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H (Analysis of Variance, ANOVA)

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1 , 2 , ..., k , k k > 2 ;
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k k (k 1)
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, i j .
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, k
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! , (,
, ).
.
c ,
Pc ( /per
comparison error rate),
, , , c ,
(
/per experiment error rate), : PE = 1 (1 PC ) c .

, c = 6, 10, 15, 45
PC = 0.05 , , , PE , , :
c

PE

6
0.26

10
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0.54

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0.90

PE , c .
, , ,
PE c PC ( ). , ,
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303

H 0 : 1 = 2 = ... = k ,

,
H 1 : i j , (i, j).

, , 1 , 2 , ..., k ,
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, , ,
. , ,
H 0 : 1 = 2 = ... = k , ,
i j . , ,
.
Sir Ronald A. Fisher 1918.
1925 R. A. Fisher,
Statistical Methods for Research Workers,
.
H / Fisher

(
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, ..).
Fisher,

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pounds). 5%,

;
1
81
66
78
76
61

2
78
66
69
64
66

3
72
70
78
77
69

4
85
70
83
74
70

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

304

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1
3 (78)
1 (78)
2 (69)
4 (80)

2
4 (70)
2 (64)
1 (68)
3 (70)

3
2 (70)
4 (83)
3 (73)
1 (76)

4
2 (66)
1 (76)
4 (74)
3 (77)

5
1 (61)
3 (69)
2 (66)
4 (70)

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..., ,
, 1, 2 3, .
8
( milligrams 100gr). 5%,

;
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(). , ,

.
, .
(1, 2 3) (10C, 20C
30C). , ,
2
( gr).
.

1
2
3

10 C

20C

30C

150 160
170 150
200 210

250 230
260 280
270 280

200 200
190 150
110 140

5%,

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305

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5%,

,
H 0 : 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 ,
,
H 1 : i j , (i, j),
, j , j = 1, 2, 3, 4

A j , j = 1, 2, 3, 4 , . ,
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(factor) (levels) .
(response variable)
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( / /random
effects model). ,



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306

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(Completely Randomized Design)
(Randomized Complete Block Design)
x b ( x b Factorial
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& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

307

(Completely Randomized Design)


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(i, j)

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k , 2 , ,
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( ), y1 , y 2 , ..., y k , ,
() .
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)
308

, -1,
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, ,
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H 0 : 1 = 2 = 3

H 0 : 1 = 2 = 3

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k ( ), :
1 . s w2 k , s12 , s 22 , ... , s k2 ,
, (
):
(n1 1) s12 + (n2 1) s 22 ... + (nk 1) s k2
2
sw =
,
k
, = n1 + n2 + ... + nk .

,
2 , k , 1 , 2 , ..., k , , ,
.
k

2 . s b2 =

n
j =1

( y j y) 2

, , y (
k 1
= n1 + n2 + ... + nk ) y j j .
, 2 ,
, Y2 , , , 2 = n Y2 ,

. , ,
s w2 , , ,
1 = 2 = ... = k = , k
, N ( , 2 ) ,
2 = n Y2 .
s b2
, , 2
sw
, ,
/
. , /
:
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

309

FTr . , ,
SSTr (k 1) MSTr
=
, ,
, , Ftr =
SSE ( k ) MSE
SSTr = n j ( y j y ) 2 , (
j

, )
k ( , ) k 1
,
SSE = ( y ij y j ) 2 ,
ji

( )
k ,
SSTr
SSE
MSTr =
MSE =
, ,
k 1
k

2 (
). , () ,
n j ( y j y ) 2 + ( yij y j ) 2 = ( yij y ) 2 ,
j

(y

ji

ji

y ) , SSTot,
2

ij

ji

, 1
, ,
y .
, , SSTot = ( y ij y ) 2 , :
ji

: SSTr = n j ( y j y ) 2
j

: SSE = ( y ij y j ) 2 .
ji

, SSTr + SSE = SSTot .


, , H 0 : 1 = 2 = ... = k ,
, FTr F k 1 k
, ,
MSTr
Ftr =
~ Fk 1; k .
MSE
, % , :
MSTr
Ftr =
> Fk 1; -k; .
MSE
SSTot, SSTr SSE,
( ).
k T2
G2
G2
j
, SSTr =

SSE = SSTot SSTr , ,


SSTot = y ij2

ji
j =1 n j
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

310

G = y ij = T j , (Grand total) ,
ji

j =1

= n1 + n2 + ... + nk , T j , j = 1, 2, ..., k ,
j .
,
( , ,
, )
(ANOVA Table).

(Treatments)

(factor)

(Error)

..


( )

SS
MS

k 1

SSTr

MSTr =

SSTr
k 1

SSE

MSE =

SSE
k

SSTot

FTr =

MSTr
MSE

FTr > Fk 1; k ;

: , 2 , k
( ),
SSTr
,
.
2

SSTr

~ k21 ,

% , ,

SSTr

> k21; .

, ,
-1.
-1( -1): ,
. k = 4 ,

, 2 ,
, ,
5%, , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , ,
. ,
,
,
( ).

, 5%,
,
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

311

H 0 : 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 ,
,
H 1 : i j , (i, j ), i, j = 1, 2, 3, 4 .
, 5, , n1 = n2 = n3 = n4 = 5

, = n1 + n2 + n3 + n4 = 20
. , ,
SSTr, SSE SSTot.
1

81
66
78
76
61

78
66
69
64
66

72
70
78
77
69

85
70
83
74
70

T1 = 362

T2 = 343

T3 = 366

T4 = 382
4

= 20 , G = y ij = T j = 1453
j =1

ji

:
SSTot = y ij2
ji

G2

= (812 + 66 2 + ... + 70 2 )

1453 2
= 838.55 ,
20

1 = 19

.
4

SSTr =

T j2

G2

nj
.
j =1

362 2 + 343 2 + 366 2 + 382 2 1453 2

= 154.15 ,
5
20

k 1 = 3

SSE = SSTot SSTr = 838.55 154.15 = 684.40 , k = 16 .

..
SS
MS

( )
( )

154.15

16

684.40

19

838.55

154.15
= 51.38
3
684.40
MSE =
= 42.77
16

MSTr =

FTr =

51.38
= 1.20
42.77

FTr = 1.20
, F3;16;0.05 = 3.24 , , 5%,
,

.
: , ,
, ( -2) ,
, ;
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

312

.
-2:
..., ,


1, 2 3. , 6 (
) 5
microns . .

1 255
2 105
3 577

( )
264 342
331 234 217
288 98
275 221 240
515 214 413 401 260

5%,

;
18 ,
k = 3 , .
, 2 ,
, ,
5%, , 1 , 2 , 3 , ,
. , ,
H 0 : 1 = 2 = 3 ,
,
H 1 : i j , (i, j ), i, j = 1, 2, 3 .
, ,
Statgraphics .
ANOVA Table for - by -
Analysis of Variance
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Source
Sum of Squares
Df Mean Square
F-Ratio
P-Value
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Between groups
113646.0
2
56823.2
5.81
0.0136
Within groups
146754.0
15
9783.58
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Total
260400.0
17

P Value = 0.0136 < 0.05 ( FTr = 5.81 > F2;15;0.05 = 3.68 ),


, 5% . ,
,

. ,
0.05 (, P-Value,
0.0136).
, () :
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( );
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, , .
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

313

,
.
(1- )100% (
, ) (
, )

( ), /,
,
3 ,
1 2 ( ).
/
k
, k > 2, , ,
2
i j , (1 ) 100%
,
(1 ) 100% ,
, t. ,
s,
MSE MSE
2 . ,
, k .
(1- )100% i
s
yj
t
n j k ; 2
(1- )100% i j
( yi y j ) s

1
1
+
t
ni n j k ; 2

, s = MSE = n1 + n2 + ... + nk .
, , s = MSE = 9783.58 = 98.91 , y1 = 273.83 ,
y 2 = 204.5 , y 3 = 396.67 , 95%
, 3 , 3,
,
s
98.91
98.91
y3
t k ; 396.67
2.131 396.67 86.03
t15;0.025 396.67
2
n3
6
6
95% 2 1
1 2 ,
2
1
1
+ t k ;
(204.5 273.83) 98.91

t15;0.025
( y 2 y1 ) s
2
6
n 2 n1
69.33 121.69 [191.02, 52.36] .

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

314

95% , [191.02, 52.36] ,


2 1 , 0 , 5%,

2 1, ,
.
-2 95%
.
Statgraphics.

-2

,
1 2 1 3
2 3. , ,
(a priori) , (.,
2 1 ) (a posteriori)
3
c = , , 2 3
2
3 1 , , ,
c
(,
, ).

, ,
PE .
(multiple comparisons tests)
( )
, , ,
H 0 : i = j , H 1 : i j , i, j i j .

,
/ Tukey (1953) (Tukeys method for paired comparisons),
HSD test (Honestly Significant Difference test). Tukey,
, ,
k
c = ,
2
, !! , Tukey,
: , i j ,
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

315

, , % ,

( )
.
,
, .
i j , (1 )%
studentized range Qk ;nk k
. (H studentized range Qk ;
R
, R k
S
S
.) ( ) , Y j , j = 1, 2, ... , k k
,

k ,
k
n = n1 = n2 = ... = nk , ,
2
(1 )% i j ,

MSE
MSE
Yi Y j Qk ;nk k ;
,

+
,
Y
Y
Q
i
j
k
;
nk

k
;

n
n

% Qk ;nk k (

, Qk ;nk k ;
).

, 95% Tukey,
, , , 1 , 2 , 3 , -2.
-2 (): , y1 = 273.83 , y 2 = 204.5 , y 3 = 396.67 , k = 3 ,

n = 6 , Qk ;nk k ;

MSE
9783.58
= Q3;15;0.05
= 3.67 40.38 = 148.2 .
n
6

, :

i j

Yi Y j

Qk ;nk k ; MSE n
( +/-)

1 2
1 3

69.33
-122.84

148.2
148.2

2 3

-192.17

148.2

:
95% .. Tukey

H 0 : i = j
H1 : i j

(78.9, 217.5)

H 0

( 271.0, 25.4)
.
(340.4, 44.0)

H 0
H 0

, 2 3 .
,
5%.

Statgraphics, Tukey .
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

316

.
(2, 1, 3)
( ). , ,
. , :
, .
Multiple Range Tests for _ by -
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Method: 95,0 percent Tukey HSD
-
Count
Mean
Homogeneous Groups
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
6
204.5
X
1
6
273.833
XX
3
6
396.667
X
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contrast
Difference
+/- Limits
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 - 2
69.3333
148.963
1 - 3
-122.833
148.963
2 - 3
*-192.167
148.963
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------*denotes a statistically significant difference.

Tukey :
, y 2 = 204.5 , y1 = 273.83 , y 3 = 396.67
,

Yi Y j
MSE n

> Qk ;nk k ;

Yi Y j > Qk ;nk k ; MSE n ,

,
. , ,

,
. , , H 0 : 3 = 2 ,
H 0 : 3 = 1 (;).
Tukey.

i vs j

Yi Y j

3 vs 2
3 vs 1
1 vs 2

192.17
122.84
69.33

MSE n

40.38
40.38
40.38

q=

Yi Y j
MSE n

4.76
3.04
1.72

Q3;15;0.05

H 0 : i = j
H1 : i j

3.67
3.67
3.67

H 0
H 0
H 0

-3 95%
Tukey.

-3
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

317

:
1. , ,
, /.
, 2 1
1 3
. , , :
1; :
1 (
). , ,
Tukey, 2 3
1 = 2 3 = 1 .
,
, .
, , , , (, ,
).
2. k , Tukey

MSE

MSE 1
1
+ .
2 ni n 2

, ,
/ Newman-Keuls (1939; 1952) Student-NewmanKeuls/SK. Tukey .
Q p ;nk k ; , p,
. , Q p ;nk k ; ,
.
SK -2.
-2 ():
: y 2 = 204.5 , y1 = 273.83 , y 3 = 396.67

i vs j

3 vs 2
3 vs 1
1 vs 2

Yi Y j

192.17
122.84
69.33

MSE n

40.38
40.38
40.38

q=

Yi Y j
MSE n

4.76
3.04
1.72

Q p ;15;0.05

H 0 : i = j
H1 : i j

3
2
2

3.67
3.01
3.01

H 0
H 0
H 0

, SNK,
, 3 2 3 1 , Tukey, ,
3 2 . ,
SNK ( , , ,
) Tukey, , ,
,
Tukey. , PE ,
, ( , 5%).
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

318


Statgraphics, SNK .
Multiple Range Tests for _ by -
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Method: 95,0 percent Student-Newman-Keuls
-
Count
Mean
Homogeneous Groups
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
6
204.5
X
1
6
273.833
X
3
6
396.667
X
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contrast
Difference
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 - 2
69.3333
1 - 3
*-122.833
2 - 3
*-192.167
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------* denotes a statistically significant difference.

.
, 1
( , 1 = 2 3 ,
( ) , ,
, .
,

( ). ,
/, Scheffe, Dunn, Dunnett, Duncan
LSD.
Scheffe S-Method,
, , Tukey
. ,
(
/linear contrasts), . ,
, k = 5 ,
+ 3
= 0
, , , H 0 : 1 2
2
+ 3 4 + 5
H0 : 1

= 0 H 0 : 1 3 = 0 .
2
2
, Scheffe
, , ,
( Tukey).
Dunn (Bonferroni correction),
, PE , :
( ) (
Bonferroni, PE c PC ). ,
4 ,
5%,
PC = 0.0125 0.01 , 0.02, ...

.

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

319

Dunnett (1955),
.
,
.
, , PE .
Duncan (1955), SNK,
, PE ,

SNK, ,
Tukey.
LSD (Least
Significant Difference) (Fisher, 1935),
, PE .
,
. ,
, ,
H 0 : 1 = 2 = ... = k
( ,
, ,
H 0 : 1 = 2 = ... = k ,
).
: ,

H 0 : 1 = 2 = ... = k , ,
H 0 : 1 = 2 = ... = k . ,
, (LSD),
H 0 : 1 = 2 = ... = k .

,
, ,
,
.

.

Dunnett Scheffe ( ).

. ,
,
, PE , /
, PC . ,

/
. ,
PE , ,
LSD , Tukey, Scheffe, Duncan SNK Dunn.
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

320

, ,

, PE , , , .
, Scheffe,
, ,
Dunn
. , Tukey, Duncan SNK
Tukey , PE ,
Duncan SNK
, , PE , (
).
,
, ,
.
.
, , ,
.
/
/ (
), , :
1. k ( y ij

)
2.
3. k , 2 ()
ij = Yij j , j = 1, 2, ..., k , i = 1, 2, ..., n j Yij j
j, :
1. ij
2. ij ~ N (0, 2 )
ij (residuals)
(experimental error) ,
.
, n1 , n2 , ... , nk , k ,

. ,

. , ni
,
, (
,
).
,
, ( )
. , ,
,
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

321

. , ,
/.

,
,
,
,
.

( Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, X2, ..) ,
Bartlett,
Cochran, Hartley, ...
. Bartlett,
,
, .
,
(randomness test) , (runs test).
/
, ,
(NPP) (residuals plots).
/
( ) ,
( )
.
, ,
.
,
,
Kruskal-Wallis, (..
).
, Statgraphics,
-1.
-1 (): 4
2 ,
ij = Yij j

ij ~ N (0, 2 ) . ,
ij ,
. ,
, , y1 = 72.4, y 2 = 68.6, y 3 = 73.2 ,
y 4 = 76.4 , 1
81 72.4 = 8.6 ,
66 72.4 = 6.4 ,
78 72.4 = 5.6 ,
76 72.4 = 3.6 ,
,
61 72.4 = 11.4 (
).

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

322

-4
Statgraphics.
ij

.
( )
, , ,

.
: Statgraphics, ,
, i ( + 1) ,
, (i 0.375) ( + 0.25) (
i
). , ,
,
.
-4 ,
, ,
. ,
( ) . ,
Kolmogorov-Smirnov P Value > 0.10 o Anderson-Darling
P Value > 0.2453 ,
.

Normal Probability Plot for Residual

percentage

99,9
99
95
80
50
20
5
1
0,1
-12

-8

-4

12

Residual
-4


, -5
.
Residual Plot for Y
12

residual

8
4
0
-4
-8
-12
68

70

72

74

76

78

predicted Y
-5
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

323


( y1 = 72.4, y 2 = 68.6, y 3 = 73.2, y 4 = 76.4 )
.
()
()
0, .
, -5,
.

. Bartlett P Value = 0.5647 o Cochran
P Value = 0.5242 ,
.

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

324

(Randomized Complete Block Design)



, 1
2 .
, b,
, , b, (blocks)
k > 2 ( )
( ,
,
).

/
, ( )
. ,
, /
,
, /,
, .
, ,
, /
. , ,


.
b ( k ),
, , , k k
. , = b k
.
-2. , ,
-1,
, ,

. ,
/
,

SSE,
,

SSE. , ,
( ,
), /
, , /
SSE
(SSTot). , /
SSE . ,
(
).

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

325

, ,
. , , ,
, , (
). ,
,
, .
( blocks). ,
SSE. ,
,
SSTot = SSTr + SSB + SSE ,
,
G2
SSTot = ( y ij y ) 2 = y ij2
,

= b k b k 1
ij

ij

,
k T2
G2
j
SSTr =

j =1 b
k k 1
,
b
Bi2 G 2
SSB =

i =1 k
b b 1 ,
SSE = SSTot SSTr SSB ,
(b 1) (k 1) .

G = y ij (Grand total) ,
ij

, = b k , T j , j = 1, 2, ..., k ,
j Bi ,
i = 1, 2, ..., b , i .
, 1 , 2 , ..., k , k
.
, ,
H 0 : 1 = 2 = ... = k
,
H 1 : i j , (i, j),

MSTr
( SSE ,
MSE
, ).

Ftr =

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

326

, ,
FTr F k 1 (b 1)(k 1)
, ,
MSTr
Ftr =
~ Fk 1;( b 1)( k 1) .
MSE
, % , :
MSTr
> Fk 1;( b 1)( k -1); .
Ftr =
MSE
, , ,
( SSE)
(
), , ,
. ,
,
H 0 : b
,
H 1 : .

, ,
MSB
FB =
~ Fb 1;( b 1)( k 1) .
MSE
, % , :
MSB
> Fb 1;( b 1)( k -1); .
FB =
MSE
, .

( )

F
SS
MS

..

k 1

SSTr

b 1

SSB

(b 1)(k 1)

SSE

k b 1

SSTot

MSTr =

SSTr
k 1

SSB
b 1
SSE
MSE =
(b 1)(k 1)
MSB =

FTr =

MSTr
MSE

FTr > Fk 1;(b 1)( k 1);

FB =

MSB
MSE

FB > Fb 1;( b 1)( k 1);

( )
,
H 0 : 1 = 2 = ... = k , ,
, 1 , 2 , ..., k , k
, (..
Tukey) k
.
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)
327

:
1. :
, ,
,

.
,
( )
, ,
SSE, (
SSE)
( MSE
). ,
, ,
(.. ). ,
,
.
.
2. , k = 2

, ,
k = 2 , ,
( -10).

.
-3:

, . (
)
.
, ,
. , ,
, .
, ( cm)
.

1
2
3

1
11
15
10


2
3
13
16
17
20
15
13

4
10
12
10


( )
4 ( 4
) 3
( )
,
( ),
.
,
5% , .
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

328

, = 5% , , H 0 : 1 = 2 = 3 ,
, H 1 : 1 2 1 3 2 3 , , 1 , 2 , 3 ,
1, 2, 3, (,

1, 2, 3, ).
4
= 12 . ,
, SSTr, SSB, SSE SSTot.

/
()

1
2
3

Bi

( )
2
3
13
16
17
20
15
13
45
49

1
11
15
10
36

Tj

4
10
12
10
32

50
64
48

G = 162

= 12 , G = y ij = 162 :
ij

SSTot = y ij2

= (112 + 15 2 + ... + 10 2 )

ij

SSTr =

T j2

G2

j =1

162
= 2298 2187 = 111 , 1 = 11
12

50 2 + 64 2 + 48 2 162 2

= 2225 2187 = 38 ,
4
12

k 1 = 2

Bi2 G 2 36 2 + 45 2 + 49 2 + 32 2 162 2
SSB =

= 2248.67 2187 = 61.67


3
12

i =1 k
b 1 = 3 .
4

SSE = SSTot SSTr SSE = 111 38 61.67 = 11.33 , (b 1)(k 1) = 6


.


..

SS
MS

()

38

()

61.67

11.33

11

111

38
= 19
2
61.67
MSB =
= 20.56
3
11.33
MSE =
= 1.89
6

MSTr =

19
= 10.06
1.89
20.56
FB =
= 10.88
1.89

FTr =

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

329

, FTr = 10.06 ,
, 10.06 > F2;6;0.05 = 5.14 ,

.
, 5%.
A , , ,
, . , 5% ,
, H 0 :
, H 1 : .
, FB , ,
FB = 10.88 > F3;6;0.05 = 4.76 , ,

5% , ,
.

SSE.
-4 ( -2): , ,
.

.

()

1
2
3
4
5

1
78
68
76
76
61

/
( )
2
3
4
69
78
80
64
70
70
70
73
83
66
77
74
66
69
70

,
5%, ,
,
.
, 5%, ,
H 0 : 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 ,
,
H 1 : i j , (i, j ), i, j = 1, 2, 3, 4 ,
, j , j = 1, 2, 3, 4 ,

,
A j .
, ,
Statgraphics .

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

330


Analysis of Variance for example4
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Source
Sum of Squares
Df
Mean Square
F-Ratio
P-Value
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Factor
192.6
3
64.2
6.37
0.0079
Blocks
312.3
4
78.075
7.75
0.0025
RESIDUAL
120.9
12
10.075
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------TOTAL
625.8
19
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P Value = 0.0079 < 0.05 ( FTr = 6.37 > F3;12;0.05 = 3.49 ),


, 5% . ,
,


. , 0.05
(, P-Value,
0.0079). , ,
SSE,
( ),
( )
.

( )
/ SSE ( -1).
, ,
,
,
H 0 :
,
H 1 : .
, , 5%
( FB = 7.75 > F4;12;0.05 = 3.26 ).
/
b , k ,
( ). , k
(
). ,
, ,
. , ,
.

, ,
1. k b ,
2. k b , 2 ,
, ,
3.
/.
, (1) (2) , ij ,
0 2 , ,
ij ~ N (0, 2 ) . .
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

331

x b ( x b Factorial Experiment)
.
-5: ,

(whitefly), ,

,
. ,
. (70F,
77F 82F) ( ). ,

, - ,
. 5 .
.

70 F

37
43
50
37

21 36
31
53 25
48

77F

34
42
59
69

54 40
16
53 31
51

82F

46
36
62
43

32 41
38
71 49
59

2 x 3 5
6 ( , ), , 30 .
-4,
3 x 3
9 ( ,
- ) , , 18
.
, ( )
, , b ,
x b .
,
, , b (
, )
(cells). , -5 -4,
( )
( ) (
). , ,
, , ,
/ . ,
, ,
,
(
).

( )
.
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

332

( ),
,
. ,
,
. ,
. ,
, r, ,
b r .
r > 1 , ,
, ,
.

,

( ). ,
.
,
/.
r = 1 , (
b ),
.
, x b
,
.
x b r > 1 ,
:

:
,
H 0 :

,
H 1 : .
:
,
H 0 : , ,

,
H 1 : , ,
.

:
,
H 0b : , , b

,
H 1b : , , b
B .

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

333

,

, . , ,
SSTot = ( y ijh y ) 2 , = b r ,
i , j ,h

, SSTot = SSA + SSB + SS ( AB) + SSE , ,


Ai2 G 2

i =1 b r
a 1
,
b
B 2j
G2
,
SSB =

j =1 r
b b 1
,
( AB) ij2 G 2
SS ( AB) =

SSA SSB ,
r

i, j

b
,
( 1) (b 1) ,

SSA =

SSE = SSTot SSA SSB SS ( AB) ,


, b (r 1)
.
G =

ijh

(Grand total) = b r

i , j ,h

, Ai , i = 1, 2, ..., ,
i , B j , j = 1, 2, ..., b ,
j ( AB) ij r
i j
.
G2
2
, , SSTot = y ijh

, b r 1 .

ijh

( AB) ij2

G2

(SSCells) , ,
( AB) ij2 G 2
, SSCells =

= SSA + SSB + SS ( AB) . ,, SSTot,


r

i, j
,
(SSCells)
(SSE), , SSTot = SSCells + SSE = SSA + SSB + SS ( AB) + SSE .
:

i, j

, , , F .

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

334

, F
.

( x b , r > 1 )

..

SS

SSA

b 1

SSB

( 1)(b 1)

SS(AB)

b (r 1)

SSE

b r 1

SSTot

MS

SSA
1
SSB
MSB =
b 1
SS ( AB)
MS ( AB) =
( 1)(b 1)
SSE
MSE =
b (r 1)
MSA =

MSA
MSE
MSB
FB =
MSE

FA > F 1;b ( r 1);

FA =

FAB =

MS ( AB )
MSE

FB > Fb 1;b ( r 1);


FAB > F( 1)(b 1);b ( r 1);

( a x b )

(., Tukey)
( ) .
,
()
( ).

,
o -5.
-5 (): (
A1 , A2 , , )
( B1 , B2 B3 , 70F, 77F
82F, ).

, 5%,
( ),
( ) .
, , 5%, :
H 0 :

,
H 1 : .
H 0 : ,
A1 A2
,
H 1 : , A1
A2 .
H 0b : ,
B1 , B2 B3
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

335

,
H 1b : ,
B1 , B2 B3 .
: , , (
)
.
, ,
, Statgraphics.

. ,
.
Analysis of Variance for eggs
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Source
Sum of Squares
Df
Mean Square
F-Ratio
P-Value
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------MAIN EFFECTS
A: Plant
1512.3
1
1512.3
12.29
0.0018
B: Temperature
487.467
2
243.733
1.98
0.1598
INTERACTIONS
AB

111.2

55.6

0.45

0.6417

RESIDUAL
2952.4
24
123.017
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------TOTAL
5063.37
29
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------All F-ratios are based on the residual mean square error.

, FAB = 0.45 F2; 24;0.05 = 3.40 ( P Value = 0.6417 ),

, H 0 :

5%, , ,

.

,

.
, FA = 12.29 > F1; 24;0.05 = 4.26 ( P Value = 0.0018 ),

, H 0 : , 5%,
. ,

. ,
( ).
, 5%.
-6,
, . 95%
,
123.017
MSE
yi
t 24;0.025 , i = 1, 2 y i
t 24;0.025 , , y1 = 36.47
15
15

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

336

15 y 2 = 50.67
15 .
, FB = 1.98 F2; 24;0.05 = 3.40 ( P Value = 0.1598 ),

, H 0b : , 5%,
. ,

. ,

(70F, 77F 82F).
-7,
( )
.
. 95%
MSE
yj
t 24;0.025 , j = 1, 2, 3
,
10
123.017
yj
t 24;0.025 , , y1 = 38.1 10
10
70F, y 2 = 44.9 10
77F y 3 = 47.7
10 82F.
8 9, , (interaction plot)
.
.

b , ,
b b ,
. , () 6
6
. , ,
(
).

A1 ()
2 ()

B1 (70oF)
33.6
42.6
38.1

B2 (77oF)
37.2
52.6
44.9

B3 (82oF)
38.6
56.8
47.7

36.47
50.67

()
. -8 -9
. -8,
-9
.
( ).
-8 (
-9 ).
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

337

-8, B1 (70F)
, 33.6 42.6
A1 A2
B1 (70F) .
, B2
(77F) B2
B3 (82F)
B3 .
,

.
,

( ).
,

. , , -8,
.
. ,


(
).

, ,

. ,
( ).
-6.

-6

-7

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

338

-8

-9

: A1 ()

, ,

. ,
A2 ()
. ,
, -7
( , , )
(, ). ,

. , ,
.
. ,
, !
-10 , ,
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)
339

( A1 , A2 B1 , B2 , ) . ,
, ( )
,
( ) . +

. ,
11, 12 13
( , ). -11,
,
. -12,
(
)
. -13,
,
(
).

-10

-11

-12

-13

-6 ( -4):
, , (
A1 , A2 A3 , , 10C, 20C 30C) ,

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

340

( B1 , B2 B3 )
.
, 5%, .
H 0 :

,
H 1 : .
H 0 :
,
H 1 :
H 0b :
,
H 1b :
SS, SSB, SS(AB), SSE SSTot,
.

( )


( )

2
SSTot = y ijh

G2

ijh

SSA =
i =1
b

SSB =
j =1

A2 :20C

A3 :30C

Bj

B1
B2
B3

310

480

400

1190

320

540

340

1200

410

550

250

1210

Ai

1040

1570

990

G = 3600

= 150 2 + 160 2 + ... + 110 2 + 140 2

3600 2
= 46600
18

Ai2 G 2 1040 2 + 1570 2 + 990 2 3600 2

= 34433.3
br
6
18
B 2j

SS ( AB) =
i, j

A1 :10C

G2

( AB) ij2
r

1190 2 + 1200 2 + 1210 2 3600 2

= 33.3333
6
18

G2

SSA SSB =

310 2 + ... + 250 2 3600 2

34433.3 33.3333 = 10133.3


2
18

SSE = SSTot SSA SSB SS ( AB) = 2000


:

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

341

..
SS

34433.3

33.3

10133.3

2000

17

46600

( )

B
( )

MS

34433.3
= 17216.7
2
33.3
MSB =
= 16.6
2
10133.3
MS ( AB) =
= 2533.3
4
2000
MSE =
= 222.222
9

MSA =

17216.7
= 77.48
222.222
16.6
FB =
= 0.07
222.222

FA =

F AB =

2533.3
= 11.40
222.222

, FAB = 11.40 > F4;9;0.05 = 3.63 , , H 0 :

, 5%, . ,
, 5%,


. , ,
. ,

( FA = 77.48 > F2;9;0.05 = 4.26 )
, ( FB = 0.07 F2;9;0.05 = 4.26 ).
-14,

.

-14

/ x b r > 1

x b r > 1 ,
,
. / ,
:
1. b (
y ijh )

2.
3. b , 2 ()
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

342

ijh Yijh ij , ij,


:
1. ijh
2. ijh ~ N (0, 2 )
/, /
. ,

-5 (-15 -16, )

.

-15

Residual Plot for Y


28

residual

18
8
-2
-12
-22
0

20

40

60

80

predicted Y
-16

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

343

x b , ( r = 1 )
x b
( r = 1 ), /


/, ,
. ,
:

:
,
H 0 : , ,

,
H 1 : , ,
.

:
,
H 0b : , , b

,
H 1b : , , b
B .

,
, .
, SSTot = SSA + SSB + SSE , ,
G2
SSTot = ( y ij y ) 2 = y ij2
,

= b b 1
ij

ij

A2 G 2
SSA = i
,

i =1 b

1 ,
b B2
G2
j
SSB =

j =1

b
b 1 ,
SSE = SSTot SSA SSB ,
( 1) (b 1) .

G = y ij (Grand total) ,
ij

, = b , Ai , i = 1, 2, ..., ,
i
B j , j = 1, 2, ..., b , j
.
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

344

, , , F
. , F
.

( x b , , r = 1 )

..

SS

SS

b 1

SSB

( 1) (b 1)

SSE

b 1

SSTot

MS

SSA
1
SSB
MSB =
b 1
SSE
MSE =
( 1)(b 1)

MSA
MSE
MSB
FB =
MSE

MSA =

FA =

FA > F 1;( 1)(b 1);


FB > Fb 1;( 1)(b 1);

.
-7:
,
( A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 )
( B1 , B2 , B3 ) -,
. (
ppm).

( )

( )

B1
B2
B3

A1

A2

A3

A4

53

59

58

50

57

65

62

60

52

62

54

52

. ,
, 5%, ,
H 0 : () ,
,
H 1 : .
,
H 0b : ()
,
H 1b : .
SS, SSB, SSE SSTot,
.

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

345

( )

( )

A2

A3

A4

Bj

B1
B2
B3

53

59

58

50

220

57

65

62

60

244

52

62

54

52

220

Ai

162

186

174

162

G = 684

684 2
SSTot = y
= 53 + 57 + ... + 60 + 52
= 252
12

ij
2
ij

G2

A1

Ai2 G 2 162 2 + 186 2 + 174 2 + 162 2 684 2


SSA =

= 132

3
12
i =1 3
4

B 2j

j =1

SSB =

G2

220 2 + 244 2 + 220 2 684 2

= 96
4
12

SSE = SSTot SSA SSB = 252 132 96 = 24

..
SS

132

96

24

11

252

()

B
()

MS

132
= 44
3
96
MSB =
= 48
2
24
MSE =
=4
6

MSA =

44
= 11
4
48
FB =
= 12
4

FA =

, FA = 11 > F3;6;0.05 = 4.76 , , H 0 :


, 5%, . ,

. ,
5%. , , FB = 12 > F2;6;0.05 = 5.14 , ,

H 0b : , 5%, .
,
.
, 5%.
/ x b

x b , ,
.
/ , :
1. , ,
/.
& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

346

2. b (
y ij , )
3.
4. b , 2 ()
, (2)-(4) :
1. ij
2. ij ~ N (0, 2 )
,
, ,
. .

: , , x b
( )
;

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

347


, ,
( ) :
) , ,
/.
) (
)
.
) .
) ,
/ .
1.


(1, 2 3, ), . 15
5
1, 5 2 5 3.
.
(
), ()
( kgr). .

1
2
3

2.65
1.83
2.50

( kgr)
2.31 2.61 2.09 2.39
2.46 2.54 1.72 1.98
2.24 2.72 2.31 2.65

) ; )
5%,

; )
();
2.

...,
,
, 1, 2, 3 4,
. 3
( milligrams 170gr).
.

1
2
3
4


( milligrams/170gr)
3.6
4.1
4.0
3.1
3.2
3.9
3.2
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.8
3.8

) 5%,

; ) ,
().
3.

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

348

, 15
, 5 ,
5 , , 5 .
, /
( min), 15 (
).
( min)



8
14
10
7
16
12
9
12
16
13
17
15
10
11
12

) ; )
5%,

,
; )
();
4.


. ,
4 , 1,
2, 3 4. 1
3 .

,
, .
( ppm)
( , ).
( ppm)

1
2
3
4

6.1
6.0
4.8
6.3

6.3
6.2
4.3
6.6

6.1
6.1
5.0
6.4

6.0
5.8
4.7
6.4

5.1
6.5

6.3

) 5%,

; ) ,
().
5.

,
...,

(, , ..). ,
,
6
( cm).

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

349

1
2
3
4

o 20 ( cm)
5.7
6.3
6.1
6.0
5.8
6.2
6.2
5.3
5.7
6.0
5.2
5.5
5.4
5.0
6.0
5.6
4.9
5.2
3.7
3.2
3.9
4.0
3.5
3.6

) 5%,

; )
,
(); )
() (
).
6.

ANOVA .

..

SS
F
MS

6.40
10.60
377.36

,
5% ;
7.

(...)

(1, 2 3, )
, . ,
(1, 2, 3 4, )

, ,
.
/ ( /) .

1
2
3

1
169
184
173

2
3
182
185
193
191
187
180

4
173
189
190

) ... )
5%,

/; ) ,
... ;
8.

ANOVA
.

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

350

..

SS
F
MS

4
24
34

14.2
18.9
41.9

) ; )
; ) ;
) . ) 5%,

; ;]
9.

(1, 2, 3
4, )
/ , .
,
, , .
, 3 (1,
2 3, ). , ,
, .

( )
1
3
9.9
1
10.1
2
11.4
4
12.1

2
4
13.4
2
12.9
1
12.2
3
12.3

3
2
12.7
4
12.9
3
11.4
1
11.9

) . )
5%,

; )
, ;
10. , ,
. 10
, ,
.
,
.
( 10 3 in ) .

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

351


( 10 3 in )

( 10 3 in )

5
6

47

52

55

76

57

45

42

46

69

58

10

58

39

54

46

71

54

40

46

42

53

5%,
;
ttest.
; ;
11. ,

, 3x3 ( )
-.

( , %).

1
2
3
78 62 82 78 92 85
72 68 70 75 87 90
65 70 72 68 85 79
75 69 73 76 84 80
81 78 87 83 94 90
75 85 82 85 89 95

) 5%,

i) ii)
iii) ) /
();
12.

..., 5 3
(, , )
... ( ).
0 ( )
10 ( ).

.
.

7
7
8
5
4
6

6 5 8 9 7
4
9 8
7 5 6 5 6
6
7 5
3 5 7 6 5
5
5 7

& / . (www.aua.gr/gpapadopoulos)

352

) ; )
. )
.
13. /
,
(1, 2, 3) (1, 2, 3).
, ,
, -,
( 100 )
.
.

2
3

1
2 5
4 7
6 7
3 1
4 7
5 3


2
3
8 3
9 6
11 5
7 12
2 5
5 6
7 9
8 11
7 9
6 10
8 5
12 11

) 1%,

i) ,
ii) iii)
) /
();
14. , ,
,
3x3
.

( kgr).

60oF
70oF
80oF

( ppm)
700
1400
2100
3
5
4
11
10
12
16
21
17

)
; )
, 5%. )
();

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1. ) ) , F = 2.57 F2;12;0.05 = 3.89

) .
2. ) , F = 2.25 F3;8;0.05 = 4.07 )

.

ANOVA .
3. ) (

)
)
,

F = 4.99 > F2;12;0.05 = 3.89 )


.
4. ) , F = 68.28 > F3;15;0.05 = 3.29 ) . () 2.
5. ) , F = 57.38 > F3; 20;0.05 = 3.10 ) . () 2 )
,
, ( 20 ).
6. , F = 6.40 > F4;10;0.05 = 3.48 .
7. ) 4 blocks () 3
() block ) , F = 6.46 > F2;6;0.05 = 5.14
) ,
( blocks) ( F = 3.75
F3;6;0.05 = 4.76 ).
8. a) 7 ) 7 ) 5 ) , F = 9.68 > F4; 24;0.05 = 2.78 . , F = 8.59 > F6; 24;0.05 = 2.51 .
9. ) 3 blocks ( ) 4
( ) block
) ,
F = 19.44 > F3;6;0.05 = 4.76 ),

(. blocks) ( F = 40.21 > F2;6;0.05 = 5.14 ).
10. ANOVA ( 10 blocks 2
block)
F = 10.95 > F1;9;0.05 = 5.12 . .
F = 10.95 = t 2 = 3.32 F1;9; 0.05 = 5.12 = (t 9; 0.025 ) 2 = 2.262 2 .

11. ) i. , F = 0.8713 F4; 27;0.05 = 2.73

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ii. , F = 21.37 > F2; 27 ;0.05 = 3.35 iii. , F = 39.08 > F2; 27 ;0.05 = 3.35 .
) -,
.
12. ) 3x2
-. )
(
F = 4.25 > F2; 24;0.05 = 3.40 ).

13. )

i.

F = 0.12

F4; 27;0.01 = 4.11 .

ii.

F = 7.53 > F2; 27 ; 0.01 = 5.49 iii. , F = 0.91 F2; 27;0.01 = 5.49 .
) -,
.
14. ) /. )
( F = 1 F2; 4;0.05 = 6.94 ),
( F = 49 > F2; 4; 0.04 = 6.94 ). )
-,
.

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