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IE673 TQM ASSIGNMENTS

ASSIGNMENT 3
DENTACAM
UNIVERSAL MACHINERY WAREHOUSE

AUTHOR: YOGYA SRI YARAGORLA (NJIT : 313-29-323 , YY288 )


PROJECT TITLE : DENTACAM
CLASS : IE673 ONLINE
DATE : NOVEMBER 2nd , 2014
CLASS CODE : IE673-FALL-2014-63-15

COLLABORATIVE COMPANIES :

CANON EOS SYSTEM


TAMRON LENSES
TRI-TECH
EMUGE

AUTHOR STATEMENT:
THIS ENTIRE ASSIGNMENT HAS BEEN DONE BY - YOGYA SRI YARAGORLA

CONTENTS:
- INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
- A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE METHODOLOGIES APPLIED
- MAIN BODY OF THE PROJECT
- PROCESS CONTROL CHARTS
- MAIN PROCESS LIMITATIONS
- TQM IMPROVEMENTS
- COLLABORATION WITH FOUR COMPANIES
- RESULTS
- SOCIAL NETWORKING
- SUMMARY
- FURTHER WORK NEEDED / PROPOSED
- REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
- APPENDIX

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT :

The purpose of this Assignment is to select an area in UNIVERSAL MACHINERY


WAREHOUSE that needs to be improved by employing Process Control methods. The
objective of the assignment is to show how a quantitative, computational solution can help
using the Control Charts for Variables and Attributes in the e-Book developed by Dr.Ranky.
The main Idea is to try and identify areas that are measurable and statistically controllable.
In this Assignment we shall develop and analyze Process Control charts, one for Variable
and two charts for Attributes. The goal is to attain a controllable process (if applicable) from
an out-of-control process. By performing process improvement analysis we will be able to
collect data about the processes at Speed line packaging solutions and thus we will be able
to understand when the process becomes out of control and also we will able to applying
appropriate corrective steps to bring the process with the controllable limits and thus the
tolerance limits.

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE METHODOLOGIES APPLIED:

This assignment focuses on the use of TQM graphical methods with a concentration on
statistical analysis approach. Using statistical control charts to develop green, lean and
sustainable processes do this. Control Charts will be used to provide a basis for
improvement as well as to help identify the causes of variation. Collecting and evaluating
the data using the control charts can do this. These charts are provided and explained by
Prof. Ranky, with necessary specifications in them.

There are two types of measurements that can be measured and plotted on a Control
Chart.

They are
1. Variables

2. Attributes.

Variables are measured in quantitative units and Attributes are measured as a count like the
number of defects in a batch of products. Control charts are found to be a very useful tool
for studying variation. They offer a method that determines whether a process is stable or
unstable which enables the user to modify when unstable or control the process if already
stable.

Variable Control Charts: These are used to measure quality characteristic, mainly by
controlling the mean and variability of the process. The variable chart has the X-bar and R
charts.

R-chart is a range of measurement values in a set of units or sample that are used in a
control chart.

X-bar chart is a control chart for the variation of the mean value of a characteristic. Its
values are obtained by dividing the average quality characteristic by the set of units.

The Attribute Control charts: These charts control quality utilizing either the mean or a range
of a set of units. The attribute chart category consists of P-charts, C-charts and U-charts.

U-chart shows the nonconformity per unit produced by a manufacturing process.

The Control chart can be interpreted as an on-line tool used for assuring that the process
does not go out of control and also Securing the elimination of the variability in the process.

The construction of the chart is as follows:

1.Collection of data : We decide the quality characteristic of the product or process to study,
and then we choose m samples of n units for controls. After that each product or process
the quality characteristic is measured and entered into our spreadsheet.

2.Plotting the data: We plot the collected data based on various mathematical formulae.

3.Computing the center line, upper and lower limits: Based on various mathematical
formulae, we compute the central lines and control limits. Then we decide the coefficient
based on the sample size that can be obtained from tables in Quality Handbooks.

4. Analyzing the charts obtained to develop a sustainable process:


We will develop one control chart for Variable and two control charts for Attributes. Also, if
trends are developed, the company will be able to determine it and make changes, if
needed.

MAIN BODY OF THE PROJECT:

PROCESS CONTROL CHARTS:

CONTROL CHART FOR VARIABLES:


Its focused on the Continuous Improvement (CI) rules for verifying process control methods
when monitoring the processes. Process monitoring should be kept in place to ensure that
the process is maintained and monitored ver time so that major damage to the materials do

not occur. In our plant the material keeps changing its viscosity and various other factors
that count in producing the best material handling process. By means of the control chart all
the processes can be kept under control so that they do not go beyond the limits and
damage the product reputation. If at all the product variable goes out of control it can be
made sure that is got into control by adjusting the variables in the control chart. Evidences
of documented records of control techniques implemented for the purpose of effective and
efficient control process. The most important goal here is to avoid defects by maintaining
the control over both the process's mean as well as its variability .Each and every process
should run under real-time quality and thus avoid the defects that are produced. Detection
of assignable causes of non-conformity the fundamental purpose being oriented to defectfocussed quality engineering or in other words to avoid non-conformity and out of control
situations. There are three simple steps in order to construct this control chart.

Step1: Collect the data


Step 2: Compute values to plot
Step 3: Compute central lines and limits

ANALYSIS OF THE CONTROL CHART FOR VARIABLES:


The analysis result should always start with the R-chart. In this particular chart there are no
points that are as such out of control. A slight deviation is found from the sample no 4-9, but
the point to be noted is that its is not out of control. Only the point being its slightly deviated
from the normal. But again keeping in mind that the process is under control we need not
really bother about mending the process for the perfect result. But it can also be seen that
there are 5 consecutive points above the central line which mathematically means an outof-control process. But in engineering terms it has to be accepted that we have to live with
tolerances and in physical real world no object is ever made to nominal values. Therefore
from an engineering point of view the above process maybe out of control but its perfect
when a long term observation is done. Actually out of control patterns are non random stuff
that prevails in the graph. When a graph is normally out of order it should be assumed that
there is a value that does not exactly match the quantity and that is affecting the whole
graph. So as a result such a kind of values should always be made sure that they are
always under control. The entire process by then would be under control if this value is
taken care of. So this chart actually controls the variable size and takes care of the entire
ever changing values.

CONTROL CHARTS FOR ATTRIBUTES:

P-CHART:

This is a control chart that tracks the percentage of the nonconforming items. Its used with
attribute data. The spreadsheet describes the steps involved in building a p-chart in variable
cases as to how the sample size varies. There can be a constant sample set and as well as

a variable sizes. So it can be effectively used in both the cases which the result produced is
accurate. The values calculated by the chart is automated i.e. it automatically generates the
sample as soon as the the attribute values are entered. The main goal of this control chart
for a variable is to control mean and variability of a process but in the case of control charts
for attributes we focus on the number of nonconforming units in the given set of values. Its a
control chart for the percentage of nonconformance. The formulas for the CENTRAL LINE,
LIMITS, VALUES etc are given by a certain set of formulas. The wa the chart is plotted and
analyzed is identical.

ANALYSIS OF P-CHART:

The sample size is 25 units the sum of which results in 8878.We can see that 5 points are
out of control which can result in a bad process types. So to fix the points which are out of
control the values are adjusted so that they fall in between the control lines.

The value corresponding to the 4th,12th,23rd sample is way beyond the UPPER CONTROL
LIMIT (UCL) and the points corresponding to 3rd,15th fall below the LOWER CONTROL
LIMIT (LCL) so all these values are adjusted so that they fall in between the two control
lines.

These adjusted values do a great deal of difference making the project completely under
control.

The values have to be corresponding to the reports that is whatever might be the process it
has to be governed in such a way that they are controlled. So the values that are changed
here in
The second chart is plotted in such a way that the process is under control. The points
4,12,23 fall below the UCL and the points 3&15 fall in between the LCL. The values have to
be corresponding to the reports that is whatever might be the process it has to be governed
in such a way that they are controlled. So the values that are changed here in order to bring
the process under control. The "p" value being 0.142 in the 4th day is made to produce 14
samples so that the p value being 0.042 rather so that the process becomes in control. And
the value on the 12th day being 0.123 becomes 0.039. And similarly the value on the 23rd
day being 0.131 being reduced to 0.029 by changing the values on "n" & "D" to a very
minimal value. By doing this the process becomes "in control".

So when this charted is put forth it means the process is completely under control. To make
the process under control we have to see the attributes and make sure they are well in
between the range and they are practically made in practice to achieve the complete
results.

C-CHART:

This chart is majorly used to determine the number of defects in the whole process. No
process can be zero defective but it can be made sure it does not exceed a certain value so
that the process stays successful. We use all non-toxic materials which are very expensive
and takes a long time to re-manufacture the entire set. In order to cut down the cost on
remanufacturing the entire product such a chart is very useful in keeping track of the
number of defective materials produced.

By following such a process we can cut down the number of defective products which cuts
the cost as well as supports green engineering.

ANALYSIS OF THE C-CHART:

The values of the central line, limits are calculated using certain standard formulas,the
analysis is same as the other control charts. Various samples are tested and the defective
samples are those that cross the lower and upper levels and they are calculated using the
spreadsheet. So we can figure out the number of defective samples by keeping in track the
number of values that cross the lower level. First the process is out of control since the
points 3,5,6,18,21 are outlying so in order to reduce the defects the points are adjusted in
such a way that they are less defective. So when the number of defects are reduced the
manufacturing process becomes more effective. It is very obvious that if the number of error
in the process is minimum then the ratio of successful outputs is good. Its always inversely
related.

TQM IMPROVEMENTS:

These control charts process help us in improving our company's process and products. It
should be made sure that all the processes are in control. Once we find out the the out of
control process immediate action can be taken so that it does not cause problems in the
entire process. As customer demands keeps growing day by day, Control charts like
these should be implemented in our company will certainly satisfy customers. Whenever

there is a change in demand or shortage of any materials, these variables can change
accordingly creating a better opportunity to improve the process.

COLLABORATION WITH FOUR COMPANIES:

At Delta Security Systems we continuously work to ensure that our products and services
are eco-friendly, green focused and sustainable. Each process has its own significant and
unique characteristic which makes it to collaborate in terms of sustainability and green
engineering.

BUKHORN REUSABLE PACKAGING SOLUTION: This company is helpful to store the


material from the damage caused by the external environmental factors or manual mis
handling.

MODERN MACHINE SHOP:This provides us the parts of various machineries ,which is the
main part of the company.

VIDIR VERTICAL STORAGE SOLUTIONS: This is used for safe storage of all the raw
materials and parts of the products.

BRAND PACKAGING: This company would allow us to improve our packaging


methodology and also maintain green sustainability as it uses the recycled material.

RESULTS:

The calculated results are useful in identifying & in prevention of the defective items in the
process and also analyze the percentage of nonconforming items. The help in keeping the
system under control. At any instant if the system goes out of control there are sensors that
report the changes in the system thereby helping in putting it in the right form. As a result
making the process an effective one.

SOCIAL NETWORKING:

Re: Article: Chinese Villagers Attack Polluting Factory, Police


I disagree, brute force is rarely a good solution and it is not an environmentally friendly
method either. Protests are on the rise in so many countries.they get the attention of the
public but miss their objective by a mile. People spend more time debating whether it was
right or wrong, trying to figure out the death troll and throw so many matters into the mix the

main point is often skipped over. Not to forget that opposition political parties can use this to
their advantage.The CCP doesn't have to run for elections but they do have to maintain law
and order so they are somewhat marginally responsive to public sentiment. Democracy is
actually an amazing way of disguising authoritarianism and making people complicit in their
own suffering.

Re: My Exploration of the C-Max Solar Energy


I will take 28.8% off my fuel bill anyday.Considering the dependence of solar power on
weather patterns I do not think a renewable fuel can be used. Gasoline seems like the only
alternative until they can get the amount of power generated by the solar panels to at least
over 50%.I think,The Ford C-Max Solar Energi is a good transformation from the traditional
cars operating on fuel to Cars running on solar energy typically seating one person to this
car which can seat a family and runs on solar energy. The vehicle is not made for long road
trips or extensive use throughout a day.

Re: NC Man Gets 7 Years For Selling Fake Airbags:


After reading the article ,the conclusion i draw is
It is evident that these airbags do not meet the dimensions of a quality product. The supplier
in china and Chinese products as whole has a bad reputation for product quality.
In addition, the features of these airbags compared to others are likely to have a low
performance standard.

The supplier equally failed to display warnings on the bags before they were shipped from
china means that it doesn't meet the required safety standards which could cause
passengers casualities.

I think the decision was correct to maintain the quality and standards .

SUMMARY:
During this project we used tools such customized CORA matrix to identify the processes to
be analyzed and to find solutions for out-of-control processes. We found two processes incontrol and found one process out-of-control. We took actions to correct the problem of the
process found out-of-control and was able to identify the root cause of the problem. The
process was brought to a control state minimizing negative impact to the business.We
implemented statistical models to analyze processes and support continuous improvement
for ESS business and for our customers. This helped us understand the process of
collecting, analyzing and computing data used to identify out-of control, not sustainable,
processes.

FURTHER WORK NEEDED / PROPOSED:


Our organization will continue to practice continuous improvement in every process of the
business and keep a sustainable service for a long time. We also need to implement Risk

Analysis to help us during our problem solving process. Internal audits and service
evaluation will help us improve our process as well.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY:


1.TQM eLearning Pack by Prof Paul G Ranky
2.http://www.cimwareukandusa.com/All-Green/Ranky-GreenEngineering.html
3. https://www.wikipedia.org/

SELF GRADE:
I would give myself 10/10 in this assignment because I have covered all the components
required for this assignment. Understanding and working with process improvement and
process control using control charts has given a clear picture on how process is
controlled,improved and how out of control variables can be put back in control, resulting in
producing quality products. The material by Prof Ranky has helped me a lot in this.
FILES:
P-Chart - Universal Machinery Warehouse
C-Chart - Universal Machinery Warehouse