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ME6401

KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY

L T P C
3 0 0 3

OBJECTIVES:

To understand the basic components and layout of linkages in the assembly of a system /
machine.

To understand the principles in analyzing the assembly with respect to the displacement,
velocity, and acceleration at any point in a link of a mechanism.

To understand the motion resulting from a specified set of linkages, design few linkage
mechanisms and cam mechanisms for specified output motions.

To understand the basic concepts of toothed gearing and kinematics of gear trains and the
effects of friction in motion transmission and in machine components.
UNIT I
BASICS OF MECHANISMS
9
Classification of mechanisms Basic kinematic concepts and definitions Degree of freedom,
Mobility Kutzbach criterion, Grueblers criterion Grashofs Law Kinematic inversions of four-bar
chain and slider crank chains Limit positions Mechanical advantage Transmission Angle
Description of some common mechanisms Quick return mechanisms, Straight line generators,
Universal Joint rocker mechanisms.
UNIT II
KINEMATICS OF LINKAGE MECHANISMS
9
Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of simple mechanisms Graphical method Velocity
and acceleration polygons Velocity analysis using instantaneous centres kinematic analysis of
simple mechanisms Coincident points Coriolis component of Acceleration Introduction to linkage
synthesis problem.
UNIT III
KINEMATICS OF CAM MECHANISMS
9
Classification of cams and followers Terminology and definitions Displacement diagrams Uniform
velocity, parabolic, simple harmonic and cycloidal motions Derivatives of follower motions Layout
of plate cam profiles Specified contour cams Circular arc and tangent cams Pressure angle and
undercutting sizing of cams.
UNIT IV
GEARS AND GEAR TRAINS
9
Law of toothed gearing Involutes and cycloidal tooth profiles Spur Gear terminology and definitions
Gear tooth action contact ratio Interference and undercutting. Helical, Bevel, Worm, Rack and
Pinion gears [Basics only]. Gear trains Speed ratio, train value Parallel axis gear trains Epicyclic
Gear Trains.
UNIT V
FRICTION IN MACHINE ELEMENTS
9
Surface contacts Sliding and Rolling friction Friction drives Friction in screw threads Bearings
and lubrication Friction clutches Belt and rope drives Friction in brakes- Band and Block brakes.
TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
OUTCOMES:

Upon completion of this course, the students can able to apply fundamentals of mechanism for
the design of new mechanisms and analyse them for optimum design.
TEXT BOOKS:
1.
Uicker, J.J., Pennock G.R and Shigley, J.E., Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, 3rd
Edition, Oxford University Press, 2009.
2.
Rattan, S.S, Theory of Machines, 3rd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2009.
REFERENCES:
1.
Thomas Bevan, "Theory of Machines", 3rd Edition, CBS Publishers and Distributors, 2005.
2.
Cleghorn. W. L, Mechanisms of Machines, Oxford University Press, 2005
3.
Robert L. Norton, "Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery", Tata McGraw-Hill, 2009.
4.
Allen S. Hall Jr., Kinematics and Linkage Design, Prentice Hall, 1961
5.
Ghosh. A and Mallick, A.K., Theory of Mechanisms and Machines", Affiliated East-West Pvt.

01
01

Reg. No.

:1~~~--~~--~~--~~--~~~

B.E.IB.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION,APRILIMAY2008.


Third Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME 232 -KINEMATIQS

OF MACHINES

(Common to Mechatronics Engineering)


Time: Three hours

Maximum: 100 marks


Ad-size drawing sheet is to be provided.
Answer ALL questions. PART
A-

(10

= 20 marks)

1.

What is Kutzbach criterian for planar mechanism?

2.

Sketch an exact straight line mechanism, with link proportions.

3.

Illustrate the instantaneous centers of a typical four bar mechanism.

4.

State the condition for a link to experience coriolis acceleration.

5.

What are the advantages of roller follower than knife-edge follower?

6.

Sketch the displacement, velocity and acceleration diagram when a follower


moves with uniform velocity.

7.

Prove or disprove that pure rolling is possible at one point only, on the line of
action, between two meshing gear teeth profiles.

8.

Distinguish, with suitable free hand sketches, a non-reverted gear train and a
reverted gear train.

9.

Prove or disprove that the efficiency of a screw jack is independent of the load
raised.

10.

State the condition and the equation for the velocity of the belt for the
transmission of power in a flat belt drive.

2
02

PART B 11.

Ca)

(5 x 16

= 80 marks)

(i)

Explain the inversions of four bar chain, with neat sketches.

(8)

(ii)

Explain with neat sketches the following:

(8)

(1)

Offset slider mechanism.

(2)

An indexing mechanism.
Or

(b)

12.

(a)

(i)

Explain the inversions of single slider


sketches.

(ii)

Explain mechanical advantage and transmission angle related to


(6)
Four- bar mechanisms.

crank

chains, with neat


(10)

In the mechanism shown in Fig. 12(a) the crank OA rotates at a constant


speed equal to 20 rpm anticlockwise and gives motion to the sliding
blocks Band D. The dimensions of various links are OA = 300 mm;
AB = 1200 mm; BC = 450 mm and CD = 450 mm.
For the given configuration, determine:
(i)

Velocities of sliders Band D

(ii)

Angular velocity of link CD

(iii)

Linear acceleration of D and

(iv)

Angular acceleration of CD

Fig. 12(a)
Or
2

L 1479

3
03

(b)

For the Four-bar linkage shown in Fig. 12(b) find the acceleration of
A and B and the angular acceleration of links 3 and 4, Crank 2 has a
constant angular velocity, (l)2 == 200 radls counter clockwise direction.

Fig. 12(b)

The linkage A02


0402 == 200 mm.
13.

(a)

==

150 mm;

BA == 450

mm,

B04

==

300 mm,

The following data are for a disc cam mechanism with roller follower:
Minimum radius of the cam == 35 mm, lift of the follower == 40 mm
Offset of the follower == 10 mm right, Roller diameter == 15 mm
Cam rotation angles are as mentioned below:
During ascent == 120, Dwell == 80
During descent == 80, Dwell == 80
Cam rotates in clockwise direction and the follower motion
harmonic during both ascent and descent.

IS

simple

(i)

Draw the displacement diagram of the follower and indicate the


relevant data.

(ii)

Draw the cam profile and indicate the relevant data.


Or

(b)

Draw the profile of the cam when the roller follower moves with cycloidal
motion as given below :
(i)

Outstroke with maximum displacement of 44 mm during


cam rotation

(ii)

Return stroke for the next 150 of cam rotation.

(iii)

Dwell for the remaining 30 of cam rotation.

180 of

The minimum radius of the cam is 20 mm and the diameter of the


roller is 10 mm. The axis of the roller follower passes through the
cam shaft axis.

L 1479

4
04

14.

(a)

(3)

(i)

State the advantages of spur gear over helical gear.

(ii)

Which type of gear pair is to be used to get very large speed


reduction in a single stage? State the reason.
(3)

(iii)

State and prove the fundamental law of gearing.

(iv)

Determine the minimum number of teeth to avoid interference in


worst case of meshing with 14 pressure angle.
(3)

(7)

to

Or

15.

(b)

Two mating gears have 20 and 40 involute teeth of module 10 mm and


20 pressure angle. The addendum on each wheel is to be made of such a
length that the line of contact on each side of the pitch point has half the
maximum possible length. Determine the addendum height for each gear
wheel, length of the path of contact, arc of contact and contact ratio.

(a)

A screw-jack. has a square thread of mean diameter 60 mm and


pitch 8 mm. The co-efficient of friction at the screw thread is 0.09. A load
of 3 kN is to be lifted through 120 mm. Determine the torque required
and the work done in lifting the load through 120 mm. Find the efficiency
of the jack also.
Or

(b)

(i)

Prove or disprove the following statement : "AV-belt drive with


same Co-efficient of friction and angle of wrap as a flat-belt drive
will transmit less power than flat-belt drive".
(6)

(ii)

Two pulleys, one 450 rnm diameter and the other 200 mm diameter
are on Parallel shafts 2.1 m apart and are connected by a
crossed belt. The larger Pulley rotates at 225 rpm. The maximum
permissible tension in the belt is 1 kN and the coefficient of
friction between the belt and the pulley is 0.25. Find the length of
the belt required and the power that can be transmitted.
(10)

L 1479

5
05

B.E.IB.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2009.


Fourth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME 1252 - KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY
(Regulation 2004)
(Common to B.E. (Part-Time) Third Semester - Regulation 2005)
Time: Three hours

Maximum: 100 marks


Answer ALL questions. Sketches
should be drawn neatly.

Give brief procedure for graphical constructions.


Answer without units and with wrong units will carry less marks. Symbols used
in the solutions should be explained atleast once for each answer. Answers

without substituting the data in the equations will carry zero marks. A3 size
drawing sheet will be supplied on request. Use both sides of the drawing
sheet, if necessary.
Fold the drawing sheet to the size of the answer sheet and attach it.
PART A -

(10 x 2 = 20 marks)

1.

Give any two inversions of a single slider chain.

2.

Write Grashoffs law for 4-bar mechanism.

3.

Draw an acceleration polygon for a crank rotating at an angular speed of


, 0)' rad/sec and angular acceleration of' a' rad/sec''.

4.

Explain how the direction of Coriolis acceleration is obtained.

5.

What is the significance of pressure angle in cam?

6.

What is the follower motion used for high speed cams? Why?

7.

What are the advantages and dis-advantages of involute gear tooth profile?

8.

What are the applications of inverted gear trains?

6
06

9.

What is the apparent

10.

Distinguish

co-efficient of friction in belt drives?

between sliding and rolling friction.


PART B -

11.

(a)

(5 x 16

= 80 marks)

Explain the working a quick return motion mechanism. Also derive an


equation for the ratio of time taken
for return
stroke
and forward
strokes.

Or

12.

(b)

Explain the
neat sketch.

working

of a toggle

mechanism

(a)

A slider crank mechanism has a crank of 30 mm length and connecting


rod 50 mm length. The angular velocity of crank is 10 radlsec(ccw). The
angular acceleration of the crank is 1200 rad/sec-. The crank makes an
angle of 900- with the line of strike. Determine
and angular acceleration of connecting rod.

and its application

the acceleration

with

of slider

Or
(b)

The driving crank AB of a quick-return mechanism


at a uniform speed of 200 rpm. Find the velocity of
position shown in Fig.l, when the crank makes as
vertical line AP. Also determine the angular velocity

shown below revolves


the tool-box R, in the
angle of 60 with the
of link PQ.

200m1n

1
Fig. 1

J 3309

7
07

13. . (a)

A cam is to designed for a knife edge follower with the following data:
cam lift = 40 mm during 90 of cam rotation with SHM, dwell for the next
30, during the next 60 of cam rotation, the follower returns to its
original position with SHM, dwell during the remaining 180 Draw the
profile of the cam when the line of stroke is offset 20 mm from the axis of
the cam shaft. The radius of the base circle of the cam is 40 mm.
0

Or
(b)

Draw a cam profile for operating the exhaust valve of an oil engine. It is
required to give equal uniform acceleration and retardation during
opening and closing of the valve each of which corresponds to 60 of cam
rotation. The valve must remain in the fully open position for 20 of cam
rotation. The valve is 37.5 mm and the least radius of the cam is 40 mm.
The follower is provided with a roller of radius 20 mm and its line of
stroke passes through the axis of the cam.
0

14.

(a)

A pinion of 20 involute teeth and 125 mm pitch circle diameter drives a


rack. The addendum of both pinion and rack is 6.25 mm. What is the
least pressure angle which can be used to avoid .interference? With this
pressure angle, find the length of the arc of contact and the minimum
number of teeth in contact at a time.
Or

(b)

In an epicyclic gear train shown in Fig.2, the pinion A has 15 teeth and is
rigidly fixed in the motor shaft. The wheel B has 20 teeth and gears
with A, and also with annular fixed wheel D. Pinion C has 15 teeth and is
integral. with B(C,B being a compound gear wheel). Gear C meshes with
annular wheel E, which is keyed to the machine shaft. The arm rotates
about the same shaft on which A is fixed and carries the compound wheel"
B-C. If the motor runs at 1000 rpm, find the speed of the machine shaft.

Fig. 2.
3

J3309

8
08

15.

(a)

A single dry plate clutch transmits 7.5 kW at 900 rpm. The axial
pressure is limited to 0.07 Nzmm-. If the co-efficient of friction is 0.25,
find mean radius and face width of the friction lining assuming the ratio
of the mean radius to the face width as 4 and outer and inner radii of the
clutch plate.
Or

(b)

A load of 10 kN is raised by means of a screw jack, having a square


threaded screw of 12 mm pitch and of mean diameter 50 m. If a force of
100 N is applied at the end of a lever to raise the load, what should be the
length of the lever used? Co-efficient of friction = 0.15. What is the
mechanical advantage obtained? State whether the screw is self locking
or not.

J3309

9
09

Reg. No. :

Question Paper Code : T3051


B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2009
Third Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME 2203 KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY
(Regulation 2008)
Time : Three hours

Maximum : 100 Marks


Sketches to be drawn neatly

A3 size drawing sheet will be issued if required


Answer ALL Questions
PART A (10 2 = 20 Marks)
1.

State Grueblers criterion for spatial mechanism.

2.

Define Mechanical Advantage.

3.

What is coriolis acceleration?

4.

What is meant by virtual centre?

5.

Why is a roller follower preferred to knife edge follower?

6.

Define Under cutting in cam.

7.

State the law of gearing.

8.

Write the mobility of differential mechanism.

9.

What do you mean by self-locking screws?

10.

Give the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives.

10
10

PART B (5 16 = 80 Marks)
11.

(a)

(i)

Define transmission angle. Sketch a drag-link mechanism in


maximum transmission angle and minimum transmission angle
positions and explain.
(10)

(ii)

Sketch and explain Whitworth quick return mechanism.

(6)

Or
(b)

12.

(a)

(i)

Describe various inversions of double slider crank-mechanism with


sketches.
(10)

(ii)

Discuss about the straight line generators.

(6)

In a simple steam engine, the lengths of the crank and the connecting rod
are 100 mm and 400 mm respectively. The weight of the connecting rod is
50 kg and its centre of mass is 220 mm from the cross head centre. The
radius of gyration about the centre of mass is 120 mm. If the engine
speed is 300 rpm and the crank has turned 45 from IDC, determine
(i)

The angular velocity and acceleration of the connecting rod

(ii)

Kinetic energy of the connecting rod.

(16)

Or
(b)

PQRS is a four bar chain with a fixed link PS. The lengths of the links
are : PQ = 62.5 mm, QR = 175 mm, RS = 112.5 mm and PS = 200 mm.
The crank PQ rotates at 10 rad/s clockwise. Draw the velocity and
acceleration diagram when angle QPS = 60 and find the angular velocity
and angular acceleration of the links QR and RS.

13.

(a)

(16)

A disc cam used for moving a knife edge follower with SHM during lift
and uniform acceleration and retardation motion during return. Cam
rotates at 300 rpm clockwise direction. The line of motion of the follower
has an offset 10 mm to the right angle of cam shaft axis. The minimum
radius of the cam is 30 mm. The lift of the follower is 40 mm. The cam
rotation angles are: lift 60, dwell 90, return 120 and remaining angle
for dwell. Draw the cam profile and determine the maximum velocity and
acceleration during the lift and return.

(16)

Or
(b)

What is tangent cam? Derive the expressions for the velocity and
acceleration of a roller follower in the tangent cam.

(16)

T 3051

11
11

14.

(a)

A pair of spur gears with involute teeth is to give a gear ratio of 3:1. The
arc of approach is not to be less than the circular pitch and smaller wheel
is the driver. The angle of pressure is 20
(i)

What is the least number of teeth that can be used on each wheel?

(ii)

What is the addendum of the wheel in terms of circular pitch?

(16)

Or

15.

(b)

In an epicyclic gear train, an annular wheel A having 54 teeth meshes


with a planet wheel B which gears with a sun wheel C, the wheels A and
C being rotates about the axis of the wheels A and C. If the wheel A
makes 20 rpm in a clockwise sense and the arm rotates at 100 rpm in the
anticlockwise direction and the wheel C has 24 teeth, determine the
speed and direction of rotation of wheel C.
(16)

(a)

(i)

Derive the condition for maximum efficiency of screw.

(ii)

A bicycle and rider of mass 100 kg are travelling at the rate of


16 km/hr on a level road. A brake is applied to the rear wheel which
is 0.9 m in diameter and this is the only resistance acting. How
many turns will it make before it comes to rest? The pressure
applied on the brake is 100 N and = 0.05.
(8)

(8)

Or
(b)

A rope drive is required to transmit 230 kW from a pulley of 1 m


diameter running at 450 rpm. The safe pull in each rope is 800 N and the
mass of the rope is 0.4 kg per meter length. The angle of lap and the
groove is 160 and 45 respectively. If = 0.3, find the number of ropes
required.

(16)

T 3051

12
12

Reg. No. :

Question Paper Code: E3130


B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRIL/MAY 2010
Third Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME2203 KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY
(Regulation 2008)
Time: Three hours

Maximum: 100 Marks


Answer ALL Questions
PART A (10 2 = 20
Marks)

1.

Define Degree of Freedom and give the DOF for a cam with roller follower.

2.

List out the applications of Straight line motion mechanisms.

3.

A slider sliding at 100 mm/sec on a link, which is rotating at 60 rpm is


subjected to Coriolis acceleration. Find its magnitude.

4.

Define rubbing velocity.

5.

Name any two types of cams with specified contours.

6.

What are the different types of motion with which a follower can move?

7.

What is axial pitch of a helical gear?

8.

What is the role of Idlers in gear trains?

9.

Define virtual coefficient of friction.

10.

State the condition for maximum power transmission in a belt drive and

deduce the expression for corresponding belt velocity.


PART B (5 16 = 80 Marks)
11.

(a)

Perform the kinematic analysis of the following Exact Straight Line


(2 8 =

motion mechanisms.
16)
(i)

Peaucellier Mechanism.

(ii)

Harts Mechanism.

13
13

Or

14
13

(b)

(i)

Sketch and explain any three inversions of a double slider crank


chain.

(ii)

(9)

Illustrate a crank and slotted lever mechanism as an inversion of


single slider crank chain. Deduce an expression for length of stroke
in terms of link lengths.

12.

(a)

(7)

The mechanism of a warping machine is shown in the figure given


below. Various dimensions are as follows. O1A = 100 mm; AC =
700 mm;
BC = 200 mm ; BD = 150mm; O2D = 200mm; O2E = 400mm; O3C =
200mm . The crank O1A rotates at a uniform speed of 100 rad/sec.
D
min
ineearthveelocity of the point E on the bell crank lever
(i)eterL
(ii)

Angular velocity of link AC and BD.

Or
(b)

Derive the expression for determining the angular position of the coupler
link and the output link of a four bar mechanism.

13.

(a)

It is required to set out the profile of a cam to give the following motion to
the reciprocating follower with a flat mushroom contact face:
(i)

Follower to have a stroke of 20 mm during 120 of cam rotation

(ii)

Follower to dwell for 30 of cam rotation

(iii)

Follower to return to its position during 120 of cam rotation

(iv)

Follower to dwell for the remaining period.


The minimum radius of the cam is 25 mm. The outstroke of the
follower is performed with simple harmonic motion and the return
stroke with equal uniform acceleration and retardation.
Or

(b)

Construct a tangent cam and mention the important terminologies on it.


Also derive the expression for displacement, velocity and acceleration of a
reciprocating roller follower when the roller has contact with the nose.

14

E 3130

14

14.

(a)

(i)

State and prove Law of gearing, and thus derive the expression
for Velocity of sliding.
(10)

(ii)
Prove that the maximum length of arc of contact between a pair
of gear tooth to avoid interference is (r + R)tan .
(6)
Or
(b)

(i)

Diagrammatically show the following with reference to a spur gear


tooth:

Face width, Pitch circle,


Addendum and Dedendum.
(ii)

15.

(a)

(i)

Clearance,

thickness,

(6 1 =
6) many
An epicyclic gear train is shown in the following figure. How
revolutions does the arm makes when (1) A makes one revolution in
clockwise and D makes 1/2 a revolution in the opposite sense and
(2) A makes one revolution in clockwise and D remains stationary?
The number of teeth in gears A and D are 40 and 90 respectively.
(10)

Prove that the torque transmitted by a cone clutch, when the


2 W r 31 r 32

intensity of pressure is uniform is given by, T


3 sin r12 r22
with usual notations.

(ii)

Tooth

(8)

An effort of 200 N is required to just move a certain body up an


inclined plane of an angle 15, the force is acting parallel to the
plane. If the angle of inclination of the plane is made 20, the effort
required parallel to the plane is found to be 230 N. Determine the
weight of the body and the coefficient of friction.
(8)
Or

(b)

A compressor requires 90 kW to operate at 250 rpm. The drive is by V


belts from an electric motor running at 750 rpm. The diameter of the
pulley on the compressor shaft must not be greater than 1 meter while
the center distance between the pulleys is limited to 1.75 m. The belt
speed should not exceed 1600 m/min. Determine the number of V belts
required to transmit the power if each belt has a cross sectional area of
375 mm2; density 1000 kg/m3 and an allowable tensile stress of 2.5 MPa.
The groove angle of the pulley is 35. The coefficient of friction between
the belt and the pulley is 0.25. Also calculate the length of each belt.

15

E 3130

15

IQuestion Pflper CQd~ ~


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13.E.lS.Tec:,:h.DEGREE EXAMINATION? NQVEM13$R!DECEMBER 2010


Thirg Semeste Mechanical
EnginlE!rin~

ME 2Z0? - KIN~l\1A'l'ICS OF MAClI~tmRY


(Regulation 2008)

a.E.

(Common to PTME 220a - Kinematics of Machinery for


(Part-Time) Third
.
Semester Mechanical El1gineering- (Reguiatiol1 2009
Time; Three hours

Maximum:

100 Marks

Answer ALL questions


PART A

""7

= 2Q Marks)

(10 x 2

1.

.Differentiate between a machine and a l11eCn~msm.

2.

Write and explain Gruebler's equation.

3.

Draw a sketch to explain how total acceleration

4.

What is Coriolis component of acceleration?

5.

Define undercutting

.--

in a cam

"

"

mechanism,
:
'

What

7,

What is the significance of contactratio


"

. ",:

-.:

',,;,

different
.

types

_',"

'~

"

6.

arEl the
mechanisms?

of

-':

follower

..

in
" ,"" ," ,

motions

9.

is t}ie. role of~fr ict'.ion in: screw jack?


What is self-energizing brake?
"

11.

(11)

in cam-follower

What are the l:igyalltages of epicyclic gear train?

10.

used

gears?
',..-

8.

What

of a link, is obtained.

(i)

(ii)

16
16

12.

(a)

-Forths m~cMnisin shown in Fig.


slider 6 and Iinks 3 and 4,

Q, 12 (a), determine the velocity of the

r
65

1
125

Fig. Q. 12 (a)
Or
(b)

For the slider-crank


acceleration

mechanism

shown in Fig. Q. 1.2 (b), determine

qf slider B and (ii)' acceleration

(i) the

of point C. The crank OA

rotates at l8() rpm. OA ::;:5:0Q mm, AB :;::1500 mm and AC ::;:2:50 mm,

Fig. Q. 1~ (b)
13.

(a)

Draw

the cam profile

cam

50 mm, Lift

>

for the follpwing, data:

= 40 mm,

Base

circle radius

Angle of ascent, with Cycloidal ::; 60

of dwell ::; 900, Angle of descent with uniform velocity


cam= 300 rpm, Follower offset

>

0
,

of

Angle

90 , Speed of

10 mm,' Type of follower Knife-edge. '

Or
(b)! -Draw .the cam profile for, the following data: base circle radius of cam
::; 50 mm, Lift 40 mm, Angle of ascent with SliM = 90, Angle of dwell
900, Angle of descent with uniform acceleration and deceleration 90,
'$}:leed.of ~m:::;; 300 rpm, TyPe of follower Roller follower (with roller
radius? 10 mm),

53195

17
17

14.

(~)

ThE! pressure angle of two gears is 20 and has a module of 10 mm, The
number of teeth on pinion is 24 and is on gear 60. The addendum of
pinion and gear is same and equal to one module. Determine (i) the
number of pairs of teeth in contact (ii) the angle of action of pinion and
gear and the ratio of sliding to rolling velocity at the beginning of contact.
Or

(b)

The pitch circle diameter of the annular gear in the epicyclic gear train in
Fig. Q. 14 (P) is 425 mm and the module is Q mm. When the annular
gear 3 is stationary, the spindle A makes one revolution in the same
sense as the sun gear I for every 6 revolutions of the driving spindle
carrying the sun gear. All the planet gearS are of the same size.
Determine the number of teeth on all gears,

Fig. Q. 14 (b)
15.

(a)

An open belt drive is used to connect two parallel shafts 4 m apart. The
diameter of bigger
pulleyis 1.5 m and that of the smaller pulley 0.5 m .
'.
The mass of the belt is 1 kg/m length. ThE! maximum tension is not to
exceed 1500 N. The coefficient of friction is 0.25. The bigger pulley which
is the driver runs at 250 rpm' Due to slip, the speed of the driven pulley
is 725 rpm. Calculate the power transmitted, and power lost in friction.
.

'

Qr
(b)

(i)

A verticil I shaft 140 mm diameter rotating at 120 rpm rests on a


flat end footstep bearing, The shaft carries a vertical load of 30 kN.
The co-efficient of friction is 0,06. Estimate the power lost in friction
assuming (1) uniform Pressure and (2) uniform wear.
(10)

(ii)

A Conical pivot supports a load of 20 kN, the cone angle being 120,
and thJ;lintensity of normal pressure does notexceed 0.25 MPa. The
external radius is twice the internal diameter, Find the outer and
inner radii of the bearing surface. If the shaft rotates at 180 rpm
and the coefficient of friction is 0,15, find the power lost in friction,
assuming uniform pressure.
(6)

53195

18
18

Re g. No. :

Question

I~ l_--'---'--'-- j_-,----,-----,---,----,--I

Paper

Code:

jl

10408

B.E.lB.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2012.


Third/Fourth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME 2203/113302/ME 35/10122 ME 404/ME 1202/080120010 - KINEMATICS OF
MACHINERY
(Common to PTME 2203 - Kinematics of Machinery for B.E. "
Third Semester Mech. - Regulations 2009)

(Regulation 2008)
Time : Three hours

Maximum: 100 marks


Answer ALL questions. PART
A-

(10 x 2 = 20 marks)

1.

Sketch and define Transmission angle of a four-bar mechanism. What are the
worst values of transmission angle?

2.

What is the condition for correct steering of an automobile?

3.

What is a configuration diagram? What is its use?

4.

Define rubbing velocity in a pin joint and write the equation fOTcalculating the
same.

5.

Which type of cam follower motion is used in high speed engines? Why?

6.

Why large pressure

7.

Define the following terms used in Gear


(a) Pressure angle
(b) Module .

. 8.

angle is not preferred in cam curves?

What are the roles of "Idlers" in gear trains?

9.

Differentiate between self locking and overhauling of screw.

10.

State the functional difference between a clutch and a brake.

19
19

PAlfr B 11.

.(a)

(i)

(5 x 16

= 80 marks)

Explain Kutzbach criterion for the mobility of a mechanism with


suitable example.
(4)

(ii)

M2
M1

M4

M3

Dimensions are in em
Ml, M2, M3
numbers on
Identify the
crank rocker

and M4 are four-bar linkages as shown in figure. The


the figure indicate the respective link lengths in ern.
nature of the mechanism, i.e. whether double crank,
or double rocker. Give reasons in brief.
(4 x 3 = 12)
Or

(b)

12.

(a)

(i)

'Explain, with a neat sketch, how an offset slider crank mechanism


can be used as a quick-return
motion mechanism. Derive an
expression to find the quick-return ratio.
(10)

(ii)

With a suitable
are its uses?

diagram, explain how a pantograph

works. What
(6)

A four bar chain is represented by a quadrilateral ABCD in which AD is


fixed and is 0.6 m long. The crank AB = 0.3 ill long rotates in a clockwise
direction at 10 rad/s and with an angular acceleration of 30 rad/s-, both
clockwise.
The crank drives the link CD (= 0.36 m) by means of the connecting link
BC (= 0.36 m). The angle BAD = 60. Using graphical method, determine
the angular. velocities and angular accelerations of CD and BC.
(16)
Or

10408

20
20

(b)

A four-bar mechanism, with O2 A as the input link, is shown in figure.

13.

(a)

(i).

Using analytical method, derive the equations for the angular


velocity of the output link and of the connecting link ~.
(8)

(ii)

If the

coordinates of the pin joints are O2 (0,0), A (-15, 26),


B(75, 70) and 04(50,0)
and the input link rotates at 2 rad/s
counter-clockwise, find the angular velocities of AB and of 04B. (8)

A cam is to be designed for a knife edged follower with the following data:
(i)

Follower lift is 4.0 mm with SHM, during 90 of cam rotation

(ii)

Dwell for the next 30

(iii)

Follower return to: its original position with SHM, during next 60
of cam rotation

(iv)

Dwell for the remaining

cam rotation.

The line of stroke of the follower passes through the axis of the cam
shaft. Radius of the base circle of the cam is 40 mm.
(1)

Draw the displacement diagram.

(4)

(2)

Draw the profile of the cam.

(8)

(3)

Determine the maximum velocity and acceleration of the


follower during forward and return strokes, if the cam rotates
at 200 rpm: in CW direction.
.
(4)
Or

(b) . The following particulars relate to a symmetrical.circular camoperating


,a flat faced follower: Least radius = 25 mm, Nose radius = 8 mrn, Lift of
the valve = 10 min, Angle of action of cam = 120, Cam shaft speed =
1000 r.p.m.

Find the flank, radius.


Determine the maxim um values
retardation of the follower.
(iii) Draw the profile of the cam.
(i)
(ii)

of velocity,

acceleration

(4)
and
(3)
(9)

104,08

21
21

14.

(a)

(i)

Two unequal gears of involute profile are to give required gear


ratio. Derive an expression for the minimum number of teeth
required for the pinion in order to avoid interference.
(12)

(ii)

Two gear wheels mesh externally to give a velocity ratio of 3 to 1.


The involute teeth has 6 mm module and 20 pressure angle.
Addendum is equal to one module, Determine the number of teeth
on pinion to avoid interference and the corresponding number on
the wheel.
(4)
Or

15.

(b)

A reverted compound gear train is used as back gear of a lathe, It is


required to give a reduction from cone-pulley speed to spindle speed of
approximately 9 to 1. The module of the teeth on the high-speed pair is
4 111mand of those on low-speed pair is 5 mm. The centre distance is
180 mm. Determine the number of teeth on' each of the four wheels, if the
pinions are to have as nearly as possible equal numbers of teeth. Also
sketch a line diagram and show the gear train.
(16)

(a)

(i)

A single plate clutch, with both sides effective, has outer and inner
diameters 300 mm and 200 mm respectively.
The maximum'
intensity of pressure at any point in the contact surface is not to
exceed 0.1 Nzmm". If the coefficient of friction is 0.3, determine the
power transmitted by a clutch at a speed 2500 rpm for two types of
assumptions, that is; for uniform pressure and for uniform wear.
(10)

(ii)

The following data related to a screw jack; Pitch of the thread screw
= 8 mm, diameter of the screw thread = 40 mrn, Coefficient of
friction between screw and nut = 0,1, load = 20 kN. Assuming that
the load rotates with screw, determine:
-(1)

the ratio of torques required to raise and lower the load.

(2) , the efficiency of the machine.

(6)

Or
(b)

(i)

Two pulleys, one 450 mm diameter and the other 200 mm diameter
are on parallel shafts 2.1 m apart and are connected by a belt, as a
cross belt drive. The, larger pulley rotates at 225 r.p.m. The
maximum permissible tension in the belt is 1kN and the coefficient
of friction between the belt and the pulley is 0.25. Find the power
that can be transmitted.
(8)

(ii)

In a simple band brake, one end of the band is attached to the


fulcrum of a lever. The other end is attached at a distance of b from
the fulcrum. The effort is applied at the end of the lever. Derive an
expression for braking torque, in terms of the 'effort,
(8)

10408

22
22

!_

_.

Reg.No.:

LI

DEGREE EXAMINATION,
Third

L_J

~_L

L_~~

11519

NOVEMBER/DECEMBER

2012.

Semester

Mechanical
ME 2203/113302IME

Code :

Question Paper
B.E./B.Tech.

~_L_J

_J

Engineering

35/10122 ME 404!ME 1202 Al080120010


:MACHINERY

KINEMATICS

OF

(Common to PTME 2203 - Kinematics of Machinery for B.E. (Part-Time)


ThirdSemester
Mech. - Regulations 2009)
(Regulation
Time:

2008)
. Maximum:

Three hours
Answer

ALL questions. PMT

Alawford-bar

100 marks

(10 x 2

= 20,marks)

1.

Write Grashoffs

2.

What is meant

3.

What is a configuration

4.

Define rubbing velocity. What will be the expression forrubbing


pin joint when the two links rotate in opposite direction?

velocity

at a

5.

State the expressions


cycloidal motion.

moving

with

6.'

Why sometimes
the axes of translating
roller followers
mechanisms are offset from the axis of rotation of cam?

7.

Define the term 'arc of contact'

8.

Name

9.

Why self locking

10.

What is meant

by Indexing

two applications
screws

mechanism.
mechanism?

diagram?

What-is

for maximum

do we use it?

its use?

acceleration

of a follower

in cam

follower

in gears.

of reverted
have lesser

by a self-locking

Where

gear train.
efficiency?

and a self-energised

brake?

23
23

PART B 1l.

(a)

(5 x 16 = 80 marks)

Sketch and explain the four inversions of Single-slider crank chain.

(16)

Or
(b)

12.

(a)

(i)

What are straight-line


mechanisms? Sketch the Peaucellier
straight-line motion mechanism and prove that the generating
point moves in straight line.
(8)

(ii)

Sketch a Hooke's joint and derive the condition for equal speeds of
driving and driven shafts.
(8)

In a four bar chain ABCD, AD is fixed and is 120 mm long. The crank
AB is 30 mm long and rotates at 100 rpm clockwise while the link
CD = 60 mm oscillates about D; BC ::: 120 mm. Using graphical method,
find the angular velocity and angular acceleration of link BC when angle
BAD = 60.
(16)
Or

(b)

13.

(a)

(i)

Derive the expressions for the velocity and acceleration of the


piston of a reciprocating engine mechanism.
(8)

(ii)

In a reciprocating engine mechanism, the lengths of the crank and


connecting rod are 150 mm and 600 mm respectively. The crank
position is 60 from inner dead centre. The crank shaft speed is
450 r.p.m. (clockwise)".Using analytical method, determine
(1)

velocity of the piston

(2)

(2)

acceleration of the piston

(2)

(3)

crank angle for maximum velocity of the piston


corresponding velocity.

and the
(4)

A cam with a minimum radius of 25 mm, rotating clockwise at a uniform


speed is to be designed to give motion to a roller follower, at the end of a
valve rod, as described below:
.
(i)

To raise the valve through 50 mm during 120 rotation of the cam.

(ii)

To keep the valve fully raised through next 30.

(iii)

';['0 lower the valve during next 60 and

(iv)

To keep the valve closed during rest of the revolution.

11519

24
24

The diameter of the roller is 20 mm and the diameter of the cam


. shaft is 25 mm. The line of the stroke is offset by 15 mm from. the
axis of the cam shaft. The displacement of the valve, while being
raised and lowered is to take place with SHM.
(1)

Draw the displacement diagram. Sketch roughly the shapes of


velocity and acceleration diagrams.
(6)

(2)

Draw the 'profile of the cam.

(10)

Or
(b)

14.

(a)

In a symmetricaltangent cam operating a roller follower, the least radius


of the cam is 30 mm and roller radius is 17.5 mm. The angle of ascent is
75 and the total lift is 17.5 mm. The speed of the cam shaft is 600 rpm.
Assume that there is no dwell between ascent and descent.
(i)

Calculate the principal dimensions of the cam.

(6)

(ii)

Find the acceleration of the follower at the beginning of the lift.

(2)

.(iii)

Draw the profile of the cam..

(8)

(i)

State and prove the law of gearing.

(ii)

Show that the involute curves as the profiles of mating gears satisfy
the law of gearing.
(6)

(10)

Or
(b)

A compound gear train using spur gears 1S required to give a total


reduction ratio of 250 to 1 in four steps. The modules of the gears are
5 mm for the first step, 7 mm for the second, 10 mm for the third and
16 mm for the fourth.
(i)

Arrive at the individual speed ratios,


allowed in the total reduction ratio.

if a tolerance of 0.2% is
(4)

(ii)

Find the numbers of teeth of all gears, if the minimum number of


teeth for any pinion is 20.
(4)

(iii)

Find the pitch circle diameters of all gears and the centre distances.
(4)

(iv)

Sketch a line diagram showing the gear train.


3

(4)

11519

25
25

15.

(a)

(i)

In a thrust bearing, the external and internal diameters of the


contacting surfaces are 320 mm and 200 mm respectively. The total
axial load is 80 kN and the intensity of pressure is 350 kN/m2. The
shaft rotates at 400 rpm. Taking the coefficient of friction as 0.06,
calculate the power lostin overcoming the friction and the number
of collars required.
(8)

(ii)

A screw-jack has a square thread of mean diameter 60 mm and


pitch 8 mrn. The co-efficient of friction at the screw thread is 0.09.
A load of 3 kN is to be lifted through 120 mm. Determine the torque
required and the work done in lifting the load through 120 mm.
Find also the efficiency of the jack.
(8)
Or

(b)

(i)

Derive an expression for the centrifugal tension in a belt passing


round a pulley rim.
(6)

(ii)

A leather belt is required to transmit 7.5 kW from a pulley 1.2 m in


diameter, running at 250 rpm. The angle embraced is 165 and the
coefficient offriction between- the belt and the pulley is 0.3. The safe
working stress for the leather belt is 1.5 MPa; the density of leather
is 1000 kg/m" and thickness of belt is 10 mm. Determine the width
of the belt taking centrifugal tension into account.
(10)
0

11519

26
26

Question Paper Code:

21559

B.E.IB.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2013.


Third Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME 2,2031ME 35/10122 ME 404JME 1202 NOS0120010 MACHINERY

KINEMATICS OF

(Regulation 200S/2010)
(Common to PTME 2203 - Kinematics of Machinery for B.B. (Part-Time) Third
Semester Mechanical Engineering - Regulation 2009) .

Time: Three hours

Maximum: 100 marks


Answer ALL questions.
PART'A -

(10 x

:2.=

20 marks)

1.

What is meant by Kinematic Pair?

2.

State the difference between mechanism and structure.

3.

Write about rubbing velocity.

4.

Write down the expression for finding the number of instantaneous

centres in

a mechanism.
5.

What are the major types of cams? .

6.

Define Angle of dwell.

7.

List down the common forms of teeth.

8.

What is the condition stated by the law of gearing] .

9.

List down the laws of friction.

10.

Distinguish between open and cross belt drive in terms of its application.

27
27

PART B -

11.

(a)

Explain the inversions

(5 x 16

= 80

marks)

of Four bar chain with examples.

Or
(b)

12.

(a)

Sketch

and explain

the following:
(8)

(i)

Elliptical

trammel

(ii)

Scotch yoke mechanism.

(8)

The following data refer to the' dimensions of the links of a. four-bar


mechanism: AB = 50 mm; Be = 66 mm; CD = 56 mm and AD (fixed link)
= 100 mm. At the instant when L DAB = 60, the link AB has an
angular
velocity of 10.5 rad/s
in the counter
clockwise direction.
Determine the velocity of point C, velocity of point E on the link BC while
BE = 40 mm and the angular velocities of the links BC and CD. Also
sketch the mechanism and indicate the data.

Or
. (b)

A single slider-crank mechanism is shown in Fig. 12 b. Determine the


acceleration at B & EJ and the angular acceleration of the link AB. The
crank rotates at 20 rad/s counter-clockwise.

Fig. 12 (b)
13.

(a)

A cam with a minimum radius of 25 mm, rotating clockwise at uniform


speed of
300 rpm is to he designed to give motion to a flat faced
mushroom follower as detailed below:
(i)

To raise through

(ii)

To remain

(iii)

To lower during

(iv)

To remain

a distance of 25 mm in 120 rotation

of the cam

at rest for the next 30


further

120 rotation

in the same position during

of the cam
rest of the revolution .

. The raising of the follower takes place with cycloidal motion and
lowering with uniform acceleration
and retardation.
However,
uniform acceleration
is 2/3rd of the uniform retardation.
Draw
displacement diagram and profile of the cam.

the
the
the

Or
/'

21559

28
28

(b)

A circular cam operating a flat faced follower has a least diameter of


40 mm. The lift is 12mm and angle of action is 160 The Speed of
rotation is 500 'rpm. If the period of acceleration of the follower is 60% 'Of
the retardation during the lift, determine the following: ,
0

(i)

The principal dimensions of the cam

(ii)

The acceleration at the main points.

Also determine the maximum acceleration and deceleration during the


lift.
.
14.

(a)

With the help of a neatly drawn sketch of a spur gear, explain elaborately
the nomenclature of gears.
Or

(b)

An epicyclic gear, train is shown in Fig. 14(b). The input S has 24 teeth.
Gears P and C constitute a compound planet having 30 and 18 teeth
respectively. If all the gears are of the same pitch, fmd the speed ratio of
the gear train assuming A to be fixed.
A

Fig. 14 (b)
15.

(a)

(i)

A friction clutch of multi-plate type is meant for transmitting a


power of 55 kW at 1800 rpm. Coefficient of friction for the friction
surfaces is 0.1. Axial intensity
of pressure
is not to
exceed160 kN 1m2 The internal radius is 80 mm and is 0.7 times
the external tadius. Determine the number of plates needed to
transmit the required torque.
(10)

(ii)

A vertical shaft of 100 mm diameter rotating at 150 rpm, rests on a


flat end foot step bearing. The coefficient of friction is equal to 0.05,
and shaft carries a vertical load of 15 kN. ,Find the power lost in
friction assuming the following conditions:
(1)

Uniform pressure

(3)

(2)

Uniform wear.

(3)
Or

21559

29
29

(b)

(i)

Find the power transmitted by a belb running over a pulley 700 mm


, diameter at 300 rpm, fl. = 0.3 and angle of lap rEWo and maximum
tension in the belt is 2.453kN.
(6)

(ii)

A simple brake as shown in Fig 15 (b) (ii) is used on a shaft carrying


, a flywheel of mass 450 Kg. The radius of gyration of the flywheel is
500 mm, and runs at 320 rpm. The coefficient of friction is 0.2 and
the diameter of brake drum is 250 mm, Determine the following:

(1) ,Torque applied due to a hand load of 150 N


(2)

(4)

The number of turns of the wheel before it is brought to rest.

(4)
(3)

....-

The time required to bring it to rest from the moment of


application of the brake.
(2)
300mm

100 mm - ~ ... ----

100N

'

T,

Fig. 15 (b),(ii)

21559

30
30

Question Paper Code: 31559


B..E.lB.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, N0_yEMBER/DECEMBER

2013.

Third Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME 2203iME

35/10122

ME 404/ME

1202 Al080120010

KINEMATICS OF

MACHINERY
(Regulation 2008/2010)
(Common to PTME 2203 .; Kinematics of Machinery for B.E. (Part-Time) Third
Semester - Mechanical, Engineering _ Regulation 2009)
Time: Three hours

Maximum: 100 marks


Answer ALL questions. PART
A-

(10 x 2 = 20 marks)

1.

Define sliding connectors.

2.

Differentiate rotation and translation.

3.

Define number ofinstantaneous

4.

Wh,at is low degree of complexity?

5.

Define pressure

6.

Write the procedure to draw the earn. profile.

7.

Define gear ratio.

8.

Write short notes on differentials.

9'.

Define anti -friction bearing.

10.

Differentiate multiplate clutch and cone clutch.

centre.

angle.

31
31

PART B 11. . (a)

(5 x 16

(i)

What is kinematic inversion?


of slider crank mechanism.

(ii)

Determine

the degree

= 80

marks)

Explain

the four different

of freedom for following linkages.

inversions
(10)
(Fig. 1)

(6)

5'

F~g.1

Or
(b)

(i)

Find the maximum and minimum tranamission


angles for the
mechanisms shown in fig.2. The figureaindicate
the dimensions in
standard units of length.
(8)'

9
.&

JL

A.~
Fig. 2

12.

(a)

(ii)

Write

(i)

The crank AB of four bar mechanism

short notes on toggle mechanism.

(8)

shown in figu:re. 3. Rotates at


60 rpm clockwise. Determine the relative angular velocities of the
coupler to the crank and the lever to the coupler. Find also the
rubbing velocities al the surface of pins 25 mm radius and the joints
13 and C.
.
(8)

Fig. 3

31559

32
32

(ii)

Locate the instantaneous centre's of the slider crank mechanism


shown in fig.4. Find the velocity of the slider.
(8)

,,

{$I' "-

"

......

.. ~ -1!ltt

\j,~Jls

I I~
(b)

13.

(a)

(i)
~

Fig. 4
Or
Fig.S shows the configuration of a whit worth quick return
mechanism. The lengths of the fixed lin): OA ana the crank OP are
200 mm and 300mm respectively. Other lengths are AR=200 mm
and RS=400 mrn. Find the velocity of the ram using instantaneous.
centre method when the crank makes a angle 0[120 with the fixed
link and rotates, at 10 rad/s.
.

Fig. 5
Differentiate
low
degree
and high degree of complexity with
(ii)
(6)
suitable sketch.
A cam operates on offset roller follower. The least radius of the cam is
50 mrn, rollerdiameter is 30 rom, and offset is 20 mm, the cam rotates at
360 rpm, The angle of ascent is 48 angle of dwell is 42 and angle of
descent is 60 The motion is to be SHM during ascent and uniform
acceleration and deceleration during decent. Draw the cam profile,
. (16)
Or
0
,

0
,

315.59

33

33

(b)

(i)

. (ii)

14.

(a)

(i)
(ii)

.
(b)

(i)

'(ii)

15.

(a)

(i)

eii)
(b)

(i)

(ii)

A flat faced mushroom follower is operated by a symmetrical cam


with circular arc flank and nose profile the axis of tappet passed
through the cam axis. Total angle of action 'is 162, lift 10 mm and
base circle diameter 40 mm. period of acceleration is half the period
of retardation during the lift. The cam rotates at 1200 rpm.
Determine
U) The nose and flank radii and
(2) The maximum acceleration and retardation during Iift;
(12)
List the various methods to be used to reduce the pressure angle. (4)
Explain the various pitches of helical gears with, sketch.
(10)
Two 15 mm module 20 pressure angle spur gears have addendum
equal to one module. The pinion has 25 teeth and the gear 50 teeth.
Determine whether interference will occur or not. If it 'occurs, to
what valve should the pressure angle be changed to eliminate
interference?
(6)
Or
An epicyclic gear train consists of three gears I, 2 and 3 as shown in
fig.6 the internal gear 1 has 72 teeth and gear 3 has 32 teeth. The
gear 2 meshes with both gear .1 and gear 3 arid is carried on an
arm A. 'which rotates about the centre 02 at 20.rpm. If the gear 1 is
fixed, determine the speed of gears 2 and 3.
(12)

Fig. 6
Write short notes on speed ratio of a planetary gear train.
(4)
Derive the force analysis of a body resting on an inclined plane with
force inclined to the plane.
(12)
List the various types of friction.
(4)
Or
A veztical shaft 140 mm diameter rotating at. 120 rpm rests on a
flat end foot step bearing. The shaft carries a vertical load of 30 KN.
The coefficient of friction is 0.06. Estimate the power lost is friction,
assuming uniform pressure and uniform wear.
.(8)
A multi-plate disc olutch transmits 55 KW of power at 1800 rpm.
'Coefficient of friction for the friction surface is 0.1. Axial intensity
of pressure is not to exceed 160 KN/m2. The internal radius is
80 mm and 0.7 times the external radius. FInd the number of plates
needed to transmit the required torque.
(8)

31559

34
34

Reg. No.

Question

Paper

Code:

51622

B.EJB.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2014.


Third Semester
Mechanical Engineering
ME 2203IME

35IME 1202 Al080120010/10122

ME 404 - KINEMATICS OF

MACHINERY
(Regulation 2008/2010)
(Common to PTME 2203-KinematicS' of Machinery for B.E. (Part-Time)
Third Semester - Mechanical Engineering - Regulation 2009)
Time: Three hours

Maximum:

100 marks

Note: A-3 Drawing Sheet is to be Supplied to the Examination


Answer ALL questions. PART A

- (10

x 2

= 20 marks)

1.

Differentiate

the machine and structure.

2.

Classify the constrained motion. ,

3.

Define instantaneous

4.

What" is the expression for coriolis component of acceleration?

5.

Define tangent cam.

6.

What are the different motions of the follower?'

7.

State the law of gearing.

8.

What are the methods to avoid interference?

9.

Define velocity ratio.

10.

What is themaximum

centre.

efficiency ofthe screw jack?


PART B - (5 x 16 = 80 marks)

11.

(a)

Explain the working of two different types of quick return mechanisms.


Derive an expression' for the ratio of time taken in forward and return
stroke for one of these mechanisms.
(16)
Or

(b)

Sketch and explain any three kinematic inversion of four-bar

chain.

35
35

12. . (a)

(i)

Derive an expression for the relationship between the angular


velocities of links in terms of known link lengths, angular positions
of links and angular velocity of input link, for a four-bar linkage. (6)

(ii)

In a slider crank mechanism, the length. of crank OB and


connecting rod AB are 125 mm and 500 mm respectively. The
centre of gravity G of the. connecting rod is 275 mm from the
slider A. The crank speed is 600 rpm clockwise. When the crank has
turned 45 from the inner dead centre position, determine velocity
of the slider A, Velocity of the point G and Angular velocity of the
connecting rod AB
(10)
Or

13.

(1)

By analytical method, Derive the velocity


reciprocating steam engine mechanism.

(a)

A cam is designed for a knife edge follower with following data:

= 40 mm

and acceleration for the

(i)

Cam lift

during 90 of cam rotation with SHM

(ii)

Dwell for the next 30

(iii)

During the next 60 of cam rotation, the follower returns to original


position with SHM

(iv)

Dwell for the remaining 180

Draw the profile of the cam when the line of stroke is offset 20 mm from
the axis of the cam shaft.
(b)

14.

(a)

Or
In a cam with translating roller follower, the follower axis is offset to the
right of Cam hinge by 12 mm. The roller radius is 10 mm and the cam
rotates in the counter clock-wise direction. Layout the rise portion of the
cam profile to meet the following specifications: Rise takes place during
180 of cam rotation of which for. the first 90 the rise is with constant
acceleration and the rest is with constant retardation. Take seven station
points only. The lift of the cam is 30 rom and 'the least radius of the cam
is 25 mm.
Two gear wheels mesh externally to give a velocity ratio of 3 to 1. The
involute teeth has 6 mm module and 20 pressure angle. Addendum is
equal to one module. The pinion rotates at 90 rpm. Determine
(i)

Number of teeth on pinion to avoid interference


corresponding number on the wheel;

and

the
(4)

(ii)

The length of path and are of contact

(4)

(iii)

Contact ratio and

(4)

(iv) The maximum velocity of sliding.

(4)

Or
(b)

(i)

Derive an expression to determine the length of path of contact


between two spur gears of different size.
(10)

(ii)

Briefly explain the sub-classification of compound gear trains with


neat sketches.
(6)
2

51622

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36

15. . (a)

Two pulleys, one 450 mm diameter and the other 200 mm diameter are in
parallel shafts 1. 95 m apart and are connected by a crossed belt. Find the
length of the belt required and the angle of contact between the belt and
each pulley. What power can be transmitted by the belt when the larger
pulley rotates at 200 rpm if the maximum permissible tension in the belt
is 1 kN and tbe co-efficient of friction between the belt and pulley is
0,25?
(16)
Or

(b)

(i)

Derive an expression for the effort required


screw jack taking friction into consideration.

to raise a load with


(8)

(ii)

A 150 mtn diameter value, against a steam pressure of 2 MN/m2 is


acting, is closed by means
of a square
threaded screw
50 mm in' external diameter with 6 mill. pitch. If the co-efficient of
friction is 0.12, find torque required to turn the handle.
(8)

..

51622

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37

ME6401- Kinematics of Machinery

UNIT 1 - BASICS OF MECHANISMS


Part A questions:
1. What is Kinematics?
Kinematics is the study of motion (position, velocity, acceleration). A major goal of
Understanding kinematics is to develop the ability to design a system that will satisfy
Specified motion requirements. This will be the emphasis of this class.

2. What is Kinetics?
Kinetics is the study of effect of forces on moving bodies. Good kinematic design
should produce good kinetics.

3. Define Link.
A link is defined as a member or a combination of members of a mechanism
connecting other members and having relative motion between them. The link may
consist of one or more resistant bodies. A link may be called as kinematic link or
element. Eg: Reciprocating steam engine.

4. Define Kinematic Pair.


Kinematic pair is a joint of two links having relative motion between them. The types
of kinematic pair are classified according to
Nature of contact (lower pair, higher pair)
Nature of mechanical contact (Closed pair, unclosed pair)
Nature of relative motion (Sliding pair, turning pair, rolling pair, screw pair,
spherical pair)

5. Define Kinematic Chain


When the kinematic pairs are coupled in such a way that the last link is joined to the
first link to transmit definite motion it is called a kinematic chain.
Eg: The crank shaft of an engine forms a kinematic pair with the bearings which are
fixed in a pair, the connecting rod with the crank forms a second kinematic pair, the
piston with the connecting rod forms a third pair and the piston with the cylinder
forms the fourth pair. The total combination of these links is a kinematic chain. Eg:
Lawn mower.

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6. Define Degrees of Freedom.


It is defined as the number of input parameters which must be independently
controlled in order to bring the mechanism in to useful engineering purposes.
It is also defined as the number of independent relative motions, both translational
and rotational, a pair can have.

7. Define Pantograph.
Pantograph is used to copy the curves in reduced or enlarged scales. Hence this
mechanism finds its use in copying devices such as engraving or profiling machines.

8. What is meant by spatial mechanism?


Spatial mechanism have a geometric characteristics in that all revolute axes are
parallel and perpendicular to the plane of motion and all prism lie in the plane of
motion.

9. Classify the Constrained motion?


Constrained motions are classified into three types
1. Completely constrained motion.
2. Incompletely constrained motion.
3. Successfully constrained motion.

10. What is Toggle position?


It is the position of a mechanism at which the mechanical advantage is infinite and
the sine of angle between the coupler and driving link is zero.

11. What are the important applications of a single slider crank mechanism?
1. Rotary or Gnome engine.
2. Crank and slotted lever mechanism.
3. Oscillating cylinder engine.
4. Bull engine and
5. Hand pump.

12. Give some examples for kinematic pairs.


1. Crank and connecting rod,
2. Connecting rod and piston rod, and
3. Piston and engine cylinder.

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13. What is meant by transmission angle?


In a four bar chain mechanism, the angle between the coupler and the follower
(driven) link is called as the transmission angle.

14. What are the applications of inversion of double slider crank chain mechanism?
It consists of two sliding pairs and two turning pairs. There are three important
inversions of double slider crank chain. 1) Elliptical trammel. 2) Scotch yoke
mechanism. 3) Oldhams coupling. Give some examples for kinematic pairs.

15. Write down the Grashofs law for a four bar mechanism?
Grashofs law states that the sum of the shortest and longest links cannot be greater
than the sum of the remaining two links lengths, if there is to be continuous relative
motion between two members.

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40

UNIT 2 - KINEMATICS OF MOTION


Part A questions:
1. What are the important concepts in velocity analysis?
1. The absolute velocity of any point on a mechanism is the velocity of that point with
reference to ground.
2. Relative velocity describes how one point on a mechanism moves relative to
another point on the mechanism.

2. Define Instantaneous centre.


Instantaneous centre of a moving body may be defined as that centre which goes on
changing from one instant to another.

3. Define Instantaneous centre


Instantaneous axis is a line drawn through an instantaneous centre and
perpendicular to the plane of motion.

4. How to represent the direction of linear velocity of any point on a link with respect to
another point on the same link?
The direction of linear velocity of any point on a link with respect to another point on
the same link is perpendicular to the line joining the points.

5. Define Kennedys theorem.


The Kennedys theorem states that if three bodies move relatively to each other, they
have three instantaneous centers and lie on a straight line.

6. Define displacement.
It may be defined as the distance moved by a body with respect to a fixed certain
fixed point. When there is no displacement in a body it is said to be at rest and when
it is being displaced, it is said to be in motion.

7. What are the types of motions?


1. Rectilinear motion.
2. Curvilinear motion.
3. Circular motion.

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41

8. What are the methods for determining the velocity of a body?


Important methods for determining the velocity of a body are:
1. Graphical method: i) Relative velocity method
ii) Instantaneous centre method
2. Analytical method.

9. Define velocity.
Velocity may be defined as the rate of change of displacement of a body with respect
to the time. Since the velocity has both magnitude and direction, therefore it is a
vector quantity.

10. Define speed.


Speed may be defined as the rate of change of linear displacement of a body with
respect to the time. Since the speed is irrespective of its direction, therefore it is a
scalar quantity.

11. What is deceleration?


The negative acceleration is also known as deceleration or retardation.

12. Define Acceleration.


The rate of change of velocity with respect to time is known as acceleration.
13. Define coincident points.
When a point on one link is sliding along another rotating link, then the point is known
as coincident point.

14. Define centrode.


The locus of all instantaneous centres (i.e., I1, I2,) is known as centrode.
15. Define Axode.
The locus of all instantaneous axis is known as axode.

16. Define Body centrode.


The locus of all instantaneous centre relative to the body itself is called the body
centrode.

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42

UNIT 3 - KINEMATICS OF CAMS


Part A questions:
1. What is cam?
A cam is a rotating machine element which gives reciprocating (or) oscillating motion
to another element known as follower

2. Define tangent cam?


When the flanks of the cam are straight and tangential to the base circle and nose
circle, the cam is known as tangent cam.

3. Distinguish radial and cylindrical cams.


Radial cam

Cylindrical cam

In this cam, the follower reciprocates (or) oscillates

In this the follower reciprocates (or) oscillates in a

in a direction perpendicular to the axis.

direction parallel to the cam axis.

4. What are the different motions of the follower?


(i) Uniform motion,
(ii) Simple harmonic motion,
(iii) Uniform acceleration and retardation, and
(iv) Cycloidal motion.

5. Compare Roller and mushroom follower of a cam.


S.No
1.

2.

Roller Follower

Mushroom Follower

Roller followers are extensively used where

The mushroom followers are generally used

more space is available.

where space is limited.

It is used in stationary gas engines, oil engines

It is used in cams which operate the valves in

and aircraft valves in engines.

automobile engines.

6. Explain offset follower.


When the motion of the follower is along an axis away from the axis of the cam
centre, it is called offset follower.

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43

7. Define trace point in the study of cams.


It is a reference point on the follower and is used to generate the pitch curve. In case
of knife edge follower the knife edge represents the trace point and the pitch curve
corresponds to the cam profile. In a roller follower the centre of the roller represents
the trace point.

8. Define pressure angle with respect to cams.


It is the angle between the direction of the follower motion and a normal to the pitch
curve. This angle is very important in designing a cam profile. If the pressure angle is
too large, a reciprocating follower will jam in its bearings.

9. Define Lift (or) Stroke in cam.


It is the maximum travel of the follower from its lowest position to the topmost
position.

10. Define undercutting in cam. How is occurs?


The cam profile must be continuous curve without any loop. If the curvature of the
pitch curve is too sharp, then the part of the cam shape would be lost and thereafter
the intended cam motion would not be achieved. Such a cam is said to be undercut.
Undercutting occurs in the cam because of attempting to achieve too great a follower
lift with very small cam rotation with a smaller cam.

11. What do you know about Nomogram?


In Nomogram, by knowing the values of total lift of the follower (L) and the cam
rotation angle () for each segment of the displacement diagram, we can read
directly the maximum pressure angle occurring n the segment for a particular choice
of prime circle radius (R0).

12. What are the classifications of cam based on the follower movement?
1) Rise-Return-Rise (R-R-R) cams,
2) Dwell-Rise-Return-Dwell (D-R-R-D) cams,
3) Dwell-Rise-Dwell-Return-Dwell (D-R-D-R-D) cams,
4) Dwell-Rise-Dwell (D-R-D) cams.

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44

13. What are the different types of cams?


1. Wedge (or) flat cams
2. Radial (or) Disc cams
3. Spiral cams
4. Cylindrical (or) Barrel (or) Drum Cams
5. Conjugate cams
6. Globoidal cams
7. Spherical cams

14. What do you know about gravity cam?


In this type, the rise of the cam is achieved by the rising surface of the cam and the
return by the force of gravity of die to the weight of the cam.

15. Define Trace point.


It is a reference point on the follower to trace the cam profile. In case of a knife edge
follower, the knife edge itself is a tracing point and in roller follower, the centre of the
roller is the tracing point.

16. Define pressure angle.


It is the angle between the direction of the follower motion and a normal to the pitch
curve. This is very important in cam design as it represents steepness of the cam
profile. If the pressure angle is too large, a reciprocating follower will jam in its
bearings.

17. Define Prime circle.


The smallest circle drawn tangent to the pitch curve is known as the prime circle.

18. Define Angle of Ascent.


The angle of rotation of cam from the position when the follower begins to rise till it
reaches its highest position is known as angle of ascent. It is also known as out
stroke and is denoted by 0.
19. What is meant by Simple Hormonic Motion?
When a body rotates on a circular path with uniform angular velocity, its projection on
the diameter will have simple harmonic motion. The velocity of the projection will be
maximum at the centre of and zero at the ends of the diameter. In case of

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45

acceleration and retardation, the values will be zero at the centre and maximum at
the ends of diameter.

20. What are the different shapes of high speed cams?


1. Circular Arc cam with flat faced follower
2. Tangent cam with reciprocating roller follower

21. Define cam angle.


It is the angle of rotation of the cam for a definite displacement of the follower.

22. What are the classifications of follower based on the follower movement?
i)

Reciprocating (or) translating follower.

ii)

Oscillating (or) rotating follower.

23. Define Pitch curve.


The locus of the tracing point is known as the pitch curve. For the purpose of laying
out the cam profiles, it is assumed that the cam is fixed and the follower rotates
around it.

24. What are the classifications of the follower based on the path of motion of the
follower?
a) Radial follower.
b) Offset follower.

25. What are the classifications of cam base on the constraint of the follower?
a) Pre-loaded spring cams.
b) Positive drive cams.
c) Gravity cams.

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46

UNIT 4 - GEARS
Part A questions:
1. State law of Gearing.
The law of gearing states that for obtaining a constant velocity ratio, at any instant of
teeth the common normal at each point of contact should always pass through a
pitch point, situated on the line joining the centre of rotation of the pair of mating
gears.
2. Define normal and axial pitch in helical gears.
Normal pitch is the distance between similar face of adjacent teeth, along a helix on
the pitch cylinder normal to the teeth.
Axial pitch is the distance measured parallel to the axis between similar faces of a
adjacent teeth.
3. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?

max =

1-sin/1+sin

4. What are the advantages and limitations of gear drive? Write any two.
Advantages:
1. Since there is no slip, so exact velocity ratio is obtained.
2. It is more efficient and effective means of power transmission.
Limitations:
1. Manufacture of gear is complicated.
2. The error in cutting teeth may cause vibration and noise during operation.
5. Define interference.
The phenomenon when the tip of tooth undercuts the roots on its mating gear is
known as interference.

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6. Define cycloidal tooth profile and involute tooth profile.


A cycloid is the curve traced by a point on the circumference of a circle which rolls
without slipping on a fixed straight line.
Involute profile is defined as the locus of a point on a straight line which rolls without
slipping on the circumference of a circle.
7. Define circular pitch and diametral pitch in spur gears.
Circular pitch (pc) : It is the distance measured along the circumference of the pitch
circle from a point on one teeth to the corresponding point on the adjacent tooth.

pc=D/T
Diametral pitch (pD) : It is the ratio of number of teeth to the pitch circle diameter.

PD=T/D=/pc
8. Define Backslash.
It is the difference between the tooth space and the tooth thickness along the pitch
circle.
Backslash = Tooth space Tooth thickness
9. What is gear train of train of wheels?
Two or more gears re made to mesh with each other to transmit power from one shaft
to another. Such a combination is called a gear train or train of wheels.
10. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
Speed of last follower - Product of teeth on drivers
Speed of first driver Product of teeth on followers.
11. Define simple gear train.
When there is only one gear on each shaft, it is known as simple gear train.
12. What is reverted gear train?
When the axes of the first and last wheels are co-axial, the train is known as reverted
gear train.

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48

13. Where the epicyclic gear trains are used?


The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the
automobiles, pulley blocks, wrist watches, etc.
14. Write down the difference between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
S.No
1.

Involute Tooth Profile

Cycloidal Tooth Profile

Variation in centre distance does not

The centre distance should not vary.

affect the velocity ratio.


2.

Pressure angle remains constant

Pressure angle varies. It is zero at the pitch

throughout the teeth.

point and maximum at the start and


end of engagement.

3.

Interference occurs.

No interference occurs.

4.

Weaker teeth.

Stronger teeth.

15. Define Contact Ratio.


It is the ratio of the length of arc contact to the circular pitch is known as contact ratio.
The value gives the number of pairs of teeth in contact.
16. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
It is the angle between the common normal to two gear teeth at the point of contact
and the common tangent at the pitch point. It is called as pressure angle.

17. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.


When the non-parallel (or) intersecting but coplanar shafts connected by gears, they
are called bevel gears and the arrangement is bevel gearing. It is of two types
namely skew bevel gearing and spiral gearing.

18. What are the methods to avoid interference?


1. The height of the teeth may be reduced.
2. The pressure angle may be increased.
3. The radial flank of the pinion may be cut back (undercutting).

19. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing
gears?

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49

When arc of recess equal to arc of approach, the work wasted by friction is minimum
and efficiency of drive is maximum.

20. What do you know about tumbler gear?


Tumbler gears are those which are used in lathes for reversing the direction of
rotation of driven gears.

21. What you meant by non-standard gear teeth?


The gear tooth obtained by modifying the standard proportions of gear teeth
parameters is known as non- standard gear teeth.

22. What is meant by compound gear train?


When there are more than one gear on shaft, it is called a compound gear train.

23. What is the advantage of a compound gear train over a simple gear train?
The advantage of a compound gear train over a simple gear train is that a much
larger speed reduction from the first shaft to the last shaft can be obtained with small
gears.

24. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
Two methods are:
1) Tabulation method.
2) Algebraic method.

25. What is the externally applied torques used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
1) Impart torque on the driving member.
2) Resisting or holding torque on the driven member.
3) Holding or braking torque on the fixed member.

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50

UNIT 5 - FRICTION
Part A questions:
1 .What is meant by slope of a thread?
It is the inclination of the thread with horizontal.
Slope of thread = tan-1 [Lead screw/Circumference of screw]
2. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
1. If limiting angle of friction () is equal to tan-1 ,then the body will move over the plane
irrespective of the magnitude of the force (F) (Limiting force of friction).
2. If <tan-1 , then no motion of body on plane is possible irrespective of how large the
magnitude of F may be.
3. Define co-efficient of friction ().
It is defined as the ratio of the limiting friction (F) to the normal reaction (RN) between the
two bodies.
= Limiting force of friction/Normal reaction = F/RN
4. Differentiate coefficient of friction in square thread and V-thread.
(a) In square thread, = F/RN
(b) In V thread, 1 = /cos
Where

F = Limiting force of friction,


RN = Normal reaction, and
2 = Angle of V in a V thread.

5. What is the efficiency of inclined plane?


The efficiency of an inclined plane is defined as the ratio between effort without friction
(P0) and the effort with friction (P).
6. Why self- locking screws have lesser efficiency?
Self locking needs some friction on the thread surface of the screw and nut hence it
needs higher effort to lift a body and hence automatically the efficiency decreases.

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7. What are the functions of clutches?


1. It supplies power to the transmission system.
2. It stops the vehicle by disconnecting the engine from transmission system.
3. It is used to change the gear and idling the engine.
4. It gives gradual increment of speed to the wheels.
8. What is the difference between cone clutch and centrifugal clutch?
Cone clutch works on the principle of friction alone. But centrifugal clutch uses principle of
centrifugal force in addition with it.
9.

Why friction is called as necessary evil?


Friction is the important factor in engineering and physical applications such as belt and
ropes, jibs, clutches and brakes, nut and bolts, so it is the necessary one. If the friction
exceeds certain value it will cause heat, damage and wear when applied. So it is called
necessary evil.

10. What are the belt materials?


1. Leather,
2. Cotton or fabric,
3. Rubber,
4. Balata, and
5. Nylon.

11. State the law of belting?


Law of belting states that the centre line of the belt as it approaches the pulley must lie in
a plane perpendicular to the axis of the pulley or must lie in the plane of the pulley,
otherwise the belt will runoff the pulley.
12. What you meant by Crowing in pulley?
The process of increasing the frictional resistance on the pulley surface is known as
crowning. It is done in order to avoid slipping of the belt.

13. What is meant by initial tension in belts?


In order to increase the frictional grip between the belt and pulleys, the belts is tightened
up. Due to this the belt gets subjected to some tension even when the pulleys are
stationary. This tension in the belts is called initial tension (T0).

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52

14. List out the commonly used breaks.


1. Hydraulic brakes: e.g., Pumps or hydrodynamic brake and fluid agitator.
2. Electric brakes: e.g., Eddy current brakes.
3. Mechanical brakes: e.g., Radial brakes and axial brakes

15. What do you mean by a brake?


Brake is a device by means of which motion of a body is retarded for slowing down (or) to
bring it to rest which works on the principle of frictional force, it acts against the driving
force.

16. Explain velocity ratio.


It is defined as the ratio between velocity of the driver and the follower (or) driven.

17.

State the law of belting?


Law of belting states that the centre line of the belt as it approaches the pulley must lie in
a plane perpendicular to the axis of the pulley or must lie in the plane of the pulley,
otherwise the belt will runoff the pulley.

18. What is the centrifugal effect on belts?


During operation, as the belt passes over a pulley the centrifugal effect due to its weight
tends to lift the belt from the pulley surface. This reduces the normal reaction and hence
the frictional resistance. The centrifugal force produces additional tension in the belt.

19. Write down the disadvantage of V-belt drive over flat belt?

1. V belt cannot be used in large distance.


2. It is not as durable as flat belt.
3. Since the V belt subjected to certain amount of creep therefore it is not suitable for
constant speed applications such as synchronous machines, and timing devices.
4. It is a costlier system.

20. When is the cross belt used instead of open belt?


1. Cross belt is used where the direction of rotation of driven pulley is opposite to
driving pulley.
2. Where we need more power transmission there we can use cross belt drive.

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53

21.

Why lubrication reduces friction?


In practical all the manting surfaces are having roughness with it. It causes friction. If
the surfaces are smooth then friction is very less. Lubrication smoothens the manting
surface by introducing oil film between it. The fluids are having high smoothness then
solids and thus lubrication reduces friction.

22. What you meant by crowning in pulley?


The process of increasing the frictional resistance on the pulley surface is known as
crowning. It is done in order to avoid slipping of the belt.

23. What is meant by initial tension in belts?


In order to increase the frictional grip between the belt and pulleys, the belt is tightened
up. Due to this belt gets subjected to some tension even when the pulleys are
stationary. This tension in the belt is called initial tension (T0) .
24. Where does the P.I.V. drive system used?
P.I.V. (Positive Infinitely variable) drive is used in an infinitely varying speed system.

25. When the intensity of pressure acting brake shoe is is assumed to uniform?
The intensity of pressure is assumed to be constant when the break shoe has small
angle of contact. For large angle of contact, it is assumed that the rate of wear of the
shoe remains constant.
.

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54

KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY
UNIT I: BASICS OF MECHANISMS
PART A (2 Marks)
1. What is Grashofs law for a four bar mechanism
and give out its significance

(AU Dec 2011) (AU Dec 2009)

2. State the application of an offset slider crank mechanism.

(AU Dec 2011)

3. Explain the term kinematic link. Give the classification of kinematic link.

(AU Dec 2011)

4. Explain the term: a) Lower pair, (b) Higher pair.

(AU Apr 2011,Dec 2006)

5. Define kinematic chain & inversion of kinematic chain.

(AU Apr 2011,Dec 2006)

6. Differentiate between a machine and a mechanism.


7. Write and explain Grueblers equation.

(AU Dec 2010)


(AU Dec 2009,Dec 2010)

8. Define degree of freedom and give the DOF for a cam with
roller follower.

(AU May 2010, Dec 2009)

9. Define the terms kinematic pair and kinematic chain.

(AU May 2010)

10. List out the applications of straight line motion mechanism.

(AU May 2010)

11. State Grueblers criterion for spatial mechanisms.

(AU Dec 2009)

12. State Grueblers criterion for planar mechanisms.

(AU Dec 2008)

13. State the Kutzbach Criterion.

(AU Dec 2009, Dec 2006)

14. What is toggle position?

(AU Dec 2009)

15. Define Mechanical Advantage.

(AU Dec 2009)

16. Give any two inversions of a single slider chain.

(AU June 2009)

17. Give out inversions of a double slider crank chain.

(AU June 2007)

18. Differentiate between a machine and a structure.

(AU Dec 2007)

19. Sketch an exact straight line mechanism, with link properties.

(AU Dec 2006)

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55

PART - B (16 Marks)


1. State and explain the three inversions of a four bar chain?

(AU Dec 2011)

2. Using kutzbach Criterion, find the number of degrees of freedom of the two mechanisms
M1 & M2 shown below.

(AU Dec 2011)

3. In a crank and slotted lever quick return motion mechanism, the distance between fixed
centres is 240mm and the length of driving crank is 120mm. Find the inclination of the
slotted bar with the vertical in the extreme position and the time ratio of cutting stroke to
return stroke. If the length of the slotted is 450mm, find the length of the stroke if the line
of stroke passes through the extreme positions of free end of the lever.

(AU Dec 2011)

4. What is inversion of mechanism? Describe various inversions of


double slider crank mechanism with sketches.

(AU Dec 2011, June 2010)

5. Explain the working of toggle mechanism and its application with


a neat sketch.

(AU Dec 2010, Dec 2009)

6. Explain the working of pantograph and one indexing mechanism


with a neat sketch.

(AU Dec 2010)

7. Explain the working of any two inversions of a single slider crank


chain with neat sketches.

(AU Dec 2010, Jun2007)

8. State and explain the various inversions of four bar


chain mechanism.

(AU Jun 2010, Dec 2007)

9. Explain with neat sketch the working of crank and slotted lever
quick return motion mechanism. Deduce the expression for length
of stroke in terms of link lengths.

(AU Jun 2010)

10. Perform kinematic analysis of following exact straight line


motion mechanisms:

(AU Jun 2010)

(a) Peaucelliers mechanism


(b) Harts Mechanism
11. Define Kinematic pair and discuss various types of kinematic
pairs with example.

(AU Dec 2009, Jun2007)

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56

12. Draw a neat sketch and explain any one approximate straight
line generating mechanism.

(AU Dec 2009)

13. With a neat sketch, explain the Ackermann steering gear


of an automobile.

(AU Dec 2009, Dec 2006)

14. State and explain Whitworth quick return mechanism. Also derive
an equation for ratio of time taken for return strokes and forward strokes. (AU Dec 2009)
15. Define transmission angle. Sketch a drag-link mechanism in
maximum transmission angle positions and explain.

(AU Dec 2009)

(a) Explain the Indexing mechanism


16. mechanism in kinematics point of view.

(AU Dec 2008)

(b) Ratchet and Pawl Mechanism


17. State and prove the kutzbach criteria for following kinematic chains.

(AU Dec 2008)

(a)Cam with roller follower


(b) Three bar chain
(c) Four bar chain
18. Discuss and explain about the straight line generators.

(AU Dec 2006)

19. Explain the following

(AU Dec 2006)

(a) Mechanical advantage


(b) Grashoffs law
(c) Mobility of a mechanism

57
57

UNIT 2 - KINEMATIC ANALYSIS


PART A (2 Marks)
1. For what kind of relative motion, the Coriolis component of acceleration occurs?
Sketch the links to illustrate.

(AU Dec 2011)

2. State the relationship between crank angle and connecting rod angle
of a single slider crank mechanism.

(AU Dec 2011)

3. What is Coriolis component of acceleration?

(AU Dec 2011)(AU Dec 2010)

4. Draw a sketch to explain how total acceleration of a link is obtained.

(AU Dec 2010)

5. A slider sliding at 100 mm/sec on a link, which is rotating at 60 rpm


is subjected to coriolis acceleration. Find its magnitude.
6. Define Rubbing velocity.

(AU May 2010)


(AU May 2010) (AU May 2007)

7. Name two mechanisms; one where Coriolis acceleration is encountered


and another where Coriolis acceleration is not encountered.

(AU May 2010)

8. How the direction of the angular velocity of the connecting rod is


found out during velocity analysis of a reciprocating engine mechanism
by graphical method.

(AU May 2010)

9. What is meant by virtual centre?

(AU Dec 2009)

10. Draw an acceleration polygon for a crank rotating at an angular


speed of rad/sec and angular acceleration of rad/sec2.

(AU May 2009)

11. Explain how the direction of coriolis acceleration is obtained. (AU May2009, Dec 2008)
12. Define instantaneous centre of velocity.

(AU June 2007)

13. Explain the normal centre of acceleration.

(AU Dec 2006)

14. Write the condition for Coriolis component of acceleration.

(AU Dec 2006)

15. Illustrate the instantaneous centers of a typical four bar.

(AU Jun 2006)

16. What type of link will have only centripetal component of acceleration
and what types of link will have only linear acceleration.

(AU Jun 2006)

PART - B (16 Marks)


1. A link AB of a four bar linkage ABCD revolves uniformly at 120rpm in a clockwise
direction. Given AB=75mm, BC=175mm, CD=150mm,DA=100mm and angle BAD equal
to 90.AD is fixed link. Using graphical approach, find the angular accelerations of links
BC and CD and acceleration of point E on the link BC, if EC = 150mm.

(AU Dec 2011)

58
58

2. The lengths of crank and connecting rod of a horizontal reciprocating engine are 100mm
and 500mm respectively. The crank is rotating at 400rpm. When the crank has turned
30 from the inner dead centre, find analytically, the angular velocity and angular
acceleration of the connecting rod.

(AU Dec 2011)

3. The following data refers to the lengths of links of a six link mechanism in which the
rotary motion of input link 2 is transformed to horizontal linear motion of output slider 6.
Fixed Link 1, A0B0 -= 60mm, Input link2, AoAr=25mm, Coupler link 3, AB=85mm,
Follower link4, BB0=55mm, Connecting rod5, CD = 60mm.
The pin joint C is at the centre of link BB0.The horizontal line of stroke of the slider passes
through the fixed link pivots A0 and B0. B0A0A is 60.

(AU May 2011)

In this position
(i)

Sketch the mechanism and indicate the data.

(ii) Draw the velocity diagram and determine the linear velocity of the slider, if the input link
constant speed is 2 rad/s clockwise.
(iii) Draw the acceleration diagram and determine the linear acceleration of the slider, which
is connected at one end of the connecting rod, CD.
4. A mechanism of a crank and slotted lever quick return mechanism is shown in Fig 1. If
the crank rotates counter clockwise at 120rpm. Determine for the Configuration shown,
the velocity and acceleration of ram D.

(AU May 2011)

Also determine the angular acceleration of the slotted lever. Crank, AB=150mm; Slotted
arm , OC = 700mm and link CD = 200mm.

59
59

5. For the mechanism shown in FIG below, determine the velocity of slider 6 and that of
link 3 & 4.

(AU May 2011)

6. For the slider crank mechanism shown in fig below, determine (i) the acceleration of
slider B and (ii) acceleration of point C. The crank OA rotates at 180 rpm. OA = 500mm,
AB = 1500mm & AC =250mm.

(AU May 2011)

7. The mechanism of a warping machine is shown in figure below. Various dimensions are
as follows: O1A = 100m; AC = 700mm ; BC = 200mm ; BD = 150mm; O2D =200mm;
O2E = 400mm, O3C = 200mm. the crank O1A rotates at a uniform speed of 100rad/sec.
Determine

(AU May 2010) (AU May 2007)

(i)Linear velocity of the point E on the bell crank lever


(ii) Angular velocity of link AC & BD.
(iii)Acceleration of the points B & E.

60
60

8. In a slider crank mechanism, the length of the crank is 200mm and length of connecting
rod 825mm. the angular velocity and acceleration of crank is 60rad/s and 1100 rad/s2.
When the crank has turned 120from the inner dead centre, find :

(AU Dec 2009)

(a) The velocity and acceleration of piston


(b) Angular velocity and acceleration of connecting rod.
9. A four bar chain mechanism ABCD with its dimensions is shown in fig below. It is drive
n by the crank AB which rotates at 600 rpm in clockwise direction. The link AD is fixed.
Find the absolute velocity of point C and angular velocity of the links CB and CD.
(AU Dec 2009)

10. In a simple steam engine, the lengths of the crank and the connecting rod are 100mm
and 400mm respectively. The weight of the connecting rod is 50 kg and its centre of
mass is 220mm from the cross head centre. The radius of gyration about the centre of
the mass is 120mm. If the engine speed is 300rpm and the crank has turned 45from
IDC, determine :

(AU Dec 2009) (AU Dec 2006)

(i) The angular velocity and acceleration of the connecting rod


(ii) Kinetic energy of the connecting rod.
11. PQRS is a four bar chain with fixed link PS. The lengths of links are: PQ = 62.5mm,
QR=175mm, RS=112.5mm and PS = 200mm. The crank PQ rotates at 10 rad/s
clockwise. Draw the velocity and acceleration diagram when angle QPS =60 and find
the angular velocity and angular acceleration of the link QR & RS.

(AU Dec 2009)

12. A slider crank mechanism has a crank of 30mm length and connecting rod 50mm length.
The angular velocity of the crank is 10rad/sec (ccw).The angular acceleration of the
crank is 1200 rad/sec2 .The crank makes an angle of 90 with the line of stroke.
Determine acceleration of slider, angular acceleration of connecting rod. (AU Dec 2008)
13. Derive the expression for determining the angular position of the coupler link and the
output link of the four bar mechanism.

(AU Dec 2008)

61
61

14. The driving crank AD of the quick-return mechanism, as

shown in figure below ,

revolves at a uniform speed of 200 r.p.m. Find the velocity and acceleration of the toolbox R, in the position shown in figure below, when the crank makes an angle

of

60with the vertical line PA.What is the acceleration of sliding of the block at B along the
slotted lever PQ?

(AU Dec 2007)

15. In a Whitworth quick return mechanism, as shown in figure, crank OA rotates at 30 rpm
in clockwise direction. The dimensions of various links are OA = 150 mm, OC = 100 mm,
CD = 125 mm and DR = 500 mm. Determine the acceleration of the sliding block R and
the angular acceleration of the slotted lever BD.

(AU Dec 2007)

16. For the toggle mechanism as shown in figure, the slider D is constrained to move along
horizontal direction. The crank rotates at 180 rpm. The dimensions of various links are
as follows. OA = 180 mm; CB = 240 mm; AB = 360 mm; BD = 540 mm. For the given
configuration determine (i) the velocity and acceleration of the slider (ii) angular velocity
and angular acceleration of links AB, BC and BD.

(AU June 2006)

62
62

UNIT 3 - KINEMATICS OF CAMS


PART A (2 Marks)
1. Sketch the shapes of displacement, velocity and acceleration diagrams for uniform
acceleration and retardation motion of a follower.

(AU Dec 2011)

2. Why sometimes the axes of translating roller followers, in cam follower


mechanisms are offset form the axis of rotation of cam.

(AU Dec 2011)

3. Define pressure angle of cam mechanism and state the best


values of pressure angle

(AU Dec 2011) (AU Dec 2009)

4. State the advantage of a tangent cam.

(AU Dec 2011)

5. Define tangential cam.

(AU Dec 2010)

6. Define undercutting in a cam mechanism.

(AU Dec 2010) (AU Dec 2009)

7. What are the different types of follower motions used in


cam follower mechanism?

(AU Dec 2010)

8. What is cam?

(AU Jun 2010)

9. What is dwell period of cam?

(AU Jun 2010)

10. Name any two types of cams with specified contours.

(AU May 2010)

11. What are the different of motion with which a follower can move?

(AU May 2010)

12. Define the term pressure angle of a cam mechanism.

(AU May 2010)

13. How the maximum velocity of the follower of a cam mechanism is


found out during the lift which takes place with simple harmonic motion? (AU May 2010)
14. Why is roller follower extensively used?

(AU Dec 2009)

15. Why is roller follower preferred to knife edge follower?

(AU Dec 2009)

16. What is the follower motion used for high speed cams? Why?

(AU Jun 2009)

17. Draw atleast four types of a cam with followers

(AU Dec 2008)

18. Define pitch curve of the cam.

(AU Dec 2008)

19. What is a circular arc cam?

(AU May 2008)

20. Construct the displacement diagram for the follower motion to be cycloid.(AU May 2008)
21. What are the classifications of cams based on contact surfaces?

(AU Dec 2007)

22. State the basic requirements for high speed cams.

(AU Dec 2007)

23. Sketch the displacement, velocity and acceleration diagram


when a follower moves with uniform velocity.
24. What the advantages of roller follower than knife edge follower?

(AU Dec 2006)


(AU Dec 2006)

63
63

PART - B (16 Marks)


1. A cam with a minimum radius of 25mm and rotating in the CW direction, is to be
designed for a knife edge follower with the following Data:
-

Ascent of the follower through 35mm during 60cam rotation;

Dwell for next 40of the cam rotation ;

Descent of the follower during the next 90 of the cam rotation;

Dwell during rest of cam rotation.

(AU Dec 2011)

The ascent and descent of the cam are with simple harmonic motion and the line of
stroke of the follower is offset 10mm from axis of cam shaft.
(i) Draw the displacement diagram
(ii) Draw the profile of the cam.
(iii) What is the maximum velocity and acceleration of the follower during the ascent and
descent if cam rotates at 150 rpm?
2. The following particulars relate to a symmetrical circular cam operating a flat faced
follower ; least radius =25mm, nose radius = 8mm, lift of the valve = 10mm, Angle of
action of cam = 120, cam shaft speed =1000rpm

(AU Dec 2011)

(i) Find the flank radius


(ii) Determine maximum value of velocity, acceleration and retardation of follower.
(iii) Draw the profile of the cam.
3. A cam with 30mm as minimum diameter is rotating clockwise at a uniform
speed of 1200rpm and has to give the following motion to a roller follower
10mm in diameter:
(i)

(AU Apr 2011)

Follower to complete outward stroke of 25mm during 120 of cam rotation with
equal uniform acceleration and retardation.

(ii)

Follower to dwell for 60of cam rotation.

(iii)

Follower to return to its initial position during 90of cam rotation with equal
uniform acceleration and retardation.

(iv)

Follower to dwell for remaining 90of cam rotation.

Draw the cam profile if the axis of the roller follower passes through the axis of the cam.
4. Draw the cam profile for the following data:

(AU Dec 2010)

Basic circle radius of cam = 50mm, Lift = 40mm, Angle of ascent with cycloidal = 60,
angle of dwell = 90, angle of descent with uniform velocity = 90, speed of cam =
300rpm, Follower offset = 10mm, Type of follower = knife Edge.

64
64

5. In a symmetrical tangent cam operating a roller follower, the least radius of the cam
30mm and the roller radius is 15mm, the angular of assent is 75and the total lift is
20mm. The speed of the cam is 600 rpm. Calculate :

(AU Dec 2010)

(I)The principal dimensions of the cam.


(II)The acceleration of the follower at the beginning of lift, where straight flank merges
into the circular nose and at apex of the nose.
6. Draw the cam profile for the following data:

(AU Dec 2010)

Basic circle radius of cam = 50mm, Lift = 40mm, Angle of ascent with SHM = 90, Angle
of Dwell = 90, Angle of descent with uniform acceleration and deceleration = 90, speed
of cam = 300 rpm, Type of follower = Roller follower (With roller radius = 10mm).
7. Construct a tangent cam and mention the important terminologies on it. Also derive the
expression for displacement, velocity and acceleration of a reciprocating roller follower
when the roller has contact with the nose.

(AU May2010)

8. It is required to set out the profile of a cam to give the following motion to the
reciprocating follower with a flat mushroom contact face:

(AU May2010)

(i) Follower to have a stroke of 20mm during 120of cam rotation.


(ii) Follower to dwell for 30 of cam rotation.
(iii) Follower to return to its position during 120 of cam rotation.
(iv) Follower to dwell for the remaining period.
The minimum radius of the cam is 25mm. the outstroke of the follower is performed with
simple harmonic motion and the return stroke with uniform acceleration and retardation.
9.

A disc cam used for moving a knife edge follower with SHM during lift and uniform
acceleration and retardation motion during return. Cam rotates at 300rpm clockwise
direction. The line of motion of follower has an offset 10mm to the right angle of cam
shaft axis. The minimum radius of cam is 30mm. The lift of the follower is 40mm. The
cam rotation angles are: lift 60, dwell 90, return120and remaining angle for dwell.
Draw the cam profile and determine the maximum velocity and acceleration during the
lift and return.

(AU Dec 2009)

10. A cam is designed for a knife edge follower with following data: Cam lift = 40mm during
90 of cam rotation with SHM, dwell for next 30, during the next 60of cam rotation, the
follower returns to its original position with SHM, dwell during remaining 180. Draw the
profile of the cam when the line of stroke is offset 20mm from axis of cam shaft. The
radius of base circle of cam is 40mm.

(AU Jun 2009)

65
65

11. What is tangent cam? Derive the expression for the velocity and acceleration for a roller
follower with tangent cam.

(AU Dec 2009)

12. Draw a cam profile for operating the exhaust valve of an oil engine .It is required to give
equal uniform acceleration and retardation during opening and closing of the valve each
of which corresponds to 60of cam rotation. The valve must remain in the fully open
position for 20of cam rotation. The valve is 37.5mm and least radius of cam is 40mm.
The follower is provided with a roller of radius 20mm and its line of stroke passes
through the axis of the cam.

(AU Jun 2009)

13. A symmetrical circular cam opening a flat faced follower has the following particulars:
(AU Dec 2008)
Minimum radius of the cam = 30mm; Total lift= 20mm; Angle of lift=75;
Nose radius =5mm; Speed = 600rpm.
Determine: (i) The principal dimensions of the cam.
(ii) Acceleration of the follower at the beginning of lift, at the end of contact
with the circular flank, at the beginning of contact with nose and at the
apex of the nose.
14. A cam drives a flat reciprocating follower in the following manner:

(AU Dec 2007)

(i)Follower moves outwards through a distance of 20mm with SHM during first 120of
cam rotation.
(ii) Follower dwells during next 30 of cam rotation.
(iii)Follower moves inwards with SHM for next 120 of cam rotation.
(iv)The follower dwells for the remaining period.
Draw the profile of the cam, when minimum radius of cam is 25mm. Also calculate the
maximum velocity and acceleration during outward and inward motion of the follower
when the cam rotates with 200 rpm.
15. Construct a tangent cam and mention the important terminologies on it. Also derive the
expression for displacement, velocity, acceleration of a reciprocating roller follower when
the roller has contact with the nose.

(AU Dec 2006)

66
66

UNIT 4 - GEARS
PART A (2 Marks)
1. Define the following terms used in a gear: (a) Pressure angle (b) Module. (AU Dec 2011)
2. What are the advantages of planetary gear trains?
3. State the law of gearing.

(AU Dec 2011)

(AU Dec 2011) (AU June 2010) (AU Dec 2009)

4. What is interference in involute gear and


how it is prevented?

(AU Dec 2011) (AU Dec 2009) (AU May 2008)

5. What is the difference between simple gear


train and compound gear train?

(AU Dec 2011) (AU June 2010)

6. What is the significance of contact ratio in gears?

(AU Dec 2010)

7. What are the advantages of epicyclic gear train?

(AU Dec 2010) (AU May2007)

8. What is meant by diametral pitch of gear wheel?

(AU June 2010)

9. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?

(AU May2010) (AU May2007)

10. What is the role of idlers in gear trains?

(AU May2010)

11. Name two curves for use as gear profile, which satisfy the law of gearing. (AU May2010)
12. What is a worm gear drive? Explain with a sketch.

(AU May2010)

13. What are the advantages and disadvantages of


involute gear tooth profile?

(AU May2009)

14. What are the applications of reverted gear trains?

(AU May2009)

15. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

(AU Dec 2008)

16. Define undercutting in gears

(AU May 2008)

17. Define the following terms used in gears: (a) Pitch circle ,
(b) Circular pitch, (c) Diametral pitch and (d) Module.

(AU May2007)

PART - B (16 Marks)

1. Two involute gears of 20 pressure angle are in mesh. The number of teeth on pinion is
20 and the gear ratio is 2. If the pitch expressed in module is 5 mm, and the pitch line
speed is 1.2 m/s, assuming addendum as standard and equal to one module, find (i) the
angle turned through by pinion when one pair of teeth is in mesh; and (ii) the maximum
velocity of sliding.

(AU Dec 2011)

67
67

2. An epicyclic gear train shown in figure below.

(AU Dec 2011)

The internal gear D has 90 teeth and the sun gear A has 40 teeth. The two planet gears B
& C are identical and they are attached to an arm as shown. How many revolutions does
the arm makes,
(i)

WhenA makes one revolution in clockwise and D , makes one revolution in


clockwise and D makes revolutions in opposite sense.

(ii)

When A makes one revolution in clockwise and D remains stationary.

3. (i) State and prove the law of gearing and thus derive the expression for Velocity of
sliding.

(AU Dec 2011) (AU May 2010)

(ii)Show that the involute curves as the profiles of mating gears satisfy the law of gearing.
4. Two planet gears B & C having 30 teeth each are attached to the arm E as shown in
figure below and gear A is having 40 teeth instead of 50 , then find the number of
revolutions made by the arm, when:
(i)Gear A makes one revolution clockwise and D makes half a revolution anticlockwise.
(ii)Gear A makes one revolution clockwise and D is stationary.

(AU Dec 2010)

68
68

5. The pressure angle of two gears is 20 and has a module of 10mm. The number of teeth
on pinion and gear is same and equal to one module. Determine (i) the number of pairs
of teeth in contact and (ii) the angle of action of pinion and gear and the ratio of sliding to
rolling velocity at the beginning of contact. The pitch circle diameter of the annular gear
in the epicyclic gear train in fig below is 425mm and the module is 5mm. when the
annular gear 3 is stationary, the spindle a makes one revolution in the same sense as
the sun gear 1 for every 6 revolutions of the driving spindle carrying the sun gear . All the
planet gears are of same size. Determine number of teeth on all gears.(AU Dec 2010)

6. Prove that the maximum lengths of arc of contact between a pair of gear tooth to avoid
interference are (r+R) tan.

(AU Dec 2010)

7. Diagrammatically show the following with reference to a spur gear tooth: Face width,
pitch circle, clearance, tooth thickness, addendum& dedendum.

(AU Dec 2010)

8. A pair of spur gears with involute teeth is to give a gear ratio 0f 3:1. The arc of approach
is not to be less than the circular pitch and smaller wheel is the driver. The angle of
pressure is 20.

(AU Dec 2009)

(i) What is the least number of teeth that can be used on each wheel?
(ii) What is the addendum of the wheel in terms of circular pitch?
9. In an epicyclic gear train, an annular wheel A having 54 teeth meshes with a planet
wheel B which gears with a sun wheel C, the wheels A and C being rotated about the
axis of the wheels A &C.If the wheel A makes 20 rpm in a clockwise sense and the arm
rotates at 100rpm in the anticlockwise direction and wheel C.

(AU Dec 2009)

10. A pinion of 20 involute teeth and 125 mm pitch circle diameter drives a rack. The
addendum of both pinion and rack is 6.25mm.What is the least pressure angle which
can be used to avoid interference? With this pressure angle , find the length of arc and
the minimum number of teeth in contact at a time.

(AU Dec 2008)

69
69

11. In an epicyclic gear train shown in fig below, the pinion A has 15 teeth and is rigidly fixed
in the motor shaft. The wheel B has 20 teeth and gears with A, and also with annular
fixed wheel D. Pinion C has 15 teeth and is integral with B(C, B being a compound gear
wheel). Gear C meshes with annular wheel E, which is keyed to the machine shaft. The
arm rotates about the same shaft on which A is fixed and carries the compound wheel BC. If the motor runs at 1000 rpm, find the speed of the machine shaft. (AU Dec 2008)

12. Derive an expression for minimum number of teeth on the wheel in order to avoid
interference

(AU Dec 2007)

13. Two mating gears have 20 and 40 involute teeth of module 10mm and 20 pressure
angle .The addendum on each wheel is to be made of such a length that the line of
contact on each side of the pitch point has half of the maximum possible length.
Determine the addendum height for each gear wheel, length of the path of contact, arc
of contact and contact ratio.

(AU Dec 2007)

14. Explain the procedure adopted for designing the spur wheels.

(AU Dec 2006)

15. A compound epicyclic gear is shown in figure below. The gears A,D & E are free to
rotate on axis P. The compound gears B & C rotate together on the axis Q at the end of
arm F.All gears have equal pitch. The number of external teeth on gears A,B of arm F.All
the gears have equal pitch. The number of external teeth on gears A, Band C are 18,45
and 21 respectively. The gears D & E are annulus gears. The gear A rotates at 100 rpm
in anticlockwise direction and gear D rotates at 450 rpm clockwise .Find the speed and
direction of the arm and the gear E.

(AU Dec 2006)

70
70

UNIT 5
FRICTION PART A
1. What is limiting angle of friction.

(AU Dec 2011)

2. State the functional difference between clutch and a brake.

(AU Dec 2011)

3. What is the difference between sliding friction and rolling


friction? Give example?

(AU Apr 2011)

4. What are the advantages of V belt drive over flat belt drive?

(AU Apr 2011)

5. State the functional difference between clutch and a brake.

(AU Apr 2011)

6. What is the role of friction in screw jack?

(AU Dec 2010)

7. What is self energizing brake?

(AU Dec 2010)

8. Write the various types of brake.

(AU Dec 2010)

9. Define sliding friction and rolling friction.

(AU Dec 2010)

10. Define virtual coefficient of friction.

(AU May 2010)

11. State the condition for maximum power transmission in a


belt drive and deduce the expression for corresponding belt velocity.

(AU Apr 2011)

12. What are self locking screws? Why self locking screws
have lesser efficiency?

(AU Dec 2009)

13. What are the functions of clutches?

(AU Dec 2009)

14. Give the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives.

(AU Dec 2009)

15. What is the apparent coefficient of friction in belt drives?

(AU Jun 2009)

16. Distinguish between sliding friction and rolling friction?

(AU Jun 2009)

17. Define the term Limiting friction.

(AU Dec 2008)

18. How centrifugal tension affects the power transmission in belt drive.

(AU Dec 2008)

19. What is creep in the case of belt?

(AU May2008)

20. Which type of screw thread is preferable in power transmission?

(AU May 2008)

21. List any four desirable characteristics of brake lining material.

(AU Dec 2007)

22. What are the advantages of wire ropes over fabric ropes?

(AU Dec 2007)

23. What are timing belts?

(AU Dec 2006)

24. Explain briefly the significance of friction in braking.

(AU Dec 2006)

PART - B (16 Marks)

1. Derive an expression for maximum efficiency of a screw jack.

(AU Dec 2011)

71
71

2. A single plate clutch has dimensions 300mm outside diameter and 100mm inside
diameter. Both side of the plate are effective. Assuming uniform wear and coefficient of
friction of 0.35, determine the maximum power that can be transmitted at 1500rpm,if the
maximum pressure on the plate is not to exceed 1 MN/m 2 .Find also the minimum
intensity of pressure and its location.

(AU Dec 2011) (AU Dec 2006)

3. Prove that the limiting ration of tensions in a flat belt drive is given by the equation

T1
= e.
T2

(AU Dec 2011)

4. A rope drive is required to transmit 230KW from a pulley of 1m diameter running at


450rpm.the safe pull in each rope is 800N and mass of the rope is 0.46Kg/m. The angle
of the lap and groove angle are 160 and 45 respectively. If the coefficient of friction
between the rope and the pulley is0.3, find the number of ropes required. (AU Dec 2011)
5. The mean diameter of the screw jack having pitch of 10mm is 50mm.A load of 20 KN is
lifted through a distance of 170mm.Find the work done in lifting the load and efficiency of
the screw jack when
(i) the load rotates with the screw.
(ii) the load rests on the the loose head which does not rotate with the screw.
The external and internal diameters of the bearing surface of the loose head are 60mm
and 10mm respectively, the coefficient of friction for the screw as well as the bearing
surface may be taken as 0.08.

(AU Dec 2011)

6. A rotor is driven by a coaxial motor through a single plate clutch, both sides of the plate
being effective .The external and internal diameters of the plate are respectively 220mm
and 160mm and the total spring load pressing the plates together is 570N.The motor
armature and shaft has a mass of 800kg with an effective radius of gyration of 200mm.
The rotor has a mass of 1300kg with an effective radius of gyration of 180mm.The
coefficient of friction for the clutch is 0.35.The driving motor is brought up to a speed of
1250rpm when the current is switched off and the clutch suddenly engaged.
(AU Dec 2011)
Determine
(i)

The final speed of motor and rotor,

(ii)

The time to reach this speed

(iii)

The kinetic energy lost during the period of slipping

72
72

7. Prove that the torque transmitted by a cone clutch, when the intensity of pressure is
uniform is given b y, T =

2 W
3
(r1
3sin

r2 3 / r1 2

r2 2 with usual notations. (AU Dec 2010)

8. An effort of 200N is required to just move certain body up an inclined plane of an angle
15, the force is acting parallel to the plane. If the angle of inclination of the plane. If the
angle of inclination of the plane is made 20, the effort required parallel to the plane is
found to be as 230N. Determine the weight of the body and the coefficient of friction.
(AU Dec 2010)
9.

A compressor 90KW to operate at 250rpm.The drive is V-belts from an electric motor


running at 750rpm.The diameter of the pulley on the compressor shaft must not be
greater than 1 meter while the center distance between the pulleys is limited to 1.75m.
The belt speed should not exceed 1600m/min.Determine the number of V belts required
to transmit the power if each belt has a cross sectional area of 375 mm2 , density 1000
kg/m3 and an allowable tensile stress of 2.5 Mpa.The groove angle of the pulley is
35.The coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley is 0.25.Also calculate the
length of each belt.

(AU Dec 2010) (AU Dec 2008)

10. What are block brakes? Derive an expression relating the applied force and breaking
torque in a block brake.

(AU May 2010) (AU Dec 2006)

11. The diameter of a block brake is 250mm. The L shaped lever has its longer arm
horizontal. The vertical distance of the pivot (of the lever) from the centre of the drum is
75mm. the horizontal distance of the pivot from the centre of the drum is 200mm.An
effort of 700N (vertical) is applied at a horizontal distance of 400mm from the pivot. The
contact angle of the block is 90 degrees. The coefficient of friction is 0.35.Determine the
breaking torque.

(AU May 2010)

12. Derive an expression for the centrifugal tension in belt drives.

(AU May 2010)

13. A pulley is driven by a flat belt, angle of lap being 120degrees.The belt weighs 6Nper
meter run. The coefficient of friction is 0.3 and maximum stress in the belt is not to
exceed 200N/cm2 . The belt is 10cm wide and 0.6 cm thick. Find the maximum power
that can be transmitted and the corresponding speed of the belt.

(AU May 2010)

14. A single plate friction clutch with both sides of plate being effective is used to transmit
power at an engine speed of 200rpm. It has outer and inner radii 10cm and 8cm
respectively. Find maximum power transmitted and the corresponding axial thrust, if the
maximum intensity of pressure is not to exceed 0.08N/mm 2 .
friction as 0.25.

Assume coefficient of
(AU Dec 2009)

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15. A flat belt runs on a pulley 1m in diameter and transmits 8kW at 200rpm. Assuming
angle of lap as 170and coefficient of friction as 0.25.Find the necessary width of belt if
the pull is not to exceed 200N/cm width of the belt.
Neglect centrifugal tension.

(AU Dec 2009)

16. Derive the condition for maximum efficiency of screw.

(AU Dec 2009)

17. A bicycle and rider of mass 100kg are travelling at the rate of 16km/hr on a level road. A
brake is applied to the rear wheel which is 0.9m in diameter and this is the only
resistance acting. How many turns will it make before it comes to rest? The pressure
applied on the brake is 100N and = 0.05

(AU Dec 2009)

18. A rope drive is required to transmit 230kw form a pulley of 1m diameter running at
450rpm.The safe pull in each rope is 800N and the mass of the rope is 0.4kg/meter
length. The angle of lap and the groove is 160and 45respectively.If = 0.3, find the
number of ropes required.

(AU Dec 2009)

19. Derive an expression for the torque required to lift a load by a screw jack, if l is the
length of the arm.

(AU Dec 2008) (AU Dec 2007)

20. A leather faced conical clutch has a cone angle of 30.If the intensity of pressure
between the contact surfaces is limited to 0.35Mpa and the breadth of the conical
surface is not to exceed one third of mean radius, find the dimensions of the contact
surfaces to transmit 22.5kW at 2000rpm.Assume uniform rate of wear and take
coefficient of friction as 0.15.

(AU Dec 2008)

21. An open belt drive connects two pulleys 120cm and 50cm diameters on parallel shafts
4m apart .The maximum tension in the belt is 1855N.The coefficient of friction is 0.3.The
driver pulley of diameter 120cm runs at 200rpm.Calculate (i) the power transmitted (ii)
the torque on each of the two shafts.

(AU Dec 2008)

22. A band brake acts on the 3/4thof circumference of a drum of 450mm diameter which is
keyed to the shaft. The band brake provides a braking torque of 225 N-m.One end of the
band is attached to a fulcrum pin of the lever and other end to a pin 100 mm from the
fulcrum. If the operating force is applied at 500mm from the fulcrum and the coefficient of
friction is 0.25, find the operating force when the drum rotates in anticlockwise direction.
(AU Dec 2007)

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