZM\MV[QWVM[ KTIZIUMV\M
UIZKILI[XWZMTIZ\+8+5TI[K]ITM[[WVLMKIZnK\MZOMVMZIT[QVLQ[\QVKQ~V[WJZMTI
XZWKMLMVKQILMTLMZMKPW[][\IV\Q^WXZW\MOQLW[MIKQ^QTUMZKIV\QTWQVY]QTQVI\W!
) KWV\QV]IKQ~V [M UMVKQWVIZnV TI[ XZM\MV[QWVM[ []RM\I[ I TI \ZIUQ\IKQ~V LMT XZWKM[W LM
QVY]QTQVI\WLMTIUIVMZI[QO]QMV\M"

!  ,MJM\MVMZ[MMVK]MV\IY]MKWV\QV]ITI^QOMVKQILMTLMZMKPW[][\IV\Q^WMVUI\MZQILMQVY]QTQVI\WX]M[TWVQKW
LMZWOILWXWZMT+8+5[WVTI[VWZUI[XZWKM[ITM[LMTI4MaLM1VY]QTQVI\W8WZKWV[QO]QMV\MTW[LMZMKPW[a
TI[KWZZMTI\Q^I[WJTQOIKQWVM[KWV[\Q\]aMVTITMaM[XMKQITR]V\WITK~LQOWKQ^QTaMTK~LQOWLMKWUMZKQWMVTWZMTI\Q^W
a los arrendamientos y subarrendamientos de inmuebles.

510

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


I

4INIT\ILMXIOWLMTIZMV\IXZM\MVLITI\MZUQVIKQ~VLMTKWV\ZI\WaLM[WK]XIKQ~V
del inmueble arrendado por causa de mora.

J

4I\MZUQVIKQ~VLMTKWV\ZI\WMVTW[KI[W[XZM^Q[\W[MVMTIZ\41VYXZM\MVLIVTI
LM[WK]XIKQ~VLMTQVU]MJTMaMTZMKTIUWLMTW[KnVWVM[ILM]LILW[

K

4II]\WZQbIKQ~VXIZIQVKZMUMV\IZMT^ITWZLMTIZMV\I

L

8ZWUW^MZ TI[ LQTQOMVKQI[ Y]M \ZI\IV LM TI QUXW[QKQ~V LM U]T\I[ I Y]M [M ZMMZMV
TI TMa LM TI UI\MZQI K]IVLW VW P]JQMZMV [QLW QUX]M[\I[ MV MT XZWKM[W XZQVKQXIT
-RMUXTW[" TI NIT\I LM KWV\ZI\W M[KZQ\W IZ\ # TI NIT\I LM M`\MV[Q~V LMT ZMKQJW XWZ
MT XIOW LMT KIVWV IZ\ ! QVKQ[W # TI [][XMV[Q~V LM TW[ [MZ^QKQW[ Jn[QKW[ XWZ MT
IZZMVLILWZITQVY]QTQVWIZ\41VY

3.3.2 Procedimiento general y competencia


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\ZnUQ\M[ LMT XZWKM[W IJZM^QILW K]ITY]QMZI [MI [] K]IV\yI# [QMUXZM I\MVLQMVLW TI[ VWZUI[
M[XMKQITM[ XZWXQI[ LM TI VI\]ZITMbI LMT XZWKM[W I[y [M MV\QMVLM LM TI TMK\]ZI LMT IZ\  
QVKQ[W+8+5-[LMKQZY]MTIUIaWZXIZ\MLMTIM[\Z]K\]ZIXZWKMLQUMV\ITTMaOMVMZIT
MV TW[ XZWKM[W[ LM QVY]QTQVI\W [WV \WUILI[ LMT XZWKMLQUQMV\W IJZM^QILW a MV UMVWZ
KIV\QLIL[WVVWZUI[TMaM[XMKQITIXWZ\ILI[XWZMT<y\]TW<MZKMZWLMT4QJZW8ZQUMZWY]M
IKWOMITXZWKM[WJIRWM[\]LQW
4I KWUXM\MVKQI WJRM\Q^I LM TW[ XZWKM[W[ LM QVY]QTQVI\W M[ I[QOVILI IT R]Mb LM XZQUMZI
QV[\IVKQI LMT T]OIZ LWVLM [M MVK]MV\ZM ]JQKILI TI ^Q^QMVLI IZZMVLILI LM KWVNWZUQLIL IT
IZ\ QVKQ[W+8+5<ITI\ZQJ]KQ~VM[QVQKQITUMV\MZMKWVWKQLIMVMTIZ\WZLQVIT
del mismo cuerpo de ley procesal.
-[\W[R]MKM[LMXZQUMZIQV[\IVKQIKWUXM\MV\M[XIZILIZTM\ZIUQ\IKQ~VIM[\M\QXWM[XMKQITLM
XZWKM[W[[WVIY]MTTW[R]MKM[M[XMKQITQbILW[KZMILW[ZMKQMV\MUMV\MKWVTI^QOMVKQILMTV]M^W
+8+5K]aILMVWUQVIKQ~VM[TILMR]MbKQ^QTaUMZKIV\QTWJQMVITW[aIM`Q[\MV\M[R]MKM[
LMTWKQ^QTR]MKM[LMTWUMZKIV\QTaR]MKM[LMXZQUMZIQV[\IVKQIKWVKWUXM\MVKQIMVTWKQ^QTa
UMZKIV\QT-`KT]auVLW[MXIZITI\ZIUQ\IKQ~VLMTW[XZWKM[W[LMQVY]QTQVI\WXWZLQ[XW[QKQ~V
LMTMaZMKQuVZMNWZUILIITW[R]MKM[LMXZQUMZIQV[\IVKQILMUMVWZK]IV\yI
-[ IXTQKIJTM TI XW[\]TIKQ~V XZMKMX\Q^I MV TW[ XZWKM[W[ LM QVY]QTQVI\W MV ^QZ\]L LMT
contenido de la norma general sobre la promocin de procesos por medio del abogado
Y]M ZMXZM[MV\IZn I TI XIZ\M a XTIVQKIZn TI M[\ZI\MOQI LM QV\MZ^MVKQ~V L]ZIV\M TI IK\Q^QLIL
XZWKM[IT -[\W UQ[UW []KMLM MV MT ZM[\W LM XZWKM[W[ M[XMKQITM[ \WUIVLW MV K]MV\I TW
establecido en el art. 67 C.P.C.M.
=VI LM TI[ ZMOTI[ M[XMKQITM[ Y]M ZQOMV I TW[ XZWKM[W[ IPWZI M[\]LQILW[ M[ IY]MTTI [WJZM TI
IK]U]TIKQ~VLMXZM\MV[QWVM[Y]MM[\IJTMKMTW[QO]QMV\M"K]IVLWMTXZWKM[WXZWUW^QLW^MZ[M
sobre la terminacin del contrato de arrendamiento de vivienda se deba a la falta de pago
511

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


LMKIVWVXWLZnIK]U]TIZ[MMTTITIXZM\MV[Q~VLMZMKTIUIKQ~VLMTI[KIV\QLILM[ILM]LILI[
[MOVMTIZ\!+8+5

3.3.2.1 Demanda de inquilinato, admisin y rechazos


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OMVMZITM[ LQK\ILI[ XIZI MT XZWKMLQUQMV\W IJZM^QILW <WUIVLW KWUW X]V\W LM XIZ\QLI
[M ZMKWVWKM Y]M TI ITMOIKQ~V QVQKQIT LMT LMUIVLIV\M [M NWZUITQbI KWUW ]VI LMUIVLI
[QUXTQKILIK]UXTQMVLWTI[M`QOMVKQI[LMTIZ\ +8+5
-T R]Mb IV\M Y]QuV [M QV\MZXWVOI TI LMUIVLI LMJMZn ZM[WT^MZ [] ILUQ[Q~V W ZMKPIbW MV MT
XTIbW LM KQVKW LyI[ LM[LM [] XZM[MV\IKQ~V!! +WUW ZM[]T\ILW LMT M`IUMV TQUQVIZ LM TI
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[WV XWZ QUXZWXWVQJTM W QVILUQ[QJTM ;Q TI LMUIVLI XW[MM LMNMK\W[ []J[IVIJTM[ MT R]Mb
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PnJQTM[KWV\ILW[IXIZ\QZLMTLyI[QO]QMV\MLMTIVW\QKIKQ~V[QVWTWMNMK\]I[MTILMKTIZIZn
QVILUQ[QJTM<WLWTWIV\MZQWZ[MM`\ZIMLMTWZMO]TILWXWZMTIZ\+8+5
>WT^QMVLW I TI ILUQ[Q~V LM TI LMUIVLI [M PIZn MT [M}ITIUQMV\W LMT LyI a PWZI LM TI
KMTMJZIKQ~VLMTII]LQMVKQIXIZITWK]IT[MKQ\IZnITLMUIVLIV\MaMTLMUIVLILWaLMUn[
QV\MZM[ILW[ []JIZZMVLI\IZQW[ [Q TW[ P]JQMZM 4I LWK]UMV\IKQ~V MV\ZMOILI IT LMUIVLILW
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-V TI ZMLIKKQ~V LM TI KQ\IKQ~V KWV[\IZn Y]M TI I]LQMVKQI VW [M [][XMVLMZn XWZ TI
QVKWUXIZMKMVKQI LMT LMUIVLILW ILMUn[ Y]M IUJI[ XIZ\M[ KWVK]ZZQZnV KWV \WLW[ TW[
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MUXTIbIUQMV\W IT LMUIVLILW -[\I []XZM[Q~V TMOQ[TI\Q^I LM TI M\IXI VW [QOVQKI M`XWVMZ
I TI QVLMNMV[Q~V XZWKM[IT XWZY]M MT LMUIVLILW [QMUXZM K]MV\I KWV TI KWV\M[\IKQ~V I TI
LMUIVLI MV [][ LQ^MZ[I[ M[\ZI\MOQI[# XMZW KWV TI LQNMZMVKQI Y]M TI UQ[UI [MZn MRMZKQLI
WZITUMV\MMVTII]LQMVKQIIZ\QVKQ[W+8+5
4I KMTMJZIKQ~V LM TI I]LQMVKQI [M TTM^IZn I KIJW KWV TI KWUXIZMKMVKQI LM TW[ IJWOILW[ LM
TI[XIZ\M[LMTIUIVMZIXZM^MVQLIIXIZ\QZLMTW[IZ\[IT!+8+5;QMTLMUIVLIV\M
KQ\ILWMVNWZUIVWKWUXIZMKQM[MVQP]JQMZMITMOILWITO]VWLMTW[UW\Q^W[LM[][XMV[Q~VLM
!! =VKWUMV\IZQWM[XMKQIT[WJZMK]IVLWQVQKQILMTK~UX]\WLMTXTIbWLMILUQ[QJQTQLILLMTILMUIVLI[QUXTQKILI
M[IY]MT[WJZMIXIZ\QZLMY]uUWUMV\WQVQKQIZnMTUQ[UWXIZIIY]MTTW[R]bOILW[Y]MZMKQJMVTI[LMUIVLI[XWZ
UMLQWLMTI;MKZM\IZQI:MKMX\WZIa,Q[\ZQJ]QLWZILMLMUIVLI[;QVT]OIZIL]LI[MVMTKI[WXTIV\MILWMTXTIbW
QVQKQIZnPI[\ITIZMKMXKQ~VLMTILMUIVLIXWZMTR]MbLMXZQUMZIQV[\IVKQI

512

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


TII]LQMVKQIITW[Y]M[MZMMZMMTIZ\ +8+5[MTM\MVLZnXWZLM[Q[\QLITILMUIVLI
VITQbIVLWMTXZWKM[WLMUIVMZIIV\QKQXILI[MOVMTIZ\+8+5

3.2.2.2 Sentencia y recursos en otros procesos de inquilinato


A diferencia de las sentencias pronunciadas en los procesos de desocupacin por causa de
UWZIXWZWJZI[MVMTQVU]MJTMXWZZ]QVIWQV[IT]JZQLILITI[K]ITM[[MTM[VQMOIMTMNMK\W
LMKW[IR]bOILI#TI[[MV\MVKQILQK\ILI[XWZKI][I[LQ^MZ[I[ITI[IV\MZQWZM[MV]VXZWKM[WLM
QVY]QTQVI\W[QXZWL]KQZnVMNMK\W[LMKW[IR]bOILIUI\MZQIT-[\MMNMK\WUI\MZQITZMKWVWKQLW
ITI[[MV\MVKQI[M^Q\IMTXTIV\MIUQMV\WLMN]\]ZI[LMUIVLI[XWZTI[UQ[UI[XZM\MV[QWVM[MV
^QZ\]LY]MaIN]MZWVLMKQLQLI[I[yTWZMKWVWKMMTIZ\ +8+5

3.3.3 Proceso de desocupacin por causa de mora


3.3.3.1 Desahucio y sobreseimiento
.]MZILMTW[\ZnUQ\M[[M}ITILW[MVOMVMZITXIZITW[XZWKM[W[LMQVY]QTQVI\WMVLM\MZUQVILI[
XZM\MV[QWVM[ KWUW TI LM[WK]XIKQ~V XWZ KI][I LM UWZI MV TI ZMLIKKQ~V LM TI M[Y]MTI
LM KQ\IKQ~V XIZI I]LQMVKQI TM IL^MZ\QZn IT QVY]QTQVW [WJZM MT LMZMKPW LM MVMZ^IKQ~V LMT
LM[IP]KQWKWV[Q[\MV\MMVMTLMZMKPWI[MZ[WJZM[MyLWMVMTXZWKM[W[~TW[QK]UXTMKWVMT
XIOWLMTUWV\W\W\ITLMTWILM]LILWUn[TI[KW[\I[LMTXZWKM[WLMUIVMZIKWUW[MQVLQKI
MVMTIZ\ +8+5
+]IVLW MV MT XZWKM[W [M XZM\MVLI TI LM[WK]XIKQ~V LMT QVU]MJTM XWZ UWZI TW[ VQKW[
UMLQW[LMXZ]MJIXMZ\QVMV\M[KWVTW[Y]MLQ[XWVMMTLMUIVLILW[WVIY]MTTW[ZMTI\Q^W[ITI
XZWKMLMVKQI LMT [WJZM[MQUQMV\W# XWZ \IV\W TI[ ITMOIKQWVM[ LMT QVY]QTQVW a MV KWV[MK]MVKQI
TIXZ]MJI[MLQZQOQZnVILMUW[\ZIZMTXIOWLMTUWV\W\W\ITLMIK]MZLWITIZ\ QVKQ[W
C.P.C.M.

3.3.3.2 Sentencia y recursos judiciales


8WZMTKWV\MVQLWLMTIXZM\MV[Q~VMVMTXZWKM[WLMLM[WK]XIKQ~VXWZKI][ILMUWZITIV]M^I
TMOQ[TIKQ~VXZWKM[ITZMKWVWKMY]MTI[MV\MVKQILQK\ILIVWXZWL]KQZnMNMK\W[LMKW[IR]bOILI
LMRIVLW I [IT^W MT LMZMKPW I TI[ XIZ\M[ XIZI IK]LQZ IT XZWKM[W LMKTIZI\Q^W KWZZM[XWVLQMV\M
XIZIKWV\ZW^MZ\QZMTWJRM\WLMTXZWKM[WLMQVY]QTQVI\W[MOVTWXZM[KZQJMMTIZ\ QVKQ[W
+8+5>ITMZMKWZLIZY]MTIIV\MZQWZM`XZM[Q~VLMY]MTI[MV\MVKQIVWXZWL]KQZnMNMK\W[LM
KW[IR]bOILIVWM[W\ZIUn[Y]M]VIUIVMZIU]aXIZ\QK]TIZLMTITMOQ[TIKQ~V[IT^ILWZM}I
LM ZMNMZQZ[M IT KWVKMX\W LM KW[I R]bOILI NWZUIT XWZ MTTW [M ZMKWUQMVLI TI TMK\]ZI LM TW[
KWUMV\IZQW[[WJZMTIMKIKQILMTI[ZM[WT]KQWVM[R]LQKQITM[

 ):)/76-;-;5):<16-B;Los Procesos Declarativos Ordinarios (Procesos ordinarios y sus especialidades),X


 /75-B+7475-:24El Nuevo Proceso Civil, (Ley 1/2000).))>>X !a!-TI]\WZKQ\ILWKWUMV\ITI
M`Q[\MVKQILMTI[UQ[UI[TQUQ\IKQWVM[M[\ITMKQLI[[WJZMTI[ITMOIKQWVM[Y]MX]MLMXZM[MV\IZMTLMUIVLILW[QMVLW
M[\ITILMXIOWITIT]bLMTI4MaLM-R]QKQIUQMV\W+Q^QTM[XI}WTI

513

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


-V MT \MUI LM TW[ ZMK]Z[W[ R]LQKQITM[ KWVKMLQLW[ KWV\ZI TI [MV\MVKQI Y]M LMKQLM TI
LM[WK]XIKQ~V XWZ KI][I LM UWZI [M TQUQ\IV I TI XZWKMLMVKQI LM TI IXMTIKQ~V LM IK]MZLW
IT IZ\   QVKQ[W  +8+5 8W[\MZQWZUMV\M KWV\ZI TI [MV\MVKQI LM IXMTIKQ~V VW PIJZn
recurso alguno.
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KWV\ZI TI [MV\MVKQI LM IXMTIKQ~V K]IVLW TW KQMZ\W M[ Y]M MT VQKW ZMK]Z[W Y]M XZWKMLM I
continuacin es la casacin.

3.3.4 Proceso de desocupacin por obras en el inmueble


3.3.4.1 Requisitos especiales de admisibilidad de la demanda
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plano completo de las obras a realizarse en la vivienda y la consignacin de una cantidad
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Comentemos brevemente cada uno de ellos.
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I

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J

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K

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desocupacin del inmueble.

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M[XMKQKIKQWVM[ QVLQKILI[ MT LMUIVLIV\M KWZZM MT ZQMOW Y]M MT R]Mb UMLQIV\M I]\W TM
XZM^MVOI LM TI WUQ[Q~V XIZI Y]M [MI XZM[MV\ILW LQKPW XTIVW[ a M[XMKQKIKQWVM[ LM TI[
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sustentaron la pretensin.
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MTIZ\ QVKQ[W+8+5

514

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado

3.3.5 Proceso de desocupacin por ruina o insalubridad


3.3.5.1 Contenido de sentencia
Los procesos por desocupacin por ruina se encuentran comprendido en los procesos de
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QVPIJQ\IJTM\W\ITWXIZKQITUMV\M4ILMKTIZIKQ~VLMQVPIJQ\IJTMUIV\MVLZn[]^QOMVKQIXWZ
MT\QMUXWY]ML]ZMVTI[WJZI[QVLQ[XMV[IJTM[LMZMPIJQTQ\IKQ~V

515

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura

3.4 LOS PROCESOS MONITORIOS


Santiago Garderes
SUMARIO: I. Introduccin. II. El proceso monitorio por deudas de dinero. III.
5WVQ\WZQWXIZIWJTQOIKQWVM[LMPIKMZVWPIKMZWLIZ

3.4.1 Introduccin
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KIZIK\MZQbIV XWZ TI IJZM^QIKQ~V M[\Z]K\]ZIT Y]M [M WJ\QMVM UMLQIV\M TI QV^MZ[Q~V LM TI
iniciativa del contradictorio.
CALAMANDREI M`X][W KWV [] PIJQ\]IT KTIZQLIL TI[ KIZIK\MZy[\QKI[ LMT XZWKM[W
UWVQ\WZQW MV \uZUQVW[ LM QVVMOIJTM ^QOMVKQI KWVKMX\]IT Un[ ITTn LM TI[ ^IZQIV\M[ Y]M
X]MLMI[]UQZMTUWLMTWMVTW[LQ[\QV\W[[Q[\MUI[TMOITM[Y]MTWPIVQVKWZXWZILW[M}ITIVLW
MVM[M[MV\QLWTW[QO]QMV\M"
Entre las diversas formas de procesos especiales de cognicin tpicamente preordenados a la
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LM KWOVQKQ~V WZLQVIZQW [M QVQKQI [MOV MT XZQVKQXQW LMT KWV\ZILQK\WZQW KWV TI KQ\IKQ~V LMT
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XZWXWVMTILMUIVLIMVM[\I[NWZUI[M[XMKQITM[LMXZWKM[W[LMKWOVQKQ~VMTIK\WZUMLQIV\M
XM\QKQ~V IK]LM LQZMK\IUMV\M IT R]Mb MT K]IT MUQ\M [QV XZM^QW KWV\ZILQK\WZQW ]VI WZLMV LM
XIOWLQZQOQLIITLMUIVLILW[M}ITnVLWTMITUQ[UW\QMUXW]V\uZUQVWLMV\ZWLMTK]ITu[\M
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LMT\uZUQVWMKIKQILM\y\]TWMRMK]\Q^W;WJZMTI[XIZ\QK]TIZQLILM[LMM[\W[XZWKMLQUQMV\W[
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IT LMUIVLILW 5QMV\ZI[ MV MT XZWKM[W LM KWOVQKQ~V WZLQVIZQW MT \y\]TW MRMK]\Q^W VW VIKM
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M[MTUMRWZR]MbLMIJZQZMTKWV\ZILQK\WZQW#LMUIVMZIY]MMTQV\MZu[LMTIK\WZMVTIZnXQLI
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 +ITIUIVLZMQ8QMZW-T8ZWKMLQUQMV\W5WVQ\WZQW-LQ\WZQIT*QJTQWOZnKI)ZOMV\QVI*]MVW[)QZM[!X[

516

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


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VILI[MZQWY]MWXWVMZITI[ZIbWVM[LMTIK\WZ
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TI WXWZ\]VQLIL LM IJZQZ MT KWV\ZILQK\WZQW a XWZ KWV[QO]QMV\M TI QVQKQI\Q^I LM XZW^WKIZTW
LMJM LMRIZ[M I TI XIZ\M MV K]aW QV\MZu[ MT XZQVKQXQW LMT KWV\ZILQK\WZQW \QMVM QVQKQITUMV\M
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XZWKMLQUQMV\W[ XWZ M[\W[ LW[ KIZIK\MZM[ N]VLIUMV\ITM["  XWZ TI VITQLIL Y]M M[ TI LM
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I ]V \y\]TW MRMK]\Q^W#  XWZ MT UMLQW Y]M M[ MT LM QV^MZ\QZ PIKQuVLWTI XI[IZ LMT IK\WZ IT
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XZWKMLQUQMV\W[KWVQV^MZ[Q~VLMTIQVQKQI\Q^ILMTKWV\ZILQK\WZQW
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IZ\!
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LMUIVLILIY]MXWLZnNWZU]TIZWXW[QKQ~VLMV\ZWLMTXTIbWTMOITa[QVWTWPQKQMZIVQLQMZI
K]UXTQUQMV\W IT ZMY]MZQUQMV\W LM XIOW W LM K]UXTQUQMV\W LM TI WJTQOIKQ~V LM PIKMZ VW
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8ZWKM[IT +Q^QT 5WLMTW XIZI 1JMZWIUuZQKI a MV TI TMOQ[TIKQ~V Y]M TW PI [MO]QLW KWUW
MT +/8 =Z]O]Ia# I]VY]M M[ XZMKQ[W IKTIZIZ Y]M MT UWVQ\WZQW LMT +8+5 XZM[MV\I
importantes diferencias respecto del regulado en el Cdigo Modelo.

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TW[ [QO]QMV\M[ XZWKM[W["  MRMK]\Q^W[#  LM[IP]KQW W LM[ITWRW#  MV\ZMOI LM TI KW[I#  MV\ZMOI MNMK\Q^I LM TI
PMZMVKQI#ZM[WT]KQ~VXWZNIT\ILMXIOWWM[KZQ\]ZIKQ~VR]LQKQITLMXZWUM[I[QV[KZQX\I[MVTW[ZM[XMK\Q^W[ZMOQ[\ZW[
KWUXZI^MV\ILMQVU]MJTMWLMM[\IJTMKQUQMV\WWLMMUXZM[IKWUMZKQITWLM]VQLILLMXZWXQMLILPWZQbWV\IT
-VK]IV\WITW[XZM[]X]M[\W[MV\WLW[TW[KI[W[[MZMY]MZQZnLWK]UMV\WI]\uV\QKWWI]\MV\QKILWR]LQKQITUMV\M
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prueba testimonial en etapa preliminar o preparatoria. El procedimiento presenta las siguientes caractersticas:
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VWTWOZIZ[M]VIK]MZLWWKWVKQTQIKQ~VMV\ZMTI[XIZ\M[[MXZWKMLMITIMRMK]KQ~V
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Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


-[\MM[XMKQITXZWKMLQUQMV\W[MZM[MZ^IOMVMZITUMV\MITI[XZM\MV[QWVM[LMKWVLMVII]VY]M
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MV OMVMZIT MT XZWKM[W UWVQ\WZQW [M IXTQKI IT KWJZW LM LM]LI[ LQVMZIZQI[ I]VY]M ITO]VW[
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CAMANDREI " <M~ZQKIUMV\M PIJTIVLW VILI QUXMLQZyI I XZQWZQ ILIX\IZ I K]ITY]QMZ
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MV ZMTIKQ~V I TI KMTMZQLIL KWV Y]M TI UQ[UI XMZUQ\M TTMOIZ IT \y\]TW MRMK]\Q^W I[y M[
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M`KT][Q^IUMV\M XIZI TI[ IKKQWVM[ LM KWVLMVI -[ WXWZ\]VW WJ[MZ^IZ XWZ W\ZI XIZ\M Y]M
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LM PIKMZ W LM VW PIKMZ a TI[ ZMTI\Q^I[ I XZM[\IKQWVM[ LM LIZ K]IVLW TI XZM[\IKQ~V \MVOI
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de acciones de condena.
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TIXZM[\IKQ~VKIZMKMIY]yLMTILM\MZUQVIKQ~VY]M[MZMY]QMZMXIZIY]MX]MLIXZWV]VKQIZ[M
KWVTIKWVUQVIKQ~VLMMRMK]KQ~V]VXZMKMX\W;QVMUJIZOWKWUW^QUW[MT+8+5IT
QO]ITY]MW\ZI[TMOQ[TIKQWVM[ILUQ\MI\ZnUQ\MUWVQ\WZQWTIXZM\MV[Q~VLMK]UXTQUQMV\WLM
esas obligaciones.
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KWVKZM\IV MV TW [QO]QMV\M" -V ^QZ\]L LM TI [QUXTM XM\QKQ~V M[KZQ\I ] WZIT LMT IKZMMLWZ MT
R]MbKWUXM\MV\MTQJZI[QVWyZITLM]LWZ]VIWZLMVKWVLQKQWVILILMXIOWLQZQOQLIITLM]LWZ
KWVTIIL^MZ\MVKQILMY]MMTUQ[UWX]MLMPIKMZWXW[QKQ~V;QMTLM]LWZVWPIKMWXW[QKQ~V
LMV\ZWLMM[M\uZUQVWTIWZLMVLMXIOWILY]QMZMN]MZbILM\y\]TWMRMK]\Q^W;QMTLM]LWZ
PIKM WXW[QKQ~V LMV\ZW LMT \uZUQVW a JI[\I I \IT V Y]M LMKTIZM IT R]Mb WZITUMV\M W XWZ
 +ITIUIVLZMQ8QMZWWJKQ\X[ !
518

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


M[KZQ\WY]MPIKMWXW[QKQ~VITIWZLMVLMXIOW[QVVMKM[QLILLMIL]KQZTW[UW\Q^W[LMMTTW
TIWZLMVLMXIOWXQMZLMXWZMT[WTWMNMK\WLM\ITLMKTIZIKQ~V\WLI[]N]MZbI4IXZWXW[QKQ~V
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IKZMMLWZXZM[MV\ILIMVTI[NWZUI[WZLQVIZQI[K]IVLWMTIKZMMLWZVWTIPIaIIK]U]TILWI
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TI UMZI ITMOIKQ~V LM TW[ PMKPW[ KWV[\Q\]\Q^W[ LM TI XZM\MV[Q~V [QVW Y]M LMJMZn XZWJIZ[M
documentalmente el fundamento de la pretensin; si el deudor formula oposicin dentro del
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XZMKQ[WWJ[MZ^IZMVMT[Q[\MUITMOITY]M[MKWV[QLMZM[QTILMUIVLIW[WTQKQ\]LLMTIKZMMLWZ
LMJM M[\IZ IKWUXI}ILI LM TI XZ]MJI LWK]UMV\IT MV Y]M [M N]VLM KWV MT V LM IKZMLQ\IZ
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MT KWV\ZIZQW M[ []KQMV\M KWV TI UMZI ITMOIKQ~V Y]M MV \IT [MV\QLW MNMK\M MT LMUIVLIV\M#
LM[LM M[I XMZ[XMK\Q^I MT XZWKM[W UWVQ\WZQW LMT +8+5 X]MLM KWVKMJQZ[M KWUW ]V
UWVQ\WZQW LWK]UMV\IT X]M[\W Y]M ZMY]QMZM TI XZM[MV\IKQ~V LMT LWK]UMV\W LMT Y]M ZM[]T\M
la obligacin.
-V [MO]VLW T]OIZ IT IVITQbIZ MT ZuOQUMV LM TI WXW[QKQ~V [MZn XZMKQ[W LM\MZUQVIZ [Q M[
[]KQMV\M KWV TI UMZI WXW[QKQ~V W [Q [M ZMY]QMZM TI QV^WKIKQ~V KWVKZM\I LM TW[ UW\Q^W[ MV
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Y]M ZMMZMV M`XZM[IUMV\M I LM\MZUQVILW[ UW\Q^W[ LM WXW[QKQ~V KWUW TI XT][XM\QKQ~V
.QVITUMV\MZM[]T\IZnKWV^MVQMV\MIVITQbIZTI[KWV[MK]MVKQI[LMTIWXW[QKQ~VY]MMVITO]VW[
[Q[\MUI[ LM\MZUQVI XWZ [y [WTI MT LMKIQUQMV\W LMT UIVLI\W W ZMY]MZQUQMV\W LM XIOW
PIKQMVLWVMKM[IZQI]VIV]M^IXM\QKQ~VLMUIVLILMTIKZMMLWZY]M[M[][\IVKQIZnaZM[WT^MZn
[MOVTI[ZMOTI[LMTXZWKM[WWZLQVIZQWILQNMZMVKQILMTWXZM^Q[\WMVW\ZW[[Q[\MUI[TMOITM[
MVTW[Y]MTIWXW[QKQ~VN]VLILIIJZMLQZMK\IUMV\MMTKWV\ZILQK\WZQWaM[ZM[]MT\IXWZMTR]Mb
en el mismo proceso.
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LM[\QVnVLW[M MT XZQUMZW IT ZuOQUMV LMT UWVQ\WZQW XWZ LM]LI[ LM LQVMZW a MT [MO]VLW IT
UWVQ\WZQWXIZIWJTQOIKQWVM[LMPIKMZLMVWPIKMZaLMLIZ
4I KWUXM\MVKQI XIZI KWVWKMZ LM TW[ XZWKM[W[ UWVQ\WZQW[ KWZZM[XWVLM IT R]Mb LM XZQUMZI
QV[\IVKQI LM UMVWZ K]IV\yI LMT LWUQKQTQW LMT LMUIVLILW IZ\ !# a KWVNWZUM I TW
 +ITIUIVLZMQ8QMZWWJKQ\X[a[[
519

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


LQ[X]M[\W MV MT IZ\yK]TW  KWVWKMZn MT R]bOILW LM XZQUMZI QV[\IVKQI LM TW[ XZWKM[W[
UWVQ\WZQW[Y]M[M[][KQ\MVMVIY]MTTI[KQZK]V[KZQXKQWVM[LWVLMVWM`Q[\IR]bOILWLMXZQUMZI
instancia de menor cuanta.
-V K]IV\W I TI M[\Z]K\]ZI a [QV XMZR]QKQW LMT IVnTQ[Q[ Y]M [M PIZn I KWV\QV]IKQ~V X]MLM
LM[KZQJQZ[M MV NWZUI M[Y]MUn\QKI LMT [QO]QMV\M UWLW" XZM[MV\IKQ~V LM TI [WTQKQ\]L KWV TW[
ZMY]Q[Q\W[ LMT IZ\yK]TW ! IKWUXI}ILI LMT LWK]UMV\W Y]M IKZMLQ\M TI WJTQOIKQ~V# KWV\ZWT
LMT\ZQJ]VITY]MXWLZnZMKPIbIZTI[WTQKQ\]L[QVWK]UXTMKWVTW[ZMY]Q[Q\W[TMOITM[#MVKI[W
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K]UXTIKWVTIWJTQOIKQ~VWJQMVY]MKWUXIZMbKIINWZU]TIZWXW[QKQ~VKWVTIIL^MZ\MVKQI
LMY]MMVW\ZWKI[W[MXZWKMLMZnITIMRMK]KQ~V#[QMTLM]LWZVWXIOIVQNWZU]TIWXW[QKQ~V
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MT XZWKM[W XWZ TW[ \ZnUQ\M[ XZM^Q[\W[ XIZI TI MRMK]KQ~V LM [MV\MVKQI[# [Q MT LM]LWZ NWZU]TI
WXW[QKQ~V LMV\ZW LMT XTIbW TMOIT [M KWV\QV]IZn TI \ZIUQ\IKQ~V KWVNWZUM I TI[ ZMOTI[ LMT
XZWKM[W IJZM^QILW LMJQMVLW MT [WTQKQ\IV\M XZM[MV\IZ TI LMUIVLI LMV\ZW LM TW[ LQMb LyI[
siguientes.

3.4.2 El proceso monitorio por deudas de dinero


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MT LWK]UMV\W \MVLZn Y]M [MZ LM TW[ Y]M [QZ^IV XIZI IKZMLQ\IZ ZMTIKQWVM[ MV\ZM IKZMMLWZ a
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[WXWZ\MMVY]M[MMVK]MV\ZMWY]MMTIKZMMLWZR][\QY]M]VXZQVKQXQWLMXZ]MJI[]KQMV\M
,MIK]MZLWITWXZM^Q[\WMVMTIZ\yK]TW LMT+~LQOW+Q^QTXWZXZQVKQXQWLMXZ]MJIXWZ
520

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


M[KZQ\W LMJM MV\MVLMZ[M ]V IK\W M[KZQ\W LMT LMUIVLILW W LM [] ZMXZM[MV\IV\M Y]M PIOI
verosmil el hecho litigioso.
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LMJMZn \MVMZ M[XMKQITUMV\M MV K]MV\I TW XZM^Q[\W MV MT QVKQ[W [MO]VLW LMT KQ\ILW IZ\yK]TW
 ! LMT +8+5 KWVNWZUM IT K]IT MT LWK]UMV\W \MVLZn Y]M [MZ LM TW[ Y]M [QZ^IV
XIZI IKZMLQ\IZ ZMTIKQWVM[ MV\ZM IKZMMLWZ a LM]LWZ a I]V K]IVLW P]JQMZI [QLW KZMILW
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LM Y]M TI ZUI N]M X]M[\I XWZ WZLMV []aI W QVKWZXWZIZ K]ITY]QMZ W\ZW [QOVW UMKnVQKW W
electrnico.
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[M}IT Ny[QKI W MTMK\Z~VQKI XZW^MVQMV\M LMT LM]LWZ# W UMLQIV\M NIK\]ZI[ ITJIZIVM[ LM
MV\ZMOI KMZ\QKIKQWVM[ \MTMOZIUI[ \MTMNI` W K]ITM[Y]QMZI W\ZW[ LWK]UMV\W[ Y]M I]V
]VQTI\MZITUMV\M KZMILW[ XWZ MT IKZMMLWZ [MIV LM TW[ Y]M PIJQ\]ITUMV\M LWK]UMV\IV TW[
KZuLQ\W[aLM]LI[MVZMTIKQWVM[LMTIKTI[MY]MIXIZMbKIMV\ZMIKZMMLWZaLM]LWZIZ\ 
4-+
8]MLM ZM[]T\IZ KWV^MVQMV\M TI KQ\I LM VWZUI[ Y]M ZMO]TIV TI XZ]MJI LM TI[ WJTQOIKQWVM[
KWUWMTIZ\yK]TW!!!LMT+~LQOWLM+WUMZKQWKWVNWZUMITK]ITTI[WJTQOIKQWVM[UMZKIV\QTM[
X]MLMV XZWJIZ[M UMLQIV\M NIK\]ZI[ KWZZM[XWVLMVKQI XW[\IT KWZZM[XWVLMVKQI \MTMOZnKI
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KI[W I TW[ MNMK\W[ LMT XZWKM[W UWVQ\WZQW TI XZ]MJI LM TI WJTQOIKQ~V VW [M TQUQ\I I TI[
UMVKQWVILI[X]M[XWLZnXZWJIZ[MXWZK]ITY]QMZW\ZWLWK]UMV\WLMTW[Y]MPIJQ\]ITUMV\M
acreditan relaciones entre acreedor y deudor.
-T XZWKM[W UWVQ\WZQW XWZ LM]LI[ LM LQVMZW XZM[MV\I ]V WJRM\W IVnTWOW IT LMT XZWKM[W
MRMK]\Q^W MV TI UMLQLI Y]M X]MLM ZMKTIUIZ[M XWZ M[W[ XZWKM[W[ MT XIOW LM ]VI LM]LI
TyY]QLI a M`QOQJTM IZ\[   a  !# TI LQNMZMVKQI XWLZn M[\IZ LILI XWZ MT QUXWZ\M LM TI
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XWZ TI XZ]MJI LM TI WJTQOIKQ~V Y]M MV MT XZWKM[W MRMK]\Q^W LMJM R][\QKIZ[M UMLQIV\M TI
XZM[MV\IKQ~VLM]V\y\]TWMRMK]\Q^WY]MXZM[MV\IKIZIK\MZy[\QKI[XZWXQI[IZ\
-VW\ZW[[Q[\MUI[VWZUI\Q^W[MTXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^W[MZMO]TIKWUW]VUWVQ\WZQW+8+51
+/8]Z]O]IaWLMUWLWY]MIUJW[XZWKM[W[VWXZM[MV\IV^IZQIV\M[#XMZWMVMT+8+5
[M \ZI\I LMLW[ XZWKM[W[ LQ^MZ[W[ a KWZZM[XWVLM LQ[\QVO]QZ[MOV TIXZ]MJILWK]UMV\ITLM
TIWJTQOIKQ~VXIZILM\MZUQVIZ[QKWZZM[XWVLM\ZIUQ\IZMTXZWKM[WMRMK]\Q^WWMTUWVQ\WZQW
4IKWUXM\MVKQIXIZIKWVWKMZLMTXZWKM[WUWVQ\WZQWKWUWaIPMUW[[M}ITILWKWZZM[XWVLM
ITR]MbLMXZQUMZIQV[\IVKQILMUMVWZK]IV\yILMTLWUQKQTQWLMTLMUIVLILWKWVTI[IT^MLIL
521

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


aIQVLQKILILMTIZ\yK]TWLMT+8+5XIZIMTKI[WLMY]MVWM`Q[\IR]bOILWLMUMVWZ
cuanta.
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MTIXIZ\ILWIV\MZQWZIZ\ 4-+
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LMZQ^IZMV[]ZMKPIbW[QVW[MK]UXTQMZIVTW[ZMY]Q[Q\W[TMOITM[aIUMVKQWVILW[+WV\ZIM[I
ZM[WT]KQ~V KIJM MT ZMK]Z[W LM IXMTIKQ~V KWV IZZMOTW I TW LQ[X]M[\W MV MT IZ\yK]TW ! LMT
C.P.C.M. El rechazo de la solicitud no priva al acreedor de perseguir el cobro de la deuda
I \ZI^u[ LMT XZWKM[W KWUV W IJZM^QILW Y]M KWZZM[XWVLI X]M[\W Y]M IY]MTTI ZM[WT]KQ~V
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;QTI[WTQKQ\]LK]UXTMTW[ZMY]Q[Q\W[TMOITM[MTR]MbTIILUQ\QZnaWZLMVIZnZMY]MZQZITLM]LWZ
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[MXZWKMLMZnITIMRMK]KQ~VIZ\!+8+54IVW\QKIKQ~VLMTZMY]MZQUQMV\WLMXIOW
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WXW[QKQ~V LMT LM]LWZ QVKT]QLW MT MUJIZOW X]MLM ZMITQbIZ[M WKQW[IUMV\M XWZ MT R]Mb
[QV XZM^QW ZMY]MZQUQMV\W LMT IKZMMLWZ# I[y XIZMKMZyI ZM[]T\IZ LM TI TMK\]ZI LM TI VWZUI
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LMT +8+5 TI 4-+ M[XI}WTI QVLQKI MV M[M [MV\QLW Y]M [Q MT LM]LWZ VW I\MVLQMZM MT
ZMY]MZQUQMV\W LM XIOW W VW KWUXIZMKQMZM MT ;MKZM\IZQW R]LQKQIT LQK\IZn LMKZM\W LIVLW
XWZ \MZUQVILW MT XZWKM[W KWUV a LIZn \ZI[TILW IT IKZMMLWZ XIZI Y]M QV[\M MT LM[XIKPW
LMMRMK]KQ~VJI[\IVLWXIZIMTTWKWVTIUMZI[WTQKQ\]LI\Z -[I[WT]KQ~VLMTI4-+
522

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


XZM[MZ^ITI^QOMVKQILMTXZQVKQXQWLQ[XW[Q\Q^WaTI[OIZIV\yI[Y]MTM[WVQVPMZMV\M[)[yLMJM
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\MVLZnTIKIZOILMQV[\IZMTLM[XIKPWLMMRMK]KQ~VQVKT]QLWMTMUJIZOW[QVWTW[WTQKQ\~aI
QVQKQITUMV\M XIZI MT KI[W LM NIT\I LM WXW[QKQ~V a XIOW LMT LM]LWZ# XWZ W\ZI XIZ\M a LM[LM
]VI XMZ[XMK\Q^I XZnK\QKI VW KIJM M`QOQZ IT R]Mb Y]M LM\MZUQVM LM WKQW TW[ JQMVM[ LMT
LM]LWZIMUJIZOIZ[QMTIKZMMLWZVWTW[PILM[QOVILWXZM^QIUMV\M
4I4-+KWV\QMVMILMUn[]VIZMNMZMVKQIITIMRMK]KQ~VY]MVW[MZMQ\MZIMVMT+8+5"
,M[XIKPILI MRMK]KQ~V XZW[MO]QZn u[\I KWVNWZUM I TW LQ[X]M[\W XIZI TI LM [MV\MVKQI[
R]LQKQITM[ X]LQMVLW NWZU]TIZ[M TI WXW[QKQ~V XZM^Q[\I MV M[\W[ KI[W[ XMZW MT [WTQKQ\IV\M LMT
XZWKM[W UWVQ\WZQW a MT LM]LWZ MRMK]\ILW VW XWLZnV XZM\MVLMZ ]T\MZQWZUMV\M MV XZWKM[W
WZLQVIZQWTIKIV\QLILZMKTIUILIMVMTUWVQ\WZQWWTILM^WT]KQ~VLMTIY]MKWVTIMRMK]KQ~V
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1V\MZXZM\IVLWMTUIZKWZMO]TI\WZQWLMTXZWKM[WUWVQ\WZQWMVMT+8+5KIJMKWVKT]QZY]M
MTLM]LWZY]MZMY]MZQLWITMNMK\WVWXIOIVQNWZU]TIWXW[QKQ~VLMV\ZWLMTXTIbWTMOITVW
XWLZnT]MOWQV^WKIZMVNI[MLMMRMK]KQ~VTW[UW\Q^W[Y]MX]LWaLMJQ~ITMOIZXIZIWXWVMZ[M
IT ZMY]MZQUQMV\W LM XIOW MV MT XZWKM[W UWVQ\WZQW# LM UWLW Y]MMV TI M\IXI LM MRMK]KQ~V
[~TW XWLZn QV^WKIZ TW[ UW\Q^W[ LM WXW[QKQ~V XZM^Q[\W[ MV MT IZ\ ! ) UWLW LM MRMUXTW
L]ZIV\M TI MRMK]KQ~V MT LM]LWZ XWLZn WXWVMZ[M QV^WKIVLW TI NIT\I LM ZMY]Q[Q\W[ TMOITM[ MV
MT \y\]TW IZ\ ! XMZW M[I WXW[QKQ~V [~TW XWLZn M[\IZ ZMNMZQLI I TW[ ZMY]Q[Q\W[ LMT \y\]TW
LM MRMK]KQ~V a VW IT LWK]UMV\W MV Y]M [M N]VL~ TI [WTQKQ\]L a ZMY]MZQUQMV\W LM XIOW LMT
proceso monitorio.
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XWVQuVLWTWMVKWVWKQUQMV\WLMTR]MbY]QMVXZM^QIIXZWJIKQ~VLMTXIOWLQK\IZnZM[WT]KQ~V
Y]M XWVOI V IT XZWKMLQUQMV\W a WZLMVM MT IZKPQ^W LM TI[ IK\]IKQWVM[ IZ\ ! -T
XIOW XWLZn PIKMZ[M LQZMK\IUMV\M IT IKZMMLWZ W MV MT \ZQJ]VIT ;Q JQMV VW M[\n XZM^Q[\W
M`XZM[IUMV\MVILIWJ[\IIY]MMTR]MbKWVMZI^Q[\IITIKZMMLWZXZM^QWITIIXZWJIKQ~VLMT
pago y archivo de las actuaciones.
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NWZU]TIZ WXW[QKQ~V MV K]aW KI[W [M KWV\QV]IZn TI \ZIUQ\IKQ~V LMT XZWKM[W KWVNWZUM I
TI[ ZMOTI[ LMT XZWKM[W IJZM^QILW IZ\ ! 4I 4-+ IV\MKMLMV\M QVUMLQI\W LMT XZWKM[W
UWVQ\WZQW LMT +8+5 QVLQKI MV [] IZ\yK]TW  Y]M MT ZMY]MZQLW XWLZn KWUXIZMKMZ
ITMOIVLW[]KQV\IUMV\MMVM[KZQ\WLMWXW[QKQ~VTI[ZIbWVM[XWZTI[Y]MVWLMJMMV\WLWW
MVXIZ\MTIKIV\QLILZMKTIUILI#[QJQMVTIZMNMZMVKQIITIITMOIKQ~V[]KQV\IVW[MZMQ\MZIMV
MT +8+5 KWV[QLMZIUW[ Y]M TI WXW[QKQ~V XWLZn MNMK\]IZ[M MV M[W[ \uZUQVW[ UMLQIV\M
ITMOIKQ~V[]KQV\ILMTI[ZIbWVM[XWZTI[Y]MMTZMY]MZQLWKWV[QLMZIVWILM]LIZTIKIV\QLIL
reclamada.
-V ]VI TMK\]ZI []XMZKQIT LMT IZ\yK]TW ! LMT V]M^W +~LQOW XWLZyI KWVKT]QZ[M Y]M TI
WXW[QKQ~V VW ZMY]QMZM ITMOIKQ~V LM UW\Q^W[ W ZIbWVM[ KWVKZM\I[ JI[\IVLW KWV TI UMZI
WXW[QKQ~V LMT ZMY]MZQLW# [QV MUJIZOW MT QVKQ[W VIT LMT KQ\ILW IZ\yK]TW XMZUQ\M QVNMZQZ TW
KWV\ZIZQW IT UMVKQWVIZ ]V UW\Q^W W KI][I LM WXW[QKQ~V TI XT][XM\QKQ~V -V LMVQ\Q^I
523

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


KWV[QLMZIUW[ Y]M VW [MZn []KQMV\M TI UMZI WXW[QKQ~V LMT ZMY]MZQLW [QVW Y]M LMJMZn
\ZI\IZ[M LM ]VI WXW[QKQ~V UW\Q^ILI I]VY]M JI[\IZn IT MNMK\W TI ITMOIKQ~V []KQV\I LM TW[
motivos de oposicin.
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I [] VITQbIKQ~V UMLQIV\M ZM[WT]KQ~V LM NWVLW IZ\ !  6W [M ZMY]QMZM TI IXWZ\IKQ~V LM
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ZM[]MT\I XWZ TW[ \ZnUQ\M[ LMT XZWKM[W IJZM^QILW MV K]aW nUJQ\W PIJZnV LM IXWZ\IZ[M TI[
pruebas correspondientes.
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LMT XZWKM[W KWVNWZUM I TI[ ZMOTI[ LMT XZWKM[W IJZM^QILW -V M[M KI[W MT [WTQKQ\IV\M LMJMZn
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IZZMOTW I TI[ XI]\I[ XZM^Q[\I[ MV TW[ IZ\yK]TW[  a [[ LQK\nVLW[M VITUMV\M TI [MV\MVKQI
+WZZM[XWVLMZn MV \WLW KI[W IT [WTQKQ\IV\M TI KIZOI LM XZWJIZ MV M[M XZWKM[W TI M`Q[\MVKQI
y monto de la obligacin.
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ZIbWVIJTM M[ Y]M MT XTIbW XIZI XZM[MV\IZ TI LMUIVLI LMJM KWV\IZ[M LM[LM MT LyI [QO]QMV\M
IT LM TI VW\QKIKQ~V R]LQKQIT LM TI WXW[QKQ~V IT [WTQKQ\IV\M I]VY]M \IT VW\QKIKQ~V VW M[\u
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;Q MT [WTQKQ\IV\M VW XZM[MV\I TI LMUIVLI MV M[M XTIbW [M XWVLZn V IT XZWKMLQUQMV\W
KWVLMVnVLW[MTM MV KW[\I[# TI VWZUI \IUXWKW IKTIZI [Q MV M[M KI[W MT KZuLQ\W XWLZn
ZMKTIUIZ[M T]MOW I \ZI^u[ LMT XZWKM[W LMKTIZI\Q^W Y]M KWZZM[XWVLI KWV QVLMXMVLMVKQI LMT
XZWKM[W UWVQ\WZQW KWVKT]QLW W [Q XWZ MT KWV\ZIZQW MT ^MVKQUQMV\W LMT XTIbW LM\MZUQVI
TI XZMKT][Q~V LMT LMZMKPW I LMUIVLIZ XWZ M[M KZuLQ\W 4I KWV[MK]MVKQI LM TI NIT\I LM
XZM[MV\IKQ~V LM TI LMUIVLI MV MT XTIbW TMOIT LM LQMb LyI[ KWV[Q[\M VQKIUMV\M MV XWVMZ
V IT XZWKM[W UWVQ\WZQW# I[y ZM[]T\I LMT \M`\W TMOIT KWVNWZUM IT K]IT [M XWVLZn V IT
XZWKMLQUQMV\W [QV IT]LQZ I TI M`\QVKQ~V W KIL]KQLIL LMT LMZMKPW I ZMKTIUIZ MT KWJZW
LMT KZuLQ\W I \ZI^u[ LMT XZWKM[W LMKTIZI\Q^W Y]M X]MLI KWZZM[XWVLMZ 4I 4-+ M[XI}WTI
KWV\QMVM ]VI XZM^Q[Q~V [QUQTIZ IT ZMO]TIZ MT XZWKM[W UWVQ\WZQW IZ\   MV K]IV\W I TI
RIKQ~VLM]VXTIbWXIZITIXZM[MV\IKQ~VLMTILMUIVLIY]MMVM[MUIZKWTMOITM[LM]V
UM[ LM[LM TI VW\QKIKQ~V LMT M[KZQ\W LM WXW[QKQ~V a I TI[ KWV[MK]MVKQI[ LM TI M^MV\]IT
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524

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


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IT MUJIZOW a MRMK]KQ~V XWZ TI []UI ZMKWVWKQLI KWUW LMJQLI KWZZM[XWVLMZn IT IKZMMLWZ
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[MLM LM XZWKM[W[ XW[M[WZQW[# IZ\   MV TW[ XZWKM[W[ LM QVY]QTQVI\W MV TW[ Y]M [M ILUQ\M
TIZMXZWXW[QKQ~VLMTIK]M[\Q~VTQ\QOQW[II\ZI^u[LMTXZWKM[WLMKTIZI\Q^WY]MKWZZM[XWVLI
4I VQKI ZMNMZMVKQI I TI KW[I R]bOILI MV TW[ XZWKM[W[ UWVQ\WZQW[ M[ TI Y]M KWV\QMVM MT
IZ\yK]TW!KWVNWZUMITK]ITY]MI[QOVI^ITWZLMKW[IR]bOILIITI[MV\MVKQIY]M[MLQK\M
en el proceso abreviado tramitado a consecuencia de la oposicin del deudor.

3.4.3 Monitorio para obligaciones de hacer, no hacer o dar


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LMPIKMZLMVWPIKMZWLMLIZKW[IM[XMKyKIWOMVuZQKI
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XWZ LM]LI[ LM LQVMZW# LM UWLW Y]M XIZI ZMKTIUIZ MT K]UXTQUQMV\W LM TI WJTQOIKQ~V I
\ZI^u[LMTXZWKM[WUWVQ\WZQWMT^ITWZLMTJQMVW[MZ^QKQWVWLMJM[]XMZIZTW[^MQV\QKQVKWUQT
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-T UWVQ\WZQW XIZI WJTQOIKQWVM[ LM PIKMZ LM VW PIKMZ W LM LIZ VW [M M[\n XZM^Q[\W MV
TI 4-+ M[XI}WTI Y]M KWUW ^QUW[ KWV[\Q\]aM MT IV\MKMLMV\M QVUMLQI\W LMT XZWKM[W
UWVQ\WZQWLMT+8+5#I]VY]MW\ZW[[Q[\MUI[XZM^uV]VXZWKM[WUWVQ\WZQWKWV^IZQIV\M[
ZM[XMK\W LMT ZMO]TILW MV MT +8+5 XIZI MT K]UXTQUQMV\W LM WJTQOIKQWVM[ LM LIZ W LM
PIKMZ KWUW WK]ZZM KWV MT XZWKM[W LM MV\ZMOI LM TI KW[I ZMO]TILW MV MT +/8 ]Z]O]IaW
W MT XZWKM[W UWVQ\WZQW LM M[KZQ\]ZIKQ~V NWZbILI LM QVU]MJTM[ Y]M QV\MOZIV MT MTMVKW LM
procesos monitorios en dicho Cdigo.
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LMVWPIKMZWLMLIZTIWJTQOIKQ~VLMJMZnKWV[\IZMVLWK]UMV\WK]ITY]QMZI[MI[]NWZUIa
KTI[MWMT[WXWZ\MMVY]M[MMVK]MV\ZI[QMUXZMY]MIXIZMbKIZUILWXWZMTLMUIVLILWW
KWVZUIY]MP]JQM[M[QLWX]M[\IXWZ[]WZLMVWQVKWZXWZMK]ITY]QMZW\ZW[QOVWUMKnVQKW
WMTMK\Z~VQKWIZ\!4IVWZUIZMQ\MZITWXZM^Q[\WMVMTQVKQ[WVITLMTIZ\yK]TW !XIZI
MT UWVQ\WZQW XWZ LM]LI[ LM LQVMZW MV K]IV\W I TI XZ]MJI LWK]UMV\IT LM TI WJTQOIKQ~V# a
IOZMOI Y]M \IUJQuV XWLZn IXTQKIZ[M MT XZWKM[W UWVQ\WZQW K]IVLW TI WJTQOIKQ~V ZM[]T\M
IKZMLQ\ILI UMLQIV\M NIK\]ZI[ KMZ\QKIKQWVM[ LM ZMTIKQWVM[ MV\ZM TI[ XIZ\M[ \MTMOZIUI[
\MTMNI`]W\ZW[LWK]UMV\W[Y]MMVMT\ZnKWR]ZyLQKWLWK]UMV\MVZMTIKQWVM[MV\ZMIKZMMLWZ
aLM]LWZI]VK]IVLWP]JQMZIV[QLWKZMILW[]VQTI\MZITUMV\MXWZMTIKZMMLWZ
525

Consejo Nacional de la Judicatura


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LQ[X]M[\WMVMTIZ\yK]TW LMT+8+5
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QUXW[QJTM MT K]UXTQUQMV\W M[XMKyKW LM TI WJTQOIKQ~V XWZ MRMUXTW XWZ LM[\Z]KKQ~V LM TI
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W TI MV\ZMOI LM ]V JQMV [MZ^QKQW W XZWL]K\W LM KIZIK\MZy[\QKI[ a XZM[\IKQWVM[ [MUMRIV\M[ I
las del original.
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Y]M[M[][KQ\MVMVIY]MTTI[KQZK]V[KZQXKQWVM[LWVLMVWM`Q[\IR]bOILWLMXZQUMZIQV[\IVKQI
de menor cuanta.
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JI[I TI XM\QKQ~V TW Y]M [M XQLI TI NMKPI a TI ZUI LMT [WTQKQ\IV\M a [M IKWUXI}IZnV TW[
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LMJMZnQVLQKIZMTLWUQKQTQWLMTLM]LWZZQOQMVLWMVM[M[MV\QLWTWXZM^Q[\WXIZIMTUWVQ\WZQW
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526

Cdigo Procesal Civil y Mercantil Comentado


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527