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ASSIGNMENT 3

DENTACAM

UNIVERSAL MACHINERY WAREHOUSE

PROJECT TITLE : DENTACAM

CLASS : IE673 ONLINE

DATE : NOVEMBER 2nd , 2014

CLASS CODE : IE673-FALL-2014-63-15

COLLABORATIVE COMPANIES :

TAMRON LENSES

TRI-TECH

EMUGE

AUTHOR STATEMENT:

THIS ENTIRE ASSIGNMENT HAS BEEN DONE BY - YOGYA SRI YARAGORLA

CONTENTS:

- INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

- A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE METHODOLOGIES APPLIED

- MAIN BODY OF THE PROJECT

- PROCESS CONTROL CHARTS

- MAIN PROCESS LIMITATIONS

- TQM IMPROVEMENTS

- COLLABORATION WITH FOUR COMPANIES

- RESULTS

- SOCIAL NETWORKING

- SUMMARY

- FURTHER WORK NEEDED / PROPOSED

- REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

- APPENDIX

WAREHOUSE that needs to be improved by employing Process Control methods. The

objective of the assignment is to show how a quantitative, computational solution can help

using the Control Charts for Variables and Attributes in the e-Book developed by Dr.Ranky.

The main Idea is to try and identify areas that are measurable and statistically controllable.

In this Assignment we shall develop and analyze Process Control charts, one for Variable

and two charts for Attributes. The goal is to attain a controllable process (if applicable) from

an out-of-control process. By performing process improvement analysis we will be able to

collect data about the processes at Speed line packaging solutions and thus we will be able

to understand when the process becomes out of control and also we will able to applying

appropriate corrective steps to bring the process with the controllable limits and thus the

tolerance limits.

This assignment focuses on the use of TQM graphical methods with a concentration on

statistical analysis approach. Using statistical control charts to develop green, lean and

sustainable processes do this. Control Charts will be used to provide a basis for

improvement as well as to help identify the causes of variation. Collecting and evaluating

the data using the control charts can do this. These charts are provided and explained by

Prof. Ranky, with necessary specifications in them.

There are two types of measurements that can be measured and plotted on a Control

Chart.

They are

1. Variables

2. Attributes.

Variables are measured in quantitative units and Attributes are measured as a count like the

number of defects in a batch of products. Control charts are found to be a very useful tool

for studying variation. They offer a method that determines whether a process is stable or

unstable which enables the user to modify when unstable or control the process if already

stable.

Variable Control Charts: These are used to measure quality characteristic, mainly by

controlling the mean and variability of the process. The variable chart has the X-bar and R

charts.

R-chart is a range of measurement values in a set of units or sample that are used in a

control chart.

X-bar chart is a control chart for the variation of the mean value of a characteristic. Its

values are obtained by dividing the average quality characteristic by the set of units.

The Attribute Control charts: These charts control quality utilizing either the mean or a range

of a set of units. The attribute chart category consists of P-charts, C-charts and U-charts.

The Control chart can be interpreted as an on-line tool used for assuring that the process

does not go out of control and also Securing the elimination of the variability in the process.

1.Collection of data : We decide the quality characteristic of the product or process to study,

and then we choose m samples of n units for controls. After that each product or process

the quality characteristic is measured and entered into our spreadsheet.

2.Plotting the data: We plot the collected data based on various mathematical formulae.

3.Computing the center line, upper and lower limits: Based on various mathematical

formulae, we compute the central lines and control limits. Then we decide the coefficient

based on the sample size that can be obtained from tables in Quality Handbooks.

We will develop one control chart for Variable and two control charts for Attributes. Also, if

trends are developed, the company will be able to determine it and make changes, if

needed.

Its focused on the Continuous Improvement (CI) rules for verifying process control methods

when monitoring the processes. Process monitoring should be kept in place to ensure that

the process is maintained and monitored ver time so that major damage to the materials do

not occur. In our plant the material keeps changing its viscosity and various other factors

that count in producing the best material handling process. By means of the control chart all

the processes can be kept under control so that they do not go beyond the limits and

damage the product reputation. If at all the product variable goes out of control it can be

made sure that is got into control by adjusting the variables in the control chart. Evidences

of documented records of control techniques implemented for the purpose of effective and

efficient control process. The most important goal here is to avoid defects by maintaining

the control over both the process's mean as well as its variability .Each and every process

should run under real-time quality and thus avoid the defects that are produced. Detection

of assignable causes of non-conformity the fundamental purpose being oriented to defectfocussed quality engineering or in other words to avoid non-conformity and out of control

situations. There are three simple steps in order to construct this control chart.

Step 2: Compute values to plot

Step 3: Compute central lines and limits

The analysis result should always start with the R-chart. In this particular chart there are no

points that are as such out of control. A slight deviation is found from the sample no 4-9, but

the point to be noted is that its is not out of control. Only the point being its slightly deviated

from the normal. But again keeping in mind that the process is under control we need not

really bother about mending the process for the perfect result. But it can also be seen that

there are 5 consecutive points above the central line which mathematically means an outof-control process. But in engineering terms it has to be accepted that we have to live with

tolerances and in physical real world no object is ever made to nominal values. Therefore

from an engineering point of view the above process maybe out of control but its perfect

when a long term observation is done. Actually out of control patterns are non random stuff

that prevails in the graph. When a graph is normally out of order it should be assumed that

there is a value that does not exactly match the quantity and that is affecting the whole

graph. So as a result such a kind of values should always be made sure that they are

always under control. The entire process by then would be under control if this value is

taken care of. So this chart actually controls the variable size and takes care of the entire

ever changing values.

P-CHART:

This is a control chart that tracks the percentage of the nonconforming items. Its used with

attribute data. The spreadsheet describes the steps involved in building a p-chart in variable

cases as to how the sample size varies. There can be a constant sample set and as well as

a variable sizes. So it can be effectively used in both the cases which the result produced is

accurate. The values calculated by the chart is automated i.e. it automatically generates the

sample as soon as the the attribute values are entered. The main goal of this control chart

for a variable is to control mean and variability of a process but in the case of control charts

for attributes we focus on the number of nonconforming units in the given set of values. Its a

control chart for the percentage of nonconformance. The formulas for the CENTRAL LINE,

LIMITS, VALUES etc are given by a certain set of formulas. The wa the chart is plotted and

analyzed is identical.

ANALYSIS OF P-CHART:

The sample size is 25 units the sum of which results in 8878.We can see that 5 points are

out of control which can result in a bad process types. So to fix the points which are out of

control the values are adjusted so that they fall in between the control lines.

The value corresponding to the 4th,12th,23rd sample is way beyond the UPPER CONTROL

LIMIT (UCL) and the points corresponding to 3rd,15th fall below the LOWER CONTROL

LIMIT (LCL) so all these values are adjusted so that they fall in between the two control

lines.

These adjusted values do a great deal of difference making the project completely under

control.

The values have to be corresponding to the reports that is whatever might be the process it

has to be governed in such a way that they are controlled. So the values that are changed

here in

The second chart is plotted in such a way that the process is under control. The points

4,12,23 fall below the UCL and the points 3&15 fall in between the LCL. The values have to

be corresponding to the reports that is whatever might be the process it has to be governed

in such a way that they are controlled. So the values that are changed here in order to bring

the process under control. The "p" value being 0.142 in the 4th day is made to produce 14

samples so that the p value being 0.042 rather so that the process becomes in control. And

the value on the 12th day being 0.123 becomes 0.039. And similarly the value on the 23rd

day being 0.131 being reduced to 0.029 by changing the values on "n" & "D" to a very

minimal value. By doing this the process becomes "in control".

So when this charted is put forth it means the process is completely under control. To make

the process under control we have to see the attributes and make sure they are well in

between the range and they are practically made in practice to achieve the complete

results.

C-CHART:

This chart is majorly used to determine the number of defects in the whole process. No

process can be zero defective but it can be made sure it does not exceed a certain value so

that the process stays successful. We use all non-toxic materials which are very expensive

and takes a long time to re-manufacture the entire set. In order to cut down the cost on

remanufacturing the entire product such a chart is very useful in keeping track of the

number of defective materials produced.

By following such a process we can cut down the number of defective products which cuts

the cost as well as supports green engineering.

The values of the central line, limits are calculated using certain standard formulas,the

analysis is same as the other control charts. Various samples are tested and the defective

samples are those that cross the lower and upper levels and they are calculated using the

spreadsheet. So we can figure out the number of defective samples by keeping in track the

number of values that cross the lower level. First the process is out of control since the

points 3,5,6,18,21 are outlying so in order to reduce the defects the points are adjusted in

such a way that they are less defective. So when the number of defects are reduced the

manufacturing process becomes more effective. It is very obvious that if the number of error

in the process is minimum then the ratio of successful outputs is good. Its always inversely

related.

TQM IMPROVEMENTS:

These control charts process help us in improving our company's process and products. It

should be made sure that all the processes are in control. Once we find out the the out of

control process immediate action can be taken so that it does not cause problems in the

entire process. As customer demands keeps growing day by day, Control charts like

these should be implemented in our company will certainly satisfy customers. Whenever

there is a change in demand or shortage of any materials, these variables can change

accordingly creating a better opportunity to improve the process.

At Delta Security Systems we continuously work to ensure that our products and services

are eco-friendly, green focused and sustainable. Each process has its own significant and

unique characteristic which makes it to collaborate in terms of sustainability and green

engineering.

material from the damage caused by the external environmental factors or manual mis

handling.

MODERN MACHINE SHOP:This provides us the parts of various machineries ,which is the

main part of the company.

VIDIR VERTICAL STORAGE SOLUTIONS: This is used for safe storage of all the raw

materials and parts of the products.

methodology and also maintain green sustainability as it uses the recycled material.

RESULTS:

The calculated results are useful in identifying & in prevention of the defective items in the

process and also analyze the percentage of nonconforming items. The help in keeping the

system under control. At any instant if the system goes out of control there are sensors that

report the changes in the system thereby helping in putting it in the right form. As a result

making the process an effective one.

SOCIAL NETWORKING:

I disagree, brute force is rarely a good solution and it is not an environmentally friendly

method either. Protests are on the rise in so many countries.they get the attention of the

public but miss their objective by a mile. People spend more time debating whether it was

right or wrong, trying to figure out the death troll and throw so many matters into the mix the

main point is often skipped over. Not to forget that opposition political parties can use this to

their advantage.The CCP doesn't have to run for elections but they do have to maintain law

and order so they are somewhat marginally responsive to public sentiment. Democracy is

actually an amazing way of disguising authoritarianism and making people complicit in their

own suffering.

I will take 28.8% off my fuel bill anyday.Considering the dependence of solar power on

weather patterns I do not think a renewable fuel can be used. Gasoline seems like the only

alternative until they can get the amount of power generated by the solar panels to at least

over 50%.I think,The Ford C-Max Solar Energi is a good transformation from the traditional

cars operating on fuel to Cars running on solar energy typically seating one person to this

car which can seat a family and runs on solar energy. The vehicle is not made for long road

trips or extensive use throughout a day.

After reading the article ,the conclusion i draw is

It is evident that these airbags do not meet the dimensions of a quality product. The supplier

in china and Chinese products as whole has a bad reputation for product quality.

In addition, the features of these airbags compared to others are likely to have a low

performance standard.

The supplier equally failed to display warnings on the bags before they were shipped from

china means that it doesn't meet the required safety standards which could cause

passengers casualities.

I think the decision was correct to maintain the quality and standards .

SUMMARY:

During this project we used tools such customized CORA matrix to identify the processes to

be analyzed and to find solutions for out-of-control processes. We found two processes incontrol and found one process out-of-control. We took actions to correct the problem of the

process found out-of-control and was able to identify the root cause of the problem. The

process was brought to a control state minimizing negative impact to the business.We

implemented statistical models to analyze processes and support continuous improvement

for ESS business and for our customers. This helped us understand the process of

collecting, analyzing and computing data used to identify out-of control, not sustainable,

processes.

Our organization will continue to practice continuous improvement in every process of the

business and keep a sustainable service for a long time. We also need to implement Risk

Analysis to help us during our problem solving process. Internal audits and service

evaluation will help us improve our process as well.

1.TQM eLearning Pack by Prof Paul G Ranky

2.http://www.cimwareukandusa.com/All-Green/Ranky-GreenEngineering.html

3. https://www.wikipedia.org/

SELF GRADE:

I would give myself 10/10 in this assignment because I have covered all the components

required for this assignment. Understanding and working with process improvement and

process control using control charts has given a clear picture on how process is

controlled,improved and how out of control variables can be put back in control, resulting in

producing quality products. The material by Prof Ranky has helped me a lot in this.

FILES:

P-Chart - Universal Machinery Warehouse

C-Chart - Universal Machinery Warehouse

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