Adoption

A guidebook

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Contents
Articles
Adoption

1

Language of adoption

19

Open adoption

23

Closed adoption

27

Domestic adoption

32

Foster care adoption

34

International adoption

35

Interracial adoption

42

Embryo donation

45

Foster care

48

Orphan

64

AIDS orphan

68

Orphanage

69

Third culture kid

85

Cultural variations in adoption

93

Child development stages

95

Ethology

110

Adoption home study

118

Child protection

119

Child abuse

126

Human bonding

137

Affectional bond

144

John Bowlby

145

Mary Ainsworth

151

Michael Rutter

156

Attachment theory

158

Attachment in children

182

Attachment measures

190

Attachment therapy

200

Attachment disorder

216

Maternal deprivation

227

Prenatal nutrition and birth weight

237

Anxiety

245

Emotional dysregulation

251

Posttraumatic stress disorder

252

Reactive attachment disorder

276

Disinhibited attachment disorder

290

Institutional syndrome

291

Fetal alcohol syndrome

293

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

307

Prenatal cocaine exposure

315

Cleft lip and palate

323

Disruption (adoption)

337

Genealogical bewilderment

340

Adoption in the United States

342

Adoption in Italy

346

Adoption in France

347

Adoption in Australia

348

Adoption in Guatemala

354

LGBT adoption

355

Child laundering

369

Trafficking of children

370

Adoption disclosure

372

Adoption reunion registry

374

Adoption tax credit

375

Aging out

376

List of international adoption scandals

378

References
Article Sources and Contributors

382

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

388

Article Licenses
License

391

Adoption

1

Adoption
Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the
parenting for another and, in so doing, permanently
transfers all rights and responsibilities from the original
parent or parents. Unlike guardianship or other systems
designed for the care of the young, adoption is intended
to effect a permanent change in status and as such
requires societal recognition, either through legal or
religious sanction. Historically some societies have
enacted specific laws governing adoption whereas
others have endeavored to achieve adoption through
less formal means, notably via contracts that specified
inheritance rights and parental responsibilities. Modern
systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to
be governed by comprehensive statutes and regulations.
Adoption has a long history in the Western world,
closely tied with the legacy of the Roman Empire and
the Catholic Church. Its use has changed considerably
over the centuries with its focus shifting from adult
adoption and inheritance issues toward children and
family creation and its structure moving from a
recognition of continuity between the adopted and kin
toward allowing relationships of lessened intensity.

History

Sister Irene of New York Foundling Hospital with children. Sister
Irene is among the pioneers of modern adoption, establishing a
system to board out children rather than institutionalize them.

Adoption

2

Antiquity
Adoption for the well-born
While the modern form of adoption emerged in the United States, forms of the
practice appeared throughout history.[1] The Code of Hammurabi, for example,
details the rights of adopters and the responsibilities of adopted individuals at
length and the practice of adoption in ancient Rome is well documented in the
Codex Justinianus.[2] [3]
Markedly different from the modern period, ancient adoption practices put
emphasis on the political and economic interests of the adopter,[4] providing a
legal tool that strengthened political ties between wealthy families and creating
male heirs to manage estates.[5] [6] The use of adoption by the aristocracy is well
documented; many of Rome's emperors were adopted sons.[6]
Infant adoption during Antiquity appears rare.[4] [7] Abandoned children were
often picked up for slavery[8] and composed a significant percentage of the
Empire’s slave supply.[9] [10] Roman legal records indicate that foundlings were
occasionally taken in by families and raised as a son or daughter. Although not
normally adopted under Roman Law, the children, called alumni, were reared in
an arrangement similar to guardianship, being considered the property of the
father who abandoned them.[11]

Trajan became emperor of Rome
through adoption, a customary
practice of the empire that enabled
peaceful transitions of power.

Other ancient civilizations, notably India and China, utilized some form of adoption as well. Evidence suggests their
practices aimed to ensure the continuity of cultural and religious practices, in contrast to the Western idea of
extending family lines. In ancient India, secondary sonship, clearly denounced by the Rigveda,[12] continued, in a
limited and highly ritualistic form, so that an adopter might have the necessary funerary rites performed by a son.[13]
China had a similar conception of adoption with males adopted solely to perform the duties of ancestor worship.[14]

Middle Ages to Modern Period
Adoption and commoners
The nobility of the Germanic, Celtic, and Slavic cultures that
dominated Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire denounced
the practice of adoption.[15] In medieval society, bloodlines were
paramount; a ruling dynasty lacking a natural-born heir apparent was
replaced, a stark contrast to Roman traditions. The evolution of
European law reflects this aversion to adoption. English Common Law,
for instance, did not permit adoption since it contradicted the
customary rules of inheritance. In the same vein, France's Napoleonic
Code made adoption difficult, requiring adopters to be over the age of
50, sterile, older than the adopted person by at least fifteen years, and
At the monastery gate (Am Klostertor) by
to have fostered the adoptee for at least six years.[16] Some adoptions
Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller.
continued to occur, however, but became informal, based on ad hoc
contracts. For example, in the year 737, in a charter from the town of Lucca, three adoptees were made heirs to an
estate. Like other contemporary arrangements, the agreement stressed the responsibility of the adopted rather than
adopter, focusing on the fact that, under the contract, the adoptive father was meant to be cared for in his old age; an
idea that recalls conceptions of adoption under Roman law.[17]
Europe's cultural makeover marked a period of significant innovation for adoption. Without support from the
nobility, the practice gradually shifted toward abandoned children. Abandonment levels rose with the fall of the

Adoption

3

empire and many of the foundlings were left on the doorstep of the Church.[18] Initially, the clergy reacted by
drafting rules to govern the exposing, selling, and rearing of abandoned children. The Church's innovation, however,
was the practice of oblation, whereby children were dedicated to lay life within monastic institutions and reared
within a monastery. This created the first system in European history in which abandoned children were without
legal, social, or moral disadvantage. As a result, many of Europe's abandoned and orphaned became alumni of the
Church, which in turn took the role of adopter. Oblation marks the beginning of a shift toward institutionalization,
eventually bringing about the establishment of the foundling hospital and orphanage.[18]
As the idea of institutional care gained acceptance, formal rules appeared about how to place children into families:
boys could become apprenticed to an artisan and girls might be married off under the institution's authority.[19]
Institutions informally adopted out children as well, a mechanism treated as a way to obtain cheap labor,
demonstrated by the fact that when the adopted died, their bodies were returned by the family to the institution for
burial.[20]
This system of apprenticeship and informal adoption extended into the 19th century, today seen as a transitional
phase for adoption history. Under the direction of social welfare activists, orphan asylums began to promote
adoptions based on sentiment rather than work, and children were placed out under agreements to provide care for
them as family members instead of under contracts for apprenticeship.[21] The growth of this model is believed to
have contributed to the enactment of the first modern adoption law in 1851 by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts,
unique in that it codified the ideal of the "best interests of the child."[22] [23] Despite its intent, though, in practice, the
system operated much the same as earlier incarnations. The experience of the Boston Female Asylum (BFA) is a
good example, which had up to 30% of its charges adopted out by 1888.[24] Officials of the BFA noted that, although
the asylum promoted otherwise, adoptive parents did not distinguish between indenture and adoption; "We believe,"
the asylum officials said, "that often, when children of a younger age are taken to be adopted, the adoption is only
another name for service."[25]

Modern period
Adopting to create a family
The next stage of adoption's evolution fell to the emerging nation of the United States. Rapid immigration and the
aftermath of the American Civil War resulted in unprecedented overcrowding of orphanages and foundling homes in
the mid-nineteenth century. Charles Loring Brace, a Protestant minister became appalled by the legions of homeless
waifs roaming the streets of New York City. Brace considered the abandoned youth, particularly Catholics, to be the
most dangerous element challenging the city's order.[26] [27]
His solution was outlined in The Best Method of Disposing of Our Pauper and
Vagrant Children (1859) which started the Orphan Train movement. The orphan
trains eventually shipped an estimated 200,000 children from the urban centers of
the East to the nation's rural regions.[28] The children were generally indentured,
rather than adopted, to families who took them in.[29] As in times past, some
children were raised as members of the family while others were used as farm
laborers and household servants.[30]

Charles Loring Brace.

Adoption

4
The sheer size of the displacement—the largest migration of children in
history—and the degree of exploitation that occurred, gave rise to new agencies
and a series of laws that promoted adoption arrangements rather than indenture.
The hallmark of the period is Minnesota's adoption law of 1917 which mandated
investigation of all placements and limited record access to those involved in the
adoption.[31] [32]

William and his brother Thomas.
They rode the Orphan Train in 1880
at the ages of 11 and 9, respectively.
William was taken into a good home.
Thomas was exploited for labor and
abused. The brothers eventually
made their way back to New York
and reunited.

During the same period, the Progressive movement swept the United States with
a critical goal of ending the prevailing orphanage system. The culmination of
such efforts came with the First White House Conference on the Care of
Dependent Children called by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1909,[33] where it
was declared that the nuclear family represented "the highest and finest product
of civilization” and was best able to serve as primary caretaker for the abandoned
and orphaned.[34] [35] Anti-institutional forces gathered momentum. As late as
1923, only two percent of children without parental care were in adoptive homes,
with the balance in foster arrangements and orphanages. Less than forty years
later, nearly one-third were in an adoptive home.[36]

Nevertheless, the popularity of eugenic ideas in America put up obstacles to the growth of adoption.[37] [38] There
were grave concerns about the genetic quality of illegitimate and indigent children, perhaps best exemplified by the
influential writings of Henry H. Goddard who protested against adopting children of unknown origin, saying,
Now it happens that some people are interested in the welfare and high development of the human race; but
leaving aside those exceptional people, all fathers and mothers are interested in the welfare of their own
families. The dearest thing to the parental heart is to have the children marry well and rear a noble family.
How short-sighted it is then for such a family to take into its midst a child whose pedigree is absolutely
unknown; or, where, if it were partially known, the probabilities are strong that it would show poor and
diseased stock, and that if a marriage should take place between that individual and any member of the family
the offspring would be degenerates.[39]
It took a war and the disgrace of Nazi eugenic policies to alter attitudes. The period 1945 to 1974, the Baby scoop
era, saw rapid growth and acceptance of adoption as a means to build a family.[40] Illegitimate births rose three-fold
after World War II, as sexual mores changed. Simultaneously, the scientific community began to stress the
dominance of nurture over genetics, chipping away at eugenic stigmas.[41] [42] In this environment, adoption became
the obvious solution for both unwed mothers and infertile couples.[43]
Taken together, these trends resulted in a new American model for adoption. Following its Roman predecessor,
Americans severed the rights of the original parents while making adopters the new parents in the eyes of the law.
Two innovations were added: 1) adoption was meant to ensure the "best interests of the child;" the seeds of this idea
can be traced to the first American adoption law in Massachusetts,[16] [23] and 2) adoption became infused with
secrecy, eventually resulting in the sealing of adoption and original birth records by 1945. The origin of the move
toward secrecy began with Charles Loring Brace who introduced it to prevent children from the Orphan Trains from
returning to or being reclaimed by their parents. Brace feared the impact of the parents' poverty, in general, and their
Catholic religion, in particular, on the youth. This tradition of secrecy was carried on by the later Progressive
reformers when drafting of American laws.[44]
The number of adoptions in the United States peaked in 1970.[45] It is uncertain what caused the subsequent decline.
Likely contributing factors in the 1960s and 1970s include a decline in the fertility rate, associated with the
introduction of the pill, the completion of legalization of artificial birth control methods, the introduction of federal
funding to make family planning services available to the young and low income, and the legalization of abortion. In
addition, the years of the late 1960s and early 1970s saw a dramatic change in society's view of illegitimacy and in

1% 2.Adoption 5 the legal rights[46] of those born outside of wedlock.2 per 100 Live Births Includes known relative adoptions [56] Includes all adoption orders in England and Wales 254. stepparent). 459 international adoptions were also recorded.1% 0.560 (2007) [60] 61.6 per 100 Live Births 560. 35 foster.3% All Women Table 1: Percentage of Infants (Born to Never-Married Women) Who Were Relinquished[49] The American model of adoption eventually proliferated globally.1 per 100 Live Births Adoptions breakdown: 438 inter-country. adoption is far more visible and discussed in society today.0% Black Women 1. by country) for a number of Western countries . West Germany enacted its first laws in 1977.7% 4. the United States remains the leader in its use.7% 1.545(2006) Table 2: Adoptions.4 per 100 Live Births 92 non-family adoptions.000 (2004) 669. Sweden made adoptees full members of the family in 1959.021.010 (2006) [64] 1. Ironically. 10 other.[48] Race Before 1973 1973–1981 1982–1988 1989–1995 1996–2002 8. 4.[50] Additionally.5% 0.[52] Country Adoptions Live Births [53] Australia 270 (2007–2008) England & Wales 4. The table below provides a snapshot of Western adoption rates.8 per 100 Live Births 0.1 per 100 Live Births 10-20 of these were national adoptions of infants. 171 family adoptions (e. The rest were international adoptions.000 to 129.7 per 100 Live Births 0.466(2002) [66] 1. hovering between 133. and Adoption/Live Birth Ratios are provided in the table below (alphabetical.158 (2006) Norway 657 (2006) Sweden 1044(2002) [55] [59] [61] [63] [65] United States approx 127.601(2006) [58] 4.9% 1.764 (2006) Iceland between 20-35 [57] year Ireland 263 (2003) Italy 3. 58.0% 0. 91.000 during the period 2002 to 2006.517 (2003) 0. family preservation efforts grew[47] so that few children born out of wedlock today are adopted (Refer to Table 1). Adoption in the United States still occurs at nearly three times those of its peers although the number of children awaiting adoption has held steady in recent years.0% NA White Women 19.[51] Although adoption is today practiced globally. In response. The Netherlands passed its law in 1956. [62] 0. England and Wales established their first formal adoption law in 1926. yet it is less common.g. Live Births. the Asian powers opened their orphanage systems to adoption.3% 7. 174 stepchildren. influenced as they were by Western ideas following colonial rule and military occupation.2% 1.725 [68] (2002) ~3 per 100 Live Births The number of adoptions is reported to be constant since 1987.5% 3.2% 1.000 [67] (2001) Adoption/Live Birth Ratio Notes [54] 0.

states.S. related to. One study shows this accounted for 80% of unrelated infant adoptions and half of adoptions through foster care.[75] seals all identifying information. The New York Foundling Home is among North Infertility is the main reason parents seek to adopt children they are not America's oldest adoption agencies. but such access is not universal (it is possible in a few jurisdictions . most adoptions occurred within a family. biological kins'. or other interaction regarding the child. Tay-Sachs disease) are not passed on. exchange of information. closed adoption may allow the transmittal of non-identifying information such as medical history and religious and ethnic background. closed adoption is seeing renewed influence. the norm for most of modern history. and adoptees' identities. maintaining it as secret and barring disclosure of the adoptive parents'. and health concerns relating to pregnancy and childbirth. indicates about half of adoptions are currently between related individuals.including the U. Rarely. and that the overall rate of ever-married American women who adopt is about 1. the biological and adoptive parents may enter into a legally-enforceable and binding agreement concerning visitation. to ensure that inheritable diseases (e. anonymously. interaction between kin and the adopted person. Historically. These may include wanting to cement a new family following divorce or death of one parent. and six States in the U. a practice criticized by some adoptee advocacy organizations as being retrograde and dangerous. as a result of safe haven laws passed by some U.[73] As of February 2009. fire departments. all parties being residents . at hospitals. or police stations within a few days of birth. or unrelated individuals. In safe-haven states. Intra-family adoption can also occur through surrender.[69] [69] [70] [71] [72] Open adoption can be an informal arrangement subject to termination by adoptive parents who have sole authority over the child. it is the outgrowth of laws that maintain an adoptee's right to unaltered birth certificates and/or adoption records.S. In some jurisdictions.4%. 24 U. currently married. the most recent study of experiences of women who adopt suggests they are most likely to be 40–44 years of age. compassion motivated by religious or philosophical conviction.[82] Unrelated adoptions may occur through the following mechanisms: • Private domestic adoptions: under this arrangement. Nevertheless. have impaired fertility. states allowed legally enforceable open adoption contract agreements to be included in the adoption finalization. bringing together prospective adoptive parents and families who want to place a child.K. to avoid contributing to perceived overpopulation out of the belief that it is more responsible to care for otherwise parent-less children than to reproduce.[74] • The practice of closed adoption. or when the child cannot otherwise be cared for and a family member agrees to take over.).[79] Estimates suggest that 11–24% of Americans who cannot conceive or carry to term attempt to build a family through adoption. as a result of parental death.[80] [81] Other reasons people adopt are numerous although not well documented. charities and for-profit organizations act as intermediaries. and childless.[76] Today. • Open adoption allows identifying information to be communicated between adoptive and biological parents and.Adoption 6 Contemporary adoption Forms of adoption Contemporary adoption practices can be open or closed. The most recent data from the U. where the new partner of a parent may legally adopt a child from the parent's previous relationship.S.[77] How adoptions originate Adoptions can occur either between related family members..g. Although there are a range of possible reasons.[78] A common example of this is a "stepparent adoption". perhaps.S. infants can be left.

and in an effort to protect those involved from the corruption and exploitation which sometimes accompanies it. to facilitate pregnancy and childbirth. Recognizing the difficulties and challenges associated with international adoption. it is known that older children are more prone to having their adoptions disrupted. Americans adopted more than 60.[83] about 51. nearly 45% of adoptions are estimated to have occurred through private arrangements. This includes adoptions that end prior to legal finalization and those that end after that point (in U. embryos are given to another individual or couple.[87] • Embryo adoption: based on the donation of embryos remaining after one couple’s in vitro fertilization treatments have been completed. but where a parent. indicates there is wide variation by country since adoptions from abroad account for less than 15% of its cases. Nevertheless. Private domestic adoption accounts for a significant portion of all adoptions.[83] More than 60.Adoption of the same country. suggest that between 10-25 percent of adoptions disrupt before they are legally finalized and from 1-10 percent are dissolved after legal finalization. Of the 127. The U.000 children from China. the latter cases are referred to as having been dissolved). prospective adoptive parents sometimes avoid intermediaries and connect with women directly. For example. which came into force on 1 May 1995 and has been ratified by 85 countries as of November 2011.[88] [89] At the end of a designated term of (voluntary) co-habitation. The Disruption process is usually initiated by adoptive parents via a court petition and is analogous to divorce proceedings.[90] How adoptions can disrupt Disruption refers to the termination of an adoption. This can occur through both public and private agencies. even though not initially sanctioned by the court.S. In some countries.500 adoptions that occurred in the U.[86] The laws of different countries vary in their willingness to allow international adoptions. the Hague Conference on Private International Law developed the [Hague Adoption Convention]. The particular terms of a common-law adoption are defined by each legal jurisdiction. the example of the United States is instructive. the adoption is then considered binding.. drafting contracts through a lawyer (these efforts are illegal in some jurisdictions). performed in the U. The practice is called "private fostering" in Britain. The wide range of values reflects the paucity of information on the subject and demographic factors such as age. these adoptions account for the majority of cases (see above Table).000 Russian children have been adopted in the United States since 1992. law. embryo adoption is governed by property law rather than by the court systems. in some courts of law. for example. the U. however. in contrast to traditional adoption. In the United States.S.[91] Ad hoc studies.000 or 40% were through the foster care system. It is a legal avenue unique to adoptive parents as disruption/dissolution does not apply to biological kin. without resort to any formal legal process. state of California recognizes common law relationships after co-habitation of 2 years. • Common law adoption: this is an adoption which has not been recognized beforehand by the courts. followed by the placement of those embryos into the recipient woman’s uterus. however. example.[84] • International adoption: involves the placing of a child for adoption outside that child’s country of birth. leaves his or her children with a friend or relative for an extended period of time.S.S. in the United States.[91] 7 . Alternatively. Its importance as an avenue for adoption varies by country.[83] • Foster care adoption: this is a type of domestic adoption where a child is initially placed in public care. such as Sweden.S.[85] and between 1995 and 2005. as witnessed by the public.

Noting that adoptees seemed to be more likely to experience problems such as drug addiction. instinctually.[106] [107] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems. and it can be said that adoptees. 1995) found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants in their sample exhibited disorganized attachment styles. by providing further education and financial support. ".[108] as well as depressive. household size. and foster children. but because they are more likely than genetic children to need the help. step. Numerous suggestions have been made to substitute new lessons. a pioneer in the professionalization of adoption services and herself an adoptive mother. and its absence has caused concern throughout the history of adoption.adoptive parents enrich their children's lives to compensate for the lack of biological ties and the extra challenges of adoption. Some children from foster care have histories of maltreatment. for example. the birth of a child.. however.[94] Other studies provide evidence that adoptive relationships can form along other lines."[100] Adopting older children presents other parenting issues. causing the researchers to speculate that. age.. etc. e.[93] This theory is supported in another more qualitative study where in adoptive relationships marked by sameness in likes. The traditional concern is expressed by Jessie Taft. A study evaluating the level of parental investment indicates strength in adoptive families.g. Earlier literature on the topic supported the conception of such problems. seem to develop differently than the general population while facing greater risks 8 . personality."[92] The traditional view of adoptive parenting received empirical support from a Princeton University study of 6. are at risk of developing psychiatric problems.[111] Some conclusions about the development of adoptees can be gleaned from newer studies. with the fact of "being adopted.Adoption Parenting and development of adoptees Parenting Biological ties are the hallmark of parent-child relationships. and sexual abuse. in some respect. though. e. step-children.g." creating unique responses to significant life-events.000 adoptive.. hours worked. and appearance. They include how to respond to stereotypes.[96] Beyond the foundational issues. As a result. people are less interested in sustaining the genetic lines of others. including dissociative symptoms. who commented on her contemporaries' view of adoptive parenting. focusing on "family orchards.[97] One author suggests a common question adoptive parents have is: "Will we love the child even though he/she is not our biological child?"[98] A specific concern for many parents is accommodating an adoptee in the classroom.[103] [104] [105] Studies by Cicchetti et al.. answering questions about heritage."[95] Another recent study found that adoptive families invested more heavily in their adopted children.) were significantly less for adoptees. physical abuse. "No one who is not willfully deluded would maintain that the experiences of adoption can take the place of the actual bearing and rearing of an own child. much of that research has since been deemed flawed due to methodological failures. researchers often assume that the adoptee population faces heightened risk in terms of psychological development and social relationships. the study speculated that adoptive parents might invest more in adoptees not because they favor them.[99] Familiar lessons like "draw your family tree" or "trace your eye color back through your parents and grandparents to see where your genes come from" could be hurtful to children who were adopted and do not know this biological information. anxiety.[109] [110] Development The consensus among researchers is that adoption affects development throughout life. and acting-out symptoms. the study indicated that food expenditures in households with mothers of non-biological children (when controlled for income. and how best to maintain connections with biological kin when in an open adoption. (1990.[101] [102] Such children are at risk of developing a disorganized attachment. and foster families in the United States and South Africa from 1968–1985. both adult adoptees and adoptive parents report being happier with the adoption. such as physical and psychological neglect. the unique questions posed for adoptive parents are varied. suggesting that parents who adopt invest more time in their children than other parents and concludes.

and impaired social competence after parental divorce.[121] Other researchers also found that prolonged institutionalization does not necessarily lead to emotional problems or character defects in all children. with international adoptees and female international adoptees. however. substance use.[113] Similar mechanisms appear to be at work in the physical development of adoptees. Professor Goldfarb in England concluded that some children adjust well socially and emotionally despite their negative experiences of institutional deprivation in early childhood. at highest risk. This suggests that there will always be some children who fare well. [122] 9 .[112] Concerning developmental milestones. adult adoptees exhibited more similarities than differences with adults who had not been adopted.[119] Moreover.[120] There have been many cases of remediation or the reversibility of early trauma. the adoptee population appeared to be unaffected in terms of their outside relationships. Researchers from the University of Minnesota studied adolescents who had been adopted and found that adoptees were twice as likely as non-adopted people to suffer from oppositional defiant disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with an 8% rate in the general population). while adult adoptees showed more variability than their non-adopted peers on a range of psychosocial measures.[117] Suicide risks were also significantly greater than the general population. resembling instead those of their biological parents and to the same extent as peers in non-adoptive families. specifically in their school or social abilities. regardless of their experiences in early childhood. seem to be more at risk for certain behavioral issues. While the general population experienced more behavioral problems.[116] The adoptee population does. who are resilient. work on adult adoptees has found that the additional risks faced by adoptees are largely confined to adolescence. lower school achievement.[114] [115] These differences in development appear to play out in the way young adoptees deal with major life events. in particular. Many adopted persons experience difficulty in establishing a sense of identity.[118] Nevertheless. Young adult adoptees were shown to be alike with adults from biological families and scored better than adults raised in alternative family types including single parent and step-families. adoptees have been found to respond differently than children who have not been adopted. in one of the earliest studies conducted. about one-half of inter-individual differences were due to individual non-shared influences. For example. Danish and American researchers conducting studies on the genetic contribution to body mass index found correlations between an adoptee's weight class and his biological parents' BMI while finding no relationship with the adoptive family environment. concluding that cognitive abilities of adoptees reflect those of their adoptive parents in early childhood but show little similarity by adolescence. In the case of parental divorce. studies from the Colorado Adoption Project examined genetic influences on adoptee maturation. Moreover. Swedish researchers found both international and domestic adoptees undertook suicide at much higher rates than non-adopted peers.Adoption during adolescence.

Donaldson Adoption Institute. the dominant conception of family revolves around a heterosexual couple with biological offspring. alcohol problems. "lucky.Adoption 10 Public perception of adoption In Western culture.[129] The stigmas associated with adoption are amplified for children in foster care.[131] A 2004 report from the Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care has shown that the number of children waiting in foster care doubled since the 1980s and now remains steady at about a half-million a year. disparaging views of adoptive families exist."[125] The majority of people state that their primary source of information about adoption comes from friends and family and the news media. most people report the media provides them a favorable view of adoption. has been widely popular in the adoptees were more likely to have behavior English-speaking world and. Additionally. however. Nevertheless. still substantial criticism of the media's adoption coverage. Some adoption blogs. with nearly 90% describing them as. As a consequence. later. the story of the orphaned Anne. problems and trouble at school. for example. In contrast. criticized Meet the Robinsons for using outdated orphanage imagery[127] [128] as did advocacy non-profit The Evan B.[130] Negative perceptions result in the belief that such children are so troubled it would be impossible to adopt them and create "normal" families.[126] There is.[123] [124] The most recent adoption attitudes survey completed by the Evan Donaldson Institute provides further evidence of this stigma. 72% indicated receiving positive impressions. along with doubts concerning the strength of their family bonds."[132] . Japan. Nearly one-third of the surveyed population believed adoptees are less-well adjusted. research indicates. and unselfish. Since its first publication in 1908. advantaged. and predisposed to drug and Canada. the same study indicated adoptive parents were viewed favorably. 40-45% thought and how the Cuthberts took her in. This idea places alternative family forms outside the norm. medical issues. more prone to Actors at the Anne of Green Gables Museum on Prince Edward Island.

adoptive parents and adoptee at the adoptee's age of majority or earlier if all members of the triad agree.. birthparents. New Hampshire.[134] [135] create confusion regarding genealogy. with each new movement labeled. Family preservation: As concerns over illegitimacy began to decline in the early 1970s. in some way. as reform. England and Wales opened records on moral grounds.[140] and Lee Campbell and other birthmothers established CUB Concerned United Birthparents. mothers and children should be kept together. DC to establish the American Adoption Congress (AAC) passing a unanimous resolution: "Open Records complete with all identifying information for all members of the adoption triad. Similar ideas were taking hold globally with grass-roots organizations like Parent Finders in Canada and Jigsaw in Australia. a striking shift in policy that remains in force today.[138] Open records: Movements to unseal adoption records for adopted citizen proliferated along with increased acceptance of illegitimacy.".Adoption Reform and reunion trends Adoption practices have significantly changed over the course of the last century. In 1975. These ideas arose from suggestions that the secrecy inherent in modern adoption may influence the process of forming an identity. Martin. It is the deep and consequential feeling of abandonment which the baby adoptee feels after the adoption and which may continue for the rest of his life. "Primal wound" is described as the "devastation which the infant feels because of separation from its birth mother."[134] 11 .. Delaware. groups such as Origins USA (founded in 1997) started to actively speak about family preservation and the rights of mothers. Emma May Vilardi created the first mutual-consent registry. the International Soundex Reunion Registry (ISRR). Tennessee. and Maine. It established three new principles including. if possible.. In the United States. this was clearly illustrated by the shift in policy of the New York Foundling Home. placements of children.[139] While in 1975. Jean Paton founded Orphan Voyage in 1954. groups that helped overturn sealed records in Alabama. Florence Fisher the Adoptees' Liberty Movement Association (ALMA) in 1971.[145] The intellectual tone of these recent reform movements was influenced by the publishing of The Primal Wound by Nancy Verrier. Canada and Mexico gathered in Washington.[143] [144] Simultaneously. social-welfare agencies began to emphasize that.[136] and provide little in the way of medical history. calling sealed records "an affront to human dignity. 2008. an Open Records emblem used in adoption-institution that is among the country's oldest and one that had pioneered Adoptee Rights Protest.[133] Beginning in the 1970s efforts to improve adoption became associated with opening records and encouraging family preservation. artist: D." [142] Later years saw the evolution of more militant organizations such as Bastard Nation (founded in 1996). "to prevent Orleans. allowing those separated by adoption to locate one another. Oregon." reflecting the belief that children would be better served by staying in their own families and communities. representatives of 32 organizations from 33 states.[137] In America. New sealed records.[141] By 1979.

3) they hope to pass on information to their children. in contrast. It is unclear. interviews with adoptees.[147] The research literature states adoptees give four reasons for desiring reunion: 1) they wish for a more complete genealogy. at reunion Nevertheless. 3) together. First proposed by Goffman."[151] In sum.[148] It appears the desire for reunion is linked to the adoptee's interaction with and acceptance within the community.007 adoptees and relinquishing parents). found they expressed a need to actually meet biological relations. impairing their ability to present a consistent identity. and 4) they have a need for a detailed biological background. an adoptee. if not impossible. The UK Office for National Statistics has projected that 33% of all adoptees would eventually request a copy of their original birth records. reunions can bring a variety of issues for adoptees and parents. though. these factors engender. One paper summarizes the research. In the largest study to date (based on the responses of 1. since many adoptees of the era have access to get their information by other means. some indication of the level of search interest by adoptees can be gleaned from the case of England and Wales which opened adoptees' birth records in 1975. Reunion helps resolve the lack of self-knowledge. in some adoptees.[146] In part. a sense of social exclusion. Internally-focused theories suggest some adoptees possess ambiguities in their sense of self. the problem stems from the small adoptee population which makes random surveying difficult. The projection is known to underestimate the true search rate. imply ongoing relationships were formed between adoptee and parent nor that this was the goal. stating. "…attempts to draw distinctions between the searcher and non-searcher are no more conclusive or generalizable than attempts to substantiate…differences between adoptees and nonadoptees. studies show significant variation.[150] Some adoptees reject the idea of reunion. birth. who sought reunion. 2) this understanding is strengthened by experiences where non-adoptees suggest adoptive ties are weaker than blood ties. that the reasons given are incomplete: although such information could be communicated by a third-party. suggest that reunion is a way for adoptees to overcome social stigma. however. . but will search as an attempt to resolve experiences of social stigma. and 4) these adoptees react by searching for a blood tie that reinforces their membership in the community. Writer Lesley Lathrop (left). most reunion results appear to be positive. however. including medical information. and relinquishment. Nevertheless. however.[152] The book "Adoption Detective: Memoir of an Adopted Child" by Judith and Martin Land provides provides insight into the mind of an adoptee from childhood through to adulthood and the emotions invoked when reunification with their birth mothers is desired. 2) they are curious about events leading to their conception. what differentiates adoptees who search from those who do not.[149] Externally-focused theories. It is speculated by adoption researchers.Adoption 12 Reunion Estimates for the extent of search behavior by adoptees have proven elusive. exceeding original forecasts made in 1975 when it was believed that only a small fraction of the adoptee population would request their records. This does not. 90% responded that reunion was a beneficial experience. The externally-focused rationale for reunion suggests adoptees may be well adjusted and happy within their adoptive families. the theory has four parts: 1) adoptees perceive the absence of biological ties as distinguishing their adoptive family from others.

Adoption terminology The language of adoption is changing and evolving. for example. In some cases. a major shift from natural parent to birthparent [156] [157] occurred. lack of resources. Two of the contrasting sets of terms are commonly referred to as positive adoption language (PAL) (sometimes called respectful adoption language (RAL)). it is estimated that 200. as well as the fact that coining new words and phrases to describe ancient social practices will not necessarily alter the feelings and experiences of those affected by them.[160] The terms contained in "Positive Adoption Language" include the terms "birth mother" (to replace the terms "natural mother" and "real mother"). and support groups formed like CUB (Concerned United Birthparents). In German occupied Poland. In 1979. emotional. adoption practices that involved coercion were directed against unwed mothers. as detailed in The Girls Who Went Away. and many cases the policies have changed. and overall lack of choice. as adoption search and support organizations developed.[158] which was the basis for her later work "Constructive Adoption Terminology". as were Native Americans in the United States and First Nations of Canada. These kinds of recommendations were an attempt to encourage people to be more aware of their terminology. Positive Adoptive Language (PAL) In the 1970s. with preference being given to adoption within the child's tribe. Marietta Spencer wrote "The Terminology of Adoption" for The Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). but instead describe scenarios of powerlessness. and that (2) mothers who have "voluntarily surrendered" children to adoption (as opposed to involuntary terminations through court-authorized child-welfare proceedings) seldom view it as a choice that was freely made. and since the 1970s has been a controversial issue tied closely to adoption reform efforts. and honest adoption language (HAL).[154] The Stolen Generation of Aboriginal people in Australia were affected by similar policies. Social workers and other professionals in the field of adoption began changing terms of use to reflect what was being expressed by the parties involved. parents' rights have been terminated when their ethnic or socio-economic group has been deemed unfit by society. The controversy arises over the use of terms which.[153] and only 25. Proponents 13 .[155] From the 1950s through the 1970s. Along with the change in times and social attitudes came additional examination of the language used in adoption. while designed to be more appealing or less offensive to some persons affected by adoption. may simultaneously cause offense or insult to others. As books like Adoption Triangle by Sorosky.000 returned to their families after the war. Pannor and Baran were published.000 Polish children with purportedly Aryan traits were removed from their families and given to German or Austrian couples. a period called the Baby scoop era. Honest Adoption Language (HAL) "Honest Adoption Language" refers to a set of terms that proponents say reflect the point of view that: (1) family relationships (social. which allows the tribe and family of a Native American child to be involved in adoption decisions. there were challenges to the language in common use at the time.[159] This influenced Pat Johnston's "Positive Adoption Language" (PAL) and "Respectful Adoption Language" (RAL). The United States.[161] [162] It also reflects the point of view that the term "birth mother" is derogatory in implying that the woman has ceased being a mother after the physical act of giving birth.Adoption Controversial adoption practices Reform and family preservation efforts have also been strongly associated with the perceived mis-use of adoption. Forced adoption based on ethnicity occurred during World War II. This controversy illustrates the problems in adoption. now has the 1978 Indian Child Welfare Act. psychological or physical) that existed prior to the legal adoption often continue past this point or endure in some form despite long periods of separation. These practices have become significant social and political issues in recent years. "placing" (to replace the term "surrender").

not all cultures have the concept of adoption. Uses interviews with 131 adoptive parents in a study of how adopters' attitudes uphold. thus often devaluing acceptability. can be used in negative ways by detractors. adopted children must keep their original surname to be identified with blood relations. and freedoms of certain people are restricted because they are reduced to stereotypes. opportunities. Adoption Nation: How the Adoption Revolution Is Transforming America. as acceptable descriptors of themselves. the described person's individual merits become apparent. Language at its best honors the self-referencing choices of the persons involved. Blue-Ribbon Babies and Labors of Love: Race. utilizes inclusive terms and phrases. unconscious.[163] Terms included in HAL include terms that were used before PAL.S. 3. including "natural mother. The rights. or furthering division."[164] Advocates of inclusive language defend it as inoffensive-language usage whose goal is multi-fold: 1." Inclusive Adoption Language There are supporters of various lists.[168] Further reading • Christine Ward Gailey. and Gender in U. rather than his or her stereotype. New York: Basic Books. and may even control thought." "first mother. or subvert prevailing ideologies of kinship in the United States. traditionally. 4. In addressing the linguistic problem of naming. This compromises the integrity of the language and turns what was intended to be positive into negative or vice-versa. Adoption Practice (University of Texas Press. and there are persons who find them lacking. 2. observe hijab (the covering of women in the presence of non-family) in their adoptive households.[167] and. that is treating unrelated children as equivalent to biological children of the adoptive parents. (2000).Adoption of HAL liken this to the mother being treated as a "breeder" or "incubator". accommodate." and "surrendered for adoption. 2010). 185 pages. Language evolves with social attitudes and experiences. Edna Andrews says that using "inclusive" and "neutral" language is based upon the concept that "language represents thought. Stereotyping is mostly implicit. people then must consciously think about how they describe someone unlike themselves. Whereas all cultures make arrangements whereby children whose own parents are unavailable to rear them can be brought up by others. uplift or embrace. and is sensitive to the feelings of the primary parties. for example. and facilitated by the availability of pejorative labels and terms. A. A common problem is that terms chosen by an identity group. 14 . created to support an agenda. • Pertman. In Egypt. Under Islamic Law. All terminology can be used to demean or diminish. Rendering the labels and terms socially unacceptable.[165] [166] Cultural variations Attitudes and laws regarding adoption vary greatly. When labeling is a conscious activity. developed over many decades. Class. these cultural distinctions have led to making adoption illegal. meaning and use.

google. Adoption History Project. cili. Orphan Trains (http:/ / books. 1998. University of Oregon. A Good Home (http:/ / books. 1992). article by: Susan Porter. edu/ ~adoption/ archive/ BraceDCNY.M1). Topic: Eugenics (http:/ / www.D. 1900-1945: Inmates of Orphanages as Subjects of Research in Medicine and in the Social Sciences in America” (Ph. google. com/ books?id=MR1D29F0yyQC). Topic: Charles Loring Brace (http:/ / www. The Politics of Adoption. A Good Home (http:/ / books. page 224 [18] John Boswell. edu/ ~adoption/ archive/ GoddardWCA. uoregon. diss. The Kindness of Strangers (http:/ / books. html) [31] Wayne Carp (Editor). uoregon. google. page 45. google. Gottlieb. The Foundling. com/ books?id=gVnx_ymDu6wC& printsec=frontcover). edu/ ancient/ hamframe. The Dangerous Classes of New York and Twenty Years' Work Among Them (http:/ / books. the American Way of Adoption (http:/ / www. 2001. google. google. 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Topic: Charles Loring Brace. google. Adoption History Project. page 108 [35] Ellen Herman. google. Topic: Timeline (http:/ / www. page 3 [11] John Boswell. Excerpt from Wanted: A Child to Adopt (http:/ / www. Editor. google.. page 10 [10] John Boswell. 1985. 1872 [28] Ellen Herman. 2001 page 223 [39] H. The Kindness of Strangers (http:/ / books. Topic: Placing Out (http:/ / www. E.col1). htm) [27] Charles Loring Brace. google. page 53-95 [12] A. Page 95 [30] Orphan Train Heritage Society of America. 2000 [15] S. 1976. Editor. May 2007.2. David Kirk. 115 [8] John Boswell. 1998. page 184 [19] John Boswell. htm) [38] Lawrence and Pat Starkey. 1998. asp) Codex Justinianus (http:/ / www. The Kindness of Strangers (http:/ / books. 1998. The Psychology of Adoption (http:/ / books. google. google. page 274 [5] H. uk:) page 10 Code of Hammurabi (http:/ / avalon. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3686/ is_199708/ ai_n8758613/ print?tag=artBody. University of Oregon. 1990. 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Adoption History Project. gov. google. abs. gov/ systemwide/ laws_policies/ statutes/ cooperativeall. How Many Children Were Adopted in 2000 and 2001 (http:/ / www. statistics. com/ constitution/ amendment-14/ 90-illegitimacy. htm) [52] U. uk/ CCI/ nugget. com/ od/ adoptionrights/ a/ openingrecords.S. ie/ booklets/ adoption_report_nov_25. 1988-1995 (http:/ / www. uoregon. gov. uoregon. cdc. Adoption Data (http:/ / www.S. nsf/ 0/ BA94676902EC1CDE85256CE10073B4E8) [77] SECA Organization (http:/ / www. [45] National Council for Adoption. Strangers and Kin: the American Way of Adoption (http:/ / books. Retrieved 19 July 2011.00. 2002 [67] The National Adoption Information Clearinghouse of the U. Population and Household Characteristics (http:/ / www.S. gov/ nchs/ data/ series/ sr_23/ sr23_027. U. pdf#summary) [69] http:/ / www. Topic: Confidentiality (http:/ / www. about. childwelfare. [47] M. University of Oregon. 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"How Hungry is the Selfish Gene?" (http:/ / www. August 2008.S.. "Adoption Experience of Women and Men and Demand for Children to Adopt in the U. uoregon. com/ wp-adv/ advertisers/ russia/ articles/ society/ 20090624/ who_will_adopt_the_orphans. [83] US Child Welfare Information Gateway: How Many Children Were Adopted in 2000 and 2001? (http:/ / www.S. "Adoption Experience of Women and Men and Demand for Children to Adopt in the U. cfm) [84] http:/ / www. (1993). University of Oregon. Herman. The Adoption Family Book I: You and Your Child.Geraldine Van Bueren. 2007.16. & Hansen. American Sociological Review. G. E. 49. 135-157). 1998. S. E. D. gov/ nchs/ data/ series/ sr_23/ sr23_027. April 3. org. pdf U. childwelfare.01. December 2004 [92] E. Topic: Jessie Taft (http:/ / darkwing. washingtonpost. K. html Robin Hillborn. nl/ index_en. relational violence and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategies. Child Development 69. (1988).A. & George. Lin. & Braunwald. 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2007 (http:/ / www. 8. org/ journals/ features/ dev364429. triadoption. D. 2009 [118] Annika von Borczyskowski. nurture.” 1990. The Foundling. 442-447. [122] Pringel.. net/ history. Early... 2006 [119] William Feigelman. org/ pss/ 585836)]] 2000. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology (http:/ / www. J. 1990 [150] http:/ / www. Family Ideology. jstor. htm) [140] ISRR . pp 26-34. DiAnne Border.wlu. htm). jstor. jstor. ca/ dissertations/ AAINN60675/ K. pg. htm Why Adoptive Parents Support Open Records for Adult Adoptees [137] Adoption History Project (University of Oregon). & DeFries. The proportion of adoptees who have received their birth records in England and Wales. The New England Journal of Medicine (http:/ / content. org/ docs/ index. org/ activism/ support. pdf) [143] USA Today. April 12. Psychology of Adoption. 1997.4 429-437 [117] Kaplan. org/ pss/ 353920 K. Journal of Marriage and the Family 57 August 1995: pg. 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No. Influences of genes and shared family environment on adult body mass index assessed in an adoption study by a comprehensive path model. edu/ ~jadrian/ docs/ papers/ old/ 20030212%20Miles%20-%20Adoptive%20Identity. Donaldson Adoption Institute. page 47” [127] 3 Generations of Adoption. [114] AJ Stunkard. March. 2/13/2008. usatoday. Adoption Research. Psychology of Adoption.S. Population Trends (104). January 23.” [124] http:/ / www. art. com/ display/ article/ 10168/ 1367897). 70 18 . states unsealing records (http:/ / www. BASTARD NATION . 407-418 [121] Goldfarb. page 20. M. springerlink. L. Vol. 40-45 [116] Thomas O’Conner. Evan Donaldson Institute. [http://scholars. pp.W. G. (1955).). 2008 [136] http:/ / www. pages 26-34 [148] http:/ / www. 2007 press release (http:/ / www. com/ printedition/ news/ 20080213/ 1a_adoptionxx. Evan Donaldson Institute. As adoptees seek roots. 2007 (http:/ / adopteesx3. Issue 3. Rushbrooke. R. (1960).International Soundex Reunion Registry Reunion Registry (http:/ / www. page 20 and 38.” 1990. (1997). Donaldson Adoption Institute [132] http:/ / pewfostercare. June 2002. blogspot. isrr. pdf) 2000. memberlodge. March. Nature. Comparisons with Persons Raised in Conventional Families. jstor. 1986 [115] Vogler.. In P. com/ verrier. Summer 2001. April 7. 49. mcmaster. Suicidal behavior in national and international adult adoptees. Hoch & J. Marriage & Family Review. pp. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ illegitimacy. 1995. dissertation) Wilfrid Laurier University [113] Plomin. Are Associations Between Parental Divorce and Children’s Adjustment Genetically Mediated?. html The Evan B. 36 No. fr/ ?aModele=afficheN& cpsidt=3406929). March. brown. 49. 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British Journal of Social Work 26: 609–625. a major shift from natural parent to birthparent [1] [2] occurred." (http:/ / www. [153] " Searching for missing relatives in Poland (http:/ / www. wrote "The Terminology of Adoption" for The Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). Language of adoption The language of adoption is changing and evolving. No. "Egypt says adoptive moms were human smugglers." (http:/ / foundandlostsupport. and honest adoption language (HAL). October 30. jewishvirtuallibrary. Adoption and Fostering 17 (4): 22–26. trial/ index. [168] Tim Lister and Mary Rogers. as adoption search and support organizations developed. while designed to be more appealing or less offensive to some persons affected by adoption. com/ pdf/ PositiveLanguage. Sullivan and E.[4] This influenced Pat Johnston's "Positive Adoption Language" (PAL) and "Respectful Adoption Language" (RAL). Lathrop. html) by Brenda Romanchik [160] Speaking Positively: Using Respectful Adoption Language (http:/ / www. as well as the fact that coining new words and phrases to describe ancient social practices will not necessarily alter the feelings and experiences of those affected by them. pdf). jaffari. adoption. shtml) Holt International 1997 [167] Sayyid Muhammad Rivzi. com/ cms/ s/ 2/ edf71f50-c208-11de-be3a-00144feab49a. by Patricia Irwin Johnston [161] Logan. 4 (Winter. "Birth Mothers and Their Mental Health: Uncharted Territory". Two of the contrasting sets of terms are commonly referred to as positive adoption language (PAL) (sometimes referred to respectful adoption language (RAL)). [155] National Indian Child Welfare Association: the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) (http:/ / www. The controversy arises over the use of terms which. org/ files/ literature/ Adoption in Islam. sacredhealing. may simultaneously cause offense or insult to others. "What do Birtmothers Want?". and is sensitive to the feelings of the primary parties. 2009. html)". html) by Diane Turski [164] Cultural Sensitivity and Political Correctness: The Linguistic Problem of Naming. (1993). and support groups formed like CUB (Concerned United Birthparents). utilizes inclusive terms and phrases. Pannor and Baran were published. As books like Adoption Triangle by Sorosky. 2010. htm) Child Welfare League of American 1980s [159] Adoption Language (http:/ / library. pp. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ birthparents." CNN (http:/ / www. This controversy illustrates the problems in adoption. S. The term "natural mother" had been in common use previously. Vol. Social workers and other professionals in the field of adoption began changing terms of use to reflect what was being expressed by the parties involved. April 2004.Adoption [152] R. in Jewish Virtual Library (American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise). Language evolves with social attitudes and 19 . com/ 2009/ WORLD/ meast/ 03/ 23/ egypt.[5] The terms contained in "Positive Adoption Language" include the terms "birth mother" (to replace the terms "natural mother" and "real mother"). perspectivespress. Buck. pdf) TRIADOPTION® Archives [157] Birth Parents (http:/ / darkwing. [154] Gitta Sereny. pdf) OURS 1992 [166] Holt 1997 (http:/ / www. "placing" (to replace the term "surrender"). In 1979. org/ adoption/ language. edu/ ~adoption/ archive/ CwlaAT. J. com/ triadoption/ Misc. [165] PAL 1992 (http:/ / www. and since the 1970s has been a controversial issue tied closely to adoption reform efforts. / Origin of the Term Birthparent. March 23. "Adoption in Islam.389-404. htm) The Adoption History Project [158] Adoption Terminology (http:/ / darkwing. [162] Wells. uoregon. html?eref=rss_world#cnnSTCText). org/ jsource/ Holocaust/ children. Financial Times. Language at its best. (1996). holtinternational. rpt. cnn. Positive Adoption Language In the 1970s. there were challenges to the language in common use at the time. April 09. 2008. [163] "Why Birthmother Means Breeder. adoptivefamilies. ft. com/ birthmothermeansbreeder. "Stolen Children" (http:/ / www. “Openness in adoption: retrospective lessons and prospective choices. html).[3] which was the basis for her later work "Constructive Adoption Terminology". nicwa. 2009. 71. honors the self-referencing choices of the persons involved. com/ pjpal. org/ Indian_Child_Welfare_Act/ ) [156] Birthparent Legacy Term (http:/ / www. Along with the change in times and social attitudes came additional examination of the language used in adoption. adoption. com/ articles/ a-few-words-on-words-in-adoption. 26 Issue 4. American Speech. Accessed September 15. uoregon. html). Marietta Spencer. Edna Andrews. The term "birth mother" was first used in 1956 by Pearl S.” Children and Youth Services Review Vol. 1996).

[8] This can be evident in English speaking cultures when there is prominent use of negative or inaccurate language describing adoption.Language of adoption 20 experiences. The term "natural" in its origin means a family by the natural means of conception and birth and its primal bond which exists by itself since the beginning unless it's severed. In some cultures. Some adoptive parents supported this change as they felt using "natural" indicated they were "unnatural". a sales and marketing tool. The reasons against its use: Some birth parents see "positive adoption language" as terminology which glosses over painful facts they face as they go into the indefinite post-adoption period of their lives. and overall lack of choice. birth mother. real mother/father/parent birth. For others. the purpose is to present the adoption of those children in need as natural. Some feel the social work system has negatively compromised the intention of the birth family references and other terms. lack of resources. rather than a past event. have evolved and changed some over the years. there is no choice as the parent's rights were terminated because the parent was deemed to be unfit. adoptive families face adoptism. Example of terms used in Positive Adoption Language Non-preferred: PAL term: Reasons stated for preference: your own child birth child. They feel PAL has become a way to present adoption in the friendliest light possible. biological child Saying a birth child is your own child or one of your own children implies that an adopted child is not. birth father were chosen by those working in adoption reform as terms to replace 'natural' and it took nearly a decade before agencies. many adoptive families choose the use of positive adoption language. and that (2) mothers who have "voluntarily surrendered" children to adoption (as opposed to involuntary terminations through court-authorized child-welfare proceedings) seldom view it as a choice that was freely made. but is an event that happened to them. your adopted child your child The use of the adjective "adopted" signals that the relationship is qualitatively different from that of parents to birth children. and so is not a descriptive or accurate term. social workers. psychological or physical) that existed prior to the legal adoption continue.[6] [7] The reasons for its use: Some terms like birth parents. in order to obtain even more infants for adoption. surrender for adoption placed or placed for adoption The use of the adjective "surrendered" implies "giving up.e. courts and laws embraced the change in self-referencing. or the terminology must again change." For many parents placing a child for adoption is an informed completely voluntary choice.) Others contend that "is adopted" makes adoption sound like an ongoing disability. child is adopted child was adopted Some adoptees believe that their adoption is not their identity.. So. The example below is one of the earliest and it should be noted that these lists. so that either the initial intent needs to be honored.[11] Terms . Although it can be seen as unnatural to conceive and relinquish children. Proponents of HAL liken this to the mother being treated as a "breeder" or "incubator". The preferred terms are more emotionally neutral. and is not as descriptive. natural parent birth parent or first parent The use of the term "natural" implies that the adoptive family is unnatural.[9] [10] It also reflects the point of view that the term "birth mother" is derogatory in implying that the woman has ceased being a mother after the physical act of giving birth. too. but instead describe scenarios of powerlessness. give up for adoption place for adoption or make an adoption plan "Give up" implies a lack of value. to combat adoptism. i. biological or genetic mother/father/parent The use of the term "real" implies that the adoptive family is artificial. Honest adoption language "Honest Adoption Language" refers to a set of terms that reflect the point of view that: (1) family relationships (social. ("Adopted" becomes a participle rather than an adjective. emotional.

mother/father/parent (when referring solely to the parents who had adopted) adoptive mother/father/parent/adopter Referring to the people who have adopted the child as the mother or father (singular).Language of adoption 21 included in HAL include the original terms that were used before PAL. ." "Surrender" is also the legal term for the mother's signing a Termination of Parental Rights. In contrast to RAL." HAL terms reflect the point of view that there is a continuing mother-child relationship and/or bond that endures despite separation birth child natural child. Many women who have gone through the process and who are separated from their children by adoption believe that social work techniques used to prepare single mothers to sign Termination Of Parental Rights papers closely resembles a psychological war against natural motherhood." The reasons for its use: In most cultures. and imply the mother has made a fully informed decision. It also implies that the mother is a "birth mother" with no connection to her child or interest in her child past this point place for adoption give up for adoption surrender for adoption (have) (are) separated by adoption. Some adoptive parents feel disrespected by language like 'natural parent' because it can indicate they are unnatural." "foster. and having no relationship or connection with his or her natural mother past the event of having been born. including "natural mother". "Mother" and "surrendered for adoption. The use of the word "child" is accurate up until the end of childhood. ignores the emotional and psychological (and often physical) presence of a second set of parents in the child's life. HAL does not honor the historical aspects of the early adoption reform movement who requested and worked years to have terminology changed from natural to birth. The reasons against its use: The term "Honest" implies that all other language used in adoption is dishonest. implying that the adoptee was a "birth product" produced for the adoption market. Example of Terms used in Honest Adoption Language Non-preferred: HAL Term: Reasons stated for preference: birth mother/father/parent mother or natural mother HAL views term "birth mother" as being derogatory. the adoption of a child does not change the identities of its mother and father: they continue to be referred to as such. limiting a woman's purpose in her child's life to the physical act of reproduction and thus implying that she is a "former mother" or "breeder. HAL reflects the opinion that there are two sets of parents in the adopted person's life: adoptive parents and natural parents. HAL acknowledges that past adoption practice facilitated the taking of children for adoption." or "adoptive" parents. adopted child adopted person or person who was adopted The use of the adjective 'adopted' signals that the relationship is qualitatively different from that of parents to other children. often against their mother's expressed wishes. Those who adopted a child were thereafter termed its "guardians. "Make a plan" and "place for adoption" are viewed by HAL proponents as being dishonest terms which marginalize or deny the [13] wrenching emotional effect of separation on the mother/child dyad. "Realistic Plan". Some of those directly affected by adoption separation believe these terms more accurately reflect important but hidden and/or ignored realities of adoption. hence [12] the term "surrender. After that the continued use of "child" is infantilizing. child of one's own HAL views the term "birth child" as being derogatory. They feel this language also reflects continuing connection and does not exclude further contact. Some people choose to use "Honest Adoption Language" (HAL) because it reflects the original terminology.

Edna Andrews says that using "inclusive" and "neutral" language is based upon the concept that "language represents thought. No. 22-26. 22 . References [1] Birthparent Legacy Term (http:/ / www. Words and phrases must reflect mutual respect and honor the individual choice. Inclusive language honors that each individual has a right to determine for themselves what self-referencing term is comfortable and best reflects their personal identity. Language that is truly inclusive affirms the humanity of all the people involved. Eclectica. Stereotyping is mostly implicit. unconscious. meaning and use. Edna Andrews. To be inclusive requires that no group ascribes to others what they must call themselves. pdf) TRIADOPTION® Archives [2] Birth Parents (http:/ / darkwing. and shows respect for difference. and may even control thought. shtml) Holt International 1997 [8] Adoptism defined (http:/ / www. adoption. org/ press/ articles/ adoptism. 3. sacredhealing. html) [9] Logan. kelly/ thesis. html). there can be disagreements within the group itself. net/ ~judy. pactadopt. 17(4). Words have the power to communicate hospitality or hostility. "Birth Mothers and Their Mental Health: Uncharted Territory". 4. The rights. as well as affirm and liberate. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ birthparents. thus often devaluing acceptability. Inclusive adoption language is far more than an aesthetic matter of identity imagery that one embraces or rejects. (1996). com/ articles/ a-few-words-on-words-in-adoption. [11] "Why Birthmother Means Breeder.Language of adoption Inclusive Adoption Language There are supporters of various lists. perspectivespress. 609-625. htm)" by Judy Kelly (1999) [14] Cultural Sensitivity and Political Correctness: The Linguistic Problem of Naming. / Origin of the Term Birthparent. S."[14] Advocates of inclusive language defend it as inoffensive-language usage whose goal is multi-fold: 1. Jul/Aug 2001 [13] "The Trauma of Relinquishment. it can focus the fundamental issues and ideals of social justice. by Patricia Irwin Johnston [6] PAL 1992 (http:/ / www. htm) The Adoption History Project [3] Adoption Terminology (http:/ / darkwing. 6(1). com/ pjpal. com/ pdf/ PositiveLanguage. All terminology can be used to demean or diminish. developed over many decades. (http:/ / home. Adoption and Fostering. pdf) OURS 1992 [7] Holt 1997 (http:/ / www. and there are persons who find them lacking. com/ birthmothermeansbreeder. att. edu/ ~adoption/ archive/ CwlaAT. opportunities. html) by Diane Turski [12] Not By Choice (http:/ / www. Rendering the labels and terms socially unacceptable. as acceptable descriptors of themselves. 71. adoptivefamilies. pp. "What do Birthmothers Want?". 2. and freedoms of certain people are restricted because they are reduced to stereotypes. htm) Child Welfare League of American 1980s [4] Adoption Language (http:/ / library. This compromises the integrity of the language and turns what was intended to be positive into negative or vice-versa. uoregon. created to support an agenda. to exploit and exclude. can be then used in negative ways by detractors. holtinternational. 26. the described person's individual merits become apparent. eclectica. American Speech. 1996). British Journal of Social Work. When labeling is a conscious activity. A common problem is that terms chosen by an identity group. uplift or embrace. In this evolving debate about which terms are acceptable in any era. uoregon. 4 (Winter. rather than his or her stereotype. In addressing the linguistic problem of naming. html) by Brenda Romanchik [5] Speaking Positively: Using Respectful Adoption Language (http:/ / www. and facilitated by the availability of pejorative labels and terms. html). Vol. people then must consciously think about how they describe someone unlike themselves.389-404. org/ adoption/ language. or furthering division." (http:/ / foundandlostsupport. org/ v6n1/ buterbaugh. [10] Wells. by Karen Wilson-Buterbaugh. (1993). J. com/ triadoption/ Misc.

Just as the adoptive parents want to learn about the birth mother’s life and health history. with the birth mother living in a different state from the adoptive parents). This lets the adoptive parent vicariously live through the birth mother regarding the pregnancy.[2] Good adoption agencies and attorneys do this in a pressure-free setting where no one is encouraged to make an immediate decision. such as the child's birthday 23 .[7] Likely the most common arrangement in open adoptions is for the adoptive parents to commit to sending the birth mother photos of the child (and themselves as a family) each year. with the birth mother playing no role. or complete. it is not uncommon for the birth mother to invite the adoptive mother (or adoptive father too if the birth mother wishes) to come to her doctor appointments. The goal for both birth and adoptive parents at this stage is to make sure they are looking at the adoption in the same way.[3] Many birth mothers do more than just meet the adoptive parents once before the birth. but then wish to go “their own way” in life thereafter. where it is not unusual for the adoptive mother (and the adoptive father. or a few. Most states permit full openness not just regarding identities. until the child reaches the age of 18.) If they are geographically distant from each other (as some adoptions are interstate. While it is true that decades ago. these are adoptive families who have retained that agency or attorney to assist them in the adoption process.[6] Some birth mothers want to get to know the adoptive parents before the birth.[1] When the birth mother has narrowed down her prospective adoptive parents to one. so does the birth mother want the same information about the people she is considering as the parents for her child. then have that agency take full responsibility in selecting the adoptive family. openness as well. but also personal information about each other. families. as demonstrated below. yet the parties elect to remain in contact. both the birth and adoptive parents want to make sure the other is someone they can count on. Open adoption has become the norm in most states in the adoption of newborns. now most adoption agencies have some.Open adoption Open adoption Open adoption is an adoption in which the biological mother or parents and adoptive family know the identity of each other.[4] If they live close enough to each other. Many birth mothers ask the hospital staff to hand the baby to the adoptive parents first. most adoptions start with the birth mother reviewing dozens of photo-resume letters of prospective adoptive parents. In open adoption. then advance to a face-to-face meeting if the meeting by phone went as well as hoped. Pre-birth openness The days are long past when a birth mother would go to an adoption agency to give up her child. The birth mother may feel that future contact with the adoptive parents. Getting to know the adoptive family gives her confidence in the placement and the knowledge she can feel secure in the child’s future with the mom and dad (or single parent) she selected. as they are in "closed adoptions" and the adoptive parents become the legal parents. the first meeting will normally be by phone. Usually. the parental rights of biological parents are terminated. both short and long term. or the child. Although practices vary state by state. would be emotionally difficult for her. and short written updates. normally they arrange to meet in person. often only independent adoptions (usually adoptions initiated by an attorney) involved openness. The same is true at the hospital. there are more variations in the years following the birth. after the adoption has been completed.[5] Post-birth openness Although pre-birth openness is getting to be routine in newborn adoptions.[8] Often these photos and updates will be sent more than just once a year. Adoption is a lifetime commitment. and just like marriage. so they can be the first people to hold their child. and lets the birth mother see the adoptive parent's joy and anticipation of soon becoming a parent. if that is the birth mother’s wish) to be a labor coach. and be present for the delivery. But “open” can mean different things to different people. before she has even done so.

It could be once or multiple times annually throughout the child’s life. In other words. and put themselves in the role of an adoptive parent. which often only a direct blood relative can provide). or more common recently. friends. as long as they serve the best interests of the child. but no post-birth contact: 10% Pre-birth contact. if their child ever has a medical emergency requiring a birth parent’s aid (bone marrow. hiding adoption is really not possible.[11] Adoptive parents will want to talk about adoption to their child from a very early age. but no post-birth contact: 30% Pre-birth contact. The amount of contact can vary greatly.[10] Which type of open adoption is best? Adoption is like marriage. then disappear from the child and adoptive family's life. via email. thinking that the birth mother’s role is somewhat like that of a distant relative. Normally. and photos and updates only thereafter: 65% Pre-birth contact. what would make me feel confident.[13] A good analysis for adoptive parents to emply in determining what is the right degree of openness is to put themselves in the place of a birth mother and ask. as everyone the adoptive parents know . This can be via mail. asking themselves how they would feel regarding a particular planned role in the new family.[14] As a practical matter. wanting the best for their baby. courts will find these agreements enforceable. Adoptions are the same. et cetera. What is right for one couple will not work for another. although they offer less protection to a birth parent if the adoptive parent's promises were not honored. and photos and updates only thereafter: 65% Pre-birth contact.) Every adoptive parent wants their child to be proud of their adoption heritage and confident in themselves and their place in a family. Sometimes an intermediary is selected to receive and forward the updates. so to hide it from the child is nonsensical.[9] A few states permit the birth and adoptive parents to sign a contract of sorts. and sometimes it is done directly. The more progressive states may have a rough percentage accordingly: Pre-birth contact. Likewise. It is not unusual for these agreements to be more like "handshake" agreements. then face a conflict later. What is important is that the birth mother and adoptive parents are honest with each other regarding the type of adoption each truly hopes for. Some birth and adoptive parents agree they would like to stay in face-to-face contact. and one person does not just say what they think the other wants to hear.Open adoption or other significant events. With this thought in mind.all know the child joined their family via adoption.[15] 24 . the percentages may look more like this: Pre-birth contact. not to mention she was the person who created their family for them. some states seem to have more open adoptions than others. relatives . the birth mother has no legal right to make parenting decisions.[12] (Even if the adoptive parents were so inclined. putting in writing any promises regarding contact after the adoption is finalized. The saying "It takes a village to raise a child" comes to mind. kidney tissue. "If I were pregnant. hiding something the child should see as prideful and joyful. and giving up my child. nor should she want to. photos and updates. Many adoptive parents view her as someone they'd enjoy staying a part of their lives. more and more adoptive parents are opening their minds to a more open adoption than they might initially imagined if desired by the birth mother. but she still has love to offer. And adoptive parents should remember. and feel good about the placement?" Most birth mothers are loving. photos and updates. these "open adoption agreements" can usually be prepared if the parties desire to formalize the agreement.neighbors. It could be just a time or two in the first year. and one or two annual face-to-face get-togethers: 5% It is not unheard of for birth mothers to request an open adoption. Some adoptions are more open than just sending photos and updates. caring young women. that birth parent will be the first person they search for. Even in those states which do not expressly have laws in this area. birth mothers should be sensitive to the feelings of the adoptive parents. and one or two annual face-to-face get-togethers: 25% In more conservative states. There are countless ways that a marriage can work. but which they can't provide.

Although open adoptions are thought to be a relatively new phenomenon. and "Open Adoption" was created. For those few birth fathers who volunteer to take a helpful and active role in creating the adoption situation for the adopting parents. serious consequences can follow. History of openness in adoption A closed adoption is an adoption in which the parties involved do not know the identities of each other. the potential benefits to a continuing relationship with the birth father can be just as viable as with a birth mother. is that few birth fathers elect to take a role in adoption.[18] [19] By the 1980's. Closed and secret records reassured adoptive parents from the fear of returning biological parents. many states have important putative father registries. [17] Another way older children can be placed for adoption is where the birth parents' rights were terminated by a court due to improper parenting: abuse. Generally speaking. so adoption is the best option. and the birth parent. It is crucial to remember that no child can be relinquished legally without the birth father's consent. The reality. given the fact the pregnancies were usually unplanned. The social stigma of unmarried mothers. Adoptions became closed when social pressures mandated that families preserve the myth that they were formed biologically. particularly during the BSE (Baby Scoop Era) 1945-1975 rendered "unwed mothers" social outcasts. These adoptions were predominantly closed. Sometimes a parent raised a child. The social experiment of taking the children from "unmarried mothers" and "giving them" to adoptive parents became the norm during the BSE. and parenting is no longer possible.[21] [22] 25 . and adoptive parents told to treat the child "as if born to". The records were sealed. Although the child may still foster idealized feelings for that failing parent. in fact most adoptions in the United States were open until the twentieth century. when a child has bonded to a birth parent (perhaps being raised by her or him for an extended time) then a need for an adoptive placement arises. that made every attempt to match the child physically to their adoptive families. If it is not transplanted in special manner. et cetera. however. it is usually critical for that child's emotional welfare to maintain ties with the birth parent. [16] Open adoption and older children What about the placement of older children? These can take two widely divergent paths. but a problem has arisen. as 'as if' families. Until the 1930's. He must be given the chance to take full custody. and often there was no long-term relationship with the birth mother. is not readily given to mothers of adoption separation before Consents are signed. as the social stigma slowly decreased with Abortion Laws and ready access to birth control. adoption was seen as a social support: young children were adopted out not only to help their parents (by reducing the number of children they had to support) but also to help another family by providing an apprentice. There are sometimes problems concerning birth mothers and adoption agencies who neglect to make sure the proper paperwork is done on the birth father's part. The fact that 80% of Open Adoptions close early after the birth of a child. most adoptive parents and biological parents had contact at least during the adoption process. One researcher has referred to these families. and there are no family members able to take over the parenting role. The adoption industry needed an incentive to entice mothers to surrender their children for adoption. biological mothers were told to keep their child a secret.[20] In many cases.Open adoption Open adoption and birth fathers No disrespect is intended toward birth fathers in only discussing openness with birth mothers above. For this purpose. it is not uncommon in these adoptions for there to be no contact between the child and adoptive parents. although some adoption activists see these as a hindrance rather than a help. In a mother driven society after WWII infertile couples were also seen as deviant due to their inability to bear children. It's like uprooting a tree. domestic adoption decreased dramatically.

html [13] ADOPTION WITHOUT FEAR. doi:10. Social Text . by Melina [12] http:/ / www. the information may not be released without a court order documenting good cause to release the information. All states allow an adoptive parents access to nonidentifying information of an adoptee who is still a minor. adoption101. reason for placing the child for adoption. access to non-identifying information about their relatives. such as Bastard Nation.[24] References [1] RAISING ADOPTED CHILDREN. com/ talk_about_adoption. by Micky Duxbury. age. Corona Publishing. by Silber and Speedlin [6] adoption101. by Lois Melina and Sharon Kaplan Roszia. or other relatives. If consent is not on file.Open adoption Access to birth records In nearly all US states. Most states have instituted procedures by which parties to an adoption may obtain non-identifying and identifying information from an adoption record while still protecting the interests of all parties. . religion. Corona Publishing 1991 [5] DEAR BIRTH MOTHER.5. adoption records are sealed and withheld from public inspection after the adoption is finalized. physical description. by Lois Melina. U. cfm). html). Perigee Press 2007 [9] ADOPTION: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO ADOPTING QUICKLY AND SAFELY. 2006 [15] ADOPTION: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO ADOPTING QUICKLY AND SAFELY. people adopted in the United Kingdom. by Melina and Roszia [11] RAISING ADOPTED CHILDREN. adoptionclubhouse. com/ open_adoption. childwelfare. com/ adoption/ closed. and the Mythology of Roots". SharedJourney. 1991 [21] Yngvesson. Harper Paperbacks. by Duxbury [18] History of Adoption: Closed Adoption (http:/ / www. org/ 03_homework/ 02_history/ 07_closed. Non-identifying information includes the date and place of the adoptee's birth. education.[23] In Alabama. ethnicity. medical history. adoption101. sharedjourney. At age 18. Kansas. Youth and Families. and the existence of biological siblings. Nearly all states allow the adoptee. many states give such access to adult siblings.S. race. . by Hicks [16] THE OPEN ADOPTION EXPERIENCE. Australia. com [3] http:/ / www. 1993 [2] http:/ / www. html). Nearly all states permit the release of identifying information when the person whose information is sought has consented to the release. and Oregon. gov/ systemwide/ laws_policies/ statutes/ infoaccessap. National Adoption Center. retrieved 2008-05-02 [20] Adamec & Pierce. Administration on Children. by James Gritter. 1989 [14] MAKING ROOM IN OUR HEARTS. Barbara (Spring 2003).[24] [25] [26] [27] Some groups. Department of Health and Human Services.2007. there is no requirement to document good cause in order to access their birth certificates. Routledge Press.74 (Duke University Press) 21 (1): 7–27 [22] Yngvesson. html [4] DEAR BIRTH MOTHER.[28] and Origins USA. In addition. adoption101. Anthropological Quarterly (George Washington University Institute for Ethnographic Research) 80 (2): 561–579. "Going 'Home': Adoption. Approximately 27 states allow biological parents access to non-identifying information. 1993 [8] ADOPTION: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO ADOPTING QUICKLY AND SAFELY. Administration for Children and Families. One Voice. Europe and in several provinces in Canada are automatically entitled to their birth certificates and may access their adoption records. Delaware. upon reaching adulthood. 26 . by Randall Hicks. by Melina and Roszia [17] MAKING ROOM IN OUR HEARTS. Loss of Bearings. retrieved 2008-05-02 [19] Closed Adoption (http:/ / www. Many states ask biological parents to specify at the time of consent or surrender whether they are willing to have their identity disclosed to the adoptee when he or she is age 18 or 21.com [7] THE OPEN ADOPTION EXPERIENCE. Alaska. Identifying information is any data that may lead to the positive identification of an adoptee. by Kathleen Silber and Phylis Speedlin. Barbara (Spring 2007). A person seeking a court order must be able to demonstrate by clear and convincing evidence that there is a compelling reason for disclosure that outweighs maintaining the confidentiality of a party to an adoption.1353/anq.0036 [23] Access to Adoption Records (http:/ / www.[29] campaign for adoptees' automatic access to birth certificates in other US states. Harper Paperbacks. Children’s Bureau. by Hicks [10] THE OPEN ADOPTION EXPERIENCE. "Refiguring Kinship in the Space of Adoption". biological parents. New Hampshire. occupation of the biological parents.

to allow birth parents to make a new life.[2] (The CWLA and many adoption agencies are still in operation today.openadoptioninsight. us/ news/ bill_looks_to_open_adoption_records. • Open Adoption information for those interested in adoption (http://www. com/ od/ adoptionrights/ a/ openingrecords.openadopt.openadoption. The reason for sealing records and doing a closed adoption is to protect the adoptee and adoptive parents from disruption by the birth parents and in turn. asexuality. the emergence of non-profit organizations and private companies to assist individuals with their sealed records has been effective in helping people who want to connect with biological relatives to do so. [29] Origins USA position papers Available: http:/ / originsusa. org/ main/ Accessed: 27th April 2008.Open adoption 2006. about. External links • adoption101. Background and procedure Historically. unsealedinitiative. The sealed records effectively prevent the adoptee and the biological parents from finding. and to ensure the sex of the child (a family with five girls and no boys. This formerly was the most traditional and popular type of adoption. org/open-adoptees/centered-open-adoption/) • Open Adoption. shtml Accessed: 2nd March 2008 [27] http:/ / adoption.com/canada/open. htm Accessed: 2nd March 2008 [28] One Voice. but it exists alongside the practice of open adoption.AdoptionSmiles.shtml) Open adoption information and resources in Canada. [24] http:/ / www.org (http://www. birth parent support (http://www. for example). org/ html/ articles.com/) • Open Adoption Resources and Support (http://www.com/open_adoption.openadoption. memberlodge.com (http://www. html Accessed: 2nd March 2008 [26] http:/ / apostille. and the record of the biological parent(s) is kept sealed.[1] Within the next few decades.) 27 .net/) • www.adoption101. It still exists today. state licensed adoption agency.org/) • Openadoption. or even knowing anything about each other (especially in the days before the Internet). com/ pg/ 07316/ 833100-84.com (http://www. Minnesota was the first U.canadaadopts. stm Retrieved 29th February 2008 [25] http:/ / www. state to pass an adoption confidentiality and sealed records law. However.S. the four primary reasons for married couples to obtain a child via closed adoption have been (in no particular order) infertility. onevoicenosecrets. In 1917. post-gazette. Many adopting parents in non-private adoptions would apply to a local.) An adoption of an older child who already knows his or her biological parent(s) cannot be made closed or secret. but with an expanded and somewhat different agenda compared to past decades. having concern for a child's welfare (i. peaking in the decades of the post-World War II Baby Scoop Era.openadoption.org/) A web site dedicated to practical advice and cautions in work to achieve an open adoption • (http://www. (Often. adoptive parent profiles . The agency may be a member of the national Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). would not likely be adopted by others). most United States states and Canadian provinces had a similar law.html/) • Open Adoption and Family Services: How to Create a Child-Centered Open Adoption (http://www. Closed adoption Closed adoption (also called "confidential" adoption and sometimes "secret" adoption) is the process by where an infant is adopted by another family. as the government has largely taken over some of their previous responsibilities.e. the biological father is not recorded—even on the original birth certificate. aspx?pageId=24588 Accessed: 27th April 2008.adoptionsmiles. No Secrets Available: http:/ / www. org/ Default.com): Adoption Smiles is a free listing service for parents interested in open adoption.

that the birthparent was sure about relinquishment. From the very beginning. this practice is discouraged. a local judge formally and legally approves the adoption. In the post WWII era laws were enacted which prevented both the adoptee and adoptive family to access the original. most provinces in Canada. both prenatally and postnatally. Laws are ever changing and in many states of the USA. Often. many such hospitals were run by the Salvation Army. This can be either a search for the birth mother at the request of the adoptee. In the USA. Once the adoption has been approved. Originally. much better medical testing is available. adoptive parent. Nowadays. This becomes the adopted person's permanent. and named after its founder. Some states have confidential intermediary systems. siblings and birth families locate their relatives for free. these are persons personally touched by adoption who do not feel anyone should be charged a fee to get information about themselves or their family. This often requires a person to petition the court to view the sealed adoption records. Adoption Agencies and Maternity Homes was published in 1981 and contains information about most US and Canadian facilities. Though they did not exist until late in the 20th century. The hospital may also be omitted on the amended birth certificate. the agency transfers the infant from foster care (if used) to the adoptive parents. there has been a grass roots support system in place for those seeking information and reunion with family. the sealed record laws were meant to keep information private from everyone except the 'parties to the action' (adoptee. After the infant has spent a few weeks or months with the adoptive parents. legal birth certificate. especially if it primarily serves unwed mothers. the infant would often be placed in temporary and state-mandated foster care for a few weeks to several months until the adoption was approved. Reunion registries were designed so adoptees and their birth parents. Georgia. Over time. birthparent and agency). William Booth. The infant is then issued a second. the laws were reinterpreted or rewritten to seal the information even from the involved parties. and into the 1970s with the creation of ALMA. all of these hospitals had closed due to high costs and the reduced need for secrecy. and other online resources that offer search information. Usually.Closed adoption Prior to adoption. registration and support. Also. today there are many internet sites. the states will not give the adoptee the correct location of their birth. the biological mother can take back the child months after the placement of the child. This would also help ensure that he or she was healthy. In some states. Quite often. Most require the adoptee to be at least 18 years old. In these mutual consent registries. Concerned United Birthparents. By the mid-1970s. and dozens of other local search and reunion organizations. a birth mother or female adoptee has both moved to another address. as it prevents immediate bonding between the mother and child. Directory of Hospitals. and that nothing was overlooked at the time of birth. there have been Search Angels who help adoptees. amended birth certificate that states the adopting parents are the actual parents. (North Carolina. Orphanages. as the social stigma of having a child out of wedlock in America had decreased. chat rooms. International Soundex Reunion Registry. in the many years which have passed since the adoptee was born. or vice versa. the UK and Australia there are now various forms of open records giving adoptees and birth family members access to information in their files and on each other. The biological mother has until the final court hearing. Virginia) the city and county of the adoptees birth is changed on the amended birth certificate. then the intermediary conducts a search similar to that of a private investigator. Reg Niles. More and more mothers were either raising their child as a single parent (often with the help of the newly created institution of government welfare. Adoption Directory [3] Searches and reunions From the early 1950s when Jean Paton began Orphan Voyage. and 28 . to where the adoptive parents were living at the time the adoption was finalized. Triadoption Library. Yesterday's Children. and the information given to them can be quite limited (though this has varied somewhat over the years. siblings or other family members can locate one another at little or no cost. both parties must have registered in order for there to be a match. and from one agency to another).

often the same confidential intermediary can be used for an additional fee. the intermediary usually sends the adoptee the official unamended birth certificate obtained from the court. as well as to help other types of people searching. which was quite uncommon prior to the early 1990s. and only in the most extreme and unusual circumstances ask for additional funds. but varies by state and agency. The adoptive parents' application to an adoption agency remains confidential. In recent years. and if the latter. Since males seldom change their surnames. In 1998. many birth fathers in this situation have agreed to meet with their grown children decades later. (See the previous section. Canada opened its sealed records to adoptees and their birth parents. If the adoptee is unable to locate (or would prefer to use a third person) to find his or her birth father. A separate search. should this party indicate that he or she does not want to be contacted. DNA tests designed for genealogists have been used by adult adoptees to identify biological relatives. a marriage certificate may provide the needed clue as to the person's whereabouts. These services typically cost much more. Although rare. If and when the intermediary is able to contact the birth mother (or adoptee). Females have statistically been somewhat more likely than males to search for their birth parents. However. Nevertheless. there is usually assistance available from the tax-payer supported state department or the non-profit agency. In all adoption searches. However. However. Most agencies charge a fixed fee which includes everything. Upon completion of the search in which the birth mother agrees to be contacted. 2009. with a minimum age of 18 for the adoptee. and the mother might have additional information. it is uncommon to find both the birth mother and father at the same time. adoptees are able to do this second search for their birth father by themselves (or they try before paying for assistance). and anyone can request from them how-to request this help. The cost for a confidential intermediary and related court fees can be around $500. On June 1. Ontario. and typically provide their own intermediary services.) 29 . While this can make the search difficult and time consuming. can be done afterwards for the father. she is informed that her adopted child (or birth mother) is inquiring about her. if desired.[4] Legal matters Only a court order allows closed adoption records to be unsealed. have far greater flexibility in regards to releasing information. Very often. Both parties can protect their privacy by giving notice of how to be either contacted or not. All adoptions subsequent to September 1. A few cases have surfaced in which records were thought to have been sealed but were not—either by mishandling or misunderstanding.Closed adoption married or remarried resulting in a change of her surname. it is still confidential information to everyone else until the other party agrees otherwise. For persons who can not afford the fees. the information would not be given out. only future adoptions subsequent to the laws' passage apply. once the court grants this. but like search organizations and search angels. and are far more likely to search for their adopted children. Some other states which formerly kept closed adoption records sealed permanently by default have since changed to allowing release once the adoptee turns 18. these laws were not made retroactive. There are also private search companies and investigators who charge fees to do a search for or assist adoptees and birth mothers and fathers locate each other. 2008 will be "open adoptions"[5] For searches involving a confidential intermediary. the intermediary initiates obtaining the court order and is reimbursed for doing so. In many cases. In many states. by law. Oregon voters passed Measure 58 which allowed adoptees to unseal their birth records without any court order. it is usually easier than the initial search for the birth mother. they may not circumvent the law regarding the confidentiality process. the reason the infant was put up for adoption in the first place was the birth father's unwillingness to marry or otherwise care for the child. however. or one additional year if the birth parents initiate the request. with identifying information being released or not. a small number of people have been prosecuted over the years for violating the confidentially of sealed adoption records.

The International Soundex Reunion Registry (ISRR) is the oldest and largest. and thus second-class citizens subject to discrimination. This applies regardless of whether or not the birth father participated in or agreed to the adoption. the decision is up to the adoptive parents regarding how to inform the child that he or she has been adopted. The probate laws of most states in the U. and blame the child's heredity. However. This is a change from previous decades. while non-adoptive parents are focused on nurture. The parents may even unfavorably compare their adopted child with a near-perfect. this was not given at the time of adoption. the probate court has no obligation to fulfill this type of request. There are also independent and state funded reunion registries that facilitate reuniting family members.e. the Dear Abby column Dear Abby [10] and various TV shows and movies. This enables them to blame ordinary problems which all parents face on their child's supposedly "defective" genes. adoptees had to obtain the permission of their adoptive parents (unless deceased) to be included in a state-sponsored reunion registry regardless of the age of the adoptee.Closed adoption Many states. and the father's history is usually little known even to the mother. A second court order would be required to have this information unsealed permanently.[7] Organizations and media Most US states and Canadian provinces have independent non-profit organizations that help adoptees and their birth parents initiate a search. genetically-related "fantasy" child. a court order may be required to obtain another one (even if a photocopy is submitted). Starting in the mid-1980s. Criticism of closed adoption Closed adoption has been increasingly criticized in recent years as being unfair to both the adoptee and his or her birth parents. Some people believe that making the identities of a child's parents quite literally a state secret is a gross violation of human rights.S. some adoptive parents are solely focused on nature (i. [8] The Salvation Army also provides information in helping those who were born or gave birth in its maternity hospitals or homes (see the external links below). and what is covered by the payment to the intermediary. This results in what could have been an easily resolved problem.) Difficulties include the lack of a genetic medical history which could be important in disease prevention. and at what age to do so. In virtually all cases. Had the adoption not have taken place. any son or daughter would be an heir upon his or her father's death—regardless of who his childhood caretakers were. Adoptive parents may be less likely to consider the possibility that they are doing something wrong. Should a birth parent include an "unknown" adoptee in his or her will. 30 . going unresolved in families with adopted children. In some cases. if at all. This is well beyond the scope of the initial search. In a broader sense. (Usually. Thus. Should an adoptee subsequently lose his or her unamended birth certificate. traditionally. There can be additional complications if the birth father has subsequently moved to another state. when nothing was ever released without a rarely given or sought court order. older adults or even senior citizens felt like they were being treated like children. adoption agencies do not contain the word "adoption" in their name. while "known" adoptees may have the same status as non-family members. it has been extremely rare for them to communicate directly with the child. heredity) instead. The law has since been changed. the birth mother may have desired the secrecy because of a premarital affair. and offers other adoption-related support. though. there is some variation in probate laws from one state to another. Although a non-profit adoption agency (if one is used) might mail newsletters and solicit funds from the parents. and required to obtain their parents' signature on the form.[6] For many years in New York State. still keep this information sealed even after the adoptee and the birth parents agree to know and contact each other. Often. possibly accompanied by child abuse. prohibit an adoptee from automatically inheriting from his or her birth parents. Many in the adoption community first learned of search and support resources through newspaper articles Adoption Articles [9]. they felt it could be inferred that adopted children are always children. On the other hand.

the vast majority of which involved closed adoption. sacredhealing. External links • Salvation Army (former Booth Hospitals) [11] • ISRR Reunion Registry [12] • Adoption Archives [13] References [1] [2] [3] [4] Adoption History: Adoption History in Brief (http:/ / darkwing. nsf/ vw-text-dynamic-arrays/ 88256D3D006526AD88256BD0007B4A98?openDocument [12] http:/ / www. htm/ http:/ / www. ca/ newsdetails. salvationarmy. htm/ [10] http:/ / www. uoregon.Closed adoption many adoptees and their parents first learned about the possibility of reunion on the NBC (later CBS) television program Unsolved Mysteries hosted by Robert Stack. com/ triadoption/ articles. org) http:/ / www. com/ triadoption/ Reg%20Niles%20AAOMH. and very briefly on Spike TV in late 2008. htm [11] http:/ / www1. cwla. In September 2010. usw. net/ [13] http:/ / www. org/ policyarticles/ accessbirthrecords. and Adoptive Parents ISBN 0-931722-59-4 [7] http:/ / www. net [9] http:/ / www. the program returned to Lifetime from 4 to 7 pm ET/PT. Birth Parents. net/ articles. isrr. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ adoptionhistbrief. com [5] http:/ / www. isrr. triadoption. html [8] http:/ / www. adoptontario. many of those being the adoption-related cases. htm) Child Welfare League of America (http:/ / www. Reruns of the program (with a few new segments and updates) were also aired on the Lifetime Television cable network until mid-2006. DNA-Testing-Adviser. More than 100 reunions have occurred as a result of the program. nacac. sacredhealing. com/ 31 . aspx?id=257 [6] The Adoption Triangle: Sealed or Opened Records: How They Affect Adoptees. org/ usw/ www_usw. isrr. This was under their "Lost Loves" category.

a private attorney. or confidential (a/k/a closed) adoption. The parties will determine the nature and extent of contact and this is often communicated and managed directly -.g. In the alternative. Privately-arranged adoptions through an attorney or facilitator are illegal in some jurisdictions. Even after an adoption is finalized. such as foster care..html ===Semi-open adoption Semi open adoption in private adoption involves a degree of contact between the birth and adoptive parents. While all adoption plans are unique. Birth parents may be given profiles of waiting adoptive families to look at and choose from. birth parents may request assistance from their adoption professional in choosing an adoptive family. For example.allforchildren. This may be achieved through a private agency or the state.org/adoptionchoices. Open adoption may also be defined as a type of private adoption...allforchildren. private or state-run adoption agency.e. semi-open. Communication is often made through an intermediary. in an open adoption the adopted child may meet his/her birth family and/or a degree of ongoing communication will exist. the parties may choose to stay connected through the internet in a non-identifying manner (e. allforchildren. In a private adoption. addresses. or in some states a facilitator).org/ adoptionchoices. letters. visits. domestic adoption begins with the decision of the birth parents to place their unborn baby or child with another family. Open adoption involves a degree of ongoing personal contact between the parties to an adoption (the birth parents.g.html 32 . and phone numbers). http:/ / www. the relationship between the parties will continue. In most jurisdictions. phone calls.without the assistance of an intermediary.html Open adoption See also: Open adoption Open adoption is where the adopted person has access to their file and/or original records. In doing so. or e-mails.g. first names and the state/region in which the parties reside may be disclosed. and may include yearly pictures. Domestic adoption Adoption is a legal process through which a child who will not be raised by his/her birth parents becomes a full and permanent legal member of another family.Domestic adoption Domestic adoption Domestic adoption is the placing of a child within the same country as the child’s birth. Significantly. but this contact is limited and only non-identifying information is shared. birth parents may play an active role in selecting an adoptive family and receive pictures and letter updates through the agency. a person adopted in the United Kingdom becomes entitled to their birth certificate and may access their adoption records. http://www.http://www. such as an adoption agency. Birth parents may play an active role in the adoption process and may be involved in selecting an adoptive family. such as through a personal contact or an adoption professional (e. they become active participants in the adoption process and may experience greater confidence in their adoption plan. This may be a right available at certain ages . at age 18.org/adoptionchoices. Thanks to technology advances. There are several ways in which birth and adoptive families connect. adoptive family and the child). birth parents may have the option of choosing an open. Identifying information is shared between the parties (such as names. creating a dedicated website with picture and video uploads of child milestones for birth parent viewing).

allforchildren.org/adoptionchoices.html</ref> In other confidential adoptions no information is shared between the parties involved. Foster Care adoptions Foster care is a form of substitute care. Foster care adoption is a legal process through which children in the public.com [2] References [1] http:/ / www. foster care system become full and permanent legal members of another family.org/domestic.<refhttp://www. usually in a home licensed by a public agency. org [2] http:/ / www. such as medical history and social background. such as when a child is removed form the home by the state because of abuse or neglect.allforchildren. After the adoption is legalized. no further information is shared between the adoptive parents and the birth parents.allforchildren. Familyformation. External Links www. com/ http://www.html 33 . or court order.Domestic adoption Confidential (a/k/a closed) adoption See also: Closed adoption In some confidential adoptions. allforchildren. non-identifying information is shared between the parties involved.org [1] • familyformation. It may also occur because the parties involved do not want any contact. This may occur because of the law in the jurisdiction concerned. for children whose welfare and protection requires that they be removed from their own homes (often due to claims of abuse or neglect). up to the point of placement.

S. abandonment and/or abuse. when in reality there is very little cost to adopt from foster care. org/ Our-Work/ Research External links • A Child is Waiting: A Step-by-Step Guide to Adoption (http://www. foster care system entered through no fault of their own. is a not-for-profit organization that supports foster care adoption and provides grants to national and regional adoption organizations for programs to raise awareness and make adoption easier and more affordable. once the court finalizes the legal termination of parental rights. childwelfare. org/ http:/ / www.45% believed children in foster care have entered the system because of juvenile delinquency. . adoptive parents are licensed as and technically considered foster parents while the adoption is being finalized. the parents can never return to claim the child. In reality.[2] Trends and Research Nationwide. davethomasfoundation. gov/ http:/ / www. however:[4] . including removal from the home by a governmental agency because of maltreatment.36% were unsure or confused about the adoption process. .org/ Free-Adoption-Resources/Adoption-Guides) http://en. the vast majority of the 129.wikipedia.000 children waiting in the U. Children may be placed into foster care for a variety of reasons. as victims of neglect. there are more than one hundred thousand of children in the U. foster care system waiting for permanent families. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.S. gov/ adoption/ foster/ http:/ / www.davethomasfoundation.67% were unnecessarily concerned that biological parents could return to claim the children.Foster care adoption Foster care adoption Foster care adoption is a type of domestic adoption where the child is initially placed into a foster care system and is subsequently placed for adoption. davethomasfoundation.[3] Child welfare professionals must recruit potential adoptive families for these children who are waiting for adoption.[1] In some jurisdictions. Supporting Organizations The Dave Thomas Foundation for Adoption. and there is financial support available for all adoptions.org/wiki/Domestic_adoption 34 . . hhs.46% mistakenly believed that foster care adoption is prohibitively expensive. A national survey by Harris Interactive revealed that 48 million Americans considered adoption from foster care in 2007. founded by Wendy’s founder Dave Thomas.

in some the approval can only be received from a state agency.[1] Process overview The requirements necessary to begin the process of international adoption can vary depending on the country of the adoptive parent(s). Each agency or attorney works with a different set of countries. For example. Some countries allow a child to be escorted to the adoptive parents' home country and the adoptive parents are not required to travel to the country of their adopted child. In addition. report from the adoptive parents' doctor regarding their health. one or more follow up (or "post placement") visits from a social worker may be required — either by the placing agency used by the adoptive parents or by the laws of the country from which the child was adopted. A dossier is prepared that contains a large amount of information about the prospective adoptive parents required by the child's country. Some countries.S. they are matched to an eligible child (except in some countries such as India. The laws of different countries vary in their willingness to allow international adoptions. although some only focus on a single country. while other countries expressly forbid it. International Adoption is not the same thing as Transcultural or Interracial adoption. Malawi. requirements will vary widely from country to country. do not allow referrals until the prospective parent travels to the country on their first trip. Pursuant to the rules of the Hague Convention (an international treaty related to adoption issues) the adoption agency or attorney must be accredited by the U. a home study review by a social worker. Even when the Hague does not apply. health history. then the rules of the Hague do not apply. such as China and Korea. Typically this includes financial information. Some countries. have relatively well-established rules and procedures for international adoptions. and instead the specific laws of the child and adoptive parents must be followed. Depending on the country. In the United States. A travel date is typically included. In general. There are usually several requirements after this point. requires residency except in special cases. If the child's country is not a participant in the Hague Convention. Again. In the United States. fingerprints. such as Kazakhstan. the dossier is submitted for review to the appropriate authorities in the child's country. citizenship is automatically granted to all 35 . the parents may have to make more than one trip overseas to complete the legal process. such as paperwork to make the child a legal citizen of the adopting parents' country or re-adopt them. notably many African nations. Some countries. while in others cases. it can be obtained from a private adoption agency.International adoption International adoption International adoption (also referred to as intercountry adoption or transnational adoption) is a type of adoption in which an individual or couple becomes the legal and permanent parents of a child that is a national of a different country. informing the parents when they may travel to meet the child and sign any additional paperwork required to accept the referral. which does not allow "matching" of a child to (a) prospective parent(s)). such as age.[3] After the dossier is reviewed and the prospective parents are approved to adopt. The parent is usually sent information about the child. prospective adoptive parents must meet the legal adoption requirements of their country of residence and those of the country whose nationality the child holds. a background check. This is generally called a referral. for instance. This is called a "blind" referral. gender. while most countries require prospective adoptive parents to first get approval to adopt.[2] The Hague is discussed below. and other supporting information. government if the child's country is also a participant in the Hague Convention. have extended residency requirements for adoptive parents that in effect rule out most international adoptions. typically the first stage of the process is selecting a licensed adoption agency or agency to work with. a home study and USCIS (United States Citizen and Immigration Services)(formerly INS (Immigration and Naturalization Service) approval are requirements. and even region to region in large countries such as Russia. etc. Once complete.

also sets its own rules about what type of information will be shared and how it will be shared (e.S. due to the Chinese culture's son preference in combination with the official planned birth policy implemented in 1979.g.(U. Adoption from Ethiopia has become an increasingly popular option for adoptive families in the US. educational level. most other countries are about even. number of dependent children in the house. According to the U. Each country. Russia (2310). and there are also rules that vary within the United States for each state. Vietnam recently signed a treaty openings its doors for adoption.[10] 36 . The U. and Philippines (265). some countries allow the child to be escorted to his or her new homeland. Haiti. Items such as the age of the child. Kazakhstan (540). and often each part of the country. marital status and history. however. These statistics can vary from year to year as each country alters its rules. Vietnam (828) Ukraine (606). Australia. Although Nepal has not closed it doors for adoption. Guatemala has recently closed its doors. and the amount of travel time required in the child's birth country. Reliability and verifiability of the information is also variable. State Department) [7] Other less common countries include Bulgaria. Norway. and 732 issued in 2006. timelines and requirements surrounding adoption. Items such as the age of the adoptive parents. fees and expenses. Documents that were presented in support of the abandonment of these children in Nepal have been found to be unreliable and circumstances of alleged abandonment cannot be verified because of obstacle in the investigation of individual cases. as an immigrant or the child's adoption in the parent's home jurisdiction.[8] China is the one major country where girls adopted far outnumber boys. sexual orientation.International adoption foreign-born children when at least one adoptive parent is a U. when most Korean adoptees (about two-thirds) were girls. and ancestry are used by different countries to determine what parents are eligible to adopt from that country. a picture of the child. financial status. [5] The U.S. Kenya.S. [6] Sources of children and adoptive parents The most common countries for international adoption by parents in the United States for 2007 were China (5453). psychological health. Guatemala (4728). They are the Council on Accreditation and the Colorado Department of Health and Human Services. child's health). citizen. Depending on the circumstances of the adoption.S. Romania. and Poland. India (416) Liberia (353). weight. about 95% of Chinese children adopted are girls. in accordance with the Child Citizenship Act of 2000. Department of State has designated two accrediting entities for organizations providing inter-country adoption services in the United States that work with sending countries that have ratified the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption. Colombia (310). South Korea (939). about 60% are boys. Although India also has a noticeable excess of girls being adopted (68% girls).S.[4] Policies and requirements Adoption policies for each country vary widely. Department of State. can also vary widely from one country to another. Each country sets its own rules. This is a switch from the 1980s.S. Ethiopia (1255).[9] there were 441 orphans visas issued to Ethiopian children in 2005. South Korea is the one country that has a relatively large excess of boys being adopted. Most countries require that a parent travel to bring the child home. Canada. Belarus and Cambodia were also important until government crackdowns on adoptions to weed out abuse in the system cut off the flow. the United States government has suspended adoptions from Nepal. Department of State maintains a list of all accredited international adoption providers. the actual grant of citizenship takes place either upon the child's admission to the U.

many countries around the world are completely closed off to international adoption because of accusations of exporting children. or traffic in children each State should take. notably many African nations. appropriate measures to enable the child to remain in the care of his or her family of origin. getting older and older until they pass the age of adoption and simply wait until they are legal adults. while others. and in an effort to protect those involved from the corruption and exploitation which sometimes accompanies it. have relatively well-established rules and procedures for foreign adopters to follow. working to ensure that adoptions under the Convention will generally be recognized and given effect in other party countries". it could sometimes actually hinder many adoptions to families that would normally qualify and causing children to miss opportunities that could have saved and changed their lives.[11] which came into force on 1 May 1995. most become unemployed. Others. or pregnant and begin the vicious cycle all over again.[13] The following is a quotation from the convention: Intercountry adoptions shall be made in the best interests of the child and with respect for his or her fundamental rights. such as China and Vietnam. it keeps them inside them.[12] • to secure the recognition in Contracting States of adoptions made in accordance with the Convention. which has had a plethora of child trafficking. However. are now temporarily closed to adoptions after the country's ratification of the Hague Convention. and instead of helping the children get out of orphanages. of selling natives to foreigners and the shame that most governments feel about not being able to support their own children. While the Hague convention is an exemplary step in the right direction by most governments. A country like Guatemala. but have not ratified. in implementation it could actuality impede many adoptions. The convention causes some governments like India to run incredibly slow. Ireland and the Russian Federation are signatories. the Hague Conference j on Private International Law developed the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption. the sale of. The main objectives of the Convention are: • to establish safeguards to ensure that intercountry adoptions take place in the best interests of the child and with respect for his or her fundamental rights as recognized in international law. • to establish "formal international and intergovernmental recognition of intercountry adoption. creates a rigorous process that few pass. As of October 2008.[15] 37 . expressly forbid it. • to establish a system of co-operation amongst Contracting States to ensure that those safeguards are respected and thereby prevent the abduction. this Convention has been ratified by 76 countries.[14] However.International adoption International Adoption Laws A country's willingness to allow international adoption will vary to accommodate that country's laws. Most children who grow up in orphanages and become legal adults get very little in the way of education. prostitution and many orphans. as of 2009. such as Romania are closed to international adoption altogether. or traffic in children. have extended residency requirements that in effect rule out most international adoptions. while the Hague Convention is an excellent ideal. the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for example. the sale of. Hague Conference on Private International Law See also Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption Recognizing some of the difficulties and challenges associated with international adoption. To to prevent the abduction. Some countries. with the exception of adoptions by close relatives (such as grandparents). as a matter of priority. Some countries.

intercountry adoption may be considered as an alternative means of providing the child with a family. Occasionally. in an atmosphere of affection and of moral and material security. not rushing into adoptions in the wake of disasters.e. Article 15 states “Sufficient time and adequate counselling should be given to the child's own parents. One of the debates in international adoption circles has been about the adopted child’s sense of belonging in their new country. coerced/induced/recruited relinquishments. the Declaration also advocates time and patience in the adoptive process. babies bought. where needed. In some cases the children are stolen from the home. and is most certainly against rushed international adoption. the United States has suspended adoption from certain countries in order to investigate fraud and. grow up in the care and under the responsibility of his parents and. some problems do exist." Often the pretence is that the child's parents are dead when in fact the child's parents are still alive. say. Guatemala. These then sell the children using false papers.[16] Consequences and problems Negative consequences of international adoption See: List of international adoption scandals Child trafficking or child laundering Child trafficking is a broad term that refers to the buying. identities of the children switched. the child in order to reach a decision on the child's future. Up to the end of 2007. and might be expected to have a harder time fitting in than. Loss of culture. the UN Declaration is against the idea of international adoption as a whole. a Russian child. “The child shall.[20] [21] The Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption (short title for Convention #33) is one measure intended to further shield international adoption against child trafficking. and the number of adoptions has fallen dramatically. The Declaration makes clear that international adoption should only be considered as a last resort. as appropriate. in other cases the children are left at orphanages for temporary care or schools for education. and was investigated for this sort of corruption. family or identity International adoption is a relatively new phenomenon when compared to domestic adoption. etc.” In such a situation. In some cases the parents may even sell the children. Asian children who are adopted by Caucasians are of a recognizably different race than their adoptive parents.. require change from the sending country. Child laundering is a more precise term that refers to the stealing of children who are then sold to adoptive parents as legitimate "orphans. i. For example.[18] Guatemala changed the country's adoption law after massive international pressure. Receiving nations such as the United States have implemented safeguards to ensure that adopted children are in fact legally available for adoption.[19] Richard Cross. wherever possible.International adoption UN Declaration Relating to the Welfare of Children The UN declaration Relating to the Welfare of Children emphasises the preference for children being raised by family members. the prospective adoptive parents and.” Clearly. rather than by adoptive families. was one of the top sources of adopted children. While most international adoptions are not tainted by child trafficking. selling or illegal transportation of children..[17] This trafficking can occur anywhere but is most prominent in poorly regulated countries or where local corruption is a factor. in any case. the lead federal investigator for the prosecution of Lauryn Galindo for visa fraud and money laundering involved in Cambodian adoptions. ratified the Hague-convention on intercountry adoptions. estimated that most of the 800 adoptions Galindo facilitated were fraudulent--either based on fraudulent paperwork. 38 . This is explained in Article 15 “If a child cannot be placed in a foster or an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared for in the country of origin. Some believe that this is a particular concern for inter-racial adoptions.

to their birth cultures exploration is almost expected. It helps if parents allow the child to sleep in their bedroom.” Scholarly accounts in journal articles. As Pauline Turner Strong said in an article in Relative Values: Reconfiguring Kinship Studies: "Adoption across political and cultural borders may simultaneously be an act of violence and an act of love. an appropriation of valued resources and a constitution of personal ties. Cultural backgrounds can affect adjustment as well. the children and adoptive parents are encouraged to explore their origins of birth. At the same time. adoption professionals and community representatives are only beginning to explore these questions with the growing community groups made up of international adoptees (many who have finally now reached maturity). as seen in the rise of Korean and Vietnamese adoptee groups alone. From their birth parents. Cultural treatment of children and political situations in countries affect children when they are adopted internationally. Korea holds “cultural training camps” where Korean adoptees are able to explore their birth country for the first time. Prior to adoption. with a variety of competing voices ranging from adoptive parents who not only adopt but also dominate published accounts of the practice. More serious consultation with a range of internationally adopted people from various professional and community-work based backgrounds needs to be included before the field of adoption study is more truly representative and rigorously informed.[23] Even being of a different race than the adopted family can cause the adoptee to feel like a misfit. Indigo Willing and Tobias Hubinette also suggest that adoption is a contested practice. Because of this. however. For example. paradigms and narratives presented by psychologists. Children from orphanages. Is it detrimental to a child’s well-being to keep them from getting to know their birth origin? Or are more problems caused by encouraging and allowing foreign adoptees to explore their birth culture? Also. nation. culture. Until recently. the price to adopt a child from Russia is very high.International adoption Nowadays. 39 . an excruciating rupture and a generous incorporation. it is hard to determine any sort of best practice in adoption if only based on conflicting research agendas. Questions still remain. they are likely to act out because of the negative treatment they received in their country of origin. often do not receive proper nutrition. have very recently started to study the effects of kinship. children from Russia are in high demand the adoption market in the United States. to those who have been internationally adopted and are now beginning to enter research fields focusing on adoption (such as members of the International Adoptee Congress Research Committee). and even genes and the roles they play in the upbringing of foreign adoptees. belonging. for example. have rarely ever slept in a room by themselves at night. David Eng. Korean adoptees were seen as outcasts. When these children are adopted. children are neglected in orphanages. higher-degree studies and books by authors such as Toby Volkman.” It has slowly shown positive results. The origin of the child also plays a role in whether he will adjust to adoption well. and these training camps are the Korean government’s way of changing the view of these “outcasts” to “overseas Koreans. a critical mass of scholars. for example. they show likelihood to develop sleeping problems and ill health can result from their adjustment. and anthropologists alike. Sara Dorow. or in the bedroom of a sibling. Anthropologists. sociologists.[22] and Russian adoption agencies have become more of a business than a method to provide for children in need. and are used as a bartering tool to make money. All these researchers now have the benefit of drawing on populations of the "first waves" of internationally adopted people who have now reached adulthood. When they are adopted and given a room of their own. how should the adoptive parents prepare to deal with a bi-racial family in which the adults are of one race while the child is of another? And how do we reconcile differences between adoptive parents' assumptions about adoption with adoptees' experiences of living with a condition that they were too young to decide on for themselves? As of right now. and a closer kinship of adoptees to their birth country. For example.

he finds Juffer's work encouraging. Nickman says. mentally and physically. Greenspan. tsunamis. Providing safety and emotional support may be better in those situations than immediate relocation to a new adoptive family. there are some limits to her research. 1993] A recent study by Dutch professor Femmi Juffer challenges the notion that adoption hurts a child’s self-esteem in that adopted kids would unconsciously blame themselves for the loss of their birth families and on some level feel that they hadn't been good enough for their families to keep them. Berry Brazelton. Every child needs a family. abuse. who recently did a review of the adoption literature. the children are capable of change and development for the better.International adoption Positive consequences of international adoption In most cases. even in the case of interracial adoptions and international adoptions. than are orphans who are not adopted. In the long term cultural differences were not as problematic as expected. D. But Steven Nickman of Harvard Medical School. Juffer compiled data from 80 studies and concluded that adopted children are not at risk for low self esteem. Some are incredibly painful. those thought to be the most difficult and more severely and permanently damaged. There is often an outpouring of adoption proposals in such cases from foreigners who want to give homes to children left in need. it may turn out that the parents have survived but were unable to find the children. [The Irreducible Needs of Children: What Every Child Must Have to Grow. and Stanley I. although adoption may have initial adverse effects and negative experiences for childhood.[27] There is also an increased risk. This can mean the difference between a life and death. Differences in race between a child and their adoptive parents did not matter and children from interracial/international-adoption families performed the same as children adopted into families of the same race/culture. adjusted over time as well. and even older adopted children. In other cases. [Brodzinsky. MD. While adoption may be a way to provide stable. the children may be saved from a life of desperation.D. M. Overall. international adoption results from a child whose birthparents were unable to parent and provide for them within the environment of a family instead of an institution such as an orphanage. ISBN 0-7382-0516-8] Further. the reform movement seeks to influence governments to adopt regulations that serve the best interest of the child and meet the interests of both the adoptive and biological family members. the study doesn't include any of the most difficult cases and as someone who works with adopted kids. immediately following a disaster.[24] Reform efforts Due to the appeal and otherwise obvious difficult issues presented by international adoption. Essentially." The Future of Children 3. Still. M.[26] Moving children too quickly into new adoptive homes among strangers may be a mistake because with time. says that while Juffer's study is careful and methodologically sound. loving families for children in need. Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption International Adoption After a Disaster Of special note to international adoption are campaigns for adoptions that occur after disasters such as hurricanes. Copyright 2000 by T. or there may be a relative or neighbor who can offer shelter and homes. it is also suggested that adoption in the immediate aftermath of trauma or upheaval may not be the best option.[28] 40 .[25] Significant advances have been made in increasing the regulation of International Adoptions. "Long-Term Outcomes in Adoption. adopted children are happier and healthier. Learn. and wars. Nickman knows that not all adoptions turn out well. and Flourish. that displaced and/or orphaned children may be more vulnerable to exploitation and child trafficking. and squalor.

php?q=0& q1=& q2=0& q4=0& q5=0& dirfld=01 [7] http:/ / travel. 41 . doc The Adoption Board [28] http:/ / www. com/ david_smolin/ ) [20] Desiree Smolin and David Kruchkow. edu/ cumberland_programs. npr. state. Department of State. com/ international_adoption. Guatemala adoption investigation. adoptionboard. state.S.Convention of 29 May 1993 on Protection of Children and Co-operation in respect of Intercountry Adoption (http://www. net/ index_en. (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-02-927055-3. bepress.net/index_en. doc The Adoption Board Further reading • Rosenberg. php?act=conventions. com/ [9] U. eb1d4c2a3e5b9ac89243c6a7543f6d1a/ ?vgnextoid=d72e18a1f8b73210VgnVCM100000082ca60aRCRD& vgnextchannel=d72e18a1f8b73210VgnVCM100000082ca60aRCRD). theglobeandmail. washingtonpost. html Evan B. and Stealing Children (http://law. adoptionboard. org/ [16] http:/ / www. The Adoption Life Cycle : the children and their families through the years (http://books. gov/ family/ adoption/ stats/ stats_451. net/ index_en. gov/ family/ adoption/ stats/ stats_451. adoptioninstitute. Works at bepress legal repository.com (http:/ / www. hcch. September 2. text& cid=69) [12] Understanding the Hague Convention-Adoption. Elinor B. state. adoption. adoption101. html [6] http:/ / www. gov/ hague/ agency4. com/ ) [26] http:/ / www. php?storyId=16572430) [25] Adopting Internationally. Perigee Press 2007 [4] "Adoption: Before Your Child Immigrates to the United States" (http:/ / www.. google. The Adoption Agency Checklist. orphans visas from Ethiopia (http:/ / travel. Diana and Laura Briggs. state. hopeadoption. New York : Free Press . org/ documents/ ga/ res/ 41/ a41r085. gov/ hague_convention/ overview. adoptionagencychecklist. adoptinginternationally.International adoption References [1] The lessons of Idah's long journey from Malawi to Burlington (http:/ / www. php?act=conventions. works (http:/ / works.text&cid=69) • David M. International adoption: global inequalities and the circulation of children. by Randall Hicks. uscis. state. Toronto : Maxwell Macmillan Canada . 2009. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 01/ 11/ AR2007011102542. com/ david_smolin/ ) [18] Washington Post. html [8] http:/ / eaci. gov/ ) [10] U. Diana and Laura Briggs. Why Bad Stories Must Be Told. pdf& cid=69) [15] http:/ / www. org/ templates/ story/ story. html [3] ADOPTION: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO ADOPTING QUICKLY AND SAFELY. org/ publications/ policybriefs. state. at (http:/ / works. Department of State (http:/ / www.S. Smolin . com/ news/ world/ idahs-long-journey-from-malawi-to-burlington/ article1191477/ ) [2] http:/ / www. 1992. . php) [13] Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (http:/ / www. html) [19] Smolin. [5] http:/ / www. hcch. e-vision. com/ page794. United States Citizenship and Immigration Services.gov (http:/ / adoption. [23] Marre. 2011. un. External links • adoption101. New York : Maxwell Macmillan International. bepress. nl/ index_en. php?act=conventions. at (http:/ / www. gov/ hague/ accreditation/ process.Child Laundering: How the Intercountry Adoption System Legitimizes and Incentivizes the Practices of Buying. html) [21] Full lecture of special agent Richard Cross Richard Cross's full video and audio lecture available here (http:/ / cumberland. ie/ booklets/ Adoption_Board_Tsunami_statement. [24] NPR "Study: Adoption Not Harmful to Child's Self-Esteem" (http:/ / www.php?act=conventions. Donaldson Adoption Institute [27] http:/ / www. gov/ portal/ site/ uscis/ menuitem. htm [17] David Smolin.hcch.com/books?id=Cu90JIcPIqQC&printsec=frontcover). adoption. Trafficking.com/expresso/eps/ 749/). ie/ booklets/ Hague_Tsunami_statement. Retrieved February 28. asp?ID=630) [22] Marre. status& cid=69) [14] Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (http:/ / www. html) [11] Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (http:/ / hcch.com (http://www. International adoption: global inequalities and the circulation of children.com/) • Hague Conference .adoption101. Kidnapping.bepress. samford.

Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) show that adoption of an unrelated child was most common among childless white women and those with higher levels of income and education. 1% are Asian/Pacific Islander. 11% are Hispanic. about 308. 42 . in 1996 it was amended with the Interethnic Adoption Provisions. Metzenbaum Multiethnic Placement Act was passed.) It was then that the National Association of Black Social Workers condemned interracial adoption citing that adoptees were at risk for developing a poor racial identity due to lack of contact with role models of the same race. and 2% of women of other races adopt white children (estimates include foreign-born).574 cases in 1971. Interracial adoption is not the same thing as transcultural or international adoption though in some circumstances an adoption may be interracial. and 5% are unknown/unable to determine. 32% are white. Then during the civil rights movement. not Hispanic children made up the majority of all categories of children of householders under 18: about 58 percent of adopted children. and transcultural. The purpose of these revisions was to strengthen compliance and enforcement of the procedures. and demand that discrimination would not be tolerated.500 cases a year."[2] History Before World War II it was very rare for white couples to adopt a child of a different race and every effort was made in order to match a child with the skin color and religion of the adoptive family. Then.000 (18 percent) contained members of different races. the fiscal year of 1998 showed that approximately 64% of children waiting in foster care are of minority background. In the 1990s the placement of black children into non-black homes virtually came to a complete stop. Statistics Based on the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS). It prohibits an agency that receives Federal assistance and is involved in foster care and adoptive placements from delaying or denying the placement of a child based on race. Law In 1994 the Howard M. 64 percent of biological children" and "Of the 1. interracial adoptions in the United States increased dramatically and the numbers more than tripled from 733 cases in 1968 to 2. Children of Asian and Native American heritage were most easily placed outside of their racial group while those African Americans heritage proved more difficult. The campaign was called "Operation Brown Baby" and its objective was to find adoptive homes even if from a different race.Interracial adoption Interracial adoption Interracial adoption (also referred to as transracial adoption) refers to the act of placing a child of one racial or ethnic group with adoptive parents of another racial or ethnic group. or national origin of the child or adoptive/foster parent. 5% of white women adopt children of other races. The most recent estimate of interracial adoption was performed in 1987 by the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and it found that 1% of white women adopt black children. and African American heritage. (There are now about 6.7 million households with adopted children. Then in 1944 the Boys and Girls Aid Society took an interest in the increasing number of minority children waiting to be adopted which focused on children from Asian American. international. Native American. remove any misleading language. Out of all foster children waiting for adoption 51% are black. color. 1% are American Indian. These provisions forbid agencies from delaying or denying the placement of a child solely on the basis of race and national origin.[1] The US Census 2000 found that "White (and no other race).

familial. evidence also showed that extra-family forces. Parental encouragement of cultural activities & co-participation in them seemed to be critical in the development of ethnic identification. Interviews discovered that a high degree of involvement by children in Korean cultural activities was positively associated with scores measuring the strength of the children's Korean identity as well as with ease of communication with their parents about their adoptions. Interracial adoptive parents living in predominantly white communities tended to have adoptees that experienced more discomfort about their appearance than those who lived in integrated settings. Critics argue that it also takes the emphasis off of trying to keep children with their biological parents. interracial adoptees had significantly higher grades and significantly higher academic expectations but marginally more distant father relationships and higher levels of psychosomatic symptoms than their same-race adopted counterparts. Specifically. Apparently. Appearance Discomfort Another reported that reported adjustment problems among their children at approximately the same levels as were reported by the parents of intraracially adopted whites. black adoptees reported higher levels of self-worth than non-black adoptees. one study focused on Korean and Chinese children adopted by families in the United States. are most likely to encounter such societal discrimination. These measures investigated indices of academic. The purpose of this law is to reduce the time that a child spends in foster care by implementing a two-year limit and therefore hopefully moving a child closer to permanent adoption. many Latino children with European physical features can safely escape such expressions of racism. for example societal racism. The purpose of this act was to reduce the instability and abuse problems in the foster care system. Cultural identity Research has focused on the formation of cultural identity by the children adopted. but overall about the same as their same-race adopted counterparts across the 12 adjustment measures investigated. Yet. Academic research Adolescent adjustment One study found that interracial adoptees fare sometimes better. sometimes worse. One of this study's most interesting findings showed that interracial adoptive parents' decisions on where to live had a substantial impact upon their children's adjustments. 43 . and health outcomes for 4 groups of interracial and same-race adopted adolescents. On the other hand. The research suggested that black and Asian children.Interracial adoption Another important law regarding interracial adoptions was the Adoption and Safe Families Act that was implemented in 1997. who appear unmistakably different from whites. For example. Asian adolescents adopted by white parents had both the highest grades and the highest levels of psychosomatic symptoms. did negatively impact adjustment outcomes. whereas black adolescents adopted by black parents reported the highest levels of depression. experiences of discrimination generated feelings of appearance discomfort. Many Children find that they are so adapted to their parents' and family's culture that they start to forget their own. psychological. Also. Particularly.

adoption." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Two points of view Pro interracial adoption A dichotomy exists in reference to the subject of interracial adoption. adoption. particularly black children. gov/ prod/ 2003pubs/ censr-6. a biracial social worker in New York who was raised by an adoptive white family. some research has examined the empirical studies of interracial adoption themselves. 50% were unemployed."[5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] (http:/ / naic. These studies address whether past research that claims that interracial adoption positively benefits children of color. gov/ pubs/ s_seek. "Intercountry. W."[3] Never getting adopted has been shown to have a negative impact on children." The Washington Post. I. • Feigelman. S. may have methodological difficulties. They argue that children are hurt most by the practice. & Reid. "Often when people are looking at 'love is all it takes. what causes the least disruption in the child's life. Before leaving care. 74(4). 17(3). 165-183. "Adjustments of transracially and inracially adopted young adults. these studies analyze the presence of an ethnocentric bias in legal and scientific assessments of children’s well-being and adjustment. and the Need for Multiple Measures of Adolescent Adjustment. • Grob (2003). Specifically. "is that it leaves the children in the system to wait. com/ culture-and-ethnicity/ the-colors-of-adoption-black-vs-white/ article/ 1791/ 1. July 21." International Social Work. • Huh. html) (http:/ / library. com/ information/ adoption-statistics-foster-care-1999." "Same race makes sense because it is what the child is accustomed to. Same-Race Adoptions. After aging out of foster care. "You have to live it in order to absorb it. "One of the problems with race-matching policies. 577-583. states that "It's a bad idea to put a black child in a white home. W. html) (http:/ / statistics. (2000). 43(1). "In Struggling in the Adult World. com/ culture-and-ethnicity/ the-colors-of-adoption-black-vs-white/ article/ 1791/ 1. • Courtney. The humanities and social sciences." says Toni Oliver. suggesting that interracial adoption is a form of "genocide" and that "black children in white homes are cut off from the healthy development of themselves as black people." The National Association of Black Social Workers (NABSW) has taken this stance. L. Somehow when it's a case of adoption. 44 . 75-87. Transracial Adoption and Ethnic Identity.. 47 percent were receiving some kind of counseling or medication for mental health problems. A. & Finley. adoption.. 64(4). J.' they seem to overlook the impact race has on our society. E. G. University of Wisconsin–Madison. 33% received public assistance. html) • Burrow. I think it's impossible for someone of one culture to teach another culture". They are thrown into a vicious cycle where the chances plummet that they will ever get adopted." Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. (2004). and 19% of females had given birth to children.[4] Pro race matching David Watts. A. (1998). cfm) (http:/ / www. N. M.." Dissertation Abstracts International. 27% of males and 10% of females were incarcerated within 12 to 18 months. hhs. and Piliavin. race suddenly doesn't seem to matter anymore. census. Study conducted by School of Social Work. "International Adoption: The Relationship between Child and Parent Characteristics and Parent Report of Child Adjustment. 1998.Interracial adoption Ethnocentric bias Finally. 37% had not finished high school. that number dropped to 21% after leaving care." says Donna Matias. Critics of race matching say there is a darker side involving whites with lingering racist beliefs against mixing races. a chairman of the organization. a lawyer with the Institute of justice. pdf) (http:/ / library. acf. (2000). "Transracial.

or IVF treatments. The embryo recipient may elect to have her own embryologist conduct further testing.000 for oocyte donation . if possible. and not the child of the donor. Occasionally. a "semi-open" arrangement is used in which the parties know family and other information about each other. and the recipient couple is preparing to raise a child not genetically related to them. be screened for a series of infectious diseases. Most often.[3] The rules for screening are outlined by the U. and "embryo adoption" to refer to the open process.[1] Others use the terms synonymously because regardless of whether the arrangement is open or anonymous. If the donors are not available to be screened.Interracial adoption External links • Adoption Services Worldwide (http://www. Alternatives to donating remaining embryos are: discarding them (or having them implanted at a time when pregnancy is very unlikely.babyasw. the donation of embryos and a clinical assisted reproduction procedure is involved. in order to provide a layer of privacy protection. with a cost of $22. It is defined as the giving—generally without compensation—of embryos remaining after one couple's In vitro fertilisation. newsweek. survive indefinitely in frozen storage.php) Interracially/ Bi-Racial Adoptions] • Adoption. 45 .[2] In the United States. The resulting child is considered the child of the woman who carries it and gives birth.org/adopted. Although embryos can.aican.com (http://library. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).adoption.000 per live delivery compared to $41.S. those donating embryos must.asian-nation.Australian Intercountry Adoption Network (http://www.org/) • AICAN . Some writers use the term "embryo donation" to refer strictly to anonymous embryo donation. The amount of screening the embryo has already undergone is largely dependent on the genetic parents' own IVF clinic and process. followed by the placement of those embryos into the recipient woman's uterus to facilitate pregnancy and childbirth in the recipient.com/) • Adoption History (http://www. This is the same principle as is followed in egg donation or sperm donation.org/) • Asian-Nation (http://www.com/international-adoption/adoption-inquiry.adoptionhistory.[4] or donating them for use in embryonic stem cell research.com/id/194886) Embryo donation Embryo donation is a form of third party reproduction. to another person or couple. the embryos are donated after the woman for whom they were originally created has successfully carried one or more pregnancies to term. A US study concluded that embryo donation is approximately twice as cost-effective as oocyte donation in terms of cost per live birth.shtml) Interracially Adopted Asian Americans] • Raising Katie What adopting a white girl taught a black family about race in the Obama era (http://www. but their real names and locating information are withheld. Embryo donation can be handled on an anonymous basis (donor and recipient parties are not known to each other). and the recipients must agree to accept the associated risk. the embryos must be given a label that indicates that the required screening has not been done. or on an open basis (parties' identities are shared and the families agree to a relationship. as a practical reality someone must eventually decide on a permanent disposition for them. theoretically.

thus. However.[5] [6] At about the same time. Their completed paperwork and fees are submitted to the placement agency.[14] One advantage some embryo adoption couples in Georgia have derived from this law is that they have become eligible for the federal Adoption Tax Credit. however. health checks and in some cases. reports were published documenting successful pregnancies and births from cryopreserved donor embryos. Embryo donation can be carried out as a service of an individual infertility clinic (where donor and recipient families typically live in the local area and are both patients of the same clinic) or by any of several national organizations. The process described below is typical of an "adoption-agency-based" national program: Genetic parents entering an embryo adoption program are offered the benefits of selecting the adoptive parents from the agency's pool of prescreened applicants. thousands of women who were infertile had regarded adoption as the only available path to parenthood. which reviews their file and matches them to genetic parents with similar preferences including 46 . Maria Bustillo in Florida. except that the recipient woman has the experience of pregnancy and childbirth. The menstrual cycles of the donor and recipient women were synchronized using medications. Thus what was called gamete and embryo donation.[7] [8] No one knows for sure when the first true embryo adoption occurred. these were embryos made from donor gametes specifically for the recipients. The matter gained another political dimension in the United States when Congress and the Bush administration gave $1 million to promote embryo adoption. A careful reading of the 1983 clinical report often cited as the first instance of embryo donation reveals that the donated embryo was actually created for the recipient at the same time that four embryos were made for the donor couple’s own use. Devroey et al. Soon thereafter.[11] Dr. in some cases sparing the woman a second egg harvesting procedure. Embryo ownership is transferred directly from the genetic parents to the adoptive parents. Again. or donor eggs for women who have no viable oocytes – or both. Prior to this. None of these embryos had been cryopreserved. Some see the embryo as "tissue".[9] [10] in the legal literature. Genetic parents may be updated by the agency when a successful pregnancy is achieved and when a child(ren) is/are born. These scientific advances set the stage to allow open and candid discussion of embryo donation and transfer as a solution to infertility. but (importantly) did not require—a confirmatory court order of parentage following embryo adoption. clinicians discovered a way to maintain (cryopreserve) embryos in frozen storage and thaw them once again for implantation later. it is similar to other donations such as blood and major organ donations. clinicians reasoned that more couples could be helped toward parenthood by substituting donor sperm for men who have no viable sperm... and Dr. In some ways. adoption education. Prospective adoptive parents entering a program complete an application. and that no court action is required to establish legal parentage for the recipient. The genetic parents and adoptive parents may negotiate their own terms for future contact between the families. depending on the requirements of both the home study and placement agencies.[12] while still others believe that a new human life begins at the time of fertilization. The term was used as early as the mid-1980s. others see it as a "gift of a potential life". court certification of adoption eligibility. traditional adoption home study. The third group sees embryo donation as little different from traditional adoption. Georgia enacted a statute called the Option of Adoption Act" in 2009 which provided a procedure for.[13] Process Embryo donation is legally considered a property transfer and not an adoption by state laws. and the transfers occurred on the same day. Howard Jones in Virginia have reported embryo transfers occurring between 1986 and 1990 that clearly represented adoption of remaining embryos.Embryo donation History Not long after IVF came into common clinical practice. came into being.

fda. gov/ BiologicsBloodVaccines/ TissueTissueProducts/ QuestionsaboutTissues/ ucm136397. This allows the family to receive all the services in a comprehensive manner at one location under the guidance of a trained coordinator. Families. Office of the Press Secretary. Med J Aust 1985 Apr 1. gainesvilletimes. Because Nightlight Christian Adoptions was the first to publicize the option nationally and. Genetic and prospective parents are then given the chance to approve the match. As of July. South Calif Law Rev 1986 Jul. html [4] Finger R. Wisanto A. Freemann LE. van den Abbeel E. Van den Abbeel E. Braeckmans P.adoptanembryo.96(8):900-906 [12] National Embryo Donation Center: Questionnaire Study of Prospective Embryo Donors [13] The White House. rather than being performed at a separate infertility clinic. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1985 Dec. Washington (www. Camus M. The Embryo Donation Services of Cedar Park. 1986. non-profit.163(5 Pt 1):1421-1424 [8] Van Steirteghem AC. the embryo is transferred to the adoptive mother's clinic for a frozen embryo transfer. Birth After Transfer of Cryopreserved Embryos.net) is the nation's only church-based embryo adoption enterprise.Embryo donation desired level of openness post-adoption.142(7):409-11 [7] Sauer MV. net http:/ / www. Pregnancy With a Frozen-thawed Embryo in a Woman With Primary Ovarian Failure. References [1] Snowflake Program. org/ explorembryo. gov/ news/ releases/ 2001/ 08/ 20010809-2. PMID 19406398. located near Seattle. None of the procedures involved with embryo adoption by either the genetic or adopting parents are legal requirements of embryo transfer. Bethany Christian Services [19] . childrensconnections. though no longer referring exclusively to Nightlight's Snowflake Embryo Adoption Program. Wade A.12(4):825-33 [6] Downing BG. com/ http:/ / www.03. miracleswaiting. Steril. and Crystal Angels [20]. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1989 Aug.1016/j. as described above. August 9. The use of embryo cryopreservation in human IVF programmes. Its primary difference from Nightlight and other adoption-agency-based programs is that the clinical services. bethany. 2001. Several other agencies nationwide offer embryo donation services. org/ main/ embryo-services http:/ / www. 2011. Frozen embryos: moral. Freemann L. Nightlight has reported 271 children born through the embryo adoption program. Mohr LR. and Procreative Liberty: the Legal Structure of the New Reproduction. htmhttp:/ / www. The only exception is the home study. van Steirteghem AC. Establishment of 22 Pregnancies After Oocyte and Embryo Donation. Tennessee. html [14] http:/ / www. htm 47 . embryodonation. embryosalive. Embryos. Daly D (April 2009). Nightlight Christian Adoptions [2] National Embryo Donation Center [3] http:/ / www. 317:113 [9] Robertson JA. Located in Knoxville.fertnstert.59(5):1079-1100 [11] Devroey P. President Discusses Stem Cell Research. Southern California Law Review. Wood C. 93 (2): 379–381. Once all parties agree. including Embryos Alive [18]. it operates on principles similar to the Snowflake Program [17].019. com/ news/ archive/ 20665/ [15] Embryo Adoption & Donation [16] http:/ / www. Paulson RJ. Sommerfelt C. org/ [17] [18] [19] [20] http:/ / www. knowledge and communication offered to both parties by the system. social. http:/ / georgewbush-whitehouse. Concurrently. handled most cases in which families were matched outside the confines of an individual clinic. for several years. Freeman M. Fertil. Human Oocyte and Preembryo Donation: an Evolving Method for the Treatment of Infertility. "A cost-effectiveness comparison of embryo donation with oocyte donation". The process is entered in to willingly by both sets of parents because of the added safeguards.2009. archives. the National Embryo Donation Center [16] (NEDC) reports 280 born through their program since its inception in 2003. 59: 939-1041 [10] Wurmbrand MJ. NEJM 1987. national embryo donation entity. doi:10. and legal implications. are performed at the NEDC facility in Knoxville. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990 Nov. et al. org/ crystal_angels. Trounson AO. NEDC is the nation's only clinic-based. Wilson CK. van Waesberghe L. Founded by an embryo adoption mother.[15] The Snowflakes Embryo Adoption Program refers to the uniqueness of each embryo. [5] Trounson A. the term "Snowflake Babies" has become common vernacular when referring to the embryo-adoption process. adoptanembryo.

In some states. • If no biological family member is willing or able to adopt.[4] African American children represented 41% of children in foster care. This is to maintain continuity in the child's life.[6] The foster parent licensing process is often similar to the process to become licensed to adopt. white children represented 40% and Hispanic children represented 15% in the year 2000. The application varies but may include: a minimum age. This option allows the child to stay in custody of the state and the child can stay placed in a foster home. verification that your income allows you to meet your expenses.[5] Regulation. Title IV-E Foster Care Eligibility Reviews. The state via the family court and child protection agency stand in loco parentis to the minor. counties have this responsibility. Each state's services are monitored by the federal Department of Health and Human Services through reviews such as Child and Family Services Reviews. making all legal decisions while the foster parent is responsible for the day to day care of said minor. In the US. • Adoption • Preferably by a biological family member such as an aunt or grandparent.Foster care Foster care Foster care is the term used for a system in which a minor who has been made a ward is placed in the private home of a state certified caregiver referred to as a "foster parent". most children enter foster care due to neglect.[3] In 2009. there were about 123.773 children in foster care. Foster care is intended to be a short term situation until a permanent placement can be made:[1] • Reunification with the biological parent(s) • When it is deemed in the child's best interest. It requires preparation classes as well as an application process.[2] Children may enter foster care via voluntary or involuntary means. a criminal record check at local. In the United States. the next preference is for the child to be adopted by the foster parents or by someone else involved in the child's life (such as a teacher or coach).000 children ready for adoptive families in the nations foster care systems. there were 423. This is generally the first choice. foster home licensing requirements vary from state to state but are generally overseen by each state's Department of Social Services or Human Services. The foster parent is remunerated by the state for their services. the child may be adopted by someone who is a stranger to the child. administration. • If neither above option are available. Voluntary placement may occur when a biological parent or lawful guardian is unable or unwilling to care for a child.[2] In 2009. and oversight The policies regarding foster care as well as the criteria to be met in order to become a foster parent vary according to legal jurisdiction. state and federal levels including 48 . physical disabilities or mental disabilities).415 children were in publicly supported foster care in the United States in September 2000. with a relative or an Independent Living Center or long term care facility (for children with development disabilities. Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System and Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System Assessment Reviews. Involuntary placement occurs when a child is removed from their biological parent or lawful guardian due to the risk or actual occurrence of physical or psychological harm. a drop of about 20% in a decade. • Permanent transfer of guardianship • If none of these options are viable the plan for the minor may enter OPPLA (Other Planned Permanent Living Arrangement). Foster care placement 547.

105 a year per child. But two major reviews of the scholarly literature have questioned these facilities' effectiveness. In theory. and incentives are sometimes set up for maximum intervention.. The county does not receive as much in federal funds for "front-end" services. A National Coalition for Child Protection Reform issue paper states "children often are removed from their families `prematurely or unnecessarily' because federal aid formulas give states `a strong financial incentive' to do so rather than provide services to keep families together. These children are often said to require “special-needs adoption. "special needs" can include situations where children have specific chronic medical problems. and not enough money into "front-end" or basic services. mental health issues. In some cases. as it receives for out-of-home placements or foster care services.Foster care 49 finger printing and no prior record of child abuse or neglect."[8] Governments offer a variety of incentives and services to facilitate this class of adoptions. . California:[11] The Grand Jury heard from staff members of the DFCS and others outside the department that the department puts too much money into "back-end services. the focus of treatment in such facilities is to prepare the child for a return to a foster home. sibling groups. This made aided funding foster care for states and localities. which could help solve the problems causing family inadequacies. the state of Texas paid mental treatment centers as much as $101." i. from placing children in foster homes. behavioral problems.[9] Funding and system incentives A law passed by Congress in 1961 allowed AFDC (welfare) payments to pay for foster care which was previously made only to children in their own homes.[7] There are some children in foster care who are difficult to place in permanent homes through the normal adoption process. financially. Observers of the growth trend note that a county will only continue to receive funding while it keeps the child in its care. to an adoptive home. Children found to be unable to function in a foster home may be placed in Residential Treatment Centers (RTCs) or other such group homes. facilitating rapid growth. the Agency benefits. or to the birth parents when applicable. a reference from a doctor to ensure that all household members are free from diseases that a child could catch and in sufficient health to parent a child and. This may create a "perverse financial incentive" to place and retain children in foster care rather than leave them with their parents.e. and learning disabilities. and older children qualify as "special needs. In some cases. therapists and attorneys.” In this context. In other words."[10] Findings of a grand jury investigation in Santa Clara. letters of reference from an employer and others who know them.

000 fewer than when ASFA was passed[14] The Foster Care Independence Act of 1999. nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. without due process of law..S. Average length of stay in foster care in the U.Foster care 50 United States Foster care legislation since 1990 In 1997.S. No." Title 42 United States Code Section 1983[18] states that citizens can sue in federal courts any person that acting under a color of law to deprive . Chafee and ETV money is administered by each state as they see fit. helps foster youth who are aging out of care to achieve self-sufficiency. COUNTY OF SAN JOAQUIN. The legislation also strengthens requirements for states in their treatment of siblings and introduces mechanisms to provide financial incentives for guardianship and adoption..[13] Ten years after ASFA became law. opponents said. 05-16071[17] that a CPS social worker who removed children from their natural parents into foster care without obtaining judicial authorization. Opponents of ASFA argued that the real reason children languished in foster care was that too many were taken needlessly from their parents in the first place. the United States 9th Circuit Court of Appeals found in ROGERS v. and would only slow a decline in the foster care population that should have occurred anyway because of a decline in reported child abuse. The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution says that a state may not make a law that abridges ". it would not accomplish its goals. government has also funded the Education and Training Voucher Program in recent years in order to help youth who age out of care to obtain college or vocational training at a free or reduced cost.[15] [16] Constitutional issues In May 2007. Since ASFA did not address this. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 is the most recent piece of major federal legislation addressing the foster care system.[12] This reduced the time children are allowed to remain in foster care before being available for adoption. or property. the Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) was passed. the lack of such legislation was the reason it was common for children to languish in care for years with no permanent living situation identified. was acting without due process and without exigency (emergency conditions) violated the 14th Amendment and Title 42 United State Code Section 1983. liberty. The new law requires state child welfare agencies to identify cases where "aggravated circumstances" make permanent separation of child from the birth family the best option for the safety and well-being of the child. One of the main components of ASFA is the imposition of stricter time limits on reunification efforts. Proponents of ASFA claimed that before the law was passed. The U. This bill extended various benefits and funding for foster children between the age of 18 and 21 and for Indian children in tribal areas. the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States" and no state may "deprive any person of life. the number of children in foster care on any given day has been about 7.

every effort is made to reunite children with their families wherever possible. 455 US 745.[20] Also District of Columbia Court of Appeals conclude that the lower trial court erred in rejecting the relative custodial arrangement selected by the natural mother who tried to preserve her relationship with the child. Non-government organizations are widely used.[24] In the significant number of cases substance abuse is a major contributing factor. and to enter an order granting custody to the child's relative. DSS transferred him to a foster home on the ground that immediate removal was necessary to avoid imminent danger to his life or health.[24] It is also used to provide a break for the parent or primary carer to hopefully decrease the chances of the situation escalating to one which would lead to the removal of the child(ren)..[24] In some cases children are placed in home-based care following a child protection substantiation and where they are found to be in need of a safer and more stable environment. which includes foster care.[21] In 2007 Deanna Fogarty-Hardwick obtained a jury verdict against Orange County (California) and two of its social workers for violating her Fourteenth Amendment rights to familial association by unlawfully placing her kids in foster care. In the event that children are placed in home-based care. this can include placements with relatives or kin. Children and young people are provided with alternative accommodation while they are unable to live with their parents. Respite care is a type of foster care that is used to provide short-term (and often regular) accommodation for children whose parents are ill or unable to care for them on a temporary basis. Supreme Court reviewed a case when Department of Social Services removed two younger children from their natural parents only because the parents had been previously found negligent toward their oldest daughter.[21] The previous judgment granting the foster mother's adoption petition was reversed. to provide these services. due process requires that the State support its allegations by at least clear and convincing evidence.9 million verdict grew to a $9.[23] Australia Home-based care. is provided to children who are in need of care and protection.> But until the State proves parental unfitness.Foster care the citizens of their civil rights under the pretext of a regulation of a state.[22] The case finally ended in 2011 when the United States Supreme Court denied Orange County's request to overturn the verdict.[19] In case of Santosky v. and the case remanded to the trial court to vacate the orders granting adoption and denying custody. placing the child within the wider family or community is preferred[24] This is consistent with the Aboriginal Child Placement Principle.5 million judgment as the County lost each of its successive appeals. the child and his parents share a vital interest in preventing erroneous termination of their natural relationship". however.[25] 51 .[20] When the third child was only three days old. In other situations parents may be incapable of providing adequate care for the child.[22] The $4. <. Kramer.[24] In the case of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in particular. but not exclusively. states and territories are responsible for funding home-based care. children in home-based care are also on a care and protection order. As with the majority of child protection services. and residential care. The Supreme Court vacated previous judgment and stated: "Before a State may sever completely and irrevocably the rights of parents in their natural child. or accommodation may be needed during times of family conflict or crisis. As well as foster care.[24] Current policy There is strong emphasis in current Australian policy and practice to keep children with their families wherever possible. In most cases.

poor nutrition. In the Överkalix study in Sweden. a stress hormone in comparison to children raised by their biological parents. poverty. a period where the development of mental and psychological processes are at one of their critical peaks. and an enlargement of the brain's ventricles. deprivation and other negative environmetal factors many foster children are subjected to has a detrimental effect not only their physical. suggest that foster care placements are more detrimental to children than remaining in a troubled home. (Harden BJ.[35] [36] [37] [38] Epigenetic effects of environment Gene expression can be affected by the environment through epigenetic mechanisms. The human brain doesn't fully develop until approximately the age of twenty.[34] Negative environmental influences during this critical period of brain development can have lifelong consequences. arborization (the growth of dendritic connections. and deficits in executive functioning. emotional and cognitive well-being. migration (of neurons to different regions of the brain). but that the damage can transcend generations. stress response and cognitive skills are formed during this period. and suicide. parental PTSD was a risk factor for the development of PTSD in adult offspring in comparison to those whose parents went through the Holocaust without developing PTSD. exposure to violence in the home environment and child abuse. salivary cortisol and enhanced plasma cortisol suppression in response to low dose dexamethasone administration than offspring of 52 . and one of the most critical periods of brain development occurs in the first 3–4 years. 20% as compared to 10% and were found to have a higher rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than combat veterans with 25% of those studied having PTSD.[26] In a study of adults who were in foster care in Oregon and Washington state. homelessness. Many children enter foster care at a very young age. synaptic sculpturing (determining the make-up of the synapse).[41] Many physiological and behavioral characteristics ascribed to Mendelian inheritance are due in fact to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Most of the processes involved in healthy neurodevelopment are predicated upon the establishment of close nurturing relationships and environmental stimulation.Foster care The negative effects of foster care Individuals who were in foster care experience higher rates of physical and psychiatric morbidity than the general population and suffer from not being able to trust and that can lead to placements breaking down. The processes that govern the development of personality traits. child abuse and stress[39] [40] have been shown to have a profound effect on gene expression. Negative environmental influences. myelinzation (protective covering of neurons). which can cause cortical atrophy.[42] [43] [44] In studies of the adult offspring of Holocaust survivors. they were found to have double the incidence of depression. synaptogenesis (creation of synapses). 2004). the effects of epigentic inheritance were shown to have a direct correlation to the environmental influences faced by the parents and grandparents. Negative environmental influences have a direct effect on all areas of neurodevelopment: neurogenesis (creation of new neurons). apoptosis (death and reabsorption of neurons). The implications in terms of foster care and the cost to society as a whole is that the stress. such as maternal deprivation. anxiety as well other developmental problems. The developing brain is directly influenced by negative environmental factors including lack of stimulation due to emotional neglect. Recent studies in the U. Elevated cortisol levels can compromise the immune system. Foster children have elevated levels of cortisol. The offspring of survivors with PTSD had lower levels of urinary cortisol excretion.[27] [28] [29] [30] These children experience higher degrees of incarceration.[31] [32] [33] Neurodevelopment Foster care has been shown in various studies to have deleterious consequences on the physical health and mental wellbeing of those who were in foster care.S. Children in foster care have a higher probability of having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. including transgenerational epigenetic effects in which physiological and behavioral (intellectual) transfer of information across generations-not-yet-conceived is effected.

(Marsenich. the rate of PTSD in adults who were in foster care for one year between the ages of 14-18 was found to be higher than that of combat veterans. have been developed for the treatment of a variety of malignancies and neurodegenerative disorders. PTSD. 2002). The recovery rate for foster home alumni was 28.[45] [46] Epigenetic Effects of Abuse "In addition. and 42% of those who had been physically abused fulfilled the PTSD criteria."[49] [50] Post traumatic stress disorder Children in foster care have a higher incidence of Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[53] [54] .2% as opposed to 47% in the general population.In one study (Dubner and Motta. with 25 percent of those in the study meeting the diagnostic criteria as compared to 12-13 [51] Regions of the brain associated with stress and post traumatic stress disorder percent of Iraq war veterans and 15 percent of Vietnam war veterans. This is in contrast to the normal stress response in which cortisol levels are elevated after exposure to a stressor. anxiety and depression. Low cortisol levels are associated with parental. PTSD was also found in 18% of the children who were not abused. The results of the study point to the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. In a study conducted in Oregon and Washington state. (Neighh GN et al. and a rate of 4% in the general population. particularly maternal. "More than half the study participants reported clinical levels of mental illness. 2009) It has been suggested in various studies that the deleterious epigentic effects may be somewhat ameliorated through pharmacological manipulations in adulthood via the administration of nerve growth factor-inducible protein A. Drug combination approaches have also shown promise for the treatment of mood disorders including bipolar disorder. These children may have developed PTSD due to witnessing violence in the home. 1999)[52] 60% of children in foster care who had experienced sexual abuse had PTSD. the effects of abuse may extend beyond the immediate victim into subsequent generations as a consequence of epigenetic effects [47] transmitted directly to offspring and/or behavioral changes in affected individuals. "TSA can be used to alter gene expression by interfering with the removal of acetyl groups from histones".[48] and through the inhibition of a class of enzymes known as the histone deacetylases (HDACs). and L-methionine an essential amino acid.Foster care 53 survivors without PTSD. compared to less than a quarter of the general population". "HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) such as Trichostatin A (TSA).

and children in residential care 6 times more likely to be assessed by a pediatrician for abuse than a child in the general population". inflicted by a primary caregiver.Foster care Eating disorders Foster children are at increased risk for a variety of eating disorders. physical abuse.S. emotional deprivation. it resembles "the behavioral correlates of Hyperphagic Short Stature". in comparison to the general population.[72] [73] "One of every 10 foster children stays in foster care longer than seven years. and physical neglect. Such children are at risk of developing a disorganized attachment.[59] Disorganized attachment A study by Dante Cicchetti found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants in his study exhibited symptoms of disorganized attachment. up to 80 percent are doing poorly—with a quarter to a third of former foster children at or below the poverty line.000 reach the age of majority and leave foster care without a permanent family—many to join the ranks of the homeless or to commit crimes and be imprisoned.[68] as well as depressive.[28] Bulimia Nervosa is seven times more prevalent among former foster children than in the general population.[62] [63] [64] [65] These children may be described as experiencing trauma as the result of abuse or neglect.[71] Poverty and homelessness Nearly half of foster kids in the U.[69] [70] Child abuse Children in foster care experience high rates of child abuse. including dissociative symptoms. 1890 times the national poverty rate. In one study in the United Kingdom "foster children were 7-8 times.[76] According to the results of the Casey Family Study of Foster Care Alumni. and acting-out symptoms. which disrupts the normal development of secure attachment.[55] Hyperphagic Short Stature syndrome (HSS) is a condition characterized by short stature due to insufficient growth hormone production. people who are homeless had multiple placements as children: some were in foster care. While it is believed to have genetic component. it is not uncommon in children in foster homes or other stressful environments. HSS is triggered by being exposed to an environment of high psychosocial stress.[74] [75] Three out of 10 of the United States homeless are former foster children. 54 . become homeless when they turn 18.[60] [61] Children with histories of maltreatment. but others experienced "unofficial" placements in the homes of family or friends. and in a study done in the United Kingdom. HSS improves upon removal from the stressful environment. 35% of foster children experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (BMI) once in care. an excessive appetite (hyperphagia) and mild learning disabilities. are at risk of developing psychiatric problems. it was prevalent amongst 25 percent of the study group in New Zealand. anxiety. It is "a pattern of excessive eating and food acquisition and maintenance behaviors without concurrent obesity".[56] [57] [58] Food Maintenance Syndrome is characterized by a set of aberrant eating behaviors of children in foster care. such as physical and psychological neglect. and each year about 15. three New York street children. and sexual abuse.[64] [66] [67] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems.[77] Very frequently. Obesity children in foster care are more prone to becoming overweight and obese. It is hypothesised that this syndrome is triggered by the stress and maltreatment foster children are subjected to.

have been abused and neglected. The length of time a person remains homeless is prolonged in indiviuals who were in foster care. the completion rate for the general population in the same age group is 24%.Foster care 55 Individuals with a history foster care tend to become homeless at an earlier age than those who were not in foster care and Caucasians who become homeless are more likely to have a history of foster care than Hispanics or African Americans .[80] A Swedish study utilizing the data of almost one million people including 22.7% completed some education beyond high school.. 20. a sizable difference.305 former foster children who had been in care prior to their teens. *The study reviewed case records for 659 foster care alumni in Northwest USA. 23 percent had a history of suicide attempts.[82] A study conducted in Finland among current and former foster children up to age 24 found a higher mortality rate due to substance abuse.[86] . although an additional 29% of former foster children received a G.8% complete a bachelors degree. 21.6% completed any degree or certificate beyond high school 16. the probability of dropping out of school is greater than 75%.[84] Poor academic prospects [85] Educational outcomes of ex-foster children in the Northwest Alumni Study* • • • • • 56% completed high school compared to 82% of the general population. among high school students who are in foster care.[78] Suicide-death rate Children in foster care are at a greater risk of suicide. concluded: Former child welfare clients were in year of birth and sex standardised risk ratios (RRs) four to five times more likely than peers in the general population to have been hospitalised for suicide attempts. accidents. and interviewed 479 of them between September 2000 and January [85] 2002..[81] Death rate Children in foster care have an overall higher mortality rate than children in the general population. 2. Several studies have indicated that foster care children tend to underachieve academically with many never completing high school. or receive out of home placement by the courts.1% completed a vocational degree..7% for over 25.former child welfare/protection clients should be considered a high-risk group for suicide attempts and severe psychiatric morbidity. 42. these children are far more likely to suffer abuse. 1.. including sexual molestation than in the general population". suicide and illness. The deaths due to illness were attributed to an increased incidence of acute and chronic medical conditions and developmental delays among children in foster care.Individuals who had been in long-term foster care tended to have the most dismal outcome.[83] Georgia Senator Nancy Schaefer published a report "The Corrupt Business of Child Protective Services"[84] stating: "The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect in 1998 reported that six times as many children died in foster care than in the general public and that once removed to official “safety”.D.. In a study conducted in Philadelphia by Johns Hopkins University it was found that.E. In a small study of twenty-two Texan youths who aged out of the system.9% for those over 25.[79] the increased risk of suicide is still prevalent after leaving foster care and occurs at a higher rate than the general population. compared to an additional 5% of the general population.

[89] Sexual abuse and negligence One study by Johns Hopkins University found that the rate of sexual abuse within the foster-care system is more than four times as high as in the general population. patent protected medication was prevalent. the rate of sexual abuse is more than 28 times that of the general population.[93] [94] The foster parent. despite the fact that he abused his own wife and son.189 were prescribed psychotropic medication. The average out-of-pocket expense per prescription was $34. as 98 percent of children in foster care in New York City belong to ethnic minorities.9% received 4 different classes. and Jackson himself was liable for the rest. some comparing the trials to the Tuskegee syphilis experiment. an ex-foster child was awarded $30 million by jury trial in California (Santa Clara County) for sexual abuse damages that happened to him in his foster home from 1995 to 1999.9% of these children being prescribed medication.[93] In 2009. difference. John Jackson.Foster care 56 State abuses in the United States Drug testing Throughout the 1990s. menace and fear.[91] A study of foster children in Oregon and Washington State found that nearly one third reported being abused by a foster parent or another adult in a foster home. "Concomitant psychotropic medication treatment is frequent for youth in foster care and lacks substantive evidence as to its effectiveness and safety". overdosed on drugs and was arrested for drunken driving.[87] Unnecessary/over medication Studies[88] have revealed that youth in foster care covered by Medicaid insurance receive psychotropic medication at a rate that was 3 times higher than that of Medicaid-insured youth who qualify by low family income.[92] These statistics do not speak to the situation these children are coming from. and seven counts of lewd or lascivious acts on a child under 14. brand name. Jackson was convicted in Santa Clara County of nine counts of lewd or lascivious acts on a child by force.[88] — Psychotropic medication patterns among youth in foster care. 41. was licensed by the state. In 2006. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs (55. . but it does show the very large problem of child-on-child sexual abuse within the system.9%).42. 12. a $55. and 15. and antipsychotic agents (53. according to the Santa Clara County District Attorney's Office. the private foster family agency responsible for licensing and monitoring Jackson's foster home and others. and it was noted in the review of these cases that the use of expensive.17 for branded products. also was found to be negligent and liable for 75 percent of the abuse that was inflicted on the victim. Oregon Department of Human Services agreed to pay $2 million into a fund for the future care of twins who were allegedly abused by their foster parents. There have been several notable lawsits concerning sexual abuse and negligence that caused review of the foster care system in some states: In 2010. The agency has also been accused of racism. In the case of SSRIs the use of the most expensive medications was noted to be 74%.[95] According to the civil rights suit filed on request of twins' adoptive mother in December 2007 in U. in group homes. The most frequently used medications were antidepressants (56. In a review (September 2003 to August 2004) of the medical records of 32. duress.S. in the general market only 28% are for brand name SSRI's vs generics. Giarretto Institute.3% received 3 different classes of these drugs during July 2004. violence. resulting in an annual prevalence of 37. Later in 2010.[90] [91] An Indiana study found three times more physical abuse and twice the rate of sexual abuse in foster homes than in the general population.75 for generics and $90. Pediatrics 2008 Psychiatrists prescribed 93% of the psychotropic medication..135 Texas foster care 0–19 years-old.8%). this was the largest such settlement in the agency's history. experimental HIV drugs were tested on HIV-positive foster children at Incarnation Children’s Center in Harlem.2%).[93] The sex acts he forced the children in his foster care to perform sent him to prison for 220 years. Federal Court.

The prime consideration was money as it was cheaper to care for children in commonwealth countries than it was in the United Kingdom. v.[103] These files revealed numerous cases in which foster children were abused. the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act.[98] Similary. some as young as 3. the child welfare panel appointed by the parties approved the NJ State’s Reform Plan.[105] In July 2002. Sometimes the foster children placed into these shelter wings are subjected to strip searches similar to those performed on juvenile offenders." The brother and sister often went without food. and the Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA). accusing it of mishandling reports that Thomas Ferrara. [107] The lost children (Australia) An estimated 150.000 children.[110] [111] 57 . Early Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment. Among these Forgotten Australians were members of the "Stolen Generation". where they were used as a free source of labour and many were severely abused and neglected. In 2008 Australian Prime Minister. the DCF continued to place foster children with Ferrara and his then-wife until 2000. This practice was in effect from the beginning of the nineteenth century until 1967. and DYFS failed to take proper action.000 "forgotten Australians" and in 2010 British Prime Minister Gordon Brown issued a similar apology to those who were victimised by the Child Migrants Programme. a foster parent. so when police rescued the twins he was nearly comatose. McGreevey[102] was filed in federal court by "Children’s Rights" New York organization on behalf of children in the custody of the New Jersey Division of Youth and Family Services (DYFS). allowing plaintiffs to collect information concerning harm to children in foster care through a case record review. 79.[97] Ferrara was arrested in 2001. was molesting young girls.2 million to settle a lawsuit that alleged DCF ignored complaints that another mentally disabled Immokalee girl was being raped by her foster father. The boy.[103] [104] The complaint alleged violations of the childrens' constitutional rights and their rights under Title IV-E of the Social Security Act.[108] [109] most to join the ranks of the "Forgotten Australians". At least 10. In the period after World War II the policy was dubbed the "Child Migrants Programme". didn't receive medical attention. and 1999.[106] Strip Searches Sometimes children who have been taken from their homes due to abuse or neglect are temporarily placed into shelters if a foster home is not immediately available.[95] Several lawsuits were brought in 2008 against the Florida Department of Children & Families (DCF).Foster care the children were kept in makeshift cages—cribs covered with chicken wire secured by duct tape—in a darkened bedroom known as "the dungeon. Bonifacio Velazquez. Records show that Ferrara had as many as 400 children go through his home during his 16 years as a licensed foster parent (from 1984 to 2000). Many of these children were sent to orphanages.[96] DHS said the foster parents deceived child welfare workers during the checkup visits. until the 15-year-old gave birth to a child. water or human touch. 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. in 2007 Florida's DCF paid $1. foster homes and religious institutions. after a 9-year-old girl told detectives he regularly molested her over two years and threatened to hurt her mother if she told anyone. Some of these shelters are wings of juvenile detention facilities. who had a shunt put into his head at birth to drain fluid. The same foster family previously took into their care hundreds of other children over nearly four decades. the Americans with Disabilities Act. 2004. were shipped to Australia after the war.[97] [98] The suits claimed that even though there were records of sexual misconduct allegations against Ferrara in 1992.000 British children were sent to overseas colonies and countries in the commonwealth such as Australia. These children were classified as orphans although most were not.[97] Officials stated that the lawsuits over Ferrara ended up costing the DCF almost $2.[99] [100] [101] In a class action lawsuit Charlie and Nadine H. the federal court granted plaintiffs’ experts access to 500 children’s case files. The court accepted the plan on June 17. 2004.26 million. On June 9. Kevin Rudd apologised to the approximately 500. the term given for those who experienced care in foster homes and institutions in the 20th century. 1996. forcibly removed from their homes and raised in white institutions.[104] The same organization also filed similar lawsuits against several other states in recent years that caused some of the states to start child welfare reforms. the children of Australian Aborigines.

[125] [126] • The main and title character in the book The Great Gilly Hopkins is a foster child who wishes to be reunited with their mother. the symptoms may be exacerbated by having a history of foster care and the attendant abuses. writer and director • Alonzo Mourning. A successful reunion with a loving set of benevolent caregiving foster parents also has potential to create positive emotional responses.[119] [120] [121] Foster Parent and Child Reunions Foster parents play an important pivotal role in the lives of infants placed in their care during critical developmental periods. The foster care experience may have nothing to do with the symptoms. or on the other hand.[113] [114] [115] Adult neurogenesis has been shown to be an ongoing process. stimulate happiness through an increased sense of connectedness and sense of indebtedness." Hermann von Helmholtz. While Hardison had a good experience with his "nana".[117] and PTSD. Neuroplasticity The human brain however has been shown to have a fair degree of neuroplasticity. technically challenging. cognitive and epigenetic effects of foster care have been established in innumerable studies in various countries. Parker (played by Beth Riesgraf) and Hardison (played by Aldis Hodge) both grew up in foster care.. When orphaned.[123] • ABC's Secret Life of the American Teenager's Ricky (played by Dareen Kagasoff) is in foster care. Parker had several bad experiences with several bad foster families. NBA Defensive Player of the Year in 1999 & 2000 and seven-time NBA All-Star 58 .. fostered. all those experiences are of much significance which show how the judgment of the senses may be modified by experience and by training derived under various circumstances.[52] [118] it may also serve to obfuscate the true cause of underlying issues. and convoluted as searching for biological parents. • Famous former foster children • Allison Anders. [122] Foster care In popular culture • Fictional characters • In the Fox television show. The Casey Family Programs Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study was a fairly extensive study into various aspects of the psychosocial effects of foster care noted that 80% of ex-foster children are doing "poorly". Bones. or adopted children suffering from genealogical bewilderment are curious to learn about their family background and medial history. psychological. 1866 While having a background in foster homes—especially in instances of sexual abuse—can be the precipitating factor in a wide variety of psychological and cognitive deficits such as ADHD. forensic anthropologist Dr. Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy is one of the approaches that has been used to treat the resulting trauma and attachment difficulties caused by chronic early maltreatment within a care-giving relationship. Children in the child welfare system have often experienced significant and repeated traumas.[116] "... and provide a uniquely treasured experience for children who were fostered. searches to locate former foster parents have potential to be just as captivating.Foster care [112] Therapeutic intervention The negative physical. Temperance Brennan (played by Emily Deschanel) grew up in foster care when her parents went missing. and may be adapted to the new conditions.[124] • On TNT's Leverage.

2010-10-15. jstor. . hhs. 3. Pewfostercare. 1 September 2010. prweb.S. law. [16] (http:/ / www.S. American Major League baseball player Eddie Murphy. Brookings Institution: The Future of Children.org. htm) [15] "Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act" (http:/ / www. gov/ programs/ cb/ stats_research/ afcars/ trends. pdf). org/ resourceCenter/ about-children-in-foster-care. pdf). 05-16071" (http:/ / caselaw.findlaw. aihw. pp. . com/ releases/ 2011FogartyHardwick/ 04CertDenied/ prweb5261414. Retrieved 2011-11-01. org/ ). Figure 3-2. 455 US 745 . google. gov/ programs/ cb/ stats_research/ afcars/ tar/ report1/ ar0199. four months after ASFA became law. gov/ programs/ cb/ cwmonitoring/ index. pp. findlaw. [4] "About Foster Children" (http:/ / www. [22] "Order Granting Fees Incurred on Appeal" (http:/ / www. google. . AFCARS Report #1. AdoptUSKids. actor Esai Morales.com. No. 1993). Retrieved 2011-11-01. . adoptuskids. com/ hostednews/ ap/ article/ ALeqM5gq1yhAPK8txoVpGAPujSMUK9wz5gD9HULPCG4). HHS.edu. spiritual leader References [1] Dorsey et Al. Supreme Court Denies Orange County's (California) Request" (http:/ / www.gov (http:/ / www.hhs. . [20] "Santosky v. Current status and evidence base of training for foster and treatment foster parents [2] "Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care ''Demographics of Children in Foster Care''" (http:/ / pewfostercare. com/ us-9th-circuit/ 1083074. 19/12/2007 edition) (AIHW)" (http:/ / www. .gov (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-11-01. Dept. gov. lawlink. Vol. acf. com/ scholar_case?case=3149611456727370759& hl). hhs. gov/ forms/ civilrt_guide. com/ safeEducation/ cps. Retrieved 2011-11-01. Kramer.Child Welfare Monitoring" (http:/ / www. org/ helping-americas-children/ child-welfare/ fostering-connection-success-increasing-adoptions-act-overview. Adoption (Spring. aspx). 2008-10-07. Burlington. 1. kids in foster care" (http:/ / www. html) [11] 1992-93 Santa Clara County Grand Jury. author. org/ statefed/ humserv/ SummaryHR6893. . . [25] "Research Report 7 (1997) .gov. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 1998. actress. nsw. Investigation: Department Of Family And Children's Services. Retrieved 2011-11-01. HHS. Lawlink NSW. Retrieved 2011-11-01. U. htm) [14] As of March.USGPO [8] "Common Myths About Adoption" (http:/ / www.S. . jdsupra.S. there were 520. [24] "Child protection Australia 2005-06 (full publication. au/ publications/ cws/ cpa05-06/ cpa05-06. Trends in Foster Care and Adoption. html). . of Health and Human Services. aspx?fid=6cdf672e-9fc7-4ab4-a5a8-8d1372e3c918). Judith K. No. .gov (http:/ / www. cfm?issue_id=2006-09& disp_art=1221) [13] U. aspx). HHS. acf. Jordan Institute for Families.org. Retrieved 2011-11-01. [12] Children's Bureau Express Online Digest: (http:/ / cbexpress. Caselaw. [6] "Children's Bureau Website . . gov/ programs/ cb/ pubs/ cm04/ figure3_2. [5] "Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care" (http:/ / pewfostercare. wildestcolts. (U. Acf. Final Report. [7] Richard Barth. uscourts.Supreme Court 1982" (http:/ / scholar. 1A. hhs.C: Government Printing Office. Adoption of Children with Special Needs. html). Department of Health and Human Services. hhs. org/ research/ docs/ Demographics0903. cornell. gov. htm). pdf) (PDF). actor Eriq La Salle. motivational speaker. February 17. Adoptuskids.The Aboriginal Child Placement Principle" (http:/ / www. acf. Vermont: Burlington Free Press. html). D. Pewfostercare. htm) It took until September 30.S. dancer[127] Wayne Dyer.000 children in foster care. 666 A. Washington.cornell. for the number to fall to 513. Department of Health and Human Services. childrensdefense. 2005. com/ scholar_case?case=16163171324148079216).DC: Court of Appeals 1995" (http:/ / scholar. [3] "Fewer U. 1993.org. McKenzie. COUNTY OF SAN JOAQUIN. adoptuskids. the Empirical Base for a Century of Action (University of North Carolina. 2001-06-05. edu/ uscode/ 42/ usc_sec_42_00001983----000-. 2002. ncsl.000 (U. gov/ nonissart. htm). 2d 1 . singer and model Victoria Rowell. Child Maltreatment.org. 62-76 [10] Child Abuse is Child Protection is Mental Health Treatment is Drugging Children (http:/ / www. actor Marilyn Monroe. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 2000. au/ lrc. Retrieved 2011-11-01. org/ pss/ 1602402). Institutions vs. [19] "Civil Rights Complaint Guide" (http:/ / www. com/ post/ documentViewer.Foster care • • • • • • • 59 Babe Ruth. . [9] JSTOR (http:/ / www. 2004. . nsf/ pages/ RR7TOC). acf. Foster Homes. Department of Health and Human Services. Childrensdefense. Report of the Surgeon General's Conference on children's mental health: A national action agenda. . google. htm) [17] "ROGERS v.S. hhs. [23] "U. [21] "In re TJ. acf. . [18] "Title 42 United States Code Section 1983" (http:/ / www. . Law. utd. org/ resourceCenter/ specialNeeds.

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Definitions Various groups use different definitions to identify orphans.[5] This contrasts with the older use of half-orphan to describe children that had lost only one parent. a maternal orphan is a child whose mother has died. the young will be called orphans when the mother dies regardless of the condition of the father. One legal definition used in the United States is a minor bereft through "death or disappearance of. However. adults can also be referred to as orphans. and other groups label any child that has lost one parent as an orphan. .[6] Populations Orphans are relatively rare in developed countries. only a child (or the young of an animal) who has lost both parents is called an orphan. In certain animal species where the father typically abandons the mother and young at or prior to birth. Much higher numbers of orphans exist in war-torn nations such as Afghanistan.[4] Orphans by Thomas Kennington In the common use. there are an estimated 1. or "adult orphans". or separation or loss from. and a double orphan has lost both parents.[2] [3] In common usage.5 million orphans in Afghanistan. However. In this approach.[7] An Afghan girl in a Kabul orphanage. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS). both parents". abandonment or desertion by.Orphan 64 Orphan An orphan (from the Greek ὀρφανός[1] ) is a child permanently bereaved of or abandoned by his or her parents. an orphan does not have any surviving parent to care for him or her. a paternal orphan is a child whose father has died. as most children can expect both of their parents to survive their childhood. the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). After years of war.

[9] • Russia: An estimated 650. 60. Other notable orphans include entertainment greats such as Louis Armstrong. and innumerable fictional characters in literature and comics.000 orphaned children in Czechoslovakia. History Wars and great epidemics.4% 107. Judt (2006) estimates there were 9. Orphans are turned out of the orphanages at the age of 16.504 6.000.6% Latin America & Caribbean Total • 2001 figures from 2002 UNICEF/UNAIDS report[8] • China: A survey conducted by the Ministry of Civil Affairs in 2005 showed that China has about 573.000 in Poland and 200. and 10% commit suicide. World War Two. and the results are poor for most of them: 40% are homeless.000 orphans below 18 years old. Marilyn Monroe.[10] Notable orphans Famous orphans include world leaders such as Nelson Mandela and Andrew Jackson.000 to 13. writers such as Edgar Allan Poe. Johann Sebastian Bach. have created many orphans.166 7.964 7. with its massive numbers of deaths and population movements created large numbers of orphans—with estimates for Europe ranging from 1.294 11. and Leo Tolstoy. Babe Ruth and Aaron North.5% 8. Italy and elsewhere.000 in Yugoslavia.[11] . the Muslim prophet Mohammed. Germany.Orphan 65 Continent Number of orphans (1000s) Orphans as percentage of all children Africa 34.000 children are in Russian orphanages. The American orphan Henry Darger portrayed the horrible conditions of his orphanage in his art work.000.000 in the Netherlands 300. 20% turn to crime. plus many more in the Soviet Union.9% Asia 65.such as AIDS.000.

perseus. as well as some less well-known authors of famous orphans like Little Orphan Annie have used orphans as major characters. can be irrelevant to the theme a writer is trying to develop. 0057:entry=o)rfano/ s). It creates characters that are self-contained and introspective and who strive for affection. and removing the parents makes the character's difficulties more severe. and the captive. org/ pub/ GlobalReport/ 2008/ jc1510_2008_global_report_pp11_28_en. contain the idea that helping and defending orphans is a very important and God-pleasing matter. the indigent. com/ dictionary/ orphan) [3] Concise Oxford Dictionary. Roald Dahl. . for example. The Morning Hours: 9) References [1] ὀρφανός (http:/ / www. if one parent-child relationship is important. com/ orphans/ society-half-orphan-asylum." (Hebrew Bible. Among more recent authors. Orphans are common in fairy tales. Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables books. and depriving them of more prosaic lives. I will protect their lives. Exodus 22:22) • "Leave your orphans. A. The Human: 8) • "Therefore. 04. or this one (http:/ / query. James 1:27) • "And they feed. shtml) about The Society for the Relief of Half-Orphan and Destitute Children. treat not the orphan with harshness. the orphan. especially in children's and fantasy literature. removing the other parent prevents complicating the necessary relationship. L. gov/ portal/ site/ uscis/ menuitem. M. on Perseus [2] Merriam-Webster online dictionary (http:/ / www. such as most variants of Cinderella. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. K. Orphans can metaphorically search for self-understanding through attempting to know their roots. Parents can also be allies and sources of aid for children. R. pdf) [6] See. including the Bible and the Quran." (Hebrew Bible. In religious texts Many religious texts. Your widows too can trust in me. Cronin. Eligibility For Immigration Benefits As An Orphan (http:/ / www. html?res=9B00E1D9163AE033A25755C1A9649D94669FD7CF) about the Protestant Half-Orphan Asylum. Examples from classic literature include Charlotte Brontë. Henry George Liddell. Robert Scott. unaids. All these characteristics make orphans attractive characters for authors. furthermore. for the love of Allah. and orphaning the character frees the writer from the necessity to depict such an irrelevant relationship." (The Quran. merriam-webster. One recurring storyline has been the relationship that the orphan can have with an adult from outside his or her immediate family as seen in Lyle Kessler's play Orphans. A Greek-English Lexicon. and J. Tolkien. Mime offers food to the young Siegfried. uscis.Orphan 66 In literature Orphaned characters are extremely common as literary protagonists. Several citations: • "Do not take advantage of a widow or an orphan. 5af9bb95919f35e66f614176543f6d1a/ ?vgnextoid=17f496981298d010VgnVCM10000048f3d6a1RCRD& vgnextchannel=063807b03d92b010VgnVCM10000045f3d6a1RCRD) [5] UNAIDS Global Report 2008 (http:/ / data. J. Parents. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer. Lemony Snicket. 6th edition "a child bereaved of parents" with bereaved meaning (of death etc) deprived of a relation [4] Iii. Jeremiah 49:11) • "Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to look after orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being polluted by the world. olivetreegenealogy. Rowling's Harry Potter series. R." . an orphan he is raising. Illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagner's Siegfried A number of well-known authors have written books featuring orphans. Charles Dickens. by freeing them from familial obligations and controls. J.[12] The lack of parents leaves the characters to pursue more interesting and adventurous lives. tufts.(The Quran." (The New Testament. this 19th century news story (http:/ / www.

2002.Orphan [7] Virginia Haussegger Mahboba's promise ABC TV 7. Thomas Max. pp 463-488 • Terpstra. The Oxford companion to World War II (1995) p 208. Wayne. Julie. Timothy S. S. Janie. "Orphans. A Child for Keeps: The History of Adoption in England. [9] China to insure orphans as preventitive health measure (http:/ / news. htm) [10] " A Summer of Hope for Russian Orphans (http:/ / www. html?pagewanted=all)". "Children on the Brink 2002: A Joint Report on Orphan Estimates and Program Strategies" (http:/ / www. "The orphaned colony: Orphanage.R.30 Report. UNAIDS and UNICEF. com/ 2002/ 07/ 21/ nyregion/ a-summer-of-hope-for-russian-orphans. 1851-1950 (2000) Carp. Vol. Dear and M. July 21. Idiots. The Orphans of Byzantium: Child Welfare in the Christian Empire (2009) • Safley. xinhuanet. Vol. http:/ / www. net. pdf). gov/ pop_health/ aids/ Publications/ docs/ childrenbrink. [11] For a high estimate see I." Indian Economic and Social History Review. A Second Home: Orphan Asylums and Poor Families in America (1997) Herman." Histoire Sociale: Social History. Julie. 18 Issue 35. Nicholas. Satadru. "The Unwanted Child: The Fate of Foundlings. Like Our Very Own: Adoption and the Changing Culture of Motherhood. Adoption in America: Historical Perspectives (2003) Hacsi. nytimes. 1880-1939 (2006) • Miller. child and authority in British India. Children of the Laboring Poor: Expectation and Experience Among the Orphans of Early Modem Augsburg (2006) • Sen. Ellen. Orphans and Juvenile Criminals in Early Modern Germany (2009) • Keating. htm (last accessed 15 July 2009) [8] TvT Associates/The Synergy Project (July 2002). The Writer's Guide to Fantasy Literature: From Dragon's Lair to Hero's Quest. usaid. "Kinship by Design: A History of Adoption in the Modern United States (2008) ISBN 9780226327600 • Kleinberg. Postwar: a history of Europe since 1945 (2006) p. au/ 7. Foot. Oct-Dec 2007. com/ english/ 2009-07/ 21/ content_11745889. ed. abc. E. John. 44 Issue 4.B. Abandoned: Foundlings in Nineteenth-Century New York City (2007) 67 . pp 133–145 • Harrington. and Historians: Recent Approaches to the History of Child Welfare in Canada. eds. Widows And Orphans First: The Family Economy And Social Welfare Policy. Timothy A. J. . p 16.D. Lunatics. for lower Tony Judt. 30/ content/ 2009/ s2615472. May 1985. Abandoned Children of the Italian Renaissance: Orphan Care in Florence and Bologna (2005) United States • • • • Berebitsky. 21 [12] Philip Martin. Joel F. 1918-45 (2009) • Miller. The New York Times. ISBN 0-87116-195-8 Bibliography • Bullen. 2009.C.

html). Retrieved 2006-10-08.4-million Aids-orphans to get 'adult' rights" (http:/ / www. [3] AIDS Orphan's Preventable Death Challenges Those Left Behind (http:/ / www. it is estimated that over 20 million children will be orphaned by AIDS.[4] Because AIDS affects mainly those who are sexually active. June 01. org/ Publications/ IRC-pub05/ orphrept_en. ci. the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). . The resulting AIDS orphans frequently depend on the state for care and financial support.8599.[6] In 2005 the highest number of AIDS orphans as a percentage of all orphans was in Zimbabwe.[5] References [1] UNAIDS. one study estimated that 80% of all AIDS orphans still have one living parent. unaids. childrencount. org/ about. AIDS-related deaths are often people who are their family's primary wage earners. org/ aidsorphans. digitaljournal. avert.na) (Namibian Wiki on Children) . 2001 [4] Project Aids Orphan (http:/ / www. "South Africa's 3. Adriana (04 April 2009). [6] children count (http:/ / www. In statistics from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).[1] As a result of this definition.thebody. org. pdf) PDF [2] Stuijt. za/ content.com/content/art1111.128736. . projectaidsorphan.00. by Tony Karon.gov. com/ article/ 270409). asp?TopLinkID=6& PageID=18) Government of South Africa External links • AIDS Orphan Resources Around the Globe (http://www. htm). time.namchild. Avert.AIDS orphan 68 AIDS orphan An AIDS orphan is a child who became an orphan because one or both parents died from AIDS.html) • !Nam Child Wiki (http://www.org (http:/ / data. com/ time/ world/ article/ 0. regardless of whether the father is still alive.[5] Aids orphans in Malawi The highest number of orphans due to AIDS alive in 2007 was in South Africa[5] (although the definition of AIDS orphan in South African statistics includes children up to the age of 18 who have lost either biological parent). php) [5] "AIDS orphans" (http:/ / www.[3] By the year 2010. the term is used for a child whose mother has died due to AIDS before the child's 15th birthday. particularly in Africa.000 new AIDS orphans a year.[2] There are 70.

physical contact.[5] [6] In the worst cases.[7] [8] [9] However.[10] One explanation for this is the prevalence of permanent temporary foster care. orphanages are slowly being phased out in many countries in favour of direct support to vulnerable children. babies may not receive enough eye contact.[1] Other residential institutions for children can be called group home. children's home. are legally responsible for supporting children. or substance abuse problems or child soldiers undergoing decommissioning. Russia During the 20th century. mental. orphanages are generally more expensive.Orphanage 69 Orphanage An orphanage is a residential institution devoted to the care of orphans – children whose parents are deceased or otherwise unable or unwilling to care for them. rehabilitation center or youth treatment center. but in the absence of these or other relatives willing to care for the children. Placement in the home of a relative maintains and usually improves the child's connection to family members. However some orphanages. This is the name for a long string of short stays with different foster care families. they become a ward of the state..[10] Permanent temporary foster care is highly disruptive to the child and prevents the child from developing a sense of security or belonging. especially large orphanages. intellectual. group homes may be used for short-term placements. orphanages in developing countries are rarely run by the state[1] [2] Former Berlin Pankow orphanage In some places. Compared to foster care. Few large international charities continue to fund them. social or cognitive development. and better than care in the homes of strangers. Comparison to alternatives St.[10] Whereas orphanages are intended to be reasonably permanent placements. and physical outcomes as care by relatives. the biological family can also be dangerous to a child. In the some cases. especially in developing countries will prey on vulnerable families at risk of breakdown and actively recruit children. emotional. were the worst possible care option for children. Nicholas Orphanage in Novosibirsk. however they are still commonly founded by smaller charities and religious groups.g. and sometimes grandparents. and they frequently specialize in a particular population with psychiatric or behavioral problems. and orphanages are one way of providing for their care and housing. researchers from Duke University have shown that institutional care in America in the 20th century produced the same health. and stimulation to promote proper physical. foster care or adoption. e.[3] [4] In large institutions. eating disorders. They may be residential treatment centers. a group home for children and teens with autism. Parents.[10] [11] . conventional wisdom held that orphanages. orphanages can be dangerous and unregulated places where children are subject to abuse and neglect.

thanks to improved social security such as the Social Security Act which allowed Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) to be passed. Often circumstances will have changed since the separation. as it is no longer common for birth parents in Western countries to give up their children. Many orphanages practiced some form of "binding-out" in which children. the United States and other countries have moved to de-institutionalize the care of vulnerable children—that is. Jewish law. Plato (Laws. Orphanages are no longer common in the European community. during the Middle Ages. the exact opposite of what the donor is expecting. as soon as they were old enough.[16] Alternatively the children whose upkeep is being funded by foreigners may be sent to work.[13] History The first orphanages. It is true that some orphanages are funded on a per child basis and there can be attempts made to encourage children from poor families to enter the orphanage which will provide food. founded in 1740 by George Whitefield. 927) says: "Orphans should be placed under the care of public guardians. This marked a change in social attitudes. these can include orphanages created for the day[15] or orphanages as a front to get foreigners to pay school fees of orphanage director's extended families. This involves closing down orphanages and other institutions for children and developing replacement services. Men should have a fear of the loneliness of orphans and of the souls of their departed parents. The first option for a child is to see if they can be reunited with their biological or extended family. the largest remaining orphanage is the Bethesda Orphanage.Orphanage Deinstitutionalisation Increasingly there is a move to Deinstitutionalise child care systems. A man should love the unfortunate orphan of whom he is guardian as if he were his own child. not to school. This would ensure their support and their learning an occupation. It is important to understand the reasons for child abandonment then set up targeted alternative services to support vulnerable families at risk of separation[12] such as mother and baby units and day care centres. If that is not possible domestic adoption or long term fostering are considered.[18] [19] [20] In Cambodia some are bought from their parents for very little and passed on to westerners who pay a large fee so they can adopt them. Disabled children may need small family type homes where their needs can be catered for. Moreover. clothing and an education but often lack the individual love required for full cognitive development. were founded in the 1st century amid various alternative means of orphan support. He should be as careful and as diligent in the management of the orphan's property as of his own or even more careful still.[21] . prescribed care for the widow and the orphan. the need to operate large orphanages has decreased.[17] The worst even sell children. and as far fewer people die of diseases or violence while their children are still young. and Athenian law supported all orphans of those killed in military service until the age of eighteen. The deinstitutionalisation programme sped up in the 1950s. Such practices are assumed to be quite rare in the modern Western world. In the United States. Older children may be supported to independence. after a series of scandals involving the coercion of birth parents and abuse of orphans (notably at Georgia Tann's Tennessee Children's Home Society)."[14] The care of orphans was referred to bishops and. This 70 . to monasteries. Major charities are increasingly focusing their efforts on the re-integration of orphans in order to keep them with their parents or extended family and communities. This lack of social security and failure to develop alternative ways to support vulnerable families is the key reason that orphanages remain in many other countries. for instance. and Romania in particular has struggled to reduce the visibility of its children's institutions to meet conditions of its entry into the European Union. close down orphanages in favor of foster care and accelerated adoption. In many works of fiction (notably Oliver Twist and Annie). the administrators of orphanages are depicted as cruel monsters. Orphanage Scams Visitors to developing countries can be taken in by orphanage scams. called "orphanotrophia". were given as apprentices to households.

or else they were left to fend for themselves on the street. Bulgaria adopted a national strategic plan for the period 2008–2018 to improve the living standards of the country's children. London Rev Andrew Reed 1822 Female Orphan Asylum Brighton Francois de Rosaz 1827 Infant Orphan Asylum Wanstead Rev Andrew Reed 1829 Sailor Orphan Girls School London 1836 Ashley Down orphanage Bristol George Müller 1844 Asylum for Fatherless Children Purley Rev Andrew Reed 1854 Wolverhampton Orphan Asylum Goldthorn Hill.[25] Bosnia and Herzegovina SOS Children's Villages giving support to 240 orphaned children. Wolverhampton John Lees . In November 2007.Orphanage 71 also happens in China[22] . each one having only 12-40 children residing there. Bulgaria is working hard to get all institutions closed within the next few years and find alternative ways to take care of the children. Europe The orphanages and institutions remaining in Europe tend to be state funded.[30] United Kingdom During the Victorian Era. correspondingly. with the rest of the children placed in orphanages in temporary periods when the family is in crisis. and orphanages were set up to reduce infant mortality.[27] [28] There are living 7000[29] children in Bulgarian orphanages wrongly classified as orphaned. A smaller number of children have also been able to be relocated into foster families". Such places as were available could only be obtained by procuring votes for admission. Such places were often so full of children that "killing nurses" often administered Godfrey's Cordial. Known orphanages are: Founded in Name Location Founder 1795 Bristol Asylum for Poor Orphan Girls (Blue Maids' Orphanage) nr Stokes Croft turnpike.[26] Bulgaria The Bulgarian government has giving interest to strength the children's rights. to soothe colic in babies.[31] Many orphaned children were placed in either prisons or the workhouse. Bristol 1800 St Elizabeth's Orphanage of Mercy Eastcombe. Glos 1813 London Asylum for Orphans Hackney. In Nepal orphanages can be used as a way to remove a child from their parents before placing them for adoption overseas which is equally lucrative to the owners who will receive a number or official and unofficial payments and 'donations'[23] [24] . as there were so few places in orphanages. Support is given to poor families and work during daytime. a special concoction of opium and treacle. Only 10% of them are orphans. placing them out of reach of poor families. Albania There are approximately 10 small orphanages in Albania. child abandonment was rampant. day centers have started up.

London 1861 The Sailors' Orphan Girls' School & Home Hampstead. Hammersmith. Kentish Town. Whitechapel. Regent's Park. Marylebone. London 1861 British Orphan Asylum Clapham. Scotland Rev Charles Jupp . London 1861 Female Orphan Asylum Westminster Road. London 1861 Female Orphan Home Charlotte Row.Orphanage 72 1856 Wiltshire Reformatory Warminster 1860 Major Street Ragged Schools Liverpool Canon Thomas Major Lester 1861 St. London 1861 Merchant Seamen's Orphan Asylum Bromley St Leonard. St Peter Walworth. Middlemore 1872 St Theresa Roman Catholic Orphanage for Girls Plymouth 1873 Dr Thomas Barnado Maria Rye Charles Spurgeon Rev Thomas Bowman Stephenson James William Condell Fegan Ryelands Road Leominster 1874 Cottage Homes for Children West Derby Mrs Nassau Senior 1875 Aberlour Orphanage Aberlour. Worcs 1869 Wesleyan Methodist National Children's Homes various 1869 London Orphan Asylum Watford 1870 Fegans Homes London 1870 Manchester and Salford Boys' and Girls' Refuge Manchester 1871 Wigmore West Bromwich and Walsall WJ Gilpin 1872 Middlemore Home Edgbaston Dr John T. London 1861 Orphan Working School Haverstock Hill. London 1861 The Orphanage Asylum Christchurch. London 1861 Orphanage Eagle House. London 1869 Stockwell Orphanage London 1869 New Orphan Asylum Upper Henwick. London 1862 Swansea Orphan Home for Girls Swansea 1865 The Boys' Home Regent's Park London 1866 Dr Barnado's various 1866 National Industrial Home for Crippled Boys London 1867 Peckham Home for Little Girls London 1868 The Boys' Refuge Bisley 1868 Royal Albert Orphanage Worcester 1868 Worcester Orphan Asylum Worcester 1869 Ely Deaconesses Orphanage Bedford Rev TB Stevenson 1869 Orphanage and Almshouses Erdington Josiah Mason 1869 The Neglected Children of Exeter Exeter 1869 Alexandra Orphanage for Infants Hornsey Rise. Philip Neri's orphanage for boys Birmingham Oratorians 1861 Adult Orphan Institution St Andrew's Place. Bow. London 1861 London Orphan Asylum Hackney. London 1861 Jews' Orphan Asylum Goodmans Fields.

which houses approximately 1300 orphaned children. instead of re-placing the child / children. Lambeth. Social Workers' opportunities have increased by get more foster homes established and aggressive family members can now be forced away from home. Orphaned children are now protected by social services.[37] . Kensington Estonia As of 2009. Lithuania has the highest number of orphaned children in Northern-Europe. Birmingham 1918 Painswick Orphanage Painswick unknown Clio Boys' Home Liverpool unknown St Philip's Orphanage. London Road. (RC Institution for Poor Orphan Children) Brompton. London Edward de Montjoie Rudolf 1881 Catholic Childrens Protection Society Liverpool 1881 Dorset County Boys Home Milborne St Andrew 1881 Brixton Orphanage Brixton Road. there are 35 orphanages. Child flow to orphanages has been stopped and they are now protected by social services. Southwark. London 1881 Orphans' Home South Street. Fordyce 1881 The Waifs and Strays' Society East Dulwich. London 1881 Orphanage Infirmary West Square. 41 percent of the institutions have each more than 60 children.[35] [36] Poland Children's rights enjoys a relatively strong protection in Poland.[34] Lithuania In Lithuania there are 105 institutions. London 1882 St Michael's Home for Friendless Girls Salisbury 1890 St Saviour's Home Shrewsbury 1890 Orphanage of Pity Warminster 1890 Wolverhampton Union Cottage homes Wolverhampton 1892 Calthorpe Home For Girls Handsworth.[32] [33] Hungary A comprehensive national strategy for strengthening the rights of children adopted by Parliament in 2007 and will run until 2032. London Road. London 1880 Birmingham Working Boy's Home (for boys over the age of 13) Birmingham Major Alfred V. Norwood. Southwark.Orphanage 73 1877 All Saints Boys' Orphanage Lewisham. London 1881 Jews Hospital & Orphan Asylum Knights Hill Road. Violation of children's rights leads to court.

356 6. 2008 71047 24. 2004 84445 37.092 10.Orphanage 74 Republic of Moldova More than 8800 children expected to grow up at any kind of state institution.[39] According to Baroness Emma Nicholson. 1990 47. 2005 83059 32. 2006 78766 28.786 13. but by 2020 Romanian institutions should be a thing of the past with family care services will replacing the old system. world class.569 4.597 5. 2003 86379 43.[38] Romania The Romanian child welfare system is in the process of revising itself and has reduced the flow of infants into orphanages. 2009 68858 24. 2001 78000 47.979 15.335 7. 2011 50000 10. 2010 62000 19. 1997 51468 39.833 orphaned children in 256 large institutions in Romania. . in some counties Romania now has "a completely new.[42] # year Total children in care of the state. but only 3 percent of them are orphans.[41] As of 2011. 1998 55641 38. 2002 87867 49. 1999 57087 33. child health development policy.965 9.660 11.599 14.821 12.405 2. there are 10.[40] Romania still has the highest number of orphaned children in Europe. 2000 83907 53. 1994 52.227 16. state of the art." But several Dickensian orphanages remain in Romania.000 17. All children in need will be protected by social services by 2020. 2007 73793 26.986 3.833 [43] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] The reason of the large change of children protected by the state in 2000 comparing with 1999 is that many children's hospital and residential schools for small children where redesigned in to orphanages in year 2000. Number of children in orphanages 1.171 8.

in the Jerusalem Association Children's Home (JACH).000 are living in orphanages. 75 . and the creation of an independent institution for the protection of child rights.000 orphans and vulnerable children. There appears to be general recognition by MOLSA and the NGOs with which Pact is working that such care is.000 orphans found the following number in institutional care: 64 in registered institutions and 164 in unregistered institutions. because there is a social service law which requires that the children reside in a family home.org details these reforms.[61] The Government of Rwanda are working with Hope and Homes for Children to close the first institution and develop a model for community based childcare which can be used across the country and ultimately Africa[62] Tanzania "Currently." / "Attitudes regarding the institutional care of children have shifted dramatically in recent years in Ethiopia.[57] Slovakia The Committee gave some recommendations. The website www. Kenya A 1999 survey of 35. a last resort.Orphanage Serbia There are many state orphanages "where several thousand children are kept and which are still part of an outdated child care system".Of these at least four have since been closed. None of them are currently living in an orphanage.[60] Rwanda Out of 400. such as proposals for the adoption of a new "national 14" action plan for children for at least the next five years.000 orphans. often from Western nations.[58] Sweden In Sweden there are 5.000 children in the care of the state. only 160 children remain of the 785 who were in JACH's three orphanages. 5."[59] Ghana A 2007 survey sponsored by OrphanAid Africa and carried out by the Department of Social Welfare came up with the figure of 4.800 children in institutional care in 148 orphanages. and deinstitutionalization through family reunification and independent living are being emphasized."[63] A world bank document on Tanzania showed it was six times more expensive to institutionalise a child there than to help the family become functional and support the child themselves. Sub Saharan Africa Whilst some African orphanages are state funded the majority (especially in Sub Saharan Africa) appear to be funded by donors.ovcghana. there are 52 orphanages in Tanzania caring for about 3. at best. Ethiopia "For example. and that serious problems arise with the social reintegration of children who grow up in institutions. The conditions for them are bad because the government doesn't paid rapidly attention to improve the living standards for disabled children in Serbia's orphanages and medical institutions.

000[68] • Orphan school attendance ratio.[64] South Africa Since 2000. estimate 340. 2005.000. Between 1994 and 1998. South Africa does not licence orphanages any more but they continue to be set up unregulated and potentially more harmful.[66] [66] Ninety-six thousand orphans in Togo attend school. With the spread of HIV/AIDS. and in five years. 2005.000[68] • Children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes. 2005. Out of this total number.000 of them orphaned by AIDS. there were an estimated 280. 1999–2005 74.095 children in Nepal[70] "Orphanages have turned into a Nepalese industry there is rampant abuse and a great need for intervention. http://www.8 million are orphaned by HIV/AIDS. a rapid assessment of orphans and vulnerable children conducted in 2004 with UNICEF support revealed that there were about seven millions orphans in 2003 and that 800. Zambia A 1996 national survey of orphans revealed no evidence of orphanage care. 88. http://mmorphanage. there is no room for these children. in the country. or orphanages. Theoretically the policy supports community based family homes but this is not always the case. and the government operates eight of its own. estimate 25.[73] 76 . about 1. (Unfortunately."[71] [72] Many do not require adequate checks of their volunteers leaving children open to abuse.za. the number is expected to reach 900. 1999–2005 71. Statistics on the total number of children in orphanages nationwide are unavailable.000[68] Senegal • Children (0–17 years) orphaned by AIDS. One example is the homes operated by Thokomala.Orphanage Nigeria In Nigeria.org. estimate 560. estimate 31.[66] Sierra Leone[67] • Children (0–17 years) orphaned by AIDS.000. the number of orphans is expected to increase rapidly in the coming years to 8.thokomala.)[65] Togo In Togo.000 more orphans were added during that same year.000[69] • Orphan school attendance ratio.2 million by 2010.000[69] SAARC Countries Nepal There are at least 602 child care homes housing 15. the number of orphans in Zimbabwe more than doubled from 200.000 to 543. The breakdown of care was as follows: 38% grandparents 55% extended family 1% older orphan 6% non-relative Recently a group of students started a fundraising website for an orphanage in Zambia. but caregivers say their facilities were becoming unmanageably overwhelmed almost on a daily basis. 2005.000[69] • Children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes.000 orphans under 18 years of age in 2005.org[60] Zimbabwe There are 38 privately run children's charity homes.

from 700 to over 1. Almost half of these come from families who have at least one parent."[78] Cambodia There are numerous NGOs focusing their efforts on assisting Cambodia's orphans: one group.O. Alauddin and Tahia Maskan.000 children in public orphanages throughout the country and untold numbers at private institutions.400 -Sixty-five Welfare and Rehabilitation Programmes for Children with Disability The private welfare institutions are mostly known as orphanages and madrassahs.I.E. it helps support orphans and other poor and homeless people." (The following numbers mention capacity only. shelter. not actual numbers of orphans at present. under the Ministry of Social Welfare. but unknown: "There are no accurate figures available on how many orphans there are in Cambodia. basic education. the number of children enrolled has increased almost 80 percent since last January.500 -State institutions 250 -babies in three available "baby homes" 400 -Destitute Children's Rehabilitation Centre 100 -Vocational Training Centre for Orphans and Destitute Children 1. Retrieved 6 The Far East Taiwan The number of orphanages and orphans drastically dropped from 15 institutions and 2."[74] The non-governmental organisation Mahboba's promise assists orphans in contemporary Afghanistan. One example follows: 400 – Approximately – Nawab Sir Salimullah Muslim Orphanage[76] Maldives Orphans. The authorities of most of these orphanages put more emphasis on religion and religious studies.Orphanage 77 Afghanistan "At Kabul's two main orphanages. The Department of Social Services. South Korea "There are now 17. "World Orphans" constructed 47 orphanages housing over 1500 children in a three year period. 2010. but who can't support their children." One charity named C.200 children. health services and other basic opportunities for hapless children.[79] The total number of orphans is much higher. is run by expats based in the capital city of Phnom Penh. .[75] Bangladesh "There are no statistics regarding the actual number of children in welfare institutions in Bangladesh. has a major programme named Child Welfare and Child Development in order to provide access to food.216 persons in 1971 to 9 institutions and 638 persons by the end of 2001. Children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes.) 9.C.H. estimate 51 "Minivan News" April 2007. [77] .

There are only three orphanages in the whole country providing places for a total of 1. only a small proportion of whom are in any form of acknowledged state care. "A Child by Any Other Name" by Réhab El-Bakry.S. orphanage and there are over 120 orphans living in the facility. and occasional contests are held each year by the organization for the benefit of orphans and widows sponsored by the organization. leaving crucial questions about the country's child welfare system unanswered and suggesting that the real scope of the catastrophe that has befallen China's unwanted children may be far larger than the evidence in this report documents. Since then almost 7. Even if it were accurate." There are also 192 children at The Awlady. Menoufiya and Qalyubiya. while the number of abandoned children shows no sign of slowing.Orphanage China "Currently there are 50. however. Graduation ceremonies. the whereabouts of the great majority of China's orphans would still be a complete mystery.000 orphaned children in Laos. The above information was taken from the following articles: "Other families" by Amany Abdel-Moneim. Orphanage Project in Egypt—www. Laos "It is stated that there are 20." Chinese official records fail to account for most of the country's abandoned infants and children." "We [Dar Al-Iwaa] provide free education and accommodation for over 200 girls and boys.000 of these children.org Sudan There is still at least one orphanage in Sudan although efforts have been made to close it[81] Bahrain The "Royal Charity Organization" [82] is a Bahraini governmental charity organization founded in 2001 by King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah to sponsor all helpless Bahraini orphans and widows. The most recent figure provided by the government for the country's orphan population. seems implausibly low for a country with a total population of 1. By Anneli Dahlbom One of the largest orphanages in Laos is in the town of Phonsavan.littlestlamb. Note: There are about 185 orphanages in Egypt. 30 at Sayeda Zeinab orphanage." No Title. 100. Egypt Today (11/2001).O. a government association affiliated with the Ministry of Social Affairs.2 billion. It houses about 44 children. was established in 1992.[80] The Middle East and North Africa Egypt "The [Mosques of Charity] orphanage houses about 120 children in Giza.000 Bahraini families are granted monthly payments. 78 .000. "Ramadan brings charity to Egypt's orphans". Shanghai Star (12/13/2001)." "Dar Al-Mu'assassa Al-Iwaa'iya (Shelter Association). It is an S.000 children in Chinese orphanages. annual school bags. Al-Ahram Weekly (5/1999).000 of China's orphans are now in any form of institutional care. various social and educational activities. and a number of university scholarships." "Official figures show that fewer than 20. and 300 at My Children Orphanage.

714 orphans. UNICEF estimates that 95% of these children are social orphans. constructed in the 1770s) they have at least one living parent who has given them up to the state. meaning that The Moscow Orphanage (founded in 1763. orphanages are better known as the Children Homes (Russian: Детскиe домa)." A 1999 study by UNICEF "recommended the rebuilding of national capacity for the rehabilitation of orphans. The quality of services has also declined.980 to 1. "While the number of state homes for orphans in the whole of Iraq was 25 in 1990 (serving 1. as many as one-third reside in institutions. After reaching school age." Palestinian Territory "In 1999. the number of children living in orphanages witnessed a considerable drop as compared to 1998.Orphanage Iraq UNICEF maintains the same number at present.000 children classified as being 'without parental care' (most of them live with other relatives and fosters). [83][84] [85] [86] There are many web pages for Russian orphanages.000 orphans live in Russia.190 children). Russia Over 700. both the number of homes and the number of beneficiaries has declined." Former Soviet Union In the post-Soviet countries. but very few of them are in English."[89] Belarus Approximate total – 1. "Of a total of more than 600."[88] Azerbaijan "Many children are abandoned due to extreme poverty and harsh living conditions. Family members or neighbors may raise some of these children but the majority live in crowded orphanages until the age of fifteen when they are sent into the community to make a living for themselves. increasing at the rate of 113." The new project "will benefit all the 1.773 (1993 statistics for "all types of orphanages") Kyrgyzstan Partial information: 85 – Ivanovka Orphanage[90] 79 . all children enroll into internat-schools (Russian: Школа-интернат) (see Boarding school). such as St Nicholas Orphanage [87] in Siberia or the Alapaevsk orphanage in the Urals. The number dropped from 1. This is due to the policy of child re-integration in their household adopted by the Ministry of Social Affairs.190 children placed in orphanages.000 per year.

the number of orphans has skyrocketed. but Chambre de L'Enfance Necessiteusse Ha_tienne (CENH) indicated that it has received requests for assistance from nearly 200 orphanages from around the country for more than 200. Fiji Orphans. "Convention on the Rights of the Child" [96] (PDF). UNICEF estimated there were 380. but instead shelters for vulnerable children. Although not all are orphans.000 children in the West. However. Official numbers are hard to find due to the general state of chaos in the country. according to the CIA World Factbook.Orphanage Tajikistan "No one can be sure how many lone children are there in the republic. estimate 25. They estimate receiving ten requests per week for assistance from additional orphanages and children's homes. Southeast and Grand Anse. but some of these are repeat requests. About 9.000 orphans in Haiti. 2005. which has a population of just over 9 million.000 children." Catholic Relief Services provides assistance to 120 orphanages with 9. South.000 "Unicef Fiji Statistics" [98]. often housing children whose parent(s) are poor as well as those who are abandoned.000[92] Other information: • • • • thousands – Zaporozhzhya region[93] 150 – Kiev State Baby Orphanage[94] 30 – Beregena Orphanage 120 – Dom Invalid Orphanage[95] Uzbekistan Partial Information: 80 – Takhtakupar Orphanage Oceania Indonesia No verifiable information for the number of children actually in orphanages. many are vulnerable or originate in vulnerable families that "hoped to increase their children's opportunities by sending them to orphanages.000. Neither the number of children or the number of institutions is officially known."[91] Ukraine 103. neglected or abused by family guardians.000 are in internats and in orphanages. The number of orphaned and abandoned children is approximately 91. North America & Caribbean Haiti Haitians and expatriate childcare professionals are careful to make it clear that Haitian orphanages and children's homes are not orphanages in the North American sense. Retrieved 2007-11-12. but these include only orphanages that meet their criteria. Archived from the original [97] on 2007-11-29."[99] In 2007. since the January 2010 earthquake.[100] 80 . and the living conditions for orphans have seriously deteriorated. children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes.

located in Charleston.. with many organizations preferring smaller "group home" sizes. About one quarter are placed with relatives.Orphanage 81 Mexico ". now called the Carolina Youth Development Center. founded in 1740. and multiple retrospective studies indicate that the former residents have higher than average educational outcomes and generally positive memories. . in the mountains of Crossnore.at least 10. Orphanages were relatively common until the end of the 20th century. • SOS Children's Villages is the world's largest non-governmental.000 children in orphanages. many private charities existed to take care of destitute orphans.000 Mexican children live in orphanages and more live in unregistered charity homes" • Mexican Orphanages [101] • Mazatlan Mexico Orphanage [102] • Casa Hogar Jeruel: Orphanage in Chihuahua City. or other types of institutional care. foster care. in Huanaco Significant charities that help orphans Prior to the establishment of state care for orphans in First World countries. over time other charities have found other ways to care for children. including mental health care. • Established in 1790. slightly more than half of children in need of care are placed in foster care with strangers. Approximately one sixth are placed in orphanages. the Charleston Orphan House. North Carolina[10] Central and South America Guatemala ".[10] In the State of New York."[106] Peru Casa Hoger Lamedas Pampa. was the first public orphanage in the United States.currently there are about 20.[105] • Happy Hills Farm in Texas[10] • The Crossnore School. group homes.[10] Only 3% of former residents feel hostile towards the orphanages they were placed in. Georgia.. in Savannah. non-denominational child welfare organization that still believes in building orphanages for children. it is older than the country itself and was a site frequently visited by many of the country’s founding fathers.. SC. In fact. Benjamin Franklin was an early investor and Bethesda was constituted by a grant from King George with the encouragement of Charles and John Wesley. Most organizations provide a range of services to families in crisis.[104] Partial information: • Bethesda Home for Boys. In a Colombian orphanage.. is the oldest child caring institution in the country. a nurse takes care of three children. and institutional placements. • Hope and Homes for Children are working with Governments in many countries to deinstitutionalise their child care systems. Mexico [103] United States The size of orphanages has declined over time.

12 June 2011. ca/ Where-we-help/ Europe/ Bosnia-and-Herzegovina/ Pages/ default. nepalitimes. oneheart-bg. uk/ news/ world-south-asia-15066220). org/ gpage.com. html). [9] 7thSpace (10 August 2011). pdf [7] "Online library : Save the Children UK" (http:/ / www. sagepub. Interrupts Cambodian Adoptions" (http:/ / www. Baliadvertiser. pdf [29] http:/ / www.biz. The Spectator. Retrieved 17 October 2011. manskligarattigheter. [2] Little Princes. Retrieved 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. com/ article/ SB10001424052748703510304574626080835477074. humanrights.Com. Savethechildren. co. gov. nytimes. [22] http:/ / news. . html [26] http:/ / www. 8 October 2011. htm). Retrieved 17 October 2011. org.uk. References [1] "How to fix orphanages" (http:/ / www. Prashant (15 June 2010). org. Retrieved 17 October 2011.sagepub. "Orphanage scam grows" (http:/ / www. Mid-day. Retrieved 17 October 2011. uk/ en/ 54_9678. The Guardian (UK). 7thspace. uk/ society/ 2008/ oct/ 27/ tirana-orphanage-child-abuse-trial?INTCMP=SRCH). unicef. 5 September 2011. "BBC News – Nepal comes to terms with foreign adoptions tragedy" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 17 October 2011. The Wall Street Journal. se/ php/ rapporter/ documents/ Europa%20och%20Centralasien/ Bulgarien%2C%20MR-rapport%202010. Volume XI" (http:/ / www. htm). [20] "News in Nepal: Fast. com/ news/ 2010/ jun/ 150610-Yerwada-Orphanage-Baby-Scam-Pune.org.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011. • ACTUP! is a student run charity set up in aid of an orphanage in the Vinh province. . guardian. . Retrieved 17 October 2011.org.uk. Full & Factual" (http:/ / www. wsj. html). thtml). . baliadvertiser.org. [11] (http:/ / news. abstract). org. . savethechildren. Nepali Times. unicef. Seth (5 November 2001). (14 January 2010). bg/ public/ images/ tinybrowser/ upload/ PPT%20BEIP%20Group%20for%20website. . "The Best Thing About Orphanages" (http:/ / online. Retrieved 17 October 2011. com/ portal/ index. [21] Mydans. . The New York Times (Cambodia). [15] "The Case of the Vanishing Orphanage | Good Intentions Are Not Enough" (http:/ / goodintents. se/ php/ rapporter/ documents/ Europa%20och%20Centralasien/ Bulgarien%2C%20MR-rapport%202010. aspx [27] http:/ / www.org. eu/ en/ articles/ 508-committee-of-ministers-recommendation-on-deinstitutionalization-of-children-with-disabilities). htm). "South Africa: Homes close down for violating human rights" (http:/ / 7thspace. "Cashing it big on children" (http:/ / www. html39. sky. Retrieved 17 October 2011. gov. Richard B. BBC. org/ cathen/ 11322b. UK. [18] Nawgrahe. spectator. . htm). Savethechildren. biz/ articles/ greenspeak/ 2010/ orphanage. html). Goodintents. . Oneheart-bg. mid-day. com/ home/ video/ 16088779 [23] Thomas Bell. stm). [10] McKenzie. co. [5] "Young Children in Institutional Care at Risk of Harm" (http:/ / tva. [13] http:/ / www. . Retrieved 17 October 2011.uk. The group raises money through theatrical performances and movie screenings. pdf [14] "The Catholic Encyclopedia. com/ issue/ 2011/ 09/ 30/ Nation/ 18609). . htm). savethechildren. Conor Grennan [3] "Online library : Save the Children UK" (http:/ / www. e-include. Retrieved 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.com.org. uk/ 2/ hi/ africa/ 7974232. . Savethechildren.org. Thirdworldorphans. Myrepublica. pdf [28] http:/ / www. [6] http:/ / www. . uk/ essays/ all/ 7289558/ how-to-fix-orphanages. . com/ photo. newadvent. uk/ en/ 54_9678. org/ ). Retrieved 17 October 2011. Thomas (28 September 2011). com/ content/ 7/ 1/ 34. myrepublica. . Retrieved 17 October 2011. Tva. . . accessed 3 September 2009 [12] "Inclusion Europe | Committee of Ministers: Recommendation on Deinstitutionalization of Children with Disabilities" (http:/ / www. . bbc. [4] "Online library : Save the Children UK" (http:/ / www. [24] Bell. humanrights. com/ 2001/ 11/ 05/ world/ us-interrupts-cambodian-adoptions. php?action=news_details& news_id=32247).eu. doc [17] "Bali’S Orphanage Scam" (http:/ / www. org/ docs/ Family%20or%20the%20institution. html). 1 January 2006. Retrieved 17 October 2011. [25] http:/ / www. html). bbc. co.S. co. 82 . gov. "Three British evangelicals cast blame on each other in trials over child abuse at Albanian orphanage | Society" (http:/ / www. org/ ceecis/ Planning_for_Deinstitutionalization_and_Reordering_Child_care_Services_ENG. "U.Orphanage • Dr Barnardo's Homes (now simply Barnardo's) • The Miracle Foundation is concerned with helping orphans in India. [19] "Orphanage Scams" (http:/ / thirdworldorphans. [16] http:/ / www. adoptionworx. savethechildren. soschildrensvillages. pdf [30] "One Heart Bulgaria – Non-profit Humanitarian Aid Organization" (http:/ / www. org/ orphanages/ vanishing-ophanage). Vietnam. E-include. [8] Paul Lewis in Tirana (27 October 2008). com/ headlines/ 391272/ south_africa_homes_close_down_for_violating_human_rights. se/ dynamaster/ file_archive/ 080325/ 51cacb4e4318d3f2d78c62ef72787efe/ Bulgarien. uk/ en/ 54_9173. . crin.

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[65] (http:/ / report. org/ infobycountry/ sierraleone_statistics. unicef. ro/ Files/ ianuarie2003ro_20073232438465. . crin. org/ afr/ hd/ wps/ African_Orphans. org/ media/ media_27420. usaid. html) [60] "Social Protection and Risk Management – Social Safety Nets" (http:/ / www. org/ report.30 Report. docx [68] "Unicef Sierra Leona Statistics" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 17 October 2011. se/ dynamaster/ file_archive/ 080314/ 74c53f5440e23b5fa2b948c7b40eb5ca/ Estland. myrepublica. [75] Virginia Haussegger Mahboba's promise ABC TV 7. worldbank. htm The new Romanian orphans [41] http:/ / www. com/ 2002/ 0603/ p08s01-wosc. html [42] http:/ / www. co. Retrieved 17 October 2011. com/ time/ world/ article/ 0. gov. manskligarattigheter. aspx?reportid=94067 [71] "News in Nepal: Fast. gov. Worldbank. gov/ pop_health/ dcofwvf/ reports/ evals/ dcethiopia00. http:/ / www. org/ docs/ Mapping%20of%20Residential%20Care%20Institutions%20in%20Sierra%20LEone. gov. "Disabled Serbians in Harsh Conditions" (http:/ / www. . . html). . manskligarattigheter.com. gov. time. unicef. . csmonitor. pdf [56] http:/ / www. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 6267121. 30/ content/ 2009/ s2615472. 2009_2009645558187. xls) [51] (http:/ / www.org. ro/ Files/ NAPCR_brochure_200744184931. relieffundforromania. pdf [33] http:/ / www. copii. kff. abc. org/ wbi/ socialsafetynets/ courses/ dc2001/ pdfppt/ garcia. humanrights. amazonaws. Migeprof. unicef. htm) [66] "Unicef Togo Statistics" (http:/ / www.8599. irinnews. ro/ Files/ statistica noua SISTEM PROTECTIE SPECIALA LA 31. pdf). pdf). odhikar. Dejan (14 November 2007). [72] http:/ / s3. . humanrights. hopeandhomes. se/ dynamaster/ file_archive/ 080314/ 5c08d4415225dfc8695e0f535fbfe168/ Litauen. Full & Factual" (http:/ / www. xls) [50] (http:/ / www. org/ downloads/ HHC-ARK_brochure. Retrieved 17 October 2011. manskligarattigheter. html). Worldbank. _Population Politics_.1683763. hopeandhomes.

org. org/ orphanages/ ivanovka. asp) New York State Office of Children and Family Services. hopeandhomes. orphanagefunds. . Cloud Depot Nine Charity. ocfs. php?a_id=5150). html [99] (http:/ / www. Bigfamilyministry.org) • MyOrphanage. 19 May 2008. co. hrw. . 138. org/ infobycountry/ fiji_statistics. Retrieved 17 October 2011.org/) • Remembering Children Homes and Orphanages (http://childrenhomes. org/ [104] Facts About Children in Foster Care New York State – 2009 (http:/ / www. "Health warning over Russian youth" (http:/ / news. ru/ ASIA-PLUS/ bulletin_23/ children. co. missionpartners. External links • Keeping Children Out of Harmful Institutions: Why we should be investing in family-based care (http://www. . ua/ eng/ show_article. [87] http:/ / www.org/) • Aid to Vietnamese orphans (http://www. iorphan.uk/en/54_9678. com/ Statistics. org/ aboutus_statistics. org/ russian_orphans/ index. synergyaids.org) •  "Orphans and Orphanages". com/ Hogar%202006. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4600785. Yekaterina SHCHETKINA | Society |People" (http:/ / www. htm [103] http:/ / www. . Retrieved 17 October 2011. . 194. . unicef. Retrieved 17 October 2011. html#ixzz1JroqmjrL ). org/ sudan/ UNICEF_Sudan_Technical_Briefing_Paper_1_-_Alternative_family_care. [89] Azerbaijan (http:/ / www. bh/ eng [83] http:/ / www.org/) 84 . Alla KOTLIAR. com/ documents/ 3549_fhi10.Orphanage [79] "Statistics" (http:/ / www. [85] "Information about Russian orphans" (http:/ / www.com.covsa. shtml). ua/ 3000/ 3050/ 60819). 28 October 2000. 190/ html/ menu2/ 6/ crc/ doc/ report/ srf-indonesia-1.RescuedOrphans. 9 March 1998. Mw. missionpartners. savethechildren.org/) • History of Beaver County Children's Home (http://bcch15066.zp. casahogarjeruel.htm) • Closing Orphanages – There is another way to care for the most vulnerable children (http://www. Wyrick and Company. Ukraine" (http:/ / deti. stm). pdf [98] http:/ / www. internews. rykersdream. ru/ english/ [88] "Human Rights Watch" (http:/ / www. org/ orphanages/ orphankiev. prijut. mw. com/ hand_warmers_charity. Catholic Encyclopedia. Daily Mail (UK). orphans. html) [91] (http:/ / www. clouddepotnine. not web page counter [100] Ian Birrell (4 October 2011). BBC. html). . html) [90] Kyrgyzstan Children's Work (http:/ / www. Iorphan. archive.parentless.org. . bbc. htm). "A photoreport: “From Heart to Heart – 2”: a trip to the rural orphanages of Zaporozhye region:: Zaporozhzhya orphans. lauram. org/ web/ 20071129174720/ http:/ / 193. ny. unicef. html) [95] Dnepropetrovsk Children's Work (http:/ / www. bbc. [80] "Phonsavan Orphanage" (http:/ / www. org [102] http:/ / www. 138. bigfamilyministry. html) [96] http:/ / web. Retrieved 17 October 2011. pdf) page 14 and 15 of actual report. BBC News. html).org. [101] http:/ / www.orphanage. anewarrival.org – In Touch With Orphanages (http://www. SC 1991. org/ russia_orphans. zp. org/ reports98/ russia2/ ). dailymail. • World orphanages website (http://www. [81] http:/ / www.myorphanage. . 194. pdf [82] http:/ / www. Retrieved 17 October 2011. [93] Albert Pavlov (translated from Russian by Anna Large) (21 March 2007). Steven (1 June 2005). com/ Azerbaijan. uk/ worldservice/ people/ highlights/ 001027_adoption. 190/ html/ menu2/ 6/ crc/ doc/ report/ srf-indonesia-1.org) • Orphanage Review Board (http://www. Hrw. uk/ debate/ article-1375330/ Orphanages-Haiti-Cambodia-rent-children-fleece-gullible-Westerners. "The parentless don’t need cheap pity.org) • Rescued Orphans – World's Largest Directory Of Orphanages (http://www. [106] "The Children of Guatemala | BBC World Service" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. co. [94] Kiev Children's Work (http:/ / www. gov.ua. New York: Robert Appleton Company. rcws.org. pdf [97] http:/ / 193. html) [92] Photo: Vasiliy Artyushenko. [86] Eke. asp). missionpartners. Retrieved 17 October 2011.ua. us/ main/ fostercare/ stats2009. state. 1913. Deti. Rykersdream. . Retrieved 17 October 2011. org/ orphanages/ moreukr. htm [84] "Russian Orphans Facts and Statistics" (http:/ / www. Charleston. [105] A Legacy of Caring: The Charleston Orphan House 1790–1990. "Orphanages in Haiti and Cambodia rent children to fleece gullible Westerners | Mail Online" (http:/ / www.

McCaig did not want the nuances particular to each type of experience to be lost. for all types of cross-cultural childhoods. Others have used different expressions to describe this same population. More recently. business (16%). Norma McCaig used the term Global Nomad essentially to define the same group because (1) she didn't like being called a kid when she was grown up and (2) she wanted to make clear for future research purposes that this experience happened because of a parent's career choice (which was the case with the TCKs in Useem's first study. thus integrating elements of those cultures and their own birth culture. into a third culture". ” General characteristics TCKs tend to have more in common with one another. Although moving between countries may become an easy thing for some TCKs. the composition of international families changed. or sections thereof. the "third culture" is a way of life shared with others. Sponsors are generally broken down into five categories: missionary (17%). —Ruth Hill Useem. not refugees or immigrants. 3CK) is a term coined in the early 1950s by American sociologist and anthropologist Ruth Hill Useem "to refer to the children who accompany their parents into another society". After World War II. has spent a significant period of time in one or more culture(s) other than [their] own. as a child. to each other. The term "Third Culture Kids" or TCKs was coined to refer to the children who accompany their parents into another society. such as trans-culture kid. shared. Although elements from each culture may be assimilated into the TCK's life experience. and 16% came from business families. and learned by persons who are in the process of relating their societies. adjusting to their passport country often takes years. we began to use the term "third culture" as a generic term to cover the styles of life created. Cross-Cultural Kid (CCK). are also used by some. . Before World War II. TCK World: The Official Home of Third Culture Kids [7] She describes the third culture as a shared. The TCK frequently builds relationships to all of the cultures. as with any culture. government (23%). Pollock's definition recognizes the reality of what Eakin is describing but takes it back to Useem's idea that. Around 1985.[3] Because culture by definition is something that must be shared with others. Origins and terminology Dr. Currently they include 3CK or trans-culture kid. although Useem didn't mention this). and "other" (14%).Third culture kid 85 Third culture kid Third culture kid (TCK.[6] In 1993 she wrote: In summarizing that which we had observed in our cross-cultural encounters. or interstitial way of life lived by those who had gone from one culture (the home or first culture) to a host culture (the second) and had developed their own shared way of life with others also living outside their passport cultures. Kay Eakin adapted this term and described a TCK as "someone who.[3] [4] TCKs are often multilingual and highly accepting of other cultures. David C. Ruth Van Reken is now suggesting a more comprehensive term. For this reason. American sociologist David C. Useem coined the term third culture kid after her second year-long visit to India with her fellow sociologist/anthropologist husband and three children. after a childhood spent in other cultures. regardless of nationality. Pollock developed the following description for third culture kids[2] : “ A Third Culture Kid (TCK) is a person who has spent a significant part of [their] developmental years outside the parents' culture.[1] Other terms. than they do with non-TCKs from their passport country. military (30%). with the increase of international business and the rise of two international superpowers. 66% of TCKs came from missionary families. while not having full ownership in any. the sense of belonging is in relationship to others of similar background.[5] Some TCK families migrate for work independently of any organization based in their country of origin.

government.) decides to send somebody to a foreign country.[11] Sponsorship TCK's exposure to foreign countries depends largely on parent's sponsoring organization. most of the research into TCKs has been conducted by adult TCKs attempting to validate their own experiences.. church. but a high percentage of military brats have lived off base overseas for years at a time. may go unnoticed or unacknowledged by others for a variety of reasons. those military brats who only live on base tend to be exposed the least to the local culture compared to other TCKs. because of the 86 . It can be devastating when it is not. scientific sampling methods on adults may contain bias due to the difficulty in conducting epidemiological studies across broad-based population samples. sexual and emotional abuse . such as misguided notions about 'respecting privacy'. The sponsor affects many variables such as: how long a family is in a foreign culture. First. military brat experience. "The strength of [the] family bond works to the benefit of children when parent-child communication is good and the overall family dynamic is healthy.[8] Second.. Approximately 59% of military brats spend more than 5 years in foreign countries. a business.[10] Also. TCKs will thus have a higher probability of coming from a family where at least one parent earned a college degree and often an advanced degree. the family's interaction with the host country nationals.[10] When a group (whether it is the military.[8] Most TCK research on adults is limited to those people whose time in a different culture occurred during the school age years. and provide the most value for the investment. Military Military brats are the most mobile of TCKs and spend an average of 7 (seven) years abroad while growing up. or fear of repatriation or family disgrace with colleagues". They will also have a smaller likelihood of having divorced parents (divorced parents are unlikely to allow their former spouse to take their child to another country). Useem taught for over 30 years.Third culture kid Research Research into third culture kids has come from two fronts. "Because the nuclear family is the only consistent social unit through all moves.."[11] It has been observed that TCKs may be more prone to abuse as the family can become too tight knit. Physical. it is making a significant investment. etc. and very few families live in another country primarily due to the mother's occupation. due to budgeting priorities of military bases. and are not likely to divorce. Since the only way to identify somebody who grew up in a foreign culture is through self-identification. While overseas a majority of non-infant and non-toddler military brats live off-base. Because military bases aim for self-sufficiency. The group wants to send people who will represent it the best. family members are psychologically thrown back on one another in a way that is not typical in geographically stable families. the U. how enmeshed the family becomes with local practices.S. successful in their careers. whereas bases tend to house more singles and families with very small children. some international sociologists are critical of the research that "expects there to be one unified 'true' culture that is shared by all who have experiences of growing up overseas". where Dr. This research has been conducted largely at Michigan State University. and the family's interaction with people from the home country.[10] TCKs also tend to come from families that are closer than non-TCK families.S armed forces has sponsored significant research into the U. While much of the research into TCKs has shown consistent results across geographical boundaries.[9] Families The parents of TCKs are often highly educated. "Almost all" TCK families are deployed to foreign countries as a result of the father's profession. Research into TCKs has either studied students currently living in a foreign culture or years later as adults...

Some may grow up moving from country to country in the diplomatic corps (see Foreign Service Brat) while others may live their lives near military bases. Singapore. the Nuclear Energy Agency. MKs generally have the most interaction with the local populace and the least interaction with people from their passport country.[12] TCKs in this category also might live in an area with a certain ethnic majority other than their own. of any TCKs. and the International Agency of the Francophonie). They are also the most likely of the TCKs to integrate themselves into the local culture.[12] Religious Missionary Kids (MKs) typically spend the most time overseas. 63% of business TCKs have lived in foreign countries at least 10 years but are more likely than MKs to live in multiple countries. an Americanized Arab Muslim living in Chinatown. India. Wally Szczerbiak). This is significantly higher than the general population.[5] Business Business families also spend a great deal of time in foreign countries. or USA. international non-governmental organizations (for example. as well as the rootless lifestyle of moving constantly while growing up. 44% have lived in at least four countries. in one country. e. While parents of military brats had the lowest level of education of the five categories. the Commonwealth Secretariat.[12] Many of these "business" families are from oil companies. Japan. Business TCKs will have a fairly high interaction with their host nationals and with others from their passport country.[12] 83% of missionary kids have at least one parent with an advanced degree. Their involvement with locals and others from their passport country depends on the role of the parent. TCK parents in this category are the most likely (89%) to hold an advanced degree. international schools).[5] Non-military government Nonmilitary government TCKs are the most likely to have extended experiences in foreign countries for extended periods. 85% of MKs spend more than 10 years in foreign countries and 72% lived in only one foreign country. even those military brats who never lived abroad can be isolated significantly from the civilian regional cultures of their "home" country. Other TCK families who do not fit one the above categories include those employed by intergovernmental agencies (for example.g. 44% will also have spent at least 10 years outside of their passport country.Third culture kid self-sufficiency of military bases and the distinctiveness of military culture. approximately 36% of USA military brat TCK families have at least one parent with an advanced degree. Of all TCKs. particularly in the Arab world and in Latin America. Parents who work in the pharmaceutical business typically move to countries such as Switzerland. Again.[13] This group typically has spent the least amount of time in foreign countries (42% are abroad for 1–2 years and 70% for less than 5). China. and local organizations such as hospitals. their involvement with local people and culture can vary greatly. Other professions include the media and athletics (for example.[14] 87 .

They know bits and pieces of at least two cultures. the United States and Africa has shown that TCKs from different countries share more in common with other TCKs than they do with their own peer group from their passport country. They often suffer a reverse culture shock upon their return. Italy. French schools. and are often perpetually homesick for their adopted country. German Schools and 'International Schools' which often follow one of the three International Baccalaureate programs. which may make it seem difficult for TCKs to build long-term. Such children usually find it difficult to answer the question. and ideally one which mirrors their own educational system. Denmark.Third culture kid Non-American third culture kids Most international TCKs are expected to speak English and some countries require their expatriate families to be proficient with the English language. They do this in an effort to maintain linguistic stability and to ensure that their children do not fall behind due to linguistic problems. in the 1970s. especially. Many choose to enter careers that allow them to travel frequently or live overseas. however. and because their children are more likely to have prior exposure to English than to other international languages. Public awareness of kikokushijo is much more widespread in Japan than awareness of TCKs in the United States. but with nothing beyond his passport to define that identification for him. in-depth relationships.[15] Intercultural experiences Many TCKs take years to readjust to their passport countries. These will be populated by expatriates' children and some children of the local upper middle class. and government reports as early as 1966 recognised the need for the school system to adapt to them.[10] Families tend to seek out schools whose principal languages they share. Where their own language is not available. TCKs. TCKs have a globalized culture. There are. It is hard for TCKs to present themselves as a single cultured person. yet most of them have not fully experienced any one culture making them feel incomplete or left out by other children who have not lived overseas. a term which has different implications. Others can have difficulty relating to them. argue that the commonality found in international TCKs is not the result of true commonality. but that the understanding of the world around them differs. but that TCKs from different countries are really different from one another. a growing number of online resources to help TCKs deal with issues as well as stay in contact with each other. they are typically referred to both in Japanese and in English as kikokushijo. They often build social networks among themselves and prefer to socialize with other TCKs. families will often choose English-speaking schools for their children. which makes it hard for others who have not had similar experiences to accept them for who they are. Many third culture kids face an identity crisis: they don't know where they come from.[9] A few sociologists studying TCKs. literally "returnee children". However. British schools. "Where are you from?" Compared to their peers who have lived their entire lives in a single culture. but rather the researcher's bias projecting expectations upon the studied subculture. Recently. This poses the potential for non-English speaking TCKs to have a significantly different experience from U. Many countries have American schools. blogs and social networks including 88 .[9] Research on TCKs from Japan. the use of the term "third culture kids" to refer to children returned from living overseas is not universally accepted.[10] Kikokushijo In Japan. It would be typical for a TCK to say that he is a citizen of a country. they were characterised in media reports and even by their own parents as "educational orphans" in need of "rescue" to reduce their foreignness and successfully reintegrate them into Japanese society. however.S. views of kikokushijo have not always been positive.[9] The exteriors may be the same. They believe that some of the superficial attributes may mirror each other. They do this because of the linguistic and cultural opportunities being immersed in English might provide their children when they are adults. Germany.[10] This is largely because most international schools use the English language as the norm.

or defining themselves in relation to some "other" ethnic or religious group.[22] [23] More welcoming of others into their community. and develop a chameleon-like ability to become part of other cultures. Career decisions [16] Missionary Military Government Business Other Executive/Admin 17% 40% 35% 10% 24% Semi/Professional 61% 34% 38% 47% 53% Support (Secretarial/Technical) 17% 27% 15% 16% 13% Sales 5% 6% 7% 5% 4% Other 1% 4% 5% 6% 6% Type of Work [17] Missionary Military Government Business Other Business/Financial 22% 32% 27% 20% 17% Education 25% 23% 17% 17% 28% Health/Social Services 24% 7% 13% 23% 13% Self Employed 11% 14% 14% 14% 14% Government 3% 5% 5% 7% 8% Military 2% 10% 6% 1% 2% Non-Medical Professional 3% 6% 12% 11% 10% Arts/Media 0% 3% 5% 4% 7% Religious 10% 0% 0% 2% 1% Work Setting Statistics (U. but TCKs marry at an older age (25+). In addition.[21] 80% believe they can get along with anybody. They tend to get along with people of any culture. As third culture kids mature they become adult third culture kids (ATCKs). due to their sociocultural adaptability. have become a helpful way for TCKs to interact. and they often do. but are often nationalistic. The unique experiences of TCKs among different cultures and various relationships at the formative stage of their development makes their view of the world different from others. Some TCKs may also isolate themselves within their own sub-culture.[21] Divorce rates among TCKs are lower than the general population.[19] [21] . sometimes excluding native children attending their schools.S.[20] 90% report feeling as if they understand other people and cultural groups better than the average American. Facebook and TCKID. TCKs) Research has been done on American TCKs to identify various characteristics:[11] [18] [19] Sociopsychology • • • • • 90% feel "out of sync" with their peers. AIM.Third culture kid 89 MySpace.[19] • Lack a sense of "where home is". chatting programs including MSN Messenger. Some ATCKs come to terms with issues such as culture shock and a sense of not belonging while others struggle with these for their entire lives. and Skype are often used so TCKs can keep in touch with each other.

military dependents were the "most representative of the United States population".[22] 44% earned undergraduate degree after the age of 22. .)[22] 45% of TCKs attended three universities before attaining a degree. 230. [4] Hymlö. Ender. [5] Cottrell. TCKWorld.[20] • TCKs' sense of identity and well-being is directly and negatively affected by repatriation. [6] Ruth Useem's obituary in Footnotes. . transition-dynamics. ed. but in their twenties take longer than their peers to focus their aims. Momo (2004-01-31). html). p. state. ed.nomad children develop multicultural skills" (http:/ / www. [15] Kano Podolsky. com/ useem/ art1. (http:/ / www. Rev. Children. ISBN 9780275972660. com. M. 201. Morten (2002). transition-dynamics. Other Expatriate Adolescents: A Postmodern Approach to Understanding Expatriate Adolescents Among Non-U. "Third Culture Kids: Focus of Major Study" (http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. [3] Eakin. in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'. html [8] Ender. they have not followed in parental footsteps". in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'.[20] • Depression is comparatively prevalent among TCKs. pdf). (2009). government. I’m coming home" (http:/ / www. [7] http:/ / www. (http:/ / www.[25] • Like all children. U. M. London: Nicholas Brealey.[22] • Education. Ender. p. xxv. cs. transition-dynamics. Over all. medicine. tckworld. or follow their parents' career choices. Dept of State. . Foreign Service Journal: 32–41. 'Other' Expatriate Adolescents: A Postmodern Approach to Understanding Expatriate Adolescents among non-U. M. p. html). kaiku. (http:/ / books. ISBN 9780275972660. pp.. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 201. 13. . Gendai Shakai Kenkyū 6: 67–78. M. pdf) (PDF). [14] Cottrell (2002) p 233-234. in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'. com/ nomads. com/ useem/ art1. 168–170. business management. Educational and Occupational Choices of American Adult Third Culture Kids. Ruth H.S. ISBN 9780275972660. "One won't find many TCKs in large corporations. Kay (1998)... (http:/ / www.S. 18. Third culture kids: growing up among worlds. Children. "Crosscultural upbringing: A comparison of the "third culture kids" framework and "Kaigai/Kikokushijo" studies" (http:/ / www. In 46% of TCK families an advanced degree was held by the father. p 234. December 2003. com/ milbrats. Greenwood. html). html). Richard (2002). 80% of TCK families had at least one parent with a BA. . . "According to my passport. ISBN 9780275972660. Ed. ed. Portland: Greenwood. Ender. Annika (2002). Article 1. tckworld. kyoto-wu. asanet. Retrieved 90 . Ender. transition-dynamics. Ann (2002). ISBN 9780275972660. ac. Norma (1994). gov/ documents/ organization/ 2065. 196. Nor are there many in government . Ender. pp.S. the Newsletter of the American Sociological Association (http:/ / www2. p. transition-dynamics. M. org/ footnotes/ dec03/ departments.Third culture kid Cognitive and emotional development • Teenage TCKs are more mature than non-TCKs. Portland: Greenwood. com/ milbrats. 196. [9] Hylmö. ed.[22] • A study whose subjects were all "career military brats"—those who had a parent in the military from birth through high school—shows that brats are linguistically adept. html). and highly-skilled positions are the most common professions for TCKs. .. com/ milbrats. au/ books?id=eYK8vsA8K8MC& lpg=PP1& dq=third culture kid& pg=PA13#v=onepage& q=third culture kid& f=false). (http:/ / www. and in 18% by the mother. ISBN 978-1857885255. [12] Cotrell (2002) p 231 [13] Jordan (2002) p 227. google.[22] • TCKs are unlikely to work for big business. self-employment. Beyond Adolescence: The Experiences of Adult Children of Military Parents. 157. Annika (2002). [11] McCaig. com/ milbrats. Portland: Greenwood. jp/ bulletin/ 6/ kanou. Ruth E. in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'. pp. html). com/ milbrats. David C. . in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'. ed. In the study.[22] Notes [1] Useem.[24] • TCKs are highly linguistically adept (not as true for military TCKs). Van Reken. "Growing up with a world view . Portland: Greenwood.[26] [27] Education and career • • • • TCKs are 4 times as likely as non-TCKs to earn a bachelor's degree (81% vs 21%)[28] 40% earn an advanced degree (as compared to 5% of the non-TCK population. TCKs may experience stress and even grief from the relocation experience. html). Children's International Relocation and the Development Process. . [10] Pearce. html). [2] Pollock. .

ATCKs have problems relating to their own ethnic groups (http:/ / www. "Cultural Transitions During Childhood and Adjustment to College" (http:// worldwidefamilies. [20] Cottrell AB. 91 . Iowa State University. • Kohls RL (1996). International Schools Services. International Schools Services. [22] Cottrell AB. International Schools Services. “The Effects of Deployment on Traditional and Nontraditional Military Families: Navy Mothers and Their Children” in Morten Ender. International Schools Services. ed. tckworld. html). [19] Lewis L. Third Culture Kids: Focus of Major Study (http:/ / www. Lesia (April 2004). ISBN 0-275-97266-6 • Pascoe R (1993).org/Documents/JPC Article_Emily_Hervey. Retrieved 22 January 2010. com/ useem/ art3. .. Cork (2004) "The Bamboo Chest: An Adventure in Healing the Trauma of War" (http://www. TCKs maintain global dimensions throughout their lives (http:/ / www. "Growing up in the Military" in Strangers at Home: Essays on the effects of living overseas and Coming 'home' to a strange land. Laila (2008). Retrieved December 3. San Diego. extension. (July 19. Edited Carolyn Smith.gov/m/dghr/flo/rsrcs/pubs/4597. [28] Cottrell AB. Yarmouth. California. Useem RH (1993). html).pdf) • Jordan. Useem RH (1993). [21] Cottrell AB. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads”. Alethia Publications: New York. "Identity Formation and the Adult Third Culture Kid " In Morten Ender. Ann and Ruth Hill Useem (1993).223 [24] Plamondon. Useem RH (1994). Admiral Dennis. Trauma and Loss: Research and Interventions. TCKs Experience Prolonged Adolescence (http://www. Survival Kit for Overseas Living. Culture Shock: Successful Living Abroad. Useem RH (1993). • Morten G. • Eakin. pdf).html) Third Culture Kid World. 1996. 8(1) Accessed January 5. Westport. TCKs Four Times More Likely to Earn Bachelor’s Degrees (http:/ / www. Yarmouth. Morten. 8(4). 1996 • Graham. tlcinst. • Kelley. [25] Ender. 8(1). 2006.htm) Prepared for Supporting the Military Child Annual Conference. • Britten. Kathleen Finn (2002). Caroline H. U. Third Culture Kids: Factors that Predict Psychological Health after Repatriation. International Schools Services. 7(5). [27] Oesterreich. Smith College. [23] Jordan (2002) p. Honors Thesis. p88-90 [26] Sheppard. "Understanding children: moving to a new home" (http:/ / www. Intercultural Press.tckworld. William Steele (2003). com/ useem/ art5. • Hervey. Westin Horton Plaza Hotel. (2002). tckworld. Edited Carolyn Smith. The Whole World Guide to Culture Learning. Connecticut: Praeger. [16] Cotrell (2002) p237 [17] Cotrell (2002) p238 [18] Useem RH (2001). "You can't go 'Home' Again" in Strangers at Home: Essays on the effects of living overseas and Coming 'home' to a strange land. html). Morten. Pacific Command. 2007. Intercultural Press. "Growing up in the Military" in Strangers at Home: Essays on the effects of living overseas and Coming 'home' to a strange land.S. tripod.htm) US Department of State.tckworld.com/comparisons. Alethia Publications: New York. edu/ Publications/ PM1529G.html). Michelle (2002). Commander in Chief. Alethia Publications: New York. Portland. "The Military Culture as an Exemplar of American Qualities" (http://www. ed. com/ ). html). Third Culture Kids (http:/ / wanjennifer. 1998) “TCK World: A Comparison of Different "Versions" Of TCKs” (http:// www. Military Brats and Other Global Nomads: Growing Up in Organization Families. Emily (2009). Retrieved 22 January 2010. 2006. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads” • Kidd. Kay (1996). OR. com/ useem/ art2. iastate. com/useem/art3. Samuel (November 30.Third culture kid 2007-11-08. 8(2). "Moving Can Become Traumatic" (http:/ / www. 2000). Yarmouth. iss. tckworld. 1996 • Ender. edu/ pages/ kids. Intercultural Press. . tckworld.state. html). com/ useem/ art4. Julie and Linda Lankenau (Undated) “Third Culture Kids: Returning to their Passport Country” (http:// www. Ender. html). Edited Carolyn Smith. Graphic Arts. • Kalb R and Welch P (1992).amazon. ed. International Schools Services.. ME. Retrieved December 3. ME. Moving Your Family Overseas. Retrieved December 3. 2006 • Cottrell.pacom. org/ Moving. Nat'l Inst for Trauma and Loss in Children. References & Further Reading • Blair. TCKs Experience Prolonged Adolescence (http:/ / www.mil/speeches/sst2000/milchild. ME.. com/dp/0970358016) DPP 2004 • Hess DJ (1994).

Mary (2002). Mary Edwards (1991).htm) An interview with Ruth Van Reken. Karen and LisaMarie Mariglia. Transcultural Odysseys: The Evolving Global Consciousness.crossculturalkid. (2002).org/cck. • Price. (2002).. Hill Useem's research. Online magazine created by and dedicated to TCKs 92 . in Morten Ender. ISBN 0-517-58400-X • Williams. ISBN 0-9639260-4-7 • Tyler. • Smith. “The Military Teenager in Europe: Perspectives for Health care Providers”. Smith College. • Stalnaker. Third Culture Kids. World Citizens and "Rubberband Nationals" in Carolyn Smith Strangers at Home: Essays on the Effects of Living Overseas and Coming 'Home' to a Strange Land. “Behavior of Civilian and Military High School Students in Movie Theaters”. “’Third Culture Kids: Prototypes for Understanding Other Cross-Cultural Kids”. html) International Schools Services.crossculturalkid.com/). • Shames GW (1997). Ruth and Paulette Bethel. Ruth et al. Brice Royer. New York: Aletheia Publications. McGraw-Hill Companies. Religious Culture Shock.htm) Retrieved December 3. (Social media site for military brats) • Denizen Magazine (http://www. in Carolyn Smith "STrangers at Home: Essays on The effects of Living Overseas amd Coming Home/" • Reken. Intercultural Press. • Seelye HN. • Useem. sociologist who coined the term "Third Culture Kid" • Third Culture Kids on ABC News (http://www. Wiley.htm) Retrieved December 3.. • Wertsch. Retrieved December 3. in Morten Ender. Intercultural Press.iss. Military Brats: Legacies of Childhood Inside the Fortress. Paulette M. • Reken. ISBN 0-8442-3305-6. Laila. New York: Harmony Books.denizenmag. Ruth and Bethel. (2008). (2002) “Military Brats: Issues and Associations in Adulthood“ in Morten Ender. in Morten Ender.org/cck.au/rn/lifematters/stories/2009/2583257. Children's International Relocation and the Development Process..abc. • Pollock DC and Van Reken R (2001). ME. (undated) “Third Culture Kids: Focus of Major Study”. Yarmouth. ME. Nicholas Brealey Publishing/Intercultural Press.net.tckworld.Third culture kid • Pearce. Between Cultures: Developing Self-Identity in a World of Diversity. ISBN 978-0-470-82072-8 • Storti C (1997). Yarmouth.edu/pages/kids. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads” • Plamondon. Third Culture Kids: Factors that Predict Psychological Health after Repatriation. 2006. (http://www. New York.militarybrat. Third Culture Kids: Prototypes for Understanding Other Cross-Cultural Kids (http://www. ed. and Daniela Tudor from TCKID • Worldwide Families | Third Culture Kids (http://worldwidefamilies. Stan (2002) "Hub Culture: The Next Wave of Urban Consumers". ed. • Van Reken. ed.com) Official Home of Dr. Ruth (1996). ISBN 1-85788-295-4. The Art of Coming Home. 2006. (http://www. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads External links • TCK World (http://www. ed. Yarmouth. Honors Thesis. Wasilewski JH (1996). Maine.org/ThirdCultureKids. Carolyn (ed) (1996)..aspx) Recent research and current resources • Military Brats Registry (http://www. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads”.com/). 2006. Phoebe. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads”.

only a biological child could inherit an aristocratic title. this statement could be debated. Jews and Parsees can become only guardians under the Guardians and Wards Act of 1890. whereas in England. or from another. The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act of 1956 allows only Hindus. By placing a child in another family's home. these adoptive placements are meant to create enduring connections and social solidarity among families and lineages. This has also been the reason why most orphaned Korean children have been exported to countries such as the United States.[1] In addition. Jains. however. the birth family seeks to create enduring ties with the family that is now rearing the child. The placing family may receive another child from that family.[2] [3] Korea In traditional Korean culture. a child could inherit the parent's aristocratic title or samurai rank. To this day orphanages are still common all over South Korea. in many African cultures. Sikhs. Guardianship expires once the child attains the age of 18 years. and the fact that adoptive parents are considered trustees of another individual's child rather than the child's new parents.Cultural variations in adoption Cultural variations in adoption Adoption is an arrangement by which a child whose biological parents are unable to care for it is "adopted" and given the same legal and social status as though he/she were the biological child of the adoptive parents. In adoption systems.[5] 93 . under a system of adoption. not all cultures use adoption. guardianship is awarded with the expectation that the child will be quickly adopted by the adopted parents in the country where they legally reside. in pre-modern Japan. children are often given to adoptive families. For example. It is only to point out that adoption is a specific legal arrangement within the many kinds of wardship or guardianship or fostering practiced worldwide. marriage regulations. This does not negate the fact that English families often reared. if a parent dies intestate. This is also true to varying degrees in other Asian societies. which only introduced legal adoption in 1926. cared for. Islamic countries such as Iraq and Malaysia have prohibitions against a child of Muslim parents being adopted by non-Muslim individuals. Adoptions outside the family were rare. the adopted child stands in exactly the same position regarding inheritance as a biological child. Arab Traditionally in Arab cultures if a child is adopted he or she does not become a “son” or “daughter. and Buddhists to adopt. Muslims.[4] For children adopted outside India. Christians. India There is no uniform adoption law in India. The Indian government regulates domestic and inter-country adoption of children in India. Like the reciprocal transfer of brides from one family to another. this is close to other nations' systems for foster care. loved and provided for parentless children. adoption almost always occurred when another family member (sibling or cousin) gives a male child to the first-born male heir of the family. Thus. which had a system of true adoption. Legally. Africa On the other hand. While all societies make provision for the rearing of children whose own parents are unavailable to rear them.” but rather a ward of the adopting caretaker(s). The child’s family name is not changed to that of the adopting parent(s) and his or her “guardians” are publicly known as such. the child can also inherit the parent's hereditary rank. Other common rules governing adoption in Islamic culture address inheritance.

[9] Tikopia Traditional Tikopia (Solomon Islands) society did not practice adoption as it is traditionally understood in Western societies. Raymond. (1999). Crossing worlds (D’un monde à l’autre) Reflection on customary adoption practices (http:/ / www.[8] Ties to the biological family are not normally severed. gov. co. notably in Africa. a child can be “given” with the agreement or on the initiative of the family council for a variety of reasons. my/ FAQ-child+ adopted.com (http:/ / onthescene. and rarely are ties to the biological family severed. William W. archive. cfm?dictionaryKeywords=whāngai) [9] Scotti. Tahitians practice “fa’a’amu” adoption (meaning literally “giving to eat” adoption). gov. htm) [2] Adoption obstacles .MSNBC. It was not uncommon for families to rear children left parentless. 1963. These transfers of children between different caretakers and households are not exclusive. jpn. questia. htm) [5] http:/ / www.g. about. "Fa'a'mu and Fanau.pp 190-193 94 . prefer that children move between different households. . "We the Tikopia. maoridictionary. and parents traditionally do not refuse to let others take their children.. com/ googleScholar. Beacon Press Edition. Annales Medico-Psychologiques 1 (5): 721–37. Its basic functions compare to the ones of other traditional adoption practices. [8] Te Whanake Dictionary. as traditionally has occurred in Western adoptions.National Registration Department of Malaysia. nz/ index. retained the tribal affiliation of their biological fathers. e. Daria Michel. Fosterage is viewed as a way to create and maintain close personal relations. in [6] Bourgeois. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 30. jpn. unwanted pregnancy (by genetic parent) or infertility (by adoptive parent). qst?docId=5001854512). nic.Cultural variations in adoption Polynesia “Fluid adoption” [6] is common in Polynesian culture. html) [3] FAQ on Adoption (http:/ / www. (May 1976). and they do not permanently separate the children from their biological parents. [10] Firth. and inherited land only from the property of the paternal lineage. The children. org/ web/ 20061202134315/ http:/ / www. entry for whāngai (http:/ / www. not from the property of the lineage of the guardian. childsrights. com/ 2006-06/ 11324-indias-archaic-adoption-needs-overhaul. htm)) [4] News from India (http:/ / indiaenews. they can even be asked for and given before birth. Malarrive. and childless adults would sometimes take the child of another family and bring it up. php?subaction=showfull& id=1223651301& archive=& start_from=& ucat=2& ). Various traditional aspects and current problems of adoption and donation of children in French Polynesia". ( archived version 2006 (http:/ / web. com/ cs/ parenting/ a/ adoption.[7] New Zealand Māori have a form of traditional adoption practised within extended family called whāngai literally meaning to feed. 1957. By contrast. Many Europeans and Americans associate adoption as a solution to something gone wrong. my/ BI/ 4_2_anakangkat.[10] References [1] Adoption in Islam (http:/ / islam. M. msnbc. "Sharing and Compassion: Fosterage in a Polynesian Society" (http:/ / www. com/ baghdad/ 2006/ 06/ adoption_obstac. however. J. org/ html/ site_en/ index. some Polynesian cultures. adoptionindia. PMID 970828 [7] Donner.Blogging Baghdad: The Untold Story . 1936. for example in Sikaiana. php) .

No grasp reflex Makes vowel noises 5 months Holds head steady. cognitive. imitates cross and draws man on request. understands simple commands 18 months Can walk alone. This article puts forward a general model based on the most widely accepted developmental stages. Picks up toy without 'Jargon'. Many infantile cross substitutions in speech Dresses and undresses with assistance. Sits unsupported.Child development stages 95 Child development stages Child development stages describe theoretical milestones of child development. skips on Questioning at its one foot. Imitates gate with cubes. Picks up objects with pincer grasp Babbles tunefully Looks for toys dropped Apprehensive about strangers 1 year Stands holding furniture. Discriminates smile. Gets up/down stairs holding intelligible words onto rail. waves goodbye. it is important to understand that there is wide variation in terms of what is considered "normal. Attends to own toilet needs . Walks up and down stairs 2 feet per step. Also observed in blind [2] children. Stands alone for a second or two. Undresses with assistance. Goes for objects and gets them. However. Speaks in sentences. Follows dangling toy from side to side. Many falling over. Dry by day 3 years Goes up stairs 1-foot per step and downstairs 2 feet per step." driven by a wide variety of genetic. copies a height. Builds tower of 9 cubes Constantly asks questions. Pulls self up to sit and sits erect with supports. Rolls over prone to supine. 2 years Able to run. speech. family. educational. and environmental factors. Builds tower of 6 cubes Joins 2–3 words in sentences Parallel play. Cooperative play. then collapses with a bump Babbles 2 or 3 words repeatedly Drops toys. Drinks from a cup with both hands. Many stage models of development have been proposed. nutritional. cultural. Many children will reach some or most of these milestones at different times from the norm. Begins to jump with both feet. physical. used as working concepts and in some cases asserted as nativist theories. Copies circle. Can build a tower of 3 or 4 cubes and throw a ball Demands constant mothering. Turns head round to sound Squeals with delight appropriately. Most children with autism are diagnosed at this age. vision and hearing development Developmental Milestones[1] Age Motor Speech Vision and hearing 4–6 weeks Additional Notes Smiles at parent 6–8 weeks Vocalizes 12–20 weeks Hand regard: following the hand [2] with the eyes. 3 months Prone:head held up for prolonged periods. Serves to practice emerging visual [3] skills. Imaginary companions 4 years Goes down stairs one foot per step. Overview of motor. Objects taken to mouth Enjoys vocal play 6 months Transfers objects from one hand to the other. and watches where they go Cooperates with dressing. Palmar grasp of cube Double syllable sounds such as 'mumum' and 'dada' Localises sound 45 cm lateral to either ear May show 'stranger shyness' 9–10 months Wiggles and crawls. Feeds self with a spoon.

1 in) per lb) year about 4 times birth weight body temperature heart rate 12–24 months 80–90 cm (31–35 in) 2 years 85–95 cm (33–37 in) Average weight 5–8 cm 9–13 kg (20–29 (2. • Cries with tears.5 cm per month until four months. • Skin remains sensitive and easily irritated. Draws a man and copies a triangle. • Eyes begin moving together in unison (binocular vision).51 in) per month (doubling birth weight) 500 g per month 25 to 50 body temperature heart rate 8–12 months Approx. • Posterior fontanelle. then increases 1.6 kg (21 lb) Nearly triple the birth weight by first birthday 500 g per month 20 to 45 body temperature heart rate 20/100 130–250 g per month 22 to 40 body temperature 80 to 110 20/60 7–13 cm 12–15 kg (26–33 1 kg per year 20 to 35 (2.1 in) per lb) year Weight gain Respiration rate (per minute) Normal body temperature Heart rate (pulse) (per minute) Visual acuity (Snellen chart) Specifications sorted by reached age 1–4 months Physical • Head and chest circumference are nearly equal to the part of the abdomen. • Gums are red.7–37.5 times birth length by first birthday body temperature 9. Knows right from left and number of fingers Fluent speech Dresses and undresses alone Physical specifications Age Average length/height (cm) Length growth 1–4 months 50–70 cm (20–28 in) 2.Child development stages 96 5 years Skips on both feet and hops. Gives age Fluent speech with few infantile substitutions in speech 6 years Copies a diamond.8–5.3 cm (0.8–18 lb) 100–200 g per week 30 to 40 35. . • Anterior fontanelle. 1.0–3.5 °C 4–8 months 70–75 cm (28–30 in) 1. • Head circumference increases approximately 2 cm per month until two months. • Continues to breathe using abdominal muscles. • Legs. • Increases are an important indication of continued brain growth.5 cm (0.98 in) per month 4–8 kg (8.

later reaches with one hand or the other. rocks back and forth. Able to hold bottle. infant throws out arms as a protective measure. 4–8 months Physical • Head and chest circumferences are basically equal. Transfers objects from one hand to the other. shakes. Turns head side to side when in a supine (face up) position. Reaches for objects with both arms simultaneously. but generally does not move forward. back straightened. with upper and lower incisors coming in first. strength insufficient to hold items. then 0. Swallowing reflex appears and allows infant to move solid foods from front of mouth to the back for swallowing.Child development stages Motor development • • • • • • • • • Rooting and sucking reflexes are well developed.5 cm per month. • Posterior fontanelle closing or fully closed. Swallowing reflex and tongue movements are immature. and pounds objects. accompanied by increased drooling. puts everything in mouth. • May accidentally begin scooting backwards when placed on stomach. and mouthing of objects. • Teeth may begin to appear. Grasps with entire hand.inability to move food to the back of the mouth. Handles. when baby is held in a prone (face down) position. • Head circumference increases approximately 1 cm per month until six to seven months. Landau reflex appears near the middle of this period. Movements are large and jerky.can not hold head up and line with the body. waves arms about. bowing gradually disappears as infant grows older. • True eye color is established. biting. upper arms and neck. • Lifts head when placed on back. reaches for objects. • Fat rolls ("Baby Fat") appear on thighs. rate and patterns vary from infant to infant. • Breathing is abdominal. grasps object using entire hand (palmar grasp). soon will begin to crawl forward. chewing. Motor development • • • • • • • • • • • • • Reflexive behaviors are changing: Blinking reflex is well established Sucking reflex becomes voluntary Moro reflex disappears When lowered suddenly. holding head erect. Sits alone without support. indicating healthy. • Legs may appear bowed. • Anterior fontanelle. • Can roll over from back or stomach position. Upper body parts are more active: clasps hands above face. and arms propped forward for support Pulls self into a crawling position by raising up on arms and drawing knees up beneath the body. Holds hands in an open or semi-open position. head circumference should continue to increase steadily. • Looks for fallen objects by 7 months • Plays ‘peek-a-boo’ games 97 . ongoing brain growth. Gums may become red and swollen. respiration rate depending on activity. the head is held upright and legs are fully extended. Raises head and upper body on arms when in a prone position. Picks up objects using finger and thumb (pincer grip). Grasp reflex.

and clothing still affect variations in body temperature. Motor development • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Reaches with one hand leading to grasp an offered object or toy. Arm and hands are more developed than feet and legs (cephalocaudal development). Feet appear flat as arch has not yet fully developed. • Can see distant objects (4 to 6 m or 13 to 20 ft away) and points at them. holding onto adult's hand. Releases objects or toys by dropping or throwing. can shift positions without falling. Reaches for toys that are out of reach but visible Recognizes objects in reverse Drops thing intentionally and repeats and watches object Imitates activities like playing drum 98 . leaning on furniture for support. Creeps on hands and knees. and activities in the immediate environment.Child development stages • Cannot understand “no” or “danger” 8–12 Months Physical • • • • • • • • • • Respiration rates vary with activity Environmental conditions. Uses deliberate pincer grasp to pick up small objects. Anterior fontanelle begins to close. "Baby Fat" continues to appear on thighs. objects. toys. and finger foods. More teeth appear. may begin to walk alone. Responds to hearing tests (voice localization). Shows awareness of distant objects (4 to 6 m or 13 to 20 ft away) by pointing at them. however. Follows simple instructions. loses interest quickly and. upper arms and neck. Has good balance when sitting. Beginning to pull self to a standing position. also places objects inside one another. Legs may continue to appear bowed. cannot intentionally put an object down. transferring them from one hand to the other. • Both eyes work in unison (true binocular coordination). Explores new objects by poking with one finger. Walks with adult support. therefore. weather. may be difficult to test formally. Beginning to stand alone. hands appear large in proportion to other body parts. activity. Stacks objects. moves around obstacles by side-stepping. Manipulates objects. crawls up and down stairs. Continues to use abdominal muscles for breathing. often in the order of two lower incisors then two upper incisors followed by four more incisors and two lower molars but some babies may still be waiting for their first. Watches people. Head and chest circumference remain equal.

• Manages three to four objects by setting an object aside (on lap or floor) when presented with a new toy. • Uses furniture to lower self to floor. tries to make doll stand up.3 cm every six months. Rate of growth slows Head size increases slowly. Motor development • Crawls skillfully and quickly. falls often. • Stacks two to six objects per day. • Enjoys crayons and markers for scribbling. 99 . • Crawls up stairs on all fours. • Sits in a small chair. not always accurate in getting utensils into mouth. Legs may still appear bowed. goes down stairs in same position. abdomen protrudes. Anterior fontanelle closing or fully closed. • Helps turn pages in book. still appears top-heavy. collapses backwards into a sitting position or falls forward on hands and then sits. • Stands alone with feet spread apart. Respiration rate varies with emotional state and activity. takes on more adult-like appearance. the child always searches in the same location for a hidden object (if the child has watched the hiding of an object). direction becomes more deliberate. • Carries toys from place to place. • Shows or offers toy to another person to look at. • Enjoys looking at picture books. the child will search in several locations. Chest circumference is larger than head circumference. places teacup on saucer and sips from cup.Child development stages Toddlers (12–24 months) Physical • • • • • • • • • Weight is now approximately 3 times the child's birth weight. • Attempts to run. Later. such as furniture or toys. uses whole-arm movement. not always able to maneuver around obstacles. • Helps feed self. • Enjoys pushing or pulling toys while walking. legs stiffened. • Gets to feet unaided. • Demonstrates understanding of functional relationships (objects that belong together): Puts spoon in bowl and then uses spoon as if eating. frequent spills should be expected. and arms extended for support. • Passes toy to other hand when offered a second object (referred to as "crossing the midline"-an important neurological development). has difficulty stopping and usually just drops to the floor. back is swayed. • Most children walk unassisted near the end of this period. grows approximately 1. Body shape changes. Cognitive development • Enjoys object-hiding activities • Early in this period. usually at the middle of this year. anterior fontanelle is nearly closed at eighteen months as bones of the skull thicken. • Puts toys in mouth less often. enjoys holding spoon (often upside down) and drinking from a glass or cup. Toddler will begin to lose the "Baby Fat" once he/she begins walking. • Repeatedly picks up objects and throws them.

• Enjoys rhymes and songs." "cookie". gives hugs and kisses. taking a bath. tries to join in. food. • Places several small items (blocks. verbal request is often accompanied by an insistent gesture. often refuses to cooperate with daily routines that once were enjoyable." "Daddy bye-bye. eating. • Shows increasing understanding of spatial and form discrimination: puts all pegs in a pegboard. Enjoys adult attention. will point to familiar persons. • Tries to make mechanical objects work after watching someone else do so. such as pointing or pulling. • Plays by themselves • • • • • • Enjoys being held and read to. to direct adult attention. • Uses gestures. and toys. clothespins. putting on shoes. typically these are words that refer to animals. ear). • Helps pick up and put away toys. • Speech is 25 to 50 percent intelligible during this period. • Responds to simple questions with "yes" or "no" and appropriate head movement. • Seems aware of reciprocal (back and forth) aspects of conversational exchanges. some turn-taking in other kinds of vocal exchanges. but cannot truly imitate facial expression. produces two-word phrases to express a complete thought (telegraphic speech): "More cookie. "Give Daddy the cup. • Identifies three body parts if someone names them: "Show me your nose (toe." • Indicates a few desired objects and activities by name: "Bye-bye. such as making and imitating sounds. • Responds with some facial movement. cereal pieces) in a container or bottle and then dumps them out. • May have a tantrum when things go wrong or if overly tired or frustrated. wants to try doing things without help." • Follows simple directions. Language • Produces considerable "jargon": puts words and sounds together into speech-like (inflected) patterns. meaning depends on the inflection ("me" may be used to request more cookies or a desire to feed self).Child development stages • Names many everyday objects. resists getting dressed. but does not play cooperatively. Social • less wary of strangers. • Most children with autism are diagnosed at this age. Enjoys the companionship of other children. Recognizes self in mirror. and toys. animals. • Holophrastic speech: uses one word to convey an entire thought. Beginning to assert independence. • Exceedingly curious about people and surroundings. Later." • When asked. places three geometric shapes in large formboard or puzzle. • Acquires and uses five to fifty words. likes to know that an adult is near. Often imitates adult actions in play. 100 . toddlers need to be watched carefully to prevent them from getting into unsafe situations. • Locates familiar objects on request (if child knows location of objects).

etc. • Attends to self-selected activities for longer periods of time. because abdominal muscles are not yet fully developed. fit large pegs into pegboard. Climbs up on chair. Balances on one foot (for a few moments). Unbuttons large buttons. but ironically they enjoy sharing this discovery with others. but may fall. finds a hidden object by looking in last hiding place first. Throws large ball underhand without losing balance. Holds small cup or tumbler in one hand. • Knows where familiar persons should be. Discovering cause and effect: squeezing the cat makes her scratch. little teapot. notes their absence. jumps up and down.Child development stages Psychological Autonomy vs. Want attention. emotional state. unzips large zippers. Stacks four to six objects on top of one another. Scared from dark. Another important advancement is active social play with adults including mirroring and repeating. back swayed. Toddlers begin to learn and exhibit independence. turns. Two year old Physical • Posture is more erect. expresses. Play begins to become interactive. trouble you watching TV. • Recognizes. Begins to use objects for purposes other than intended (may push a block around as a boat). or engrossed in. Opens doors by turning doorknobs. Does simple classification tasks based on single dimension (separates toy dinosaurs from toy cars). (This is what Piaget termed object permanence. 101 . rhymes. the child will indicate readiness for toilet training. can put objects together. 2008) Psychosocial stimulation is vital during the toddler years.g. Cognitive • • • • Eye–hand movements better coordinated. Uses feet to propel wheeled riding toys. and environment. where the dog went. what caused a particular noise. Shame and Doubt (will) (J. eensy weensy spider. abdomen still large and protruding. if not paid start throwing objects. Chasse. • 16 baby teeth almost finished growing out Motor development • • • • • • • • • • • Can walk around obstacles and walk more erect Squats for long periods while playing. and sits down. • Respirations are slow and regular • Body temperature continues to fluctuate with activity. take them apart. start crying loudly under the situation. • Brain reaches about 80 percent of its adult size. Seems fascinated by.) are a great way to encourage and stimulate this area of development. which usually occurs during the sensorimotor stage of Piaget's childhood theory of cognitive development) • Names familiar objects. figuring out situations: where the tennis ball rolled. scribbles. Often achieves toilet training during this year (depending on child's physical and neurological development) although accidents should still be expected. Songs. Climbs stairs unassisted (but not with alternating feet). and finger plays (e. and locates pain. Grasps large crayon with fist.

but seldom interacts directly. Utters three. Receptive language is more developed than expressive language. Refers to self as "me" or sometimes "I" rather than by name: "Me go bye-bye". this is more exaggerated than for others).and four-word statements. belongings placed "where they belong. Physical aggression usually lessens as verbal skills improve. finds it difficult to wait or take turns. Some stammering and other dysfluencies are common. appears to sometimes be overly affectionate in offering hugs and kisses to children • Continues to use physical aggression if frustrated or angry (for some children. such as believing a toy bear is a real bear. Social and emotional • Shows signs of empathy and caring: comforts another child if hurt or frightened. • Temper tantrums likely to peak during this year. but is usually possessive of playthings.Child development stages • Expected to use "magical thinking". • "Bossy" with parents and caregivers. imitates everyday activities: may try to toilet a stuffed animal.[5] • Offers toys to other children. • Enjoys "helping" with household chores. much of a two-year-old's talk has meaning to him or her. plays near others. • Making choices is difficult. often choosing similar toys and activities (parallel play).[4] solitary play is often simple and repetitive. Uses fifty to three-hundred words. extremely difficult to reason with during a tantrum." 102 . Language • • • • • • • • • • • Enjoys participating while being read to. makes demands. Speech is as much as 65 to 70 percent intelligible. expects immediate compliance from adults. vocabulary continuously increasing. • Impatient. • Expresses more curiosity about the world. most two-year olds understand significantly more than they can talk about. shouting "no" becomes automatic. Has broken the linguistic code. uses conventional word order to form more complete sentences. routines carried out exactly as before. • Is able to verbalize needs. still tends to hoard toys. • Often defiant. wants everything "just so". • Tells about objects and events not immediately present (this is both a cognitive and linguistic advance). has no trouble verbalizing "mine. orders them around. Realizes language is effective for getting desired responses. • Watches and imitates the play of other children." Expresses negative statements by tacking on a negative word such as "no" or "not": "Not more milk. in other words. • Ritualistic. wants it both ways. feed a doll." Uses some plurals.

balance momentarily. • Legs grow faster than arms. pounds. uses vertical. Enjoys playing with clay.300 J (1. males are approximately 53% of their adult height and females. head size is in better proportion to the body.500 calories) daily. Jumps on the spot. Shows improved control of crayons or markers. pours liquid from pitcher into another container. Needs minimal assistance eating. Catches a large bounced ball with both arms extended. not in a fist as earlier. such as a cup of milk or bowl of water. Builds a tower of eight or more blocks. Can kick big ball-shaped objects. 57%.Child development stages Three year old Physical • Growth is steady though slower than in first two years. may jump from bottom step. • Posture is more erect. • Usually achieves complete bladder control during this time. aim and distance are limited. • Circumference of head and chest is equal. Can turn pages of a book one at a time Enjoys building with blocks. Carries a container of liquid. • "Baby fat" disappears as neck appears. Pedals a small tricycle. horizontal and circular strokes. but not thoroughly. landing on both feet. without much spilling. 103 . • Adult height can be predicted from measurements of height at three years of age. Motor development • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Walks up and down stairs unassisted. and squeezes it. • Manipulates large buttons and zippers on clothing. Throws a ball overhand. • Needs to consume approximately 6. Holds crayon or marker between first two fingers and thumb (tripod grasp). abdomen no longer protrudes. rolls. brushes own teeth. May begin to show hand dominance. Enjoys swinging on a swing (not too high or too fast). • can jump from low step • can stand up and walk around on tiptoes • "baby" teeth stage over. • Washes and dries hands. Can walk on one foot. using alternating feet. • Slightly knock-kneed.

avoids obstacles and oncoming "traffic. • Threads small wooden beads on a string. Motor Development • • • • • • • • • • • • Walks a straight line (tape or chalk line on the floor). • Indicates negatives by inserting "no" or "not" before a simple noun or verb phrase: "Not baby. guessing." • Answers "What are you doing?". • Becomes more accurate at hitting nails and pegs with hammer. Enjoys stories with riddles. brown dog. and "suspense. Forms shapes and objects out of clay: cookies. snakes. may have an idea in mind." Speech is understandable most of the time. Likes to look at books and may pretend to "read" to others or explain pictures. especially those that relate to home and family events. Four year old Physical Development • Head circumference is usually not measured after age three. Makes relevant comments during stories. trees. Paints and draws with purpose. by the child's appropriate responses to questions and instructions. • Requires approximately 1. • Can run in a circle 104 .Child development stages Cognitive development • • • • • • • Listens attentively to age-appropriate stories. • Hearing acuity can be assessed by child's correct usage of sounds and *Language also. starts." Climbs ladders. and moves around obstacles with ease. Hops on one foot. Builds a tower with ten or more blocks. Holds a crayon or marker using a tripod grasp. playground equipment. mices. simple animals. and "Where?" questions dealing with familiar objects and events. lands with both feet together. Throws a ball overhand.700 calories daily. Runs." Produces verbs with "ing" endings. Produces expanded noun phrases: "big. distance and aim improving. but often has problems implementing it so calls the creation something else. Reproduces some shapes and letters. stops. Pedals and steers a wheeled toy with confidence. "What is this?". often puts "-s" on already pluralized forms: geeses. turns corners. uses "-s" to indicate more than one. Jumps over objects 12 to 15 cm (5 to 6 in) high.

• Understands the sequence of daily events: "When we get up in the morning. and people that are not present. "Milk gone?" To Mother. we get dressed. • A few children are beginning to read simple books. • Imaginary playmates or companions are common." "same." "biggest. but may get so frustrated as to verge on tantrums when problems arise: paint that drips. • Moods change rapidly and unpredictably. • Counts 1 to 7 objects out loud." "baby's." Language • • • • • • • • Uses the prepositions "on. Social development • Outgoing. may throw tantrum over minor frustrations (a block structure that will not balance). paper airplane that will not fold right. holds conversations and shares strong emotions with this invisible friend. • Cooperates with others." and "under. sulk over being left out." • Rote counts to 20 or more. gender. creating silly Language. • Answers appropriately when asked what to do if tired. 105 . • Likes stories about how things grow and how things operate. • Enjoys role-playing and make-believe activities.Child development stages Cognitive • Can recognize that certain words sound similar • Names eighteen to twenty uppercase letters. "Who?"." and "more". can recognize and identify missing puzzle parts (of person. Recites and sings simple songs and rhymes. have breakfast. friendly." "Daddy went to work. Changes tone of voice and sentence structure to adapt to listener's level of under-standing: To baby brother. "Why?"." Speech is almost entirely intelligible. overly enthusiastic at times. • Boasts." Answers "Whose?". events. such as alphabet books with only a few words per page and many pictures. objects. and sometimes own telephone number. • Delights in wordplay. or hungry. tests the limits with "bathroom" talk. and go to school." • When looking at pictures. seeks frequent adult approval. car. Begins to correctly use the past tense of verbs: "Mommy closed the door. crying the next. brush our teeth. "Did the baby drink all of his milk?" • States first and last name. animal)." Uses possessives consistently: "hers. siblings' names." Refers to activities. cold. not always able to take turns or to understand taking turns under some conditions. • Insists on trying to do things independently. tattles on other children." "theirs. selects the picture that has the "most houses" or the "biggest dogs. but not always in order • follows two to three step directions given individually or in a group • may put the "ed" on the end of words such as "I goed outside and I played. • Very good storytellers. • Shows pride in accomplishments. and "bends" the truth with made-up stories or claims of boldness." "in. exaggerates. Writes several letters and sometimes their name. • Understands the concepts of "tallest. • Often appears selfish. and "How many?" Produces elaborate sentence structures: "The cat ran under the house before I could see what color it was. participates in group activities. laughing one minute.

Cuts on the line with scissors (not perfectly).3 ft) away. Cognitive • • • • • • • • • • Forms rectangle from two triangular cuts. Motor development • Walks backwards. Walks a balance beam. Understands the concepts of smallest and shortest. beginning to have "best" friends.500 J (1. places objects in order from shortest to tallest. many children count to 100. may yell angrily rather than hit to make a point. Body is adult-like in proportion. Rote counts to 20 and above. C. Catches a ball thrown from 1 m (3. Understands concept of same shape. O. Builds steps with set of small blocks." 106 . Identifies objects with specified serial position: first. smallest to largest. and early: "I got up early. Five year old Physical • • • • • Head size is approximately that of an adult's. such as color and form. Sorts a variety of objects so that all things in the group have a single common feature (classification skill: all are food items or boats or animals). Builds three-dimensional structures with small cubes by copying from a picture or model.800 calories) daily Visual tracking and binocular vision are well developed. L. usually with training wheels. U. before anyone else. Rides a tricycle or wheeled toy with speed and skillful steering. Recognizes numerals from 1 to 10. Understands the concepts of less than: "Which bowl has less water?" • Understands the terms dark. May begin to lose "baby" (deciduous) teeth. may begin to color within the lines. • Walks unassisted up and down stairs. Learns to skip using alternative feet. Reproduces many shapes and letters: square. • Establishes close relationships with playmates. H. toe to heel.Child development stages • Relies (most of the time) on verbal rather than Physical aggression. Can touch toes without flexing knees. triangle." • Relates clock time to daily schedule: "Time to turn on TV when the little hand points to 5. • • • • • • • • • • • • • May learn to turn somersaults (should be taught the right way in order to avoid injury). T. Demonstrates fair control of pencil or marker. Requires approximately 7. Balances on either foot with good control for ten seconds. Jumps or hops forward ten times in a row without falling. light. It was still dark. some children learning to ride bicycles. last. I. second. Hand dominance is fairly well established. threatens: "You can't come to my birthday party" • Name-calling and taunting are often used as ways of excluding other children. Sorts objects on the basis of two dimensions. A. same size. alternating feet.

Understands the concept of half. much longer sentences are not unusual. and parents' names. Boasts about accomplishments. Heart rate and respiratory rates are close to adults. Many children know the alphabet and names of upper." Uses past-tense inflection (-ed) appropriately to mark regular verbs: "jumped. Uses past tense of irregular verbs consistently: "went.100 J (1. Recognizes and identifies coins. Defines simple words by function: a ball is to bounce." "rained. a bed is to sleep in. Identifies and names four to eight colours.and lowercase letters.700 J to 7. Uses "would" and "could" appropriately. (Berk. 2007). if below 20/40 should see a professional. Baby teeth beginning to be replaced by permanent ones. Six year old Physical • • • • • • • Weight gains reflect significant increases in muscle mass.700 calories) a day. Knows what a calendar is for." Social development • • • • • • • • • Enjoys and often has one or two focus friendships. Body may appear lanky as through period of rapid growth. starting with the two lower front teeth 20/20 eyesight. Asks innumerable questions: Why? What? Where? When? Eager to learn new things. States the name of own city or town." "caught. Needs comfort and reassurance from adults but is less open to comfort. Has better self-control over swings of emotions. Recognizes the humor in simple jokes. makes up jokes and riddles. suggests imaginative and elaborate play ideas.600 to 1. calls person to phone or takes a brief message • • • • Speech is almost entirely grammatically correct." "swam. The most common vision problem during middle childhood is myopia. takes turns. Produces sentences with five to seven words. beginning to count and save money. Likes entertaining people and making them laugh. 107 . shares toys.Child development stages • • • • • • • Some children can tell time on the hour: five o'clock. Shows affection and caring towards others especially those “below” them or in pain Generally subservient to parent or caregiver requests. Uses 6. Language development • • • • • • • • Vocabulary of 1. Participates in group play and shared activities with other children. Tells a familiar story while looking at pictures in a book. is generous." "washed. birthday. Answers telephone appropriately. two o'clock. or nearsightedness.500 words plus. can say how many pieces an object has when it's been cut in half. Plays cooperatively (can lapse).

Social and emotional • Uses language rather than tantrums or physical aggression to express displeasure: "That's mine! Give it back. vocabulary of 10. puzzles and mazes • Enjoys the challenge of puzzles. • Can't handle things not going their own way • Does not understand ethical behavior or moral standards especially when doing things that have not been given rules 108 . string (like shoes). • Often can't view the world from another’s point of view • Self-perceived failure can make the child easily disappointed and frustrated.Child development stages Motor development • Gains greater control over large and fine motor skills. swim. • Able to trace objects. g/q. p/g. Language • • • • • • • • • • Can identify right and left hands fairly consistently. and throwing est. tomorrow. and praise. • Understands time (today. • Can Tie Laces. Talks a lot.000–14. asks many questions. Uses appropriate verb tenses. • Reverses or confuse certain letters: b/d. • Folds and cuts paper into simple shapes. t/f. though • Can concentrate effort but not always consistently. word order. and games that involve matching letters and words with pictures. • Recognizes some words by sight. climbing." • Talks self through steps required in simple problem-solving situations (though the "logic" may be unclear to adults). • Has fun with problem solving and sorting activities like stacking. yesterday) and simple motion (things go faster than others). the humor is far from subtle. may complain excessively about minor hurts to gain more attention. often. • Anxious to please. Experiments with slang and profanity and finds it funny. paper-and-pencil mazes. Loves telling jokes and riddles. expresses fear that parents may die. jumping. • Has mood swings towards primary caregiver depending on the day • Friendship with parent is less depended on but still needs closeness and nurturing. and sentence structure. works at tasks for longer periods of time. • Making things is enjoyed. • functioning which facilitates learning to ride a bicycle. Holds onto positive beliefs involving the unexplainable (magic or fantasy) Arrives at some understanding about death and dying. swing a bat. you dummy. Learns 5 to 10 words a day. Able to carry on adult-like conversations. though some clumsiness persists. or kick a ball. needs and seeks adult approval. • Enjoys vigorous running. • Has trouble staying still. movements are more precise and deliberate.000. attempts to sound out words • In some cases the child may be reading well. reassurance. counting and sorting activities. • Recognizes seasons and major activities done in the times. Enthusiastic and inquisitive about surroundings and everyday events. • Span of attention increases.

org/Disabilities/Milestones/Pages/Default. Act Early. pp. pp. K. Segal. Handbook of child psychology: Vol. tsbvi. uk/ simplepage. G. including milestones for speech and language development in children 109 . G.)... M.aspx) National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. B.htm) University of Michigan Health System • Talking Point (http://www. values are based on others enforced values. 27. co. gpnotebook. htm [4] Parten. References [1] Seminars in child and adolescent psychiatry (second edition) Ed.” campaign (http://www. jsp?_nfpb=true& _& ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED425832& ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no& accno=ED425832). Royal College of Psychiatrists (2005) ISBN 1-904671-13-6 [2] http:/ / www. [5] Ruben. New York: Newmarket Press.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/index. eric. Fein. gov/ ERICWebPortal/ custom/ portlets/ recordDetails/ detailmini. Marilyn (1998). (1932). Gowers. and animals. and social development (4th ed.693–744). Hetherington (Ed.umich.html) – Information for parents on early childhood development and developmental disabilities • Developmental Milestones (http://www. 243–269. edu/ Education/ infant/ page3. Your Child At Play: Three to Five Years (http:/ / www.med.org. External links • CDC's "Learn the Signs.edu/yourchild/topics/devmile. Socialization. Social participation among preschool children. ISBN 1-55704-337-X. NICHCY • YourChild: Developmental Milestones (http://www. 292..cdc. H. (1983). In E. New York: Wiley. Simon G. Play. ed. cfm?ID=-919273423 [3] http:/ / www. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology.nichcy. M. & Vandenberg.Child development stages • Understands when he or she has been thought to be "bad". 4.uk) – Information for parents and people that work with children. noises. personality. • May be increasingly fearful of the unknown like things in the dark.talkingpoint.

The desire to understand animals has made ethology a rapidly growing field. 110 . on the basis of associationistic psychology. is construed as a sub-topic of psychology rather than as one of biology. tending to describe it as instinctive. with a strong relation to certain other disciplines such as neuroanatomy. aggression) in a number of unrelated animals. at least in North America. Although many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behavior throughout history.g. many aspects of animal communication. ecology. teach in psychology departments.[3] An earlier. and often study one type of behavior (e. and evolution. as opposed to ethology. sometimes. joint winners of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine." the purpose of which would be explanation of individual and national differences in character. Etymology The term ethology derives from the Greek word èthos (ήθος). the modern discipline of ethology is generally considered to have begun during the 1930s with the work of Dutch biologist Nikolaas Tinbergen and Austrian biologists Konrad Lorenz and Karl von Frisch. "the study of") is the scientific study of animal behavior. slightly different sense of the term was proposed by John Stuart Mill in his 1843 System of Logic. meaning character. "ethology. while ethology was stronger in Europe. Relationship with comparative psychology Comparative psychology also studies animal behaviour. early comparative psychologists concentrated on the study of learning and tended to research behaviour in artificial situations. learning. and -λογία. Other words that derive from ethos" include ethics[2] and ethical. whereas early ethologists concentrated on behaviour in natural situations. animal emotions. The term was first popularized by American myrmecologist William Morton Wheeler in 1902. Ethologists were more interested in understanding behaviour in a wide range of species to facilitate principled comparisons across taxonomic groups. Furthermore. In addition. physiology. -logia. neurobiology. Ethologists have made much more use of a truly comparative method than comparative psychologists have. and even sexual conduct that experts long thought they understood. but. animal culture. Ethologists are typically interested in a behavioral process rather than in a particular animal group. and a sub-topic of zoology. have been reexamined. most ethologists. for most of the twentieth century. A practical difference is that early comparative psychologists concentrated on gaining extensive knowledge of the behaviour of very few species. Despite the historical divergence. It is a strong belief among scientists that the mechanisms on which behavioural processes are based are the same that cause the evolution of the living species: there is therefore a strong association between these two fields. ethology researches animal behaviour in the context of what is known about animal anatomy. "character".[1] Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science. and phylogenetic history. The two approaches are complementary rather than competitive. where comparative psychology researches animal behaviour in the context of what is known about human psychology. such as neuroethology. New fields have developed. conflicts of opinion about matters of substance. This use of the word was never adopted. Since the turn of the 21st century.[4] He recommended the development of a new science. but they do result in different perspectives and. and new conclusions reached. Historically. comparative psychology developed most strongly in North America. ethos.Ethology Ethology Ethology (from Greek: ἦθος.

people believed animal species were eternal and immutable. According to this theory. created with a specific purpose. instead concentrated on behaviours that can be called instinctive. that animal organs and behaviour can change according to the way they are used. He pursued his Charles Darwin (1809–1882) interest in behaviour by encouraging his protégé George Romanes. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. the most common theory among scientists was still the concept of scala naturae. that did not gain scientific support.[3] This provided an objective. humans included. whose book. . When Charles Darwin went to the Galapagos Islands. and second. which subsequent researchers could check and supplement. influenced many ethologists. with complexity increasing progressively toward the top. Their beginning for studying the behaviour of a new species was to construct an ethogram (a description of the main types of natural behaviour with their frequencies of occurrence). occupied by human beings. anecdotal cognitivism. that those characteristics can transmit from one generation to the next (the example of the giraffe whose neck becomes longer while trying to reach the upper leaves of a tree is well-known). In the Western world of the time. who investigated animal learning and intelligence using an anthropomorphic method. Other early ethologists. In one sense. he was well aware of Lamarck's theories and was influenced by them. as this seemed the only possible explanation for the incredible variety of living beings and their surprising adaptation to their habitats. in that they occur in all members of a species under specified circumstances. The second statement is that every living organism. or natural.[3] Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744 . ethologists have been concerned particularly with the evolution of behaviour and the understanding of behaviour in terms of the theory of natural selection. the first modern ethologist was Charles Darwin. tends to reach a greater level of perfection.Ethology 111 Scala naturae and Lamarck's theories Until the 19th century.1829) was the first biologist to describe a complex theory of evolution. cumulative base of data about behaviour. proposed by Aristotle. living beings were classified on an ideal pyramid that represented the simplest animals on the lower levels. such as Oskar Heinroth and Julian Huxley. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) Theory of evolution by natural selection and the beginnings of ethology Because ethology is considered a topic of biology. His theory substantially comprised two statements: first.

instinct means a series of predictable behaviors for fixed action patterns. 112 . it also attempts to move other egg-shaped objects. Ethologists noted that the stimuli that released FAPs were commonly features of the appearance or behaviour of other members of the animal's own species. or dummy fish that a territorial male stickleback fish fought more violently than a real invading male if the dummy had a brighter-colored underside. Harvard psychologist Deirdre Barrett has done research pointing out how easily humans also respond to supernormal stimuli for sexual. These FAPs could then be compared across species. The most sophisticated investigation of this kind was the study by Karl von Frisch of the so-called "dance language" related to bee communication.[6] For ethologists. If the egg is taken away. a behaviour only made of fixed action patterns would be particularly rigid and inefficient. was the identification of fixed action patterns (FAPs).[7] Another well-known case is the classic experiments by Tinbergen on the Graylag Goose. when they exaggerate the releasers found in natural objects. Such schemes are only acted when a precise stimulating signal is present. mother's regurgitating process to feed her offspring. pulling its head back as if an imaginary egg is still being maneuvered by the underside of its beak.Ethology Fixed action patterns and animal communication An important development. associated with the name of Konrad Lorenz though probably due more to his teacher. as does the ability to change the individual's responses based on its experience. reducing the probability of survival and reproduction.[8] However. Lorenz popularized FAPs as instinctive responses that would occur reliably in the presence of identifiable stimuli (called sign stimuli or releasing stimuli). feeding.[5] Lorenz developed an interesting theory of the evolution of animal communication based on his observations of the nature of fixed action patterns and the circumstances in which animals emit them. door knob. the more its behaviour is "intelligent" (in the sense of being guided by experience rather than stereotyped FAPs). or even a volleyball back into the nest. An important and much quoted study of the Anatidae (ducks and geese) by Heinroth used this technique. which stimulates the beak to stimulate regurgitating reflex. the goose rolls a displaced egg near its nest back to the others with its beak. These exaggerated releasers for instincts were named supernormal stimuli by Tinbergen. the animal continues with the behaviour. so the learning process has great importance. It can be said that the more the brain is complex and the life of the individual long.[10] However. can elicit a stronger version of the behavior than the natural object. Oskar Heinroth. A notable example of a releaser is the beak movements in Kelp Gull chicks peck at red spot on mother's many bird species performed by the newborns. they are known as releasers. Instinct The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines instinct as a largely inheritable and unalterable tendency of an organism to make a complex and specific response to environmental stimuli without involving reason. nurturing. and social instincts. The sight of the displaced egg triggers this mechanism. Such objects.[9] Tinbergen found he could produce supernormal stimuli for most instincts in animals—such as cardboard butterflies that male butterflies preferred to mate with if they had darker stripes than a real female. and the similarities and differences between behaviour could be easily compared with the similarities and differences in morphology. such as a giant plaster egg. and they were able to prove how important forms of animal communication could be mediated by a few simple FAPs. so that the goose ignores its own displaced egg in favor of the giant dummy egg. When such signals act as communication among members of the same species. Like similar waterfowl.

A well-documented example of imitative learning occurred in a group of macaques on Hachijojima Island. the other squirrels ignore the signal. linked to another one that may not have anything to do with the first one.[13] and was a second important finding of Lorenz. Such discrimination can be based on a number of factors. putting it into the water with one hand. picking the potatoes from the sand. Imprinting Being able to discriminate the members of one's own species is also of fundamental importance for reproductive success. when they gave birth. Japan. An example of learning by habituation is the one observed in squirrels: When one of them feels threatened. However. they started venturing onto the beach. or the excitement of a dog whenever it sees a collar as a prelude for a walk. This kind of learning is called imprinting. The macaques lived in the inland forest until the 1960s. when a group of researchers started giving them potatoes on the beach: soon. Example of imprinting in a moose Imitation Imitation is often an important type of learning. and he discovered that this response could be imitated by an arbitrary stimulus if the eggs were incubated artificially and the stimulus were presented during a critical period that continued for a few days after hatching.[12] An example of associative behaviour is observed when a common goldfish goes close to the water surface whenever a human is going to feed it. and cleaning and eating them. where a stimulus is. they taught this practice to their young. this important type of learning only takes place in a very limited period of time. and cleaning it with the other. an individual was observed bringing a potato to the sea. The first studies of associative learning were made by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. Lorenz observed that the young of birds such as geese and chickens followed their mothers spontaneously from almost the first day after they were hatched. based on the experience. if the signal comes from an individual that has caused many false alarms.Ethology 113 Learning Learning occurs in many ways. However. Her behaviour was soon imitated by the individuals living in contact with her.[11] This process consists of ignoring persistent or useless stimuli.[14] About one year later. The monkeys not only spent more time with their imitators but also preferred to engage in a simple task with them even when provided with the option of performing the same task with a non-imitator. the others hear its signal and go to the nearest refuge. one of the most elementary being habituation.[16] . Another common way of learning is by association.[15] The National Institutes of Health reported that capuchin monkeys preferred the company of researchers who imitated them to that of researchers who did not.

Every time a group of poultry cohabitate for a certain time length. In these groups. like in bees. Higher level chickens are easily distinguished by their well-cured aspect. one chicken dominates the others and can peck without being pecked.[17] Of course. as is cooperative behaviour. However. fully predicted by it. could be explained through an evolving mechanism that emphasizes the reproductive success of as many individuals as possible. role assignments and reciprocal dependence.Ethology 114 Mating and the fight for supremacy Individual reproduction is the most important phase in the proliferation of individuals or genes within a species: for this reason. When biologists interested in evolution theory first started examining social behaviour. not all behaviours are altruistic. on the contrary. Group size is a major aspect of their social environment. in which case the pecking order re-establishes from scratch. animals fight for the right to reproduce. but once established. tend to live in groups. including humans. Often in social life. there exist complex mating rituals. some apparently unanswerable questions arose. While the pecking order is establishing. frequent and violent fights can happen. These behaviours may be examples of altruism. an individual would risk its own life to save the rest of the group. A common example of fighting for social and sexual supremacy is the so-called pecking order among poultry. such as how the birth of sterile castes. It is more difficult to understand the mechanism through which altruistic behaviour initially developed. and so on. they establish a pecking order. or why. revengeful behaviour was at one point claimed to have been observed exclusively in Homo sapiens. A second chicken can peck all the others except the first. The Stickleback's complex mating ritual was studied by Niko Tinbergen and is regarded as a notable example of a FAP. For example. It may be regarded as a sort of symbiosis among individuals of the same species: a society is composed of a group of individuals belonging to the same species living within well-defined rules on food management.[19] Classification of social behaviours Type of behaviour Effect on the donor Effect on the receiver Egoistic Increases fitness Decreases fitness Cooperative Increases fitness Increases fitness Altruistic Decreases fitness Increases fitness Revengeful Decreases fitness Decreases fitness The existence of egoism through natural selection does not pose any question to evolution theory and is. Social life is probably a complex and effective survival strategy. other species have been reported to be vengeful. including reports of vengeful camels[18] and chimpanzees. which can be very complex even if they are often regarded as fixed action patterns (FAPs). as indicated by the table below. as well as social supremacy. . Living in groups Several animal species. as opposed to lower level chickens. amongst animals living in small groups like squirrels. it is broken only when other individuals enter the group.

and develop early within an organism's lifespan (development).[20] Growth of the field Due to the work of Lorenz and Tinbergen. For example. war. but the immediate cause of eating is hunger (causation). and what early experiences are necessary for the animal to display the behaviour? • Evolutionary history — How does the behaviour compare with similar behaviour in related species. ethology began to develop strongly in North America. zoologists. The Human Ethology Bulletin. 115 . ethology developed strongly in continental Europe during the years prior to World War II. and how has it been modified by recent learning? • Development — How does the behaviour change with age. many biologists. and how might it have begun through the process of phylogeny? These explanations are complementary rather than mutually exclusive—all instances of behaviour require an explanation at each of these four levels. primatologists. Most researchers in the field have some sort of advanced degree and specialty and subspecialty training in the aforementioned fields. the function of eating is to acquire nutrients (which ultimately aids survival and reproduction). and ethology became stronger in the UK. and physicians study ethology and other related fields such as animal psychology. Niko Tinbergen. Tinbergen moved to the University of Oxford. and Patrick Bateson at the Sub-department of Animal Behaviour of the University of Cambridge. ethologist Peter Verbeek introduced the term "Peace Ethology" as a sub-discipline of Human Ethology that is concerned with issues of human conflict. and von Frisch were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973 for their work of developing ethology. and peacekeeping behavior. with the additional influence of William Thorpe. the study of animal social groups. In 1972. and animal cognition. reconciliation. Tinbergen. veterinarians. anthropologists. Lorenz. such as the Ethology Journal. too.[21] In this period. along with actual ethologists. conflict resolution. Hunger and eating are evolutionarily ancient and are found in many species (evolutionary history). It is easy to confuse such questions—for example. to argue that people eat because they're hungry and not to acquire nutrients—without realizing that the reason people experience hunger is because it causes them to acquire nutrients. and has a number of journals covering developments in the subject. peacemaking. Some research has begun to study atypical or disordered animal behavior. located in the village of Madingley. argued that ethology always needed to include four kinds of explanation in any instance of behaviour: • Function — How does the behaviour affect the animal's chances of survival and reproduction? Why does the animal respond that way instead of some other way? • Causation — What are the stimuli that elicit the response. the International Society for Human Ethology was founded to promote exchange of knowledge and opinions concerning human behavior gained by applying ethological principles and methods and published their journal.Ethology Tinbergen's four questions for ethologists Lorenz's collaborator.[3] After the war.[22] Ethology is now a well-recognised scientific discipline. Robert Hinde. In 2008. in a paper published in the journal Behaviour.[23] Today.

It has also been driven by the stronger. html) for 1973 Medicine Award to Tinbergen. Robert Ardrey's book The Social Contract: A Personal Inquiry into the Evolutionary Sources of Order and Disorder was published. the study of behaviour has been much more concerned with social aspects. in the future. Skinner • Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt • Lynne Isbell • Barbara Smuts • John Endler • Julian Jaynes • William Homan Thorpe • Jean-Henri Fabre • Erich Klinghammer • Niko Tinbergen • Dian Fossey • John Krebs • Jakob von Uexküll • Karl von Frisch • Konrad Lorenz • Frans de Waal • Douglas P. p. ethology. Letters from the Hive: An Intimate History of Bees. Crook published an important paper in which he distinguished comparative ethology from social ethology. Honey. Sharyn. Sociobiology has more recently developed into evolutionary psychology. (2009). F. iUniverse. the English ethologist John H. Janice R. sociobiology. O. Robert Trivers. Walking the Way of the Horse: Exploring the Power of the Horse-Human Relationship. 251. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. and William Hamilton. Springer. Insect Behaviour. The related development of behavioural ecology has also helped transform ethology. [5] Buchmann. ISBN 9780595479085. Karen Saucier Lundy (2009). Gould • Patricia McConnell • Amotz Zahavi [26] [25] References [1] Nobel Prize page (http:/ / nobelprize. 13.MQUP. ISBN 9780763717865. so the modern scientific study of behaviour offers a more or less seamless spectrum of approaches: from animal cognition to more traditional comparative psychology. Sebeok • Richard Dawkins • Julian Huxley • B. ISBN 9780773531994. [4] Bourg. and since that time. ISBN 9789048123889. Community health nursing: caring for the public's health. Leif (2008). 105. p. a substantial rapprochement with comparative psychology has occurred. Darwinism associated with Wilson. E. McGill-Queen's Press . org/ nobel_prizes/ medicine/ laureates/ 1973/ index. and argued that much of the ethology that had existed so far was really comparative ethology—examining animals as individuals—whereas. Wilson's book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis appeared in 1975. From revolution to ethics: May 1968 and contemporary French thought. ethologists would need to concentrate on the behaviour of social groups of animals and the social structure within them. Furthermore. and von Frisch for contributions in ethology [2] Janes. but more sophisticated. 113. List of ethologists People who have made notable contributions to ethology (many are comparative psychologists): • Robert Ardrey • Judith Hand • Desmond Morris • John C Angel • Clarence Ellis Harbison • Martin Moynihan • Adrian Simpson • Heini Hediger • Caitlin O'Connell-Rodwell • Patrick Bateson • Oskar Heinroth • Manny Puig • John Bowlby • Robert Hinde • Irene Pepperberg • Donald Broom • Bernard Hollander • George Romanes • Marian Stamp Dawkins • Sarah Hrdy • Thomas A. [6] Hallberg. . Wilson • James L. Stephen (2006). ISBN 9780553382662.[24] The book and study investigated animal behaviour and then compared human behaviour to it as a similar phenomenon. p. Random House of Canada. Lorenz. and Humankind.Ethology 116 Social ethology and recent developments In 1970. Fry • Aubrey Manning • William Morton Wheeler • Jane Goodall • Eugene Marais • E. 155. Julian (2007). O. p. Also in 1970. and behavioural ecology. [3] Matthews.

1497-1524 [24] Ardrey. Books. MIT Press. Understanding attachment: parenting.nel.umich. [12] Hudmon. p.gov. ucdavis. Alan Bond) Diagrams on Tinbergen's four questions • The Four Areas of Biology (http://www-personal. html Further reading • Klein.at/) Center for the Integrative Study of Animal behaviour (http://www. Sociobiology: the new synthesis. com/ books?id=daomTGYZuW4C& printsec=frontcover#PPA79.edu/~animal/) Introduction to ethology (http://cas. 10 October 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-08. p. com/ s?url=search-alias=stripbooks& field-keywords=supernormal+ stimuli& sprefix=supernorm).M1). Amazon.ac. amazon. [23] Verbeek. Norton. p. [15] "Japanese Macaque . .pdf). [21] Bateson. ISBN 9780521407090. 19. Blueplanetbiomes. child care.ac.google. W M (2011). p. 81. 184. edu/ lynneisbell/ index. (1951) The Study of Instinct. p. Paul Patrick Gordon (1991). Neuroendocrinology Letters (21): 477–481.London. 'Accessible to the lay reader and acceptable to the scientific community' (The Daily Telegraph). [16] "Imitation Promotes Social Bonding in Primates. 170.ca/wcvm/herdmed/applied-ethology/) The International Society for Human Ethology (http://evolution.ac. ISBN 9780674000896. N.indiana.pdf) 117 . . Niko 1953 The Herring Gull's World . . Edward O. google. August 13. [8] Tinbergen.com. Z. (2000).M1). anthro. Oxford University Press. and emotional development. Retrieved 2011-11-08. Greenwood Publishing Group. org/ japanese_macaque.edu/21_6/ NEL21062000X001_Klein_.com. p. Learning and memory. Deirdre. htm). Harvard University Press. gov/ news/ health/ aug2009/ nichd-13. Robert Andrew Wilson (2001). [25] http:/ / www. blueplanetbiomes. [19] "Beyond Revenge" (http:/ / books.National Institutes of Health (NIH)" (http:/ / www. edu/ becCaitlin/ [26] http:/ / www.behav. [11] Keil. Altruism and aggression: biological and social origins. 35. Supernormal Stimuli: How Primal Urges Overran Their Evolutionary Purpose.Macaca fuscata" (http:/ / www. 479. Atheneum. com/ books?id=eJFlGdPEBfYC& printsec=frontcover#PPA338.. [18] "The Ape and the Sushi Master" (http:/ / books. nih. Jean (2006). [17] Cummings. ISBN 9780791086384. • Karen Shanor and Jagmeet Kanwal: Bats Sing. Retrieved 2011-11-08. 248. [10] "Barrett. Andrew (2005).edu/tietjen/Ethology/introduction_to_ethology. Carolyn Zahn-Waxler and Ronald Iannotti (1991).htm) Applied Ethology (http://www. A Basic Theory of Neuropsychoanalysis. "The ethological approach to the study of human behavior" (http://www. p.univie. htm). Nih. 2010" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-11-08.edu/~nesse/fourquestions.bellarmine.unl. NY NY: W. Cambridge University Press. anthro. Mark.com. Books. Mice Giggle: Revealing the Secret Lives of Animals.edu/biosciaviancog/) University of Nebraska (Alan Kamil." Behaviour 145.W. 2009 News Release . [22] Encyclopaedia Britannica (1975). Icon (2009). Princeton University Press.php/) • Center for Avian Cognition (http://digitalcommons.uibk. ISBN 9780262731447.at/ishe/) — aims at promoting ethological perspectives in the scientific study of humans worldwide • Abstracts of the XXIX Ethological Conference (http://www. 2009-08-13. New York.at/~c720126/humanethologie/ ws/medicus/block1/4BQ_E.org/IEC/default. google. [13] Mercer. . Karnac Books. p. Infobase Publishing. The MIT encyclopedia of the cognitive sciences. Retrieved 2011-11-08. External links • • • • • Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognitive Research (http://www.org. (2000). Peter.anthro.google. ucla.pdf) • The Four Areas of Biology AND levels of inquiry (http://homepage. Robert (1970). Frank C. [20] Barrett et al. The Development and integration of behaviour: essays in honour of Robert Hinde. Yearbook of science and the future. [14] Wilson. The Social Contract: A Personal Inquiry into the Evolutionary Sources of Order and Disorder.Ethology [7] Bernstein. ISBN 9780521423670.usask. (2002) Human Evolutionary Psychology. Collins [9] Tinbergen. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781855758094. (2008) "Peace Ethology. ISBN 9780275982171.kli. 7. .

examines the dwelling of the prospective parents. and their willingness to share with an adopted child the fact that they are adopted. and to rule out those who are not fit to be parents. In some places.[1] [2] Even where it is not legally mandated. it may be required by an adoption agency. and the well-being of the neighborhood where the home is located. medical records. as its name implies. A home study can be used both to aid the prospective parents in preparing to raise an adoptive child. a credit check. google. Criticism of home studies Home studies are criticized by many who feel they are intrusive. com/ books?id=uJnRIt_XsjsC& pg=PA54& dq=%22home+ study%22adoption& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html [4] http:/ / books. htm 118 . and an examination of the home. different information may be sought during a home study. Depending on the location and agency. a criminal background check of the prospective parents. their understanding of the relationship between adoptive parents and children. In most cases. screeners are instructed to be thorough in their examinations.[4] There is typically a cost to a home study. or who feel that there may be discrimination against certain people who are perfectly capable of parenting. References [1] http:/ / books. family background. and in all international adoptions. com/ books?id=PGuRz2i5y1sC& pg=PA144& dq=%22home+ study%22adoption& lr=& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html [2] http:/ / home-study. the prospective adoptive parents are responsible to cover the cost. which is usually several hundred to several thousand US dollars. google. Therefore. com/ books?id=rIA0BAyVLTgC& pg=PA20& vq=%22home+ study%22& dq=%22home+ study%22adoption& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html& source=gbs_search_s& cad=0 [6] http:/ / adoption. but are ruled out due to various issues.[3] The ultimate purpose of a home study is for the benefit of the child. fire safety. Factors pertaining to the people may include their desire to adopt. a home study is required by law. employment history. com/ books?id=p7ReHKEYbiMC& pg=PA20& vq=%22home+ study%22& dq=%22home+ study%22adoption& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html& source=gbs_search_s& cad=0 [5] http:/ / books. about. com/ od/ adopting/ a/ homestudy. Information The types of information that may be sought from a home study include the determination if there is abuse in the past. com/ [3] http:/ / books. not the parents. google. sanitation. google.[5] [6] A home study.Adoption home study Adoption home study A home study or homestudy is a screening of the home and life of prospective adoptive parents prior to allowing an adoption to take place. Factors that may be taken into account include the cleanliness and condition of the home. adoption.

Child protection Child protection Child protection is used to describe a set of usually government-run services designed to protect children and young people who are underage and to encourage family stability.760 children died as the result of child abuse and neglect. The United Nations has addressed child abuse as a human rights issue. love and understanding… should be afforded the right to survival. children's aid. and investigation of alleged child abuse.2 children per 1000 were in out of home placement. To prevent an uprising from dispossessed parents: "We shall have to invent some ingenious kind of lots which the less worthy may draw on each occasion of our bringing them together. which are often collectively termed child abuse: • Child sexual abuse • Neglect including the failure to take adequate measures to safeguard a child from harm and/or gross negligence in providing for a child's basic needs: • Physical abuse • Psychological abuse The United States government's Administration for Children and Families reported that in 2004 approximately 3."[4] Provincial or state governments child protection legislation which empowers the government department or agency to provide services in the area and to intervene into families where child abuse or other problems are suspected. 8. cultural and social life.” 119 . adoption services. department of child and family services. and then they will accuse their own ill-luck and not the rulers. services aimed at supporting at-risk families so they can remain intact. in an atmosphere of happiness. There is some consistency in the nature of laws. 1.[3] History The concept of a state sanctioned child welfare system dates back to Plato's Republic. should grow up in a family environment. to protection from harmful influences. department of children's services.g.000 children were determined to have been abused or neglected and an estimated 1. Plato theorised that the interests of the child could be served by removing children from the care of their parents and placing them into state custody. The agency that manages these services has various names in different provinces and states. to develop to the fullest.[2] In 2008. though the application of the laws varies across the country. e. abuse and exploitation. Most children who come to the attention of the child welfare system do so because of any of the following situations.490 children died that year because of abuse or neglect.3 children per 1000 were victims of child abuse and neglect and 10. adding a section specifically to children in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “Recognizing that the child.5 million children were involved in investigations of alleged abuse or neglect in the US. and to participate fully in family. In 2007.[1] Child abuse impacts the most vulnerable populations with children under age five years accounting for 76% of fatalities. for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality. These typically include foster care.. while an estimated 872.

the Adoption Assistance Act[14] was introduced as a way to manage the high numbers of children in placement. the focus of federal child welfare policy changed to try to address permanence for the large numbers of foster children care.[9] In 1961. Changes in the Adoptions and Safe Families Act showed a interest in both protecting children’s safety and developing permanency.” [8] Shortly thereafter.[7] In addition to family preservation services.[13] In 1980.[13] This led to the introduction of the home visitation models. but also shortened time lines required for permanence.Child protection U. creating regulations that adoptions could not be delayed or denied due to issues of race. which required states “to prevent.[7] [17] ASFA introduced the idea of “concurrent planning” which demonstrated attempts to reunify families as the first plan. the medical profession began to take notice of what they believed to be intentional injuries.[13] Several pieces of federal legislation attempted to ease the process of adoption including Adoption Assistance Act. due to improved technology in diagnostic radiology. fueled in part by the civil rights movement.[7] Issues of abuse and neglect were addressed in the Social Security Act in 1930. The 1994 Multi Ethnic Placement Act. Rather than allow these children to become institutionalized or continue to live on the streets. the Children's Aid Society[5] was founded in response to the problem of orphaned or abandoned children living in New York. there were also changing views about the role of the child in society. leading to termination of parental rights should these efforts fail. 1992 Child Abuse. 18 states had some version of county child welfare boards whose purpose was to coordinate public and private child related work.[15] 1988 Child Abuse and Prevention and Adoption and Family Services Act. much of which guides current practice. congress took the first steps toward enacting federal legislature to address the issue of child abuse. but typically with the intention of helping these families work their farms.”[9] At this same time.[12] This legislation not only opened the door for consideration of cultural issues while stressing ideas that children should be with their families. Domestic Violence and Adoption and Family Services Act [16] . History In 1853. color or national origin of the child or the adoptive parent. Dr. President Roosevelt convened the White House Conference on Child Dependency.” Outrage over this case started an organized effort against child maltreatment [8] In 1909. which created a publicly funded volunteer organization to “establish and publicize standards of child care.” [8] In the 1940s and 1950s.[6] [7] In 1874. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act[11] was passed in 1974.[17] This law requires counties to provide “reasonable efforts” (treatment) to preserve or reunify families. but to have a back-up plan so as not to delay permanency for children (Michell. the children were placed in the first “foster” homes.S. which provided funding for intervention for “neglected and dependent children in danger of becoming delinquent.[7] Although this legislation addressed some of the complaints from earlier pieces of legislation around ensuring due process for parents. This act was passed in response to concerns that large numbers of Native American Children were being separated from their tribes and placed in foster care.[7] In 1973. et al.[17] All of these policies led up to the 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act(ASFA). 120 . in 1978. 2005). eventually coining the term “battered child syndrome. identify and treat child abuse and neglect. these changes did not alleviate the high numbers of children in placement or continuing delays in permanence. leading to the beginnings of family preservation programs. the first case of child abuse was criminally prosecuted in what has come to be known as the “case of Mary Ellen.”[6] By 1926. which was revised in 1996 to add the Interethnic Placement Provisions. Kempe[10] began to further research this issue. the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) was passed. which provided funding to private agencies to provide intensive family preservation services. also attempted to promote permanency through adoption.

).[18] A child in suitable cases can be made a ward of court and no decisions about the child or changes in its life can be made without the leave of the High Court.Church leaders. Lack of information sharing had been identified as a failing in numerous high profile child death cases. was created in the United Kingdom under the 1989 Children Act to befriend and assist children and young people in care. This officer is responsible for managing allegations of abuse against adults who work with children (Teachers. The statutory guidance Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006 created the role of Local Authority Designated Officer. In appropriate cases the Care Plan before the Court will be for adoption. Social Workers. 121 . The database was aimed at improving information sharing across agencies. a voluntary post. The role of Independent Visitor. social work good practice requires a minimal number of moves and the 1989 Children Act enshrines the principle that delay is inimical to a child's welfare. under which information on children is shared between professionals. The criteria for the latter is 'significant harm' which covers physical. Nevertheless. sexual and emotional abuse and neglect. accommodation and care of children who become uncared for. Youth Workers etc. there never has been a statutory obligation to report alleged child abuse to the Police.effectivley safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Care proceedings have a time frame of 40 weeks and concurrent planning is required. 'drift' and multiple placements still occur as many older children are difficult to place or maintain in placements. Wales and Scotland. under the Children Act 1989.Getting it Right for Every Child . is that the welfare of the child is paramount. whether with parents. The basic legal principle in all public and private proceedings concerning children. including the formation of the Every Child Matters programme in 2003. "LADO". This covers provision of advice and services. and also the capacity to initiate proceedings for the removal of children from their parents care/care proceedings. The Local Authorities also run adoption services both for children put up for adoption voluntarily and those becoming available for adoption through Court proceedings.Child protection Worldwide United Kingdom The United Kingdom has a comprehensive child welfare system under which Local Authorities have duties and responsibilities towards children in need in their area. family members. Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006 (updated in 2010) and the subsequent 'The Protection of Children in England: A Progress Report' (Laming. LSCB's can initiate a 'Serious Case Review' aimed at identifying agency failings and improving future practice. In England the Murder of Victoria Climbié was largely responsible for various changes in child protection in England.GIRFEC was established in Scotland in 2008. However both the Children Act 1989 and 2004 makes clear a statutory obligation on all professionals to report suspected child abuse. 2009) continue to promote the sharing of data between those working with vulnerable children. In the event of the death or serious injury of a child. In recognition of attachment issues. A similar programme . The planned ContactPoint database. Critics of the scheme claimed it was evidence of a 'big brother state' and too expensive to introduce. has been halted by the newly elected coalition government (May 2010).in their area. long-term foster parents or adopters. Local Safeguarding Children Boards (LSCB's) are responsible ensuring agencies and professionals. The final Care Plan put forward by the Local Authority is required to provide a plan for permanence. In England.

bureaucratic. CPS continues to classify the Gates as child abusers." Even though the court ordered the children to be returned. From the medical perspective. Ideology associated with child protection involve distinct discourses. The Child and Family Services Review Board exists to investigate complaints against CAS and maintains authority to act against the societies. they are regarded as a Non-governmental organization (NGO) which allows the CAS a large degree of autonomy from interference or direction in the day to day running of CAS by the Ministry. medical. and sexual abuse. like the parent or social worker. 122 . penal. whereas the professional has to stick to procedures to avoid blame in case something goes wrong. The purpose is to treat and cure the parent. a mechanical classification and processing of the client is thought to be useful. A notable recent case is the family of Gary and Melissa Gates in Texas. an investigation begins. The blame discourse involves people holding others. the purpose is to avoid criticism. Although child welfare agencies are generally viewed positively. [21] Effects of early maltreatment on children in child welfare Children with histories of maltreatment. The CPS has been accused of prejudging parents before proper investigations were done. physical abuse. in the last two decades.[30] Criticism Despite the benefits of the services of the CPS. This can result in significantly different responses from the affected family and the child protection service workers. there has been an increase in the amount of cases where critics believe CPS have reacted out of their bounds. humanistic. The family experiences fear. are at risk of developing psychiatric problems. Hereby. reviews. including dissociative symptoms. and pathology.[22] [23] Such children are at risk of developing a disorganized attachment.g. and technocratic. the CPS has come under intense private and public scrutiny as an institution than can and has caused great harm in the name of protection. the offender is viewed as an individual with a medical history. Here. the media might be used as a tool for moral crusades.[24] [25] [26] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems. e. Some have accused the CPS of having too much immediate power leaving the parents feeling lost and aggravated. quote. Here. These ideological discourses are blame. and acting-out symptoms. services are provided by independent Children's Aid Societies. registers.[19] The societies receive funding from. and the need to cope with the situation. The penal discourse implies the legal actions that follow the act of depravity or abuse punishing the offender.[20] However. The technocratic discourse involves risk assessment gadgets in order to solve the situation.Child protection Canada In Ontario. such as physical and psychological neglect. anxiety. The local CPS gave the explanation that they felt. syndromes. which are people’s communication practices at an intersubjective level.[28] [29] Ideology of Child Protection When a case of child abuse is reported. responsible in case something bad happens to the child. with the aid of medical expertise and technology. case conferences. Gates was uncooperative and his uncooperativeness with us put the children at risk. "Mr.[27] as well as depressive. The school called the local CPS and requested the Child Protective Services forcibly remove all thirteen of the Gates children and take them to foster homes under a court order which allowed an Emergency Removal. The best outcome for the child occurs if the congruence between professional and family perspectives is high. when there is clear evidence of danger to the physical health & safety of the child. Bureaucratic procedures engage all the steps which an organization like Child Protection Service has undertake. anxiety. etc. Humanistic discourse encompasses sympathy or feelings of pity that the Child Protection worker might have towards people who are responsible for the situation in which the victim is in. and are under the supervision of the Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services.

"Child Protective Services is out of control. including supervisor Angie Voss convinced a judge that all of the children were at risk of child abuse because they were all being groomed for under-age marriage. Texas Comptroller Carole Keeton Strayhorn made a statement in 2006 about the Texas foster care system. the largest child protection action in American history raised questions as the CPS in Texas removed hundreds of minor children. 63 were treated for rape that occurred while under state care including four-year old twin boys. At the core of the problem is the anti-family mindset of CPS. Texas 2008 Raid of YFZ Ranch In April 2008. Children were taken from their family 7 months ago. as it operates today. not to mention their civil rights being disregarded in this manner" after assisting at the emergency shelter. and the entire mental health support was dismissed the second week due to being "too compassionate. with the assistance of heavily armed police with an armored personnel carrier.[38] In Fiscal 2003. CPS threatened some MHMR workers with arrest.[36] CPS problem reports The Texas Department of Family and Protective Services. and women incorrectly believed to be children from the YFZ Ranch polygamist community. The system."[34] Further to that information. Removal is the first resort. had itself been an object of reports of unusual numbers of poisonings. Gene Grounds of Victim Relief Ministries commended CPS workers in the Texas operation as exhibiting compassion. not the last. has received an intervention from the Serbia government. professionalism and caring concern.Child protection An ongoing case about Nastic family living in U. Children were taken away from their parents after their naked photos were found on the father's computer. parents claim that their ethnic and religious rights have been violated .children are not permitted to speak Serbian. The state supreme court disagreed. Others who were previously forbidden to discuss conditions working with CPS later produced unsigned written reports expressed anger at the CPS traumatizing the children. the system that was designed to protect children has become the greatest perpetrator of harm. Investigators. FBI started an investigation against the CPS. In 2004. 2004 and 2005. several former CPS workers retired from the service.[35] However. should be scrapped. releasing most children back to their families. radical new guidelines must be adopted. due to increasing circumstances and practices carried out by the organization. They can meet only mother once a week." Workers believed poor sanitary conditions at the shelter allowed respiratory infections and chicken pox to spread. as with other states. If children are to be protected in their homes and in the system. One wrote "I have never seen women and children treated this poorly. Trial is set for January 26. Compared to the general population. [31] [32] [33] Brenda Scott. Strayhorn's report was not scientifically researched. Psychologists from Serbia stated that few hours of conversation with children are enough to see whether they have been abused. Children have suffered psychological traumas due to their separation from parents. respectively 30. and 142 children gave birth. while the number of deaths increased 60 percent. death. The number of foster children in the state's care increased 24 percent to 32. infants. Such photos are common in Serbia culture. nor to meet with their parents for orthodox Christmas.S. Polygraph showed that father did not abuse children. and disregarding rights of mothers who appeared to be good parents of healthy. The Texas Family and Protective Services Crisis Management Team was created by executive order after the critical report Forgotten Children[37] of 2004. and that major reforms need to be put in place to assure that children in the conservatorship of the state get as much attention as those at risk in their homes. CPS performance was questioned by workers from the Hill Country Community Mental Health-Mental Retardation Center. well-behaved children. With insufficient checks and balances. a child is four times more likely to die in the Texas foster care system. 123 . rapes and pregnancies of children under its care since 2004. Furthermore. in her study of CPS concluded.474 in Fiscal 2005. about 100 children were treated for poisoning from medications. 38 and 48 foster children died in the state's care. Investigations would result in criminal charges against some men in the community. though others believe Ms.

enter the foster care system. E. 1(1). cfm [17] Lincroft. on. What happened? An historical perspective of the deprofessionalization of child welfare practice with implications for policy and practice. americanhumane. A. Child Welfare. [20] http:/ / www.gov (http:/ / www. childwelfare.uk (http:/ / www. & Resher. T. nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. D. 28(12). gov/ pubs/ otherpubs/ majorfedlegis. org/ ) MDX. children. gov/ pubs/ otherpubs/ majorfedlegis. gov. without due process of law. M. Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services." Title 42 United States Code Section 1983[40] states that citizens can sue a person that deprives them of their rights under the pretext of a regulation of a state. A history of the American Response to Need 4th ed. e-laws.. ca/ htdocs/ English/ topics/ childrensaid/ childrensaidsocieties/ index. gov. [9] Antler. liberty. Social Work.ac. . kempe. htm) Childrensaidsociety.org (http:/ / www. & Webb. NY: Longman. gov. (2006). it is likely that this phenomenon within multiple systems may be related. pdf) Americanhumane. 23. uk/ WWW/ STUDY/ xpla5.. cfm) [16] http:/ / www. 5-24 [14] Childwelfare. L. J. . gov/ systemwide/ laws_policies/ federal/ index.[41] National data in the United States provides evidence that disproportionality may vary throughout the course of a child's involvement with the child welfare system. the United States 9th Circuit Court of Appeals found in ROGERS v. MD [18] DCSF. 4th Ed.org (http:/ / www. cfsrb. html) Kidscount. and placement into foster care.[44] The Juvenile Justice system has also been challenged by disproportionate negative contact of minority children. R. on. ca/ html/ statutes/ english/ elaws_statutes_90c11_e. L. data suggests that a disproportionate number of minority children. Ellett. org/ about-us/ newsroom/ fact-sheets/ fatalities-due-to-child-abuse-neglect. substantiation of abuse. gov/ systemwide/ laws_policies/ federal/ index. Casey Foundation: Balitmore.[42] Additionally. research suggests that they are likely to remain in care longer. cfm?event=federalLegislation. Differing rates of disproportionality are seen at key decision points including the reporting of abuse.. J & Levin. childrensaidsociety. Journal of Public Child Welfare.[43] Research has shown that there is no difference in the rate of abuse and neglect among minority populations when compared to Caucasian children that would account for the disparity. 58-61 [10] Kempe. org/ ) [11] Childwelfare. Berrick. Disproportionality & Disparity in the Child Welfare System In the United States. Barth. A.uk (http:/ / www. (1999). R. htm#BK10 [21] "Complaints Against a Children's Aid Society" (http:/ / www. viewLegis& id=2) [12] Limb. S. [8] Crosson-Tower. kidscount. Undercounted and underserved: Immigrant and refugee families in the child welfare system. mdx. org/ pdf/ 2007CANFactSheet. (2007). G. 124 . (2005).org (http:/ / preventchildabuseny. Retrieved 19 April 2011. Boston: Allyn& Bacon. ac. (1978) Child Abuse: An emerging social priority. cfm?event=federalLegislation..gov (http:/ / www. particularly African American and Native American children.org (http:/ / www.. once they enter foster care.Child protection Responsibility for misconduct In May 2007.. White Plains. Retrieved 17 April 2011. C. & Chance. J. or property.. An empirical examination of the Indian child welfare act and its impact on cultural and familial preservation for American Indian children.gov (http:/ / www. J.P. viewLegis& id=22) [15] 1980 Childwelfare. Biemer. 3-24. Child Abuse and Neglect. Y. B. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect.org (http:/ / datacenter. Report to the Annie E. No. P. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Preventchildabuseny. The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution says that a state may not make a law that abridges "abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States" and no state may "deprive any person of life.B. 05-16071[39] that a CPS social worker acting without due process and without exigency (emergency conditions) violated the 14th Amendment and Title 42 United State Code Section 1983. Green. 1279-1289 [13] Mitchell. ca/ en/ cfsrb/ about/ history). aspx). COUNTY OF SAN JOAQUIN. & Leighninger.[45] Because of the overlap in these systems. dcsf. Wall.gov. childwelfare.. H (1997) Social Welfare. Child and Family Services Review Board. Child welfare reform in the United States: Findings form a local agency survey.. uk/ everychildmatters/ strategy/ deliveringservices1/ informationsharing/ informationsharing/ ) [19] "About Ontario's children's aid societies" (http:/ / www. 84(1). (2004). org/ about/ history) Axin. childwelfare. childwelfare.

(1988). nsf/ 2DA8C6954EA9C8A3882572EA00532815/ $file/ 0516071. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64.E. New Brunswick. Who's Watching Our Child Protection Agencies? p. R. support.gov (http:/ / www. us/ news/ 60623statement. us/ forgottenchildren/ in) [38] Comptroller Strayhorn Statement On Foster Care Abuse June 23. B. & Arnoff. U. html). Recall of childhood neglect and physical abuse as differential predictors of current psychological functioning.org/index. state. L.) Child welfare revisited (pp. & Hesse. (1996). (1995) Minorities and the Juvenile Justice System Research Symmary. (pp. window. A prospective longitudinal study of disorganized/disoriented attachment.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm04) (accessed 8/4/06) • HHS. Child Development 69. 779df065. ca9.hhs. [37] Window.org (http://www. [44] National Incidence Study (NIS). training and resources in all areas of safeguarding children and for those affected by abuse. chron. Roger (10 May 2008). Everett. • "CCPAS Website" (http://www. 57-76).gov/programs/cb/stats_research/afcars/tar/report11. Psychological Bulletin 114. (1993) Long term consequences of childhood physical abuse. 572-585 [30] Sinclair.unicef. bad or sad? Ideology. NJ: Rutgers University Press.. T. In J. Cassidy & P. Cummings (Eds). & Jacobvitz. • Resist. M. Shaver (Eds. Attachment Disorganization. S. pdf?openelement) [40] Cornell. Research. gov/ ca9/ newopinions. rs/ sr/ vesti/ u_fokusu/ story/ 146886/ Otac+ na+ poligrafu+ dokazao+ da+ nije+ zlostavljao+ decu. Ciccehetti..wikiprogress.htm) (accessed 8/4/06) • Childwelfare. 2008 by Janet St. E. & Feyerherm. cornell.. mpl/ headline/ metro/ 5770183. D. Number 8. K.uk) The Churches’ Child Protection Advisory Service (CCPAS) . 227-246.gov (http://www.co. Lery. state. J. (1999) Attachment disorganization: unresolved loss.pdf).) (1999). [43] Wulczyn. G.. Mad. NY: Guilford Press [26] Main. com/ disp/ story. D. html) [41] Hill R. Leashore (Eds. html). (PDF-File. net/ eng/ news/ society-article.. Chipungu & B.tx. Alpern. (1990) Parents’ Unresolved Traumatic Experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status.ccpas.S.J. Department of Health & Human Services. php?yyyy=2010& mm=12& dd=21& nav_id=71657 [33] http:/ / www. Washington.. 125 . DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention External links • NCCPR Website (http://nccpr.the only independent Christian charity providing professional advice.acf. & E. org/ 2011/ 01/ 04/ united-states-serbian-couple-struggles-to-get-children-back/ [32] http:/ / www. J.childwelfare. Casey-CSSP Alliance for Racial Equity in Child Welfare. A. Richardson group: Polygamists' children are OK April 18. Messe. NY: Guilford Press [25] Solomon. (1996). html [34] Scott. Chicago: University of Chicago Press [27] Carlson. Attachment relationships among children with aggressive behavior problems: The role of disorganized early attachment patterns. Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom. html) [39] UScourts. L.org (http://www. & Hansen. M.edu (http:/ / www.. Greenberg. Administration for Children & Families. T. Brenda (1994) Out of Control. [31] http:/ / globalvoicesonline. Stollak. Graduate History Student.us (http:/ / www.state. b92. San Antonio Express-news . (2004) Institutional racism in child welfare.php/Child_well-being) (accessed 21/07/11) • A Report Card on Child Protection (http://www. Child Development 64. 8_EN_081309(1). (2005). window. Child Abuse and Neglect 20. 179 [35] KVUE. D. K. pressonline. In J. (Eds.com (http://www.com (http:/ / www.ca (http://users.hhs. "Mental health workers rip CPS over sect" (http:/ / www. (1993). . distorted communication and child abuse prevention. & George. 2009) • HHS. E. CRB checks. tx. kvue. James / WFAA-TV [36] Crotea. [42] Hill. B (2006) Synthesis of research on disproportionality in child welfare: An update. relational violence and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategies. com/ news/ state/ stories/ 041808kvuejanetpolygamy-cb. law. 2006 (http:/ / www. tx.org/protection/files/Progress_for_Children-No. 1107-1128 [28] Lyons-Ruth. 549-559 [23] Malinosky-Rummell.B.Child protection [22] Gauthier. R. Chapin Hall Discussion Paper. B. W. C. Haight. and Intervention (pp161-184). C. 64-73 [29] Lyons-Ruth. 520-554). edu/ uscode/ 42/ usc_sec_42_00001983----000-.html) (History of Child Protection in America by Kirsten Anderberg.gov/) (accessed 10/19/06) • Wikichild. 41.ca/~kirstena/machallinstitutionhistory.) Handbook of Attachment. uscourts. F. The Australian Sociological Association.info/) NCCPR provides reports and information on how (US) child protection systems are performing and how to make them perform better for children. & Repacholi. J. (1996) [45] Pope. L.resist. 991 KB) — United Nations Children’s Fund: Progress for Children. In M. 68-69 [24] Lyons-Ruth K. (2006) Entry and Exit Disparities in the Tennessee Foster Care System. Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory.acf. September 2009.

pulling ears or hair. sexual. The transmission of toxins to a child through its mother (such as with fetal alcohol syndrome) can also be considered physical abuse in some jurisdictions.[8] Physical abuse Physical abuse is physical aggression directed at a child by an adult. and have undertaken campaigns to redefine such norms. IPU. TXstate. Cultural norms about what constitutes abuse vary widely: among professionals as well as the wider public.[3] A person who feels the need to abuse or neglect a child may be described as a "pedopath".[10] 126 .[4] Types Child abuse can take several forms:[5] The four main types are physical. stabbing. and dilated pupils. altered breathing. striking. lethargy. 2010. clothing. and child sexual abuse. people do not agree on what behaviors constitute abuse. such as children not being able to interact with other children around them. which can lead to intracranial pressure. choking. It can involve punching. belting or shaking a child. Texas State University Paper 332.Child protection Further reading • McCutcheon. educational (not providing an adequate education). kicking.ipu. an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm". Shaking a child can cause shaken baby syndrome."Historical Analysis and Contemporary Assessment of Foster Care in Texas: Perceptions of Social Workers in a Private. burning. James. and neglect. There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department of Children And Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm. Applied Research Projects. sexual. Beyond this. serious physical or emotional harm.org/PDF/publications/childprotection_en.[7] The continuous refusal of a child's basic needs is considered chronic neglect.pdf) UNICEF. including physical (not providing adequate food. emotional mistreatment.txstate. or hygiene). swelling of the brain.[2] Child abuse can occur in a child's home. Non-Profit Foster Care Agency". Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge. which leads to patterns such as failure to thrive. or neglect of a child. seizures. There are many effects of child neglect. physical abuse. According to the Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect. there is considerable variation. psychological/emotional abuse. 2004 Child abuse Child abuse is the physical. sexual abuse or exploitation. The distinction between child discipline and abuse is often poorly defined. bulging or tense fontanels. Most nations with child-abuse laws consider the infliction of physical injuries or actions that place the child in obvious risk of serious injury or death to be illegal.[1] In the United States.edu/arp/332) • Handbook: Child protection (http://www. emotional (not providing nurturing or affection).edu (http://ecommons. and oxygen deprivation. or threat of harm to a child.[9] Some human-service professionals claim that cultural norms that sanction physical punishment are one of the causes of child abuse. child abuse is "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death. bruising. potential for harm.[6] Neglect Child neglect is where the responsible adult does not provide adequately for various needs. psychological. diffuse axonal injury. or medical (not medicating the child or taking him or her to the doctor). schools or communities the child interacts with. or in the organizations. slapping. shoving. vomiting.

Emotional abuse can result in abnormal or disrupted attachment development. and routine labeling or humiliation. a tendency for victims to blame themselves (self-blame) for the abuse. and other forms of maltreatment 12%. viewing of the child's genitalia without physical contact.[20] bulimia nervosa. In the USA. strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases.[23] Psychological/emotional abuse Out of all the possible forms of abuse. indecent exposure of the genitals to a child.[11] [13] [14] Selling the sexual services of children may be viewed and treated as child abuse with services offered to the child rather than simple incarceration. flashbacks.[28] Victims of emotional abuse may react by distancing themselves from the abuser. internalizing the abusive words. uncles or cousins.[29] A UNICEF report on child wellbeing[30] stated that the United States and the United Kingdom ranked lowest among industrial nations with respect to the wellbeing of children. ridicule. clothing. among other problems. Researchers found over 91.[21] physical injury to the child.000 cases of neglect in one year (from October 2005 to 30 September 2006) using information from a database of cases verified by protective services agencies.). neglect is defined as the failure to meet the basic needs of children including housing.[22] Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children.[15] Effects of child sexual abuse include guilt and self-blame.[19] propensity to re-victimization in adulthood. "female parents acting alone" were most likely to be perpetrators of child abuse. actual sexual contact against a child. Department of Health and Human Services reports that for each year between 2000 and 2005. inappropriate or excessive demands.[23] [24] [25] [26] [27] Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims. insomnia. displaying pornography to a child. or fighting back by insulting the abuser. learned helplessness.[32] 127 . emotional abuse is the hardest to define. sexual abuse 8%. smells. etc. physical abuse 22%. torture or destruction of a pet. self-esteem issues.[31] The U. fathers. excessive criticism. addiction. emotional maltreatment 4%. in 1997 neglect represented 54% of confirmed cases of child abuse.[17] anxiety. food and access to medical care. sexual dysfunction. babysitters. doctor's visits. physical contact with the child's genitals.[11] [12] Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome). It also found that child neglect and child abuse were far more common in single-parent families than in families where both parents are present. degradation. fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects. approximately 30% are relatives of the child. self-injury. nightmares. destruction of personal belongings. depression. and overly passive behavior. places.S. or neighbours. somatic complaints. most often brothers.[28] Prevalence According to the (American) National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse. or using a child to produce child pornography. It could include name-calling. withholding communication.Child abuse Child sexual abuse Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation.[2] Neglect could also take the form of financial abuse by not buying the child adequate materials for survival. mothers. around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family.[18] other mental illnesses (including borderline personality disorder[19] and dissociative identity disorder.[16] post-traumatic stress disorder. chronic pain. suicidal ideation.

128 . Caregivers. shaken baby syndrome prevention programs.[41] and lower mother-child relationship quality.[38] [39] In addition. having non-family members living in the household. including strangers.33 per 100. study found that parents with documented substance abuse.Child abuse Fatalities A child abuse fatality: when a child’s death is the result of abuse or neglect. and child abuse death laws which mandate harsher sentencing for taking the life of a child. More generally.[42] Another study found that over two thirds of cases of child maltreatment involved parents with substance abuse problems. the children began to come in with injuries.[45] Studies have found that not biologically related parents (like stepparents) are up to a hundred times more likely to kill a child than biological parents.[46] See also Infanticide (zoology). unemployment. or if both the marital strife and the abuse are caused by tendencies in the abuser.[41] They also result in poorer maternal mental health. and were also much more likely to reject court-ordered services and treatments. and non-relative caregivers [source needed]. as are African Americans.[37] However. cocaine.[36] Parents who physically abuse their spouses are more likely than others to physically abuse their children. An evolutionary psychology explanation for this is that using resources in order to take care of another person's biological child is likely not a good strategy for increasing reproductive success. A number of policies and programs have been put into place to try to better understand and to prevent child abuse fatalities. In the United States.[44] In 2009 CBS News reported that child abuse in the United States had increased during the economic recession. relatives. than anyone else. including: safe-haven laws. and between cocaine and sexual abuse.[41] Substance abuse can be a major contributing factor to child abuse.S. Girls and boys. or when abuse and/or neglect are contributing factors to a child’s death. Younger children are at a much higher risk for being killed.[43] Unemployment and financial difficulties are associated with increased rates of child abuse. this is a rate of 2. however. 1. and specifically mothers.S. were much more likely to mistreat their children. Family situations which place children at risk include moving.730 children died in 2008 due to factors related to abuse.[34] History Also known as Tardieu's Syndrome in homage to the French medical doctor Auguste Ambroise Tardieu Causes Child abuse is a complex phenomenon with multiple causes. It gave the example of a father who had never been the primary care-taker of the children. most commonly alcohol. children.[35] Understanding the causes of abuse is crucial to addressing the problem of child abuse. training for investigators. unintended pregnancies are more likely than intended pregnancies to be associated with abusive relationships. it is estimated that between 60-85% of child fatalities due to maltreatment are not recorded as such on death certificates. it is impossible to know whether marital strife is a cause of child abuse. are more likely to be the perpetrators of a child abuse fatality.000 U. One U. child fatality review teams. Now that the father was in that role.[40] and there is an increased risk of physical violence during pregnancy.[33] Child abuse fatalities are widely recognized as being under-counted. stepchildren have a much higher risk of being abused which is sometimes referred to as the Cinderella effect. are killed at similar rates. and heroin.[37] Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to be abused or neglected. This study specifically found relationships between alcohol and physical abuse.

[51] [52] [53] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems. Effects There are strong associations between exposure to child abuse in all its forms and higher rates of many chronic conditions. deregulation of mood.[48] makes the case that such exposure represents a serious and costly public-health issue that should be addressed by the healthcare system. These risks are elevated when child abuse is combined with traumatic events and/or fetal alcohol exposure. Child abuse can also cause problems with the neurodevelopment of a child. abdominal. pelvic.[59] [60] Despite these potential difficulties. have more chances of developing depression then an adult who has never been abused. also suffer from different types of physical health problems later in life. or neglect. The early experiences of child abuse can trigger the development of an internalizing disorder. which may in turn lead to adverse consequences for their child's social-emotional development. adults with a history of some form of child abuse. behaviour and also social/emotional disturbances. for the great majority their abuse was not directly associated . Hidden Costs in Health Care: The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse. it is claimed. Some reportedly suffer from some type of chronic head.[57] [58] When some of these children become parents. and other sequelae of child abuse. Child abuse is a major life stressor that has consequences involving the mental health of an adult but. they may encounter difficulty when faced with their infant and young children's needs and normative distress. the majority of studies examining the negative consequences of abuse have been focused on adolescences and young adults. physical abuse. a group of sculptures by Mikhail Chemiakin in Moscow. whether sexual abuse. high-risk health behaviors and shortened lifespan. dissociative symptoms.[62] Even though the majority of childhood abuse victims know or believe that their abuse is.[47] A recent publication. The strongest evidence comes from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE's) series of studies which show correlations between exposure to abuse or neglect and higher rates in adulthood of chronic conditions. the cause of different health problems in their adult life. depressive. or muscular pain with no identifiable reason.[49] [50] or a disorganized attachment style. psychosocial intervention can be effective. such as anxiety and depression. Psychological effects Children with a history of neglect or physical abuse are at risk of developing psychiatric problems. in changing the ways maltreated parents think about their young children.[55] [56] A study by Dante Cicchetti found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants exhibited symptoms of disorganized attachment.[54] as well as anxiety.Child abuse 129 Children are the Victims of Adult Vices. and acting out symptoms. including dissociative symptoms.[61] Victims of childhood abuse. especially if they suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It has been identified that childhood sexual abuse is a risk factor for the development of substance-related problems during adolescence and adulthood. at least in some cases. Research shows that abused children often develop deficits with language. For example. or can be.

NSCAW found more than three-quarters of foster children between 1 and 2 years of age to be at medium to high risk for problems with brain development. Kuo. experiencing more than two kinds of abuse exerted synergetically stronger symptoms. dissociation. In some cases the physical effects are temporary. Child abuse and neglect have been shown. the pain and suffering they cause a child should not be discounted.[64] and may have a higher risk of developing cancer. Impaired brain development. 2003). These alterations in brain maturation have long-term consequences for cognitive. Childhood verbal abuse had a stronger association with anger-hostility than any other type of abuse studied. The long-term effects can be: Rib fractures in an infant secondary to child abuse Shaken baby syndrome.[67] Damage results from intracranial hypertension (increased pressure in the skull) after bleeding in the brain. hemorrhage. For depression. Physical effects Children who are physically abused are likely to receive bone fractures. language. Poor physical health. Hooper. Felitti. & Carnes. or a serious illness affecting either the mother or father) that individuals report having experienced in childhood. asthma. resulting in impaired development (De Bellis & Thomas. Sheridan. A 2006 study found that childhood emotional and sexual abuse were strongly related to adult depressive symptoms. 2007). some statistically significant correlations were found between repeated illness and family traumas encountered by the child before the age of 18 years. and physical abuse a moderate one. and rib or bone fractures (Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. & De Bellis. Adults who experienced abuse or neglect during childhood are more likely to suffer from physical ailments such as allergies.[66] The immediate physical effects of abuse or neglect can be relatively minor (bruises or cuts) or severe (broken bones. or even death).[62] The effects of child abuse vary. and ulcers (Springer. Gibler. these relationships show that inequalities in illness and suffering are not only social. the prolonged absence of a parent. More generally. 28% more likely to be arrested as adults. Health inequality also has its origins in the family.[63] According to Georges Menahem. particularly rib fractures. anxiety. depending on the type of abuse. Several studies have shown a relationship between various forms of household dysfunction (including childhood abuse) and poor health (Flaherty et al.Child abuse 130 with those problems.[65] Children who experience child abuse & neglect are 59% more likely to be arrested as juveniles. parental discord. 2006). indicating that sufferers were most likely diagnosed with other possible causes for their health problems. and academic abilities (Watts-English. in the case of 23 of the 27 illnesses listed in the questionnaire of a French INSEE survey. 2004a). bronchitis. the French sociologist who found out these correlations by studying health inequalities.[68] . where it is associated with the degrees of lasting affective problems (lack of affection. arthritis. Sexual abuse was particularly deleterious in its intrafamilial form. and 30% more likely to commit violent crime. 2007). Shaking a baby is a common form of child abuse that often results in permanent neurological damage (80% of cases) or death (30% of cases). 2006. Meanwhile. to cause important regions of the brain to fail to form or grow properly. and was second only to emotional abuse in its relationship with dissociative symptoms.. while exposure to verbal abuse and witnessing of domestic violence had a moderately strong association. as opposed to less than half of children in a control sample (ACF/OPRE. 2002). in some cases. damage to the spinal cord and neck. Fortson. high blood pressure. however. and limbic irritability. the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on physical health is just beginning to be explored. instead of their childhood abuse. for symptoms of depression.

[39] [70] "The starting point for effective child abuse programming is pregnancy planning. but who manage to do unexpectedly well later in life regarding the preconditions.[77] Child-parent psychotherapy was designed to improve the child-parent relationship following the experience of domestic violence. drawing.[74] Resources for child-protection services are sometimes limited. Being able to discuss and analyze a child's artwork can allow a professional to get a better insight of the child.S. and more. to improve parenting skills/practices. and large family size increases the risk of child neglect. Play therapy and art therapy are ways to get children more comfortable with therapy by working on something that they enjoy (coloring.). drought. Data on the effects of TF-CBT for children who experienced only non-sexual abuse was not available as of 2006. President Barack Obama continued that tradition by declaring April 2009 Child Abuse Prevention Month. Each of these types of treatment can be used to better assist the client." according to an analysis for US Surgeon General C. Several studies have found that sexually abused children undergoing TF-CBT improved more than children undergoing certain other therapies. It is supported by one randomized study.[77] Abuse-focused cognitive behavioral therapy was designed for children who have experienced physical abuse.[39] Thus a comprehensive study for the National Academy of Sciences concluded that affordable contraceptive services should form the basis for child abuse prevention.[72] U."[75] Briere (1992) argues that only when "lower-level violence" of children ceases to be culturally tolerated will there be changes in the victimization and police protection of children.[69] Such children (or currently grown-ups) are of high interest in finding factors that mitigate the effects of child abuse. play therapy. is now used for victims of any kind of trauma.[78] 131 . and anxiety. It targets externalizing behaviors and strengthens prosocial behaviors. It targets trauma-related symptoms in children including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). aggression. including PTSD. painting. defiance. etc. "a considerable number of traumatized abused children do not gain access to protective child-protection strategies. Offending parents are included in the treatment. or rain. there are some children who are raised in child abuse. depending on the form of abuse they have experienced. It also includes a component for non-offending parents. as inspired from the way that dandelions seem to prosper irrespective of soil.[76] Treatment A number of treatments are available to victims of child abuse. According to Hosin (2007). sun. toddlers.Child abuse On the other hand.[73] One way the Federal government of the United States provides funding for child-abuse prevention is through Community-Based Grants for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CBCAP).[77] Other forms of treatment include group therapy.[39] [71] April has been designated Child Abuse Prevention Month in the United States since 1983. Prevention Unintended conception increases the risk of subsequent child abuse. and preschoolers. relationships with friends or family. Such children have been termed dandelion children. It is supported by two studies of one sample.[77] Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. first developed to treat sexually abused children. clinical depression and anxiety. The design of a child's artwork can be a symbolic representation of what they are feeling. and art therapy. Everett Koop. It targets trauma-related symptoms in infants.

including doctors. This exception allows professionals to breach confidentiality and make a report even when the child or his/her parent or guardian has specifically instructed to the contrary. 132 .[87] Other organizations focus on specific prevention strategies. sued for the right to determine whether or not she remain on life support. accused of severely injuring his infant daughter.[79] [80] [81] Bioethicists Jacob M. in separate articles. Child abuse is also a common exception to Physician–patient privilege: a medical professional may be called upon to testify in court as to otherwise privileged evidence about suspected child abuse despite the wishes of the child and his/her family. and county levels in the United States that provide community leadership in preventing child abuse and neglect. Medical professionals.[83] Organizations There are organizations at national. therapists. which would have prevented a murder charge. state. and cannot disclose personal information without the consent of the individual concerned.Child abuse Ethics One of the most challenging ethical dilemmas arising from child abuse relates to the parental rights of abusive parents or caretakers with regard to their children. particularly in medical settings.[79] [82] Child abuse also poses ethical concerns related to confidentiality. many jurisdictions and professional bodies have made exceptions to standard requirements for confidentiality and legal privileges in instances of child abuse. created a motive for Bedner to act that conflicted with the apparent interests of his child. Many investigations into child abuse are handled on the local level by Child Advocacy Centers.[79] In the United States.[85] [86] These Child Advocacy Centers (known as CACs) have standards set by the National Children's Alliance. Accordingly. Mandated reporter training is a program used to prevent ongoing child abuse. confidentiality is often waived when these professionals have a good faith suspicion that child abuse or neglect has occurred or is likely to occur and make a report to local child protection authorities. Bedner. Appel and Thaddeus Mason Pope recently argued. The National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome focuses its efforts on the specific issue of preventing child abuse that is manifested as shaken baby syndrome. either by law and/or the standards of professional ethics. and other mental health workers typically owe a duty of confidentiality to their patients and clients. Alabama by District Attorney Robert "Bud" Cramer these multi-disciplinary teams have met to coordinate their efforts so that cases of child abuse can be investigated quickly and efficiently. as victims may be physically or psychologically unable to report abuse to authorities. Accordingly. ultimately reducing trauma to the child and garnering better convictions. the 2008 New Hampshire case of Andrew Bedner drew attention to this legal and moral conundrum. that such cases justify the replacement of the accused parent with an alternative decision-maker. This duty conflicts with an ethical obligation to protect children from preventable harm. Started over 25 years ago at what is now known as the National Children's Advocacy Center[84] in Huntsville. keeping her alive. The National Alliance of Children's Trust Funds and Prevent Child Abuse America are two national organizations with member organizations at the state level.

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nic. Child Abuse: Law and Policy Across Boundaries. • Finkelhor. Forensic Taphonomy: the Postmortem Fate of Human Remains. (2007). In Haglund. • Hoyano. T. Oxford University Press. A. p. Boston. Hickey. D. OCLC 150902303. M.google. CA: University of California Press. Jackie (2008). Jill E. New York: Routledge. Childhood Victimization: Violence.Child abuse [85] Nationalcac.com/pdf/KellyBaltimoreCAC.dmoz. J. • Prevent Child Abuse America (http://www. Washburn.org) • Study on Child Abuse: India 2007 (http://wcd.shtml). H._Youth_and_Family/Child_abuse/) at the Open Directory Project • "What is child abuse and neglect?" (http://www. Oregon Department of Human Services. pp..gov/DHS/children/abuse/abuse_neglect. nationalchildrensalliance.. html) [87] Nationalchildrensalliance. and Society (http://books. • Turton. Gender. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Child abuse and neglect: cross-cultural perspectives. OCLC 79004390. ISBN 019829946X. I. Government of India (http://wcd.org/Society/Issues/Children. org/ professionals/ model/ cac_model.com/?id=FDGaTSUXpdsC& printsec=frontcover). A. & Sorg. • Korbin. Keenan C. Boca Raton: CRC Press.pdf) Ministry of Women and Child Development.nic. (2008-02-19). Park.org (http:/ / nationalcac. org/ ncac/ history. org/ ) Further reading • Crist. D. html) [86] Nationalcac..google.com/watch?v=u2JXCFWcIeE) • Child abuse (http://www. p. Child Abuse.oregon. MA: Pearson Education. and Abuse in the Lives of Young People (http://books. L.courthousedogs..preventchildabuse. (1983).in) • Prevent Child Abuse France (http://www. Hood. C. ISBN 0520050703.Maryland Lawyer article about using a facility service dog to aid child abuse victims (http:/ /www. ISBN 9780195342857. "Cranial Bone Displacement as a Taphonomic Process in Potential Child Abuse Cases". External links • Cold-nosed Comfort . ISBN 0415365058. Crime.youtube. OCLC 162501989. (2008).fr) 136 . 319–336.in/childabuse. (1997). Berkeley..pdf) • Pete .. Oxford University Press. A.org (http:/ / nationalcac. OCLC 144570871. ISBN 0205503268. • Crosson-Tower.com/?id=IOOgAFQdRPwC&printsec=frontcover). W.org (http:/ / www.Award-winning short film about child abuse (http://www. 161.antipedophil. A. OCLC 144570871. M. 244.

Human bonding Human bonding Human bonding is the process of development of a close. towards the good. according to Goethe. whether in heaven or on earth: happiness and good fortune. a bondsman is a person who provides bonds or surety for someone). states that love goes far beyond simple attraction to human beauty. a bondman. and is different from simple liking. wrote of the "marriage tie." and by analogy shows how strong marriage unions are similar in character to that by which the particles of quicksilver find a unity together through the process of chemical affinity. ties. It most commonly takes place between family members or friends. Bonding typically refers to the process of attachment that develops between romantic partners. which refers to something that binds. they are in harmony with one another . in temperance and justice. Some scientists speculate that prolonged bonds developed in humans along with increased sharing of food. interpersonal relationship. in every case it is the higher form of love that brings harmony and cleaves toward the good. That is. he brings death and destruction" (188a). one of the narrators in the dialog. Pair bonding The term pair bond originated in 1940 in reference to mated pairs of birds. in the realm of the gods as well as that of humans (186a–b).. or bondservant was a feudal serf that was obligated to work for his or her lord without pay (in modern usage.[3] Pair bonding. but lies at the mercy of fortune. The term is commonly used in sociobiology and evolutionary psychology. according to Spinoza.[1] but can also develop among groups such as sporting teams and whenever people spend time together. When love "is directed. in his Ethics of Human Bondage or the Strength of the Emotions. In early usage. Early views In the 4th century BC. interactive process.[4] 137 . but refers to the formation of close personal relationships between women. "when a man is prey to his emotions. usually of a fairly short duration. Because it is love that guides the relations between these sets of opposites throughout existence. This bond is characterized by emotions such as affection and trust. Male bonding refers to the establishment of relationships between men through shared activities that often exclude females. He states that it occurs throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. Plato concludes that the highest form of love is the greatest. are analogous to reactive substances in a chemical equation. or parents and children. close friends. the Greek philosopher Plato argued that love directs the bonds of human society. he is not his own master. the Dutch philosopher Spinoza wrote. bondwoman. as well as throughout the universe.[2] Etymology The term comes from the 12th century. In his Symposium. or restrains. in his classic novella Elective Affinities. Middle English word band. It is a generic term signifying a monogamous or relatively monogamous relationship in either humans or animals. Humans in passionate relationships. But when the sort of Love that is crude and impulsive controls the seasons. Bonding is a mutual. occurs in a variety of primate species. In the 1660s. Any two people who spend time together may form a bond.. Love directs everything that occurs. Eryximachus reasons that when various opposing elements such as wet and dry are "animated by the proper species of Love. that the term bondage relates to the human infirmity in moderating and checking the emotions. The term female bonding is less frequently used. the bonds of human society. whereas the impulsive vulgar love creates disharmony." In 1809 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Eryximachus. concord with the gods above—all these are among his gifts" (188d).

sometimes referred to as the emotional bond. defined over a set duration of time. Limerent–Limerent bond: define relationships in which both partners are limerent. a certain percentage of couples may go through what is called a limerent reaction. This included the development of the concept of the affectional bond. Parental bonding Attachment In 1958. because this increases the chances of survival by ensuring that they receive the care they need. The basis and interesting characteristic of this delineation made by Tennov. neither Bowlby's proximity seeking (not possible for human infants prior to walking) nor subsequent descriptions of caregiver–infant mutuality with emotional availability and synchrony with emotional modulation include the enduring motivation of attachment into adult life.[5] [6] [7] Bowlby did not describe mutuality in attachment. This motivation accounts for curiosity and intellectual growth of language. i.Human bonding Limerent bond According to limerence theory. posited in 1979 by psychologist Dorothy Tennov. Affectional bond: define relationships in which neither partner is limerent. which is based on the universal tendency for humans to attach.e. fear of rejection. all of which have an emotional base of security. but found she could not avoid eye-to-eye contact with infant and mother. Attachment theory has some of its origins in the observation of and experiments with animals. with all human romantic relationships. to seek closeness to another person and to feel secure when that person is present. in which one or both of the pair may experience a state of passion mixed with continuous intrusive thinking. However. Ainsworth attempted to follow this amazing tunnel vision. He A mother breast feeding—a process that facilitates mother–infant bonding. but is also based on observations of children who had missed typical experiences of adult care. in ways that may either increase or decrease the intensity of the limerence. She was not successful in the use of infant gaze because she did not differentiate frightened hyper-alert states from affectionate interaction. 2. bonds.[8] 138 . 3.e." in which the precursory concepts of "attachment theory" were developed. The constitution of these bonds may vary over the course of the relationship. Hence. Limerent–Nonlimerent bond: define relationships in which one partner is limerent. and hope. i. Much of the early research on attachment in humans was done by John Bowlby and his associates. Many developmental specialists elaborated Bowlby's ethological observations. in relation to the experience or non-experience of limerence: 1. is that based on her research and interviews with over 500 people. mathematics and logic. Bowlby proposed that babies have an inbuilt need from birth to make emotional attachments. British developmental psychologist John Bowlby published the ground-breaking paper "the Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother. one of three varieties of bonds may form. all human bonded relationships can be divided into three varieties being defined by the amount of limerence or non-limerence each partner contributes to the relationship. The enduring motivation is the desire to control a pleasantly surprising transformation that is the route of belief in effectiveness by humans. stated that attachment by mother was a pathological inversion and described only behaviors of the infant.

Father–child bonds also tend to develop with respect to topics such as political views or money. response. Paternal bonding In contrast to the maternal bond.[9] Extensive claims for the effect of breastfeeding were made in the 1930s by Margaret Ribble. It is difficult to determine the extent of causality due to a number of confounding variables. and mutual gazing.[11] The claimed effect is not universal. via touch. It is generally understood that maternal oxytocin circulation can predispose some mammals to show caregiving behavior in response to young of their species. whereas mother–child bonds tend to develop in relation to topics such as religious views or general outlooks on life. Many believe that early bonding ideally increases response and sensitivity to the child's needs.[12] In 2003. such as the varied reasons families choose different feeding methods. the maternal bond (mother–infant relationship) is one of the strongest. and bottle-feeding mothers are generally appropriately concerned with their babies. many exceptions can be found of highly successful mother–baby bonds. the production of oxytocin during lactation increases parasympathetic activity."[10] but were challenged by others. a champion of "infant rights. such as with premature infants who may lack the necessary sucking strength to successfully breastfeed. . paternal bonding is more dominant later in a child's life after language develops.Human bonding 139 Maternal bonding Of all human bonds.[13] Father playing with his young daughter—an activity that tends to strengthen the father–child bond. paternal bonds tend to vary over the span of a child's development in terms of both strength and stability. many children now grow up in fatherless households and do not experience a paternal bond at all. The maternal bond begins to develop during pregnancy. Specifically. Breastfeeding has been reported to foster the early post-partum maternal bond. In general. even though early breastfeeding did not occur. a hormone more usually associated with pregnancy and maternal bonding. In fact. bolstering the quality of the mother–baby relationship—however. thus reducing anxiety and theoretically fostering bonding. Fathers may be more influential in play interactions as opposed to nurturance interactions. following pregnancy. may also control the way men react towards their children. they found that a lack of progesterone reduced aggressive behavior in male mice and stimulated them to act in a fatherly way towards their offspring. a researcher from Northwestern University in Illinois found that progesterone.

Both chemicals facilitate pair bonding and maternal behavior in experiments on laboratory animals. social isolation leads to stress.[14] Neurobiology There is evidence in a variety of species that the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin are involved in the bonding process.2 billion animals are kept as pets. and tension were all found to correlate positively with human–pet bonding. a team of scientists at the University of Pennsylvania found that human to animal contact was found to reduce the physiological characteristics of stress. there is evidence that oxytocin and vasopressin are released during labor and breastfeeding. specifically.[14] Historically. as of 1995 there were over 30 research institutions looking into the potential benefits of the human–animal bond. primarily for bonding purposes. society officials theorized that the combination of animal contact plus productive work would facilitate the patients' rehabilitation. The contact with the animals was found to reduce the occurrence of seizures. animals were domesticated for functional use.Human bonding 140 Human–animal bonding The human–animal bond can be defined as a connection between people and animals. England. In the 1870s in Paris. and that these events are associated with maternal bonding. For example. for example. heart rate. anxiety.[14] Human–animal bond: human to animal contact is known to reduce the physiological characteristics of stress.[15] In addition. In 1980. By having patients care for the many farm animals on the estate. and in other forms of prosocial and reproductive behavior. a French surgeon had patients with neurological disorders ride horses. the Society of Friends established The Retreat to provide humane treatment for the mentally ill. Today. Positive . domestic or wild. in York. current studies show that 60–80% of dogs sleep with their owners at night in the bedroom. In the 19th century. for example. and cats for killing mice or rats. Currently. their function is primarily bonding. Germany. The patients were found to have improved their motor control and balance and were less likely to suffer bouts of depression. Research into the nature and merit of the human–animal bond began in the late 18th century when. lowered levels of blood pressure. in the US. in the past the majority of cats were kept outside (barn cats) whereas today most cats are kept indoors (housecats) and considered Human bonding with an emu in Australia. 1. respiratory rate. in Western societies. epileptic patients were given the prescription to spend time each day taking care of cats and dogs. dogs for herding and tracking. in Bielefeld. be it a cat as a pet or birds outside one's window.[15] Moreover. In humans. either in or on the bed. part of the family. which is associated with activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the release of cortisol. According to one model.

According to this model. Acquaintances. the neurotransmitter dopamine may interact with oxytocin and further increase the likelihood of bonding. One of the few studies that looked at the influence of hormones on human bonding compared participants who had recently fallen in love with a control group. which is also associated with higher levels of oxytocin and vasopressin.Human bonding 141 social interaction is associated with increased oxytocin. which is now considered a classic paper in sociology. including LH. Specifically. There were no differences for most of the hormones measured.[20] . progesterone. and thus receive more novel information.[19] Weak ties In 1962. Because the vast majority of this research has been done on animals—and the majority of that on rodents—these findings must be taken with caution when applied to humans. DHEAS. and there was also a difference in blood cortisol for both sexes. This leads to bonding. and reduced stress and stress-related hormones. with higher levels in the group that was in love. which themselves are held together by "strong" covalent bonds. Mark Granovetter became enamored of the concepts underlying the classic chemistry lecture in which "weak" hydrogen bonds hold huge numbers of water molecules together. more novel information flows to individuals through weak than through strong ties.[16] Oxytocin is associated with higher levels of trust in laboratory studies on humans. This model was the stimulus behind his famous 1973 paper The Strength of Weak Ties. Testosterone and FSH were lower in men who had recently fallen in love.[18] A small child bonding with a cat. and androstenedione. Because our close friends tend to move in the same circles that we do.[17] In the reward centers of the limbic system. affiliation is a function of the brain systems underlying reward and memory formation. and that endogenous opiates play the central role. These differences disappeared after 12–28 months and may reflect the temporary stress and arousal of a new relationship. estradiol. by contrast. the information they receive overlaps considerably with what we already know. It has been called the "cuddle chemical" for its role in facilitating trust and attachment. One team of researchers has argued that oxytocin only plays a secondary role in affiliation. while a freshman history major at Harvard. know people that we do not. Weak social bonds are believed to be responsible for the majority of the embeddedness and structure of social networks in society as well as the transmission of information through these networks.

Diane (1986). (2005). stm). etymonline. C.B. Grief may take longer than the initial development of the bond. html). ISBN 0-202-30361-6 [13] "Secret of paternal bond" (http:/ / news. (2006). The Free Dictionary (http:/ / www. W. (1998).umich. Vintage Books. 17. [18] Depue.M. [11] Pinneau. edu/ spotlight02. sometimes for a number of years.R. (2000). S. bbc." where. (1995). [14] Latter. [16] Carter. ISBN 0-679-76183-7. R. "Human Bonding: Parents and Their Offspring in Early Modern England. [10] Ribble. com) Online Etymology Dictionary (http:/ / www. & Morrone-Strupinsky. The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. Grief is the process of accepting the loss and adjusting to the changed situation. com/ index. asp?ContentDetailID=990). Chicago: Aldine. "Engageance. M. John (1969). Of Human Bonding: Parent Child Relations Across the Life Course. [17] Ackerman.S. Smith. (http://www. Source: Animal Welfare Society – Southeastern Michigan.L.D. umn." Jan 19 . Psychoneuroendocrinology. [8] See R. Child Development. [19] Marazziti. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Psychoneuroendocrinology. Oxford University Press.. net/ pethumanbonding. L. 931–936. . com/ Content/ detail.si. Source: University of Minnesota. during the dynamics of relationship breakup. – a 142 . 33–50). Neural Bases. M. Further reading Books • Miller. pp. (1997). censhare. 28. D. php?search=pair-bond& searchmode=none) – Search: "pair bond" Microsoft Encarta 2006. A. D." (http://www. P. ISBN 1-901250-54-7.pdf) Discussion Papers in Economic and Social History – Oxford University. co.ox. J." Journal of Economic Perspectives (Vol 19 Number 1. " The Impact of Social Structures on Economic Development (http:/ / www.L. 90. there exists a "turning point.M. htm). ISBN 0415043263. A Natural History of Love. (2004). Bowlby. ISBN 0-7923-7478-9 Articles • Ben-Amos. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3749/ is_200310/ ai_n9302754). 1–29. Diane (1994). (1950)." only noted in hindsight. R. S. International Journal of Family Psychiatry 4 (3): 229–245 [9] Cesk.H. 25 February 2003.[21] When a person to which one has become bonded is lost. Wilson. • Brown. McLaughlin. followed by a transition period in which one partner unconsciously knows the relationship is going to end.edu/ICOS/Brown-Stephanie. Attachment and Loss. The Ontogeny of Human Bonding Systems: Evolutionary Origins. [20] Granovetter. (1990). Cas Lek. 313–395. (2001). Glenn. I. leader-values. 779–818.uk/economics/history/paper17/17www. & Rodgers. The grief process varies with culture.pdf) Psychological Inquiry. Fusion Press. The Science of Love. Premium Edition © 1993–2005 Microsoft Corporation.. & Canale. A critique on the articles by Margaret Ribble. A neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding: Implications for conceptualizing a human trait of affiliation.A. Bowlby. Selective investment theory: Recasting the functional significance of close relationships. Hormonal changes when falling in love. Article: "Human Pet Bonding" (http:/ / www. Neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love. & Brown.ac. ISBN 0-679-73002-8. a grief response may occur. [12] Rossi. uk/ 2/ low/ health/ 2793551. BBC News.V. sociologist Diane Vaughan proposed an "uncoupling theory. 203–228.Human bonding Debonding and loss In 1976. John (1990). [15] Article: "The Changing Status of Human–Animal Bonds" (http:/ / www. (2004). J. Basic Books. All rights reserved. 29. and Psychological Manifestations. Routledge. [21] Vaughan. Uncoupling – Turning Points in Intimate Relationships. " Development of the Maternal Bond during Pregnancy (http:/ / www. Chris (2001). findarticles. 139(1): 5–8.K. New York: Springer. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Webster’s New World College Dictionary © 1996. Ostfeld (1983). Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. (1939). 23. animalwelfaresociety. nuff. & Rossi. B. but holds on to it for an extended period. 21(4). The significance of infantile sucking for the psychic development of the individual. a practical elaboration of attachment in mothers of at-risk infants". 455–463. thefreedictionary.

ac. Mon." Wellcome Trust.com/ebc/) 143 .howstuffworks. ISSN 1474-7049 • Thorne.org/parent/pregnancy_newborn/communicating/bonding.org • Bonding Period (http://www.edu/archive/chains.Human bonding theoretical proposal that "human social bonds evolved as overarching..htm?iam=metaresults& terms=shannon+swallow) source: About. Ohio State University • The Neurobiology of Social Bonds (http://www.html) Evolutionary Psychology.C.org.html).aican.net/barp/bonding.com • Equine Bonding Concepts (http://www.org/) Human–animal bonding • Parrot–Human Bonding (http://www. (2006). (2003).com/love7. emotion regulating mechanisms designed to promote reliable. Express (Washingtonpost. R.asp) – Progressive Steps in the Bonding Process • Feline–Human Bond (http://cats.html) source: kidshealth. " Falling in Love: Insights into Human Bonding (http://www.uk/content/view/34/11/) – British Society for Neuroendocrinology Baby bonding • Bonding With Your Baby (http://kidshealth. W.com/qic/bonding. " Of Human Bonding (http://www.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/ 04/AR2006080400332.about.S.com/ep/articles/ep01138154.html) – Encyclopedia of Adoption (use cautiously with section on "attachment disorders") • AICAN – Australian Intercountry Adoption Network (http://www.quakerville.babyreference. Perspectives on Human Attachment (Pair Bonding): Eve's unique legacy of canine analogue (http://human-nature.com • Researchers Map the Sexual Network of an Entire High School (http://researchnews. 1.birthingnaturally.htm) – HowStuffWorks.osu.wellcome.html) – Parent/Infant Bonding • Bonding Matters – the Chemistry of Attachment (http://www. & Mackey. 07) • Author (2006). high-cost altruism among individuals who depend on one another for survival and reproduction" (From the abstract) • Immerman.com).rosecreekvillage. Aug.com/cs/felinehumanbond/a/bonding_bubba. L.com/BondingMatters.washingtonpost.htm) Adoption bonding • Adoption bonding (http://www.adoptivefamilies. (Aug.com/bonding/) – Adoptive Families Magazine • Bonding and Attachment (http://encyclopedia. 25 External links Relationships • Chemical Bonding and Love (http://people.html)" – Condo Dwellers Find Cool Ways to Connect With the Neighbors.com/entry/bonding-and-attachment/72/1.uk/ doc_WTX033638.adoption. htm) – Research News.neuroendo. 138–154.

The individual feels sadness or distress at involuntary separation from the person. html Bowlby. Attachments beyond infancy.htm) 144 . according to Bowlby.pdf) • Attachment Security in Infancy and its Consequences for Development of the Individual (http://www. Routledge Classics. An affectional bond involves a particular person who is not interchangeable with anyone else. J.de/dahlem/DWR 92_Attachment/Chapter 10. an affectional bond is a type of attachment behavior one individual has for another individual." International Journal of Psychoanalysis 39: 350–373. is the attraction one individual has for another individual. 3. The individual wishes to maintain proximity or contact with the person with whom he or she has an affectional tie. ISBN 0-415-35481-1. not transitory."[3] Five criteria Bowlby referred to attachment bonds as a specific type of "affectional" bond. J. An affectional bond involves a relationship that is emotionally significant. "The Nature of the Childs Tie to his Mother. The core of the term affectional bond.fu-berlin. 4. turnertoys.S. http:/ / www. org/ papers/ pendry.com/security_and_attachment/default. M. (1989). Ainsworth.[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] Bowlby. 5. Reference for the entire section "Five criteria" External links • Universality of Human Social Attachment as an Adaptive Process (http://web. 2. 44. personalityresearch. An affectional bond is persistent. by psychologist John Bowlby in his work on attachment theory. She established five criteria for affectional bonds between individuals. American Psychologist.Affectional bond Affectional bond In psychology. "the Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother.[2] in which the two partners tend to remain in proximity to one another. (2005). The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds.[1] typically a caregiver for her or his child. An attachment bond has an additional criterion: the person seeks security and comfort in the relationship. The central features of the concept of affectional bonding can be traced to Bowlby's 1958 paper. as described by him and developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth. and a sixth criterion for attachment bonds: 1.[1] The term was coined and subsequently developed over the course of four decades. from the early 1940s to the late 1970s. 709716. (1958).D.

psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. At the age of seven. though during the summer she was more available. Moreover.[2] Because of such experiences as a child. and they had four children. even if in slightly attenuated form. Scotland. who succeeded his uncle as third Baronet. "If the child is maladjusted. He was the fourth of six children and was brought up by a nanny in the British fashion of his class at that time. he revealed that he regarded it as a terrible time for him. he was sent off to boarding school. He later said. was surgeon to the King's Household. with a tragic history: at age five. he qualified as a psychoanalyst. Bowlby died at his summer home on the Isle of Skye. Thomas William Bowlby. it may be useful for him to be away for part of the year from the tensions which produced his difficulties. she considered that parental attention and affection would lead to dangerous spoiling of the children. At the age of twenty-six. he qualified in medicine. as was common for boys of his social status. since it forms part of the ordinary social pattern of most Western communities today [1951]. In 1937. After Cambridge. Bowlby saw his mother only one hour a day after teatime. While still in medical school he enrolled himself in the Institute for Psychoanalysis. and wrote. Family background Bowlby was born in London to an upper-middle-class family. Later. aged 30. first Baronet. Like many other mothers of her social class. (John's grandfather) was killed while serving as a war correspondent in the Opium Wars. and if the home is bad in other ways the same is true. the child who goes to boarding-school will not feel different from other children. winning prizes for outstanding intellectual performance. His father. Normally. notable for his interest in child development and for his pioneering work in attachment theory. 1938. it will be possible for some of them to develop more favorable attitudes toward their children during the remainder. by relieving the parents of the children for part of the year. his beloved nanny. he worked with maladjusted and delinquent children. left the family. he displayed a sensitivity to children’s suffering throughout his life. Sir Anthony's own father. on April 16. The boarding school has the advantage of preserving the child's all-important home ties. including (Sir) Richard Bowlby. with his characteristic attentiveness to the effects of age differences. In his work Separation: Anxiety and Anger. Sir Anthony Alfred Bowlby. then at the age of twenty-two enrolled at University College Hospital in London. he trained in adult psychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital. Cambridge. Bowlby did consider boarding schools appropriate for children aged eight and older. Bowlby was lucky in that the nanny in his family was present throughout his childhood. and. "I wouldn't send a dog away to boarding school at age seven". However."[3] He married Ursula Longstaff. he was to describe this as tragic as the loss of a mother. Following medical school. who was actually his primary caretaker in his early years. herself the daughter of a surgeon. . Career Bowlby studied psychology and pre-clinical sciences at Trinity College.John Bowlby 145 John Bowlby Edward John Mostyn Bowlby Full name Edward John Mostyn Bowlby Born 26 February 1907 Died 2 September 1990 (aged 83) Edward John Mostyn "John" Bowlby (26 February 1907 – 2 September 1990) was a British psychologist.[1] When Bowlby was almost four years old.

She was his supervisor.[2] • Melanie Klein during his psychoanalytic training. By the late 1950s he had accumulated a body of observational and theoretical work to indicate the fundamental importance for human development of attachment from birth. The three most important experiences for Bowlby’s future work and the development of attachment theory were his work with: • Maladapted and delinquent children.[2] Maternal deprivation In 1949. he became interested in the development of children and began work at the Child Guidance Clinic in London. Bowlby's views—that children were responding to real life events and not unconscious fantasies—were rejected by psychoanalysts.[4] Bowlby was interested from the beginning of his career in the problem of separation and the wartime work of Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham on evacuees and Rene Spitz on orphans. The 1951 WHO publication was highly influential in causing widespread changes in the practices and prevalence of institutional care for infants and children. He later expressed the view that his interest in real-life experiences and situations was "alien to the Kleinian outlook". He broke with psychoanalytic theories which saw infants' internal life as being determined by fantasy rather than real life events. that “the infant and young child should experience a warm. these included the rescue of Jewish children by the Kindertransport arrangements. and the use of group nurseries to allow mothers of young children to contribute to the war effort. Mary Ainsworth. he was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Royal Army Medical Corps. Because of his previous work with maladapted and delinquent children. Klein stressed the role of the child's fantasies about his mother. Specifically and importantly. a student of Bowlby’s. The documentary illustrated the impact of loss and suffering experienced by young children separated from their primary caretakers. His main conclusions. The theoretical basis was controversial in many ways. which was one of the films about ”young children in brief separation“. In 1952 when he and Robertson presented their film A Two Year Old Goes to Hospital to the British Psychoanalytical Society. the evacuation of children from London to keep them safe from air raids. Mental Health Consultant to the World Health Organization.John Bowlby During World War II. and in fact played the primary role in suggesting that several attachment styles existed. and in changing practices relating to the visiting of infants and small children in hospitals by parents. Some critics 146 . This film was instrumental in a campaign to alter hospital restrictions on visiting by parents. This interest was probably increased by a variety of wartime events involving separation of young children from familiar people. He focused on how attachment difficulties were transmitted from one generation to the next. and from 1950. Bowlby's earlier work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospitalised and institutionalised care lead to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organization's report on the mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe. and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment” and that not to do so may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences. but Bowlby emphasized the actual history of the relationship.[6] Bowlby drew together such limited empirical evidence as existed at the time from across Europe and the USA. he was Deputy Director of the Tavistock Clinic. After the war. In his development of attachment theory he propounded the idea that attachment behaviour was essentially an evolutionary survival strategy for protecting the infant from predators.[2] Bowlby was interested in finding out the actual patterns of family interaction involved in both healthy and pathological development. intimate. • James Robertson (in 1952) in making the documentary film A Two-Year Old Goes to the Hospital. psychoanalysts did not accept that a child would mourn or experience grief on separation but instead saw the child's distress as caused by elements of unconscious fantasies (in the film because the mother was pregnant). were both controversial and influential. further extended and tested his ideas.[5] The result was Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951. however they had different views about the role of the mother in the treatment of a three-year-old boy. and Bowlby was effectively ostracized by the psychoanalytic community.

[14] [15] 147 .[11] Because he was dissatisfied with traditional theories. Van der Veer & Van IJzendoorn. There was criticism of the confusion of the effects of privation (no primary attachment figure) and deprivation (loss of the primary attachment figure) and in particular.[8] Development of attachment theory Bowlby himself explained in his 1988 work "A Secure Base" that the data were not. Obviously. Bowlby’s thinking about the nature and function of the caregiver-child relationship influenced ethological research.John Bowlby profoundly disagreed with the necessity for maternal (or equivalent) love in order to function normally.[7] or that the formation of an ongoing relationship with a child was an important part of parenting. to present the recent research and developments and to address misapprehensions. Bowlby spurred Hinde to start his ground breaking work on attachment and separation in primates (monkeys and humans).[8] Others questioned the extent to which his hypothesis was supported by the evidence. p. Bowlby sought new understanding from such fields as evolutionary biology. and in general emphasized the importance of evolutionary thinking about human development that foreshadowed the new interdisciplinary approach of evolutionary psychology. "accommodated by any theory then current and in the brief time of my employment by the World Health Organization there was no possibility of developing a new one". Bowlby developed new explanatory hypotheses for what is now known as human attachment behaviour. 2007. Using the viewpoints of this emerging science and reading extensively in the ethology literature. Alternatively. ethology. and inspired students of animal behaviour such as Tinbergen. cognitive science and control systems theory and drew upon them to formulate the innovative proposition that the mechanisms underlying an infants tie emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure. on the basis of ethological evidence he was able to reject the dominant Cupboard Love theory of attachment prevailing in psychoanalysis and learning theory of the 1940s and 1950s.[9] The monograph was also used for political purposes to claim any separation from the mother was deleterious in order to discourage women from working and leaving their children in daycare by governments concerned about maximising employment for returned and returning servicemen. namely Niko Tinbergen.[9] In 1962 WHO published Deprivation of maternal care: A Reassessment of its Effects to which Mary Ainsworth. Konrad Lorenz."[5] Bowlby expressed himself as having made good the "deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect" in Maternal Care and Mental Health in his later work Attachment and Loss published in 1969. He also introduced the concepts of environmentally stable or labile human behaviour allowing for the revolutionary combination of the idea of a species-specific genetic bias to become attached and the concept of individual differences in attachment security as environmentally labile strategies for adaptation to a specific childrearing niche.[10] This publication also attempted to address the previous lack of evidence on the effects of paternal deprivation. Hinde. Bowlby's close colleague.[13] Ethology and evolutionary concepts "From the 1950s Bowlby was in personal and scientific contact with leading European scientists in the field of ethology. a failure to distinguish between the effects of the lack of a primary attachment figure and the other forms of deprivation and understimulation that may affect children in institutions. 321). and especially the rising star of ethology Robert Hinde. built on up-to-date science rather than the outdated psychic energy model espoused by Freud. and Harry Harlow. According to Rutter the importance of Bowlby's initial writings on 'maternal deprivation' lay in his emphasis that children's experiences of interpersonal relationships were crucial to their psychological development. contributed with his approval.[12] "Bowlby realised that he had to develop a new theory of motivation and behaviour control. He then went on to describe the subsequent development of attachment theory. at the time of the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health. the encounter of ethology and attachment theory led to a genuine cross-fertilization" (Van der Horst. developmental psychology. In particular.

[16] The second and third volumes. to develop a research tool called the "Strange Situation Procedure" for developing and classifying different attachment styles. is a biography of Charles Darwin.John Bowlby The "Attachment and Loss" trilogy Before the publication of the trilogy in 1969. 1972 and 1980. Mary Ainsworth used this feature plus "stranger wariness" and reunion behaviours. Separation: Anxiety and Anger and Loss: Sadness and Depression followed in 1972 and 1980 respectively. and who remain as consistent caregivers for some months during the period from about 6 months to two years of age. The quality of the social engagement appears to be more influential than amount of time spent. Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment which in turn lead to 'internal working models' which will guide the individual's feelings. Separation Anxiety (1959). which discusses Darwin's "mysterious illness" and whether it was psychosomatic. and Grief and Mourning in Infancy and Early Childhood (1960).[5] In Bowlby's approach. Bowlby's attachment theory stresses the following important tenets:[19] 1. attachment theory has been described as the dominant approach to understanding early social development and to have given rise to a great surge of empirical research into the formation of children's close relationships.[16] Darwin biography Bowlby's last work. The attachment process is not gender specific as infants will form attachments to any consistent caregiver who is sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant. Bowlby rejected psychoanalyst explanations for attachment. published posthumously. The formation of emotional attachments contributes to the foundation of later emotional and personality development. without which normal social and emotional development will not occur. 2. and expectations in later relationships. Attachment was revised in 1982 to incorporate recent research. their tendency to seek proximity to those people. and their ability to use the familiar adults as a secure base from which to explore the environment. and the type of behaviour toward familiar adults shown by toddlers has some continuity with the social behaviours they will show later in life. Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant. building on concepts from ethology and developmental psychology. thoughts.[18] As it is presently formulated and used for research purposes. [17] Bowlby's legacy Although not without its critics. especially if the adults are sensitive and responsive to child communications. Bowlby's former colleague. Mary Ainsworth was completing extensive observational studies on the nature of infant attachments in Uganda with Bowlby's ethological theories in mind. especially in times of distress. 148 . The emotional attachments of young children are shown behaviourally in their preferences for particular familiar people. the main tenets of attachment theory. Her results in this and other studies contributed greatly to the subsequent evidence base of attachment theory as presented in 1969 in Attachment the first volume of the Attachment and Loss trilogy. psychoanalysts rejected his theory. At about the same time. Children between 6 and about 30 months are very likely to form emotional attachments to familiar caregivers. According to attachment theory. attachment in infants is primarily a process of proximity seeking to an identified attachment figure in situations of perceived distress or alarm for the purpose of survival. other features of attachment behaviour. and in return. were presented to the British Psychoanalytical Society in London in three now classic papers: The Nature of the Child’s Tie to His Mother (1958). it uses its attachment figure or figures as a "secure base" from which to explore. the human infant is considered to have a need for a secure relationship with adult caregivers. 3. As the toddler grows.

ISBN 0712666214 (pbk). The master work series (2nd ed. pp.1111/j. (1991).28. ISBN 0670886238.109). p.95). Retrieved 2008-09-11. OCLC 42913724. OCLC 11442968 [17] Bowlby. Karnac Books. ch.x. PMID 7650083. PMID 18766423. Eds. edu/ classics1986/ A1986F063100001. ISBN 1855753855. Guilford press. 3]. ISBN 0-465-00543-8 (pbk). (1951). com/ content/ 47012q360531r664/ fulltext. ISBN 0-14-013458-1. 9781855753853. "A Social Scientist's Approach to Maternal Deprivation. Selected bibliography • Bowlby J (1995) [1950]. London: Hogarth Press. such as abrupt separation of the toddler from familiar people or the significant inability of carers to be sensitive. Northvale. Maternal Care and Mental Health. Geneva: World Health Organization. World Health Organisation WHO [7] Wootton. Maternal Care and Mental Health (http:/ / www. World Health Organization. A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. doi:10.1995. • Bowlby J (1980). 17. London: Jason Aronson. have short-term and possible long-term negative impacts on the child's emotional and cognitive life. garfield. New York: Basic Books. Maternal Care and Mental Health. No. J (1951) Maternal Care and Mental Health. • Bowlby J (1988). Charles Darwin: A New Life. (International psycho-analytical library no. CT: Praeger. [2] Schwartz J (1999). ISBN 0-465-04238-4 (pbk). Child Care and the Growth of Love.tb02314. [18] Schaffer R. [Geneva. • Bowlby J (1976) [1965]. M (1995). Harmondsworth. p. LeRoy HA. [16] Bowlby J [1969] (1999). Cassandra's Daughter: A History of Psychoanalysis. Van der Veer R (2008). Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 42 (4): 370. NLM 8412414. upenn. 149 . Attachment. LCCN 00266879. Attachment. OCLC 8353942. in Handbook of Attachment. Tavistock professional book. 225. 14.) (2nd edn. Retrieved 2007-11-30. Attachment and Loss (vol.). Notes [1] Bowlby R and King P (2004).1080/14616730601149809. New York: Norton.. 14. OCLC 11442968. 255-266 [8] Rutter. Fry M (abridged & ed. [9] Rutter (1981) Maternal Deprivation Reassessed. Monograph series no. • Bowlby J (1973). Penguin. Separation: Anxiety & Anger. 'Understanding attachment. 1) (2nd ed. J. [13] Bowlby J(1986) Citation Classic. • Bowlby J (1999) [1969]." In Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects. Public Health Papers. [4] Mercer.1469-7610. ISBN 0422622303 (pbk). NJ. Attachment & Human Development 9 (4): 321–335. . 2).(1962 ) Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects. 1). Geneva: World Health Organization. Attachment and Loss (vol. World Health Organisation. PMID 17852051. New York: Basic Books. OCLC 154150053. Ainsworth MD (2 add. Charles Darwin: A New Life. responsive or consistent in their interactions. London. ISBN 9780393309300.New York: Schocken. Fifty Years of Attachment Theory: Recollections of Donald Winnicott and John Bowlby. Pelican books.). • Bowlby J (1991). OCLC 59246032.89. ""When strangers meet": John Bowlby and Harry Harlow on attachment behavior" (http:/ / www. [3] Bowlby. pdf) (PDF). (International psycho-analytical library no. ISBN 0-415-00640-6 (pbk) [12] Cassidy J. [15] Van der Horst FCP. (2006). [11] Bowlby J (1988) "A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory". B. informaworld. "Clinical Implications of Attachment Concepts: Retrospect and Prospect". Blackwell.P. Attachment and Loss (vol. Understanding Attachment. London: Penguin Books. (1962). Van der Veer R. pdf) [14] Van der Horst FCP. New York: Norton. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 36 (4): 549–571. [5] Bretherton I. Events that interfere with attachment. Cassidy J and Shaver PR.1007/s12124-008-9079-2. . com/ smpp/ content~content=a773405215). Viking/Allen Lane. 1953 (above)). London: Hogarth Press. ISBN 0-465-00543-8 (pbk). Loss: Sadness & Depression.' Westport.CT:Praeger. Second edition.). doi:10. OCLC 33105354. 2nd edition. (1999) "The Nature of a Childs Ties". Public Health Papers. springerlink. 3). ed (Report. library. J. Westport. Attachment and Loss (vol. [19] Mercer. NLM 8412414. doi:10. London: Routledge. J. [10] Ainsworth M et al. Introducing Child Psychology.).John Bowlby 4. (2006). "The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth" (1992) Developmental Psychology vol. Van IJzendoorn MH (2007). "John Bowlby and ethology: An annotated interview with Robert Hinde" (http:/ / www. Routledge. pp. 2007. No. 759-775 [6] Bowlby. ed. LCCN 00266879. ISBN 1-56821-757-9. J.

• Van der Horst FCP.org/world/the-work-of-john-bowlby) A research report by the International Society for the Systems Sciences authored by Gary Metcalf in 2010 150 . doi:10. Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 42 (4): 370. History of the Human Sciences 19 (4): 19–35.com/ videoplay?docid=-6894776599072526990) 4-minute clip from a documentary film used primarily in higher education. Unraveling the Roots of Attachment Theory (http://www. OCLC 39982501.John Bowlby • Bretherton I (September 1992).wiley.html) • John Bowlby: Attachment Theory Across Generations (http://video. • Mayhew B (November 2006). • Van der Horst FCP. Van IJzendoorn MH.amazon. Attachment & Human Development 9 (4): 321–335. • Holmes J (1993). doi:10. John Bowlby . External links • Summaries and links to full-text or articles and books by John Bowlby (http://www.2-N.google.com/smpp/content~content=a773405215). John Bowlby and Attachment Theory. Kuipers HJ (Summer 1998).5. Retrieved 2007-09-01. John Bowlby: His Early Life: A Biographical Journey into the Roots of Attachment Theory. LeRoy HA. Developmental Psychology 28 (5): 759–775. • Van der Horst FCP (2011). PMID 18766423.com/content/47012q360531r664/fulltext. Van der Veer R.759.Rediscovering a systems scientist (http://isss.pdf) (PDF). Van der Veer R.1177/0952695106069666. OCLC 27266442. London. Van IJzendoorn MH (2007). London. doi:10. doi:10. Van der Veer R (2008).uk/atws/ person/8. doi:10.0. ISBN 0-415-07730-3 (pbk). Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences 34 (3): 247–269.interscience. Retrieved 2007-11-30.springerlink. Retrieved 2008-09-11.1002/(SICI)1520-6696(199822)34:3<247::AID-JHBS2>3.richardatkins.1007/s12124-008-9079-2. "Bowlby before Bowlby: The sources of an intellectual departure in psychoanalysis and psychology" (http://www3. OCLC 1566542. • Van Dijken S. • Van Dijken S (1998). "The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth".com/ cgi-bin/abstract/76082/ABSTRACT).co. PMID 17852051. "Between love and aggression: The politics of John Bowlby".From Psychoanalysis to Ethology. New York: Free Association Books. ISBN 9780470683644. ISBN 1853433934 (pbk).28. "John Bowlby and ethology: An annotated interview with Robert Hinde" (http://www.1037/0012-1649. • John Bowlby . Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.1080/14616730601149809.informaworld.com/John-Bowlby-Psychoanalysis-Unravelling-Attachment/dp/0470683643). New York: Routledge. ""When strangers meet": John Bowlby and Harry Harlow on attachment behavior" (http://www. Makers of modern psychotherapy.CO.

including the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Child Development in 1985 and the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the APA in 1989. 1913 Glendale.D in 1939. insecurely attached . She stayed to teach for a few years before joining the Canadian Women's Army Corp in 1942 in World War II. in 1936. Ohio in 1913. parents both graduated from Dickinson College.[2] .avoidant and ambivalent children Mary Dinsmore Salter Ainsworth (December 1. she eventually settled at the University of Virginia in 1975. Her father earned his Master's in History and was transferred to a manufacturing firm in Canada when Ainsworth was five. where she remained the rest of her academic career. all from the University of Toronto.A. her M. 1999 (aged 85) Era 20th century philosophy Region Western Philosophy School Psychoanalysis Main interests Attachment theory Notable ideas Finding of securely attached. and her Ph. Ohio Died March 21. Ainsworth enrolled in honors program in psychology at the University of Toronto in the fall of 1929.A. in 1935. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1992. Ainsworth received many honors. 1999)[1] was a Canadian developmental psychologist known for her work in early emotional attachment with "The Strange Situation" as well as her work in the development of Attachment Theory. She earned her B. it was William McDougall's book Character and the Conduct of Life that inspired her interest in psychology. After many other academic positions. 1913 – March 21. While her parents always put a strong emphasis on education. She married Leonard Ainsworth in 1950 and moved to London with him to allow him to finish his graduate degree at University College. eldest of three sisters. Life Ainsworth was born in Glendale.Mary Ainsworth 151 Mary Ainsworth Mary Ainsworth Full name Mary Ainsworth Born December 1. She returned to Toronto to continue teaching personality psychology and conduct research. reaching the rank of Major in 1945.

" In 1954. Each of these groups reflects a different kind of attachment relationship with the caregiver. Four aspects of the child's behaviour are observed: 1.g. which is a widely used. and that behavior of the parent may in turn be influenced by the child's behavior. 152 . 6. According to some psychological researchers. the children were categorized into three groups. Second reunion episode: Parent enters. well researched and validated. Continuation of second separation episode: Stranger enters and gears behaviour to that of infant. Ainsworth devised a procedure. She and her colleagues developed the Strange Situation Procedure. method of assessing an infant's pattern and style of attachment to a caregiver. The child experiences the following situations: 1. educates the child in how to cope with the same problem in the future. recreating the flow of the familiar and unfamiliar presence in most children's lives. called A Strange Situation. The child's reunion behaviour with its caregiver. 2. will engage with strangers. On the basis of their behaviors. 2. First reunion episode: Parent greets and comforts infant. Parent does not participate while infant explores. playing with new toys) the child engages in throughout. The amount of exploration (e. Securely attached children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need (also known as "rapprochement. Others have pointed out that there are also other determinants of the child's attachment. Therefore. to observe attachment relationships between a caregiver and child. 4. the child will not engage with a stranger if their mother is not in the room. converses with parent. 3. 8. secure attachment can be seen as the most adaptive attachment style. When assistance is given. then leaves again. The child's reactions to the departure of its caregiver. Parent and infant are introduced to the experimental room. she left Tavistock Clinic to do research in Africa. The situation varies in stressfulness and the child's responses are observed. 5. greets infant. Ainsworth joined the research team at Tavistock Clinic investigating the effects of maternal separation on child development. 4. will be visibly upset when the mother departs and happy to see the mother return. First separation episode: Stranger's behaviour is geared to that of infant. Parent leaves inconspicuously. this bolsters the sense of security and also. assuming the mother's assistance is helpful. stranger leaves inconspicuously." meaning in French "bring together"). In this procedure of the strange situation the child is observed playing for 20 minutes while caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room. where she carried out her longitudinal field study of mother-infant interaction. 3. with a fourth added later. (See Attachment theory.Mary Ainsworth Early work While in England. and picks up infant. then approaches infant. a child becomes securely attached when the mother is available and able to meet the needs of the child in a responsive and appropriate manner.) Strange Situation In the 1970s. Second separation episode: Infant is alone. Secure attachment A child who is securely attached to its mother will explore freely while the mother is present. Stranger enters. Parent and infant are alone. The stranger anxiety (when the baby is alone with the stranger). Comparison of disrupted mother-child bonds to normal mother-child relationship showed that a child's lack of a mother figure leads to "adverse development effects. 7. However.

. the baby may also hit or push his mother when she approaches and fail to cling to her when she picks him up.[5] In fact. when he is held he wants to be left alone and when he is left he clings to the mother. Modified procedures based on the Strange Situation have been developed for older preschool children (see Belsky et al. Greenberg et al. 1990)[10] [11] but it is much more dubious whether the same approach can be used in middle childhood. then freeze or fall to the floor.seeking to remain close to the mother but resentful. Some show stereotyped behaviour.. despite its manifest strengths.[5] A child may cry during separation but avoid the mother when she returns or may approach the mother. Thompson. That is. The child will be ambivalent when she returns . Anxious-avoidant insecure attachment A child with a problem of the mental health attachment style will avoid or ignore the caregiver . the child is extremely distressed. 1985). According to some psychological researchers. Volume 36 No 4. 56% of mothers who had lost a parent by death before they completed high school subsequently had children with disorganised attachments. When the mother departs.[9] where infants are rarely separated from their mothers in ordinary circumstances. Both ambivalent attachments and avoidant attachments are types of insecure attachments which are less desirable than secure attachments. and also resistant when the mother initiates attention.Mary Ainsworth Anxious-resistant insecure attachment A child with an anxious-resistant attachment style is anxious of exploration and of strangers.[7] "It is by no means free of limitations (see Lamb. it is very dependent on brief separations and reunions having the same meaning for all children. Also. The child may run away from the caregiver when s/he approaches and fail to cling to her/him when picked up. Charnov & Estes. 1984). separation may not provide the same stress for them. because older children have a cognitive capacity to maintain relationships when the older person is not present. this style develops from a mothering style which is engaged but on the mother's own terms. The child will not explore very much regardless of who is there.[8] To begin with. There is not much emotional range regardless of who is in the room or if it is empty. Main and Hesse[6] found that most of the mothers of these children had suffered major losses or other trauma shortly before or after the birth of the infant and had reacted by becoming severely depressed. Also. Disorganized/disoriented attachment A fourth category was added by Ainsworth's colleague Mary Main[4] and Ainsworth accepted the validity of this modification..[6] Critique of the Strange Situation Protocol Michael Rutter describes the procedure in the following terms in 'The Clinical Implications of Attachment Concepts' from the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. the procedure is based on just 20 minutes 153 .[3] but ambivalent attachment tends to be indicative of more maladaptive parenting and indicates a greater likelihood for attachment problems in the future. This maybe a major constraint when applying the procedure in cultures. such as that in Japan (see Miyake et al. pp. 552–553.showing little emotion when the caregiver departs or returns.. When reunited with the mother. 1994. rocking to and fro or repeatedly hitting themselves. This bad boy of attachment develops from a care-giving style which is more disengaged. Gardener. Strangers will not be treated much differently from the caregiver. The child's needs are frequently not met and the child comes to believe that communication of needs has no influence on the caregiver. This is now more commonly known as amibivalent/resistant attachment as the child can't make up his mind about what he wants. sometimes the child's needs are ignored until some other activity is completed and that attention is sometimes given to the child more through the needs of the parent than from the child's initiation. even when the mother is present.

1990).[19] Readers further interested in the categorical versus continuous nature of attachment classifications (and the debate surrounding this issue) should consult the paper by Fraley and Spieker [20] and the rejoinders in the same issue by many prominent attachment researchers including J. a meta-analysis of 2.[19] ] The original Richter’s et al. Behrens. and the other in Sapporo. it should be noted that continuous measures of attachment security have been developed which have demonstrated adequate psychometric properties. Cummings. two studies diverged from the global distributions of attachment classifications noted above.[16] found attachment distributions consistent with global norms using the six-year Main & Cassidy scoring system for attachment classification. Sroufe. 1990). including several from studies with non-Western language and/or cultural bases found the global distribution of attachment categorizations to be A (21%). Ecological validity and universality of Strange Situation attachment classification distributions With respect to the ecological validity of the Strange Situation.[18] Van IJzendoorn et al. One study was conducted in North Germany [14] in which more avoidant (A) infants were found than global norms would suggest. These have been used either individually or in conjunction with discrete attachment classifications in many published reports [see Richters et al. but also it is not at all obvious that discrete categories best represent the concepts that are inherent in attachment security. A. 154 . Attachment measurement: discrete or continuous? Regarding the issue of whether the breadth of infant attachment functioning can be captured by a categorical classification scheme. controversy has been raised over a few cultural differences in these rates of 'global' attachment classification distributions. E. Of these two studies. and interviews with the mothers have developed in order to extend the data base (see Vaughn & Waters.000 infant-parent dyads. also discuss the Japanese concept of amae and its relevance to questions concerning whether the insecure-resistant (C) style of interaction may be engendered in Japanese infants as a result of the cultural practice of amae.[12] A further constraint is that the coding procedure results in discrete categories rather than continuously distributed dimensions. and M. It can be scarcely expected to tap all the relevant qualities of a child's attachment relationships. However. correctly predicting about 90% of cases. Behrens et al. In a recent study conducted in Sapporo. B (65%).[17] In addition to these findings supporting the global distributions of attachment classifications in Sapporo. (1998) scale is strongly related to secure versus insecure classifications. Beauchaine. Q-sort procedures based on much longer naturalistic observations in the home. and C (14%) [13] This global distribution was generally consistent with Ainsworth et al. Cassidy. 1998. (1978). Not only is this likely to provide boundary problems. It seems much more likely that infants vary in their degree of security and there is need for a measurement systems that can quantify individual variation".. Waters & T. Japan [15] where more resistant (C) infants were found. et al. 2007. In particular.'s (1978) original attachment classification distributions.. the Japanese findings have sparked the most controversy as to the meaning of individual differences in attachment behavior as originally identified by Ainsworth et al..Mary Ainsworth of behavior.

. & Cassidy. M and Solomon. 127-147 [9] Miyake. & Cummings. (2003).. M. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. Chicago. J. Huber.. J. E. (1995).(1984). [19] Van IJzendoorn. International Journal of Behavioral Development. Child Development. & Cassidy. J. 61. Waters. References [1] "Mary D. 549-571. & Spieker. 155 . Attachment in the preschool years. Infant temperament and mother's mode of interaction and attachment in Japan. amacad. University of Chicago Press. P. (1967). E. 121–160. aspx?recordId=81821039). 1965-1973. M. 4. D. M. Cummings (eds) Attachment in the Preschool Years. Clinical implications of attachment concepts: Retrospect and Prospect. American Academy of Arts and Sciences.. Empirical classification of infant-mother relationships from interactive behavior and crying during reunion. M. Y. 59. C. In M. [20] Fraley. NJ: Erlbaum. [3] Rathus. Hay (Eds) Development Through Life. [6] Main. [8] Lamb. (1990). (1988). K. Infancy in Uganda. • Ainsworth. & Waters. (1965). London: Penguin Books. University of Chicago Press. E. & Campos (1985). [18] Richters. 1780-2010: Chapter A" (http:/ / www. Social Security Death Index. its study and biological interpretations. (2009) Psych. Patterns of Attachment. (1978). Greenberg.. [5] Colin Murray Parkes (2006). 121–160. Mothers’ Attachment Status as Determined by the Adult Attachment Interview Predicts Their 6-Year-Olds’ Reunion Responses: A Study Conducted in Japan. Blehar.T. A.Mary Ainsworth Major works • Ainsworth. [15] Takahashi. London and New York. & Wall.E. Gardener... Developmental Psychology. org/ PageDetail. (Eds). M. & Kroonenberg. theory research and intervention. S. Charnov & Estes. Cicchetti. Retrieved 7 April 2011. Routledge. (1994). pp. 157-184.. Attachment Theory and Evidence. 50. [17] Main. M. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Developmental Psychology. Child Care and the Growth of Love. [7] Rutter. J. 276-297. americanancestors. Mason: Cengage Learning [4] Main. German children's behavior toward their mothers at 12 months and their fathers at 18 months in Ainsworth's strange situation. "Procedures for identifying infants as disorganised/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation". M. Cross-cultural consistency of coding the strange situation. 39. 1553–1567. E (1990). M. J.. T. [12] Vaughn. J. 59. [16] Behrens. • Ainsworth. E. Bretherton & E Waters (Eds). 373-402). Developmental Psychology. Are Infant Attachment Patterns Continuously or Categorically Distributed? A Taxometric Analysis of Strange Situation Behavior. .M. & Vaughn. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 387-404. Serial No 209. E.. [13] Van IJzendoorn. 415-426. "Parents' unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganised attachment status". (1988)..T. & Kroonenberg. (1990). 36. Hillsdale. Cummings (eds) Attachment in the Preschool Years. D. an interim report. Ainsworth" (http:/ / www. K.M. [2] "Book of Members. University of Chicago Press. M. (1990). In I.. K. 469-485. 265-270. Chicago. 43. 13. J (1990). Chicago. B. and Bowlby. Rutter & D. U. Chen. Main. Retrieved 6 April 2011. Growing points of attachment theory and research. M. E.M. (2007).. A Handbook For Clinicians (pp.. E..H. [11] Greenberg. Child Development. Waters. (1986). (1988). org/ publications/ BookofMembers/ ChapterA. M. [14] Grossmann. & Wartner. 7. Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period. Attachment behavior at home and in the laboratory. Grossmann. S. 13. B. Oxford. P. Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: A meta-analysis of the strange-situation. M. Infant Behavior and Development. R. K. M. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins. Greenberg. F. Cicchetti and E. [10] Belsky. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. pp.. (1981). & Hesse. Examining the Strange-Situation procedure with Japanese mothers and 12-month old infants. D. Child Development. Love and Loss. 512-522. 22. Cicchetti and E. pdf). 24. Thompson. S. H. Security of Infantile attachment as assessed in the 'Strange Situation'. Developmental Psychology. M. 147-156. p. M and Hesse.

uk/atws/ person/1. He has been described as the "father of child psychology". Rutter's work includes: early epidemiologic studies (Isle of Wight and Inner London). N. see Michael Rutter (motorcycle racer) Sir Michael L. and has been a Trustee of the Nuffield Foundation since 1992. protective and risk factors. Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre 10 years later. Michael Rutter For the motorcycle racer. studies of autism involving a wide range of scientific techniques and disciplines.htm) • Women's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society (http://www. He was the European Editor for Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders from 1974 till 1994. A. & Rusoo. influences of families and schools. genetics. He was Deputy Chairman of the Wellcome Trust from 1999 to 2004.webster. interactions of biological and social factors. links between research and practice. External links • Mary Ainsworth on The Psi Cafe (http://www. reading disorders.Mary Ainsworth Further reading • O'Connell.html) • Mary Ainsworth: Attachment and the Growth of Love (http://video.google. Models of achievement: Reflections of eminent women in psychology. deprivation. Rutter (born 1934) is the first consultant of child psychiatry in the United Kingdom. Rutter is also recognized as contributing centrally to the establishment of child psychiatry as a medical and biopsychosocial specialty with a solid scientific base.edu/~woolflm/ ainsworth. The British Journal of Psychiatry credits him with a number of "breakthroughs"[2] in these areas. 156 . Career Rutter set up the Medical Research Council (UK) Child Psychiatry Research Unit in 1984 and the Social. including childhood and adult experiences and conditions.F. stress.edu/PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Ainsworth.co. a post he has held since 1966. biological and social.psy.pdx.[3] He has published over 400 scientific papers and chapters and some 40 books.N.com/ videoplay?docid=-3634664472704568591) 4-minute clip from a documentary film used primarily in higher education. being honorary director of both until October 1998.. and continuities and discontinuities in normal and pathological development. New York: Columbia University Press.[1] Currently he is Professor of Developmental Psychopathology at the Institute of Psychiatry. King's College London and consultant psychiatrist at the Maudsley Hospital.richardatkins.html) • Articles by Mary Ainsworth including summaries and links to full-text (http://www. (1983). including DNA study and neuroimaging. Early life Rutter was the oldest child born to Alice (née Rudman) & Frank Rutter. longitudinal as well as epidemiologic studies.

[4] in which he evaluated the maternal deprivation hypothesis propounded by Dr John Bowlby in 1951.[4] [6] After the end of the Ceasescu regime in Romania in 1989. Minnesota. M (1981) Maternal Deprivation Reassessed.[5] Bowlby had proposed that “the infant and young child should experience a warm. 2005. psychiatryonline. (http:/ / www. is named after him.Michael Rutter In 1972 Rutter published 'Maternal Deprivation Reassessed'.[4] which New Society describes as "a classic in the field of child care". (1993) John Bowlby & Attachment Theory. x) [2] Kolvin. his 1981 monograph and other papers (Rutter 1972. The results yielded some reason for optimism.10(1):40–41. Ghent. Penguin. The citation for his knighthood reads: Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Louvain. [8] http:/ / www. University of London. ac.160:196-197. following many of the orphans adopted into Western families into their teens in a series of substantial studies on the effects of early privation and deprivation across multiple domains affecting child development including attachment and the development of new relationships. [3] Hartman. iis. Warwick. British Journal of Psychiatry. ee. Routledge.174:471-475. Harmondsworth. intimate. [5] Bowlby. Rutter led the English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 160/ 1/ 196) [4] Rutter. and development: From evangelism through science toward policy and practice". html [9] http:/ / www. Jyväskylä. pp. Jun.1111/1467-8624. He has remained in practice until late into his career and the Michael Rutter Centre for Children and Adolescents. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. "Nature. East Anglia. addressed the many different underlying social and psychological mechanisms and showed that Bowlby was only partially right and often for the wrong reasons. 49-53. He is a Founding Fellow of the Academia Europaea [8] and the Academy of Medical Sciences [9] and was knighted in 1992. Research and Innovation on the Road to Modern Child Psychiatry. Chicago. with a number of varied influences determining which path a child will take. Rutter is an honorary member of the British Academy and is an elected Fellow of the Royal Society. I (1999).Feb. Institute of Psychiatry. Eric Taylor: The cheerful pessimist. uk/ html 157 . Rutter highlighted the other forms of deprivation found in institutional care. Am J Psychiatry. 1475-3588. based at Maudsley Hospital. gelenbe/ AEInformatics. L (2003). M (Jan/Feb 2002). References [1] Pearce. doi:10. J (2005). Children playing Rutter made a significant contribution. The importance of these refinements of the maternal deprivation hypothesis was to reposition it as a "vulnerability factor" rather than a causative agent. Child Development 73 (1): 1–21. ISBN 0-415-07729-X [7] Rutter. Review of Green & Yule. This theory was both influential and controversial. 1111/ j. ac. Cambridge and Yale. Birmingham. World Health Organisation WHO [6] Holmes J. Edinburgh. nurture. ic. com/ doi/ abs/ 10. the complexity of separation distress and suggested that anti-social behaviour was not linked to maternal deprivation as such but to family discord. Second edition.[7] Awards and honors Rutter has honorary degrees from the Universities of Leiden. acmedsci. blackwell-synergy. ISSN 0009-3920. Rutter 1979) comprising the definitive empirical evaluation and update of Bowlby's early work on maternal deprivation.00388. and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment” and that not to do so may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences. Jan. (http:/ / ajp. 00115. The contribution of Michael Rutter. J (1951) Maternal Care and Mental Health. PMID 14717240. London. uk/ ~e. He amassed further evidence.

usually the parents.[7] Other interactions may be construed as including components of attachment behaviour. and the fields of ethology and cognitive psychology. To formulate a comprehensive theory of the nature of early attachments. the complexity of social relationships. the "set-goal" of the attachment behavioural system is to maintain or achieve proximity to attachment figures. Attachment theory has been significantly modified as a result of empirical research. and the limitations of discrete patterns for classifications. attachment theory has since become "the dominant approach to understanding early social development. was identified later. These behaviours may have evolved because they increase the probability of survival of the child. Research by developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth in the 1960s and 70s reinforced the basic concepts. introduced the concept of the "secure base"[5] and developed a theory of a number of attachment patterns in infants: secure attachment. lead to internal working models which will guide the individual's perceptions. thoughts and expectations in later relationships. and has given rise to a great surge of empirical research into the formation of children's close relationships". homeless and orphaned children presented many difficulties.Attachment theory 158 Attachment theory Attachment theory describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans. the theory was extended to attachment in adults. A fourth pattern. these. Later he went on to formulate attachment theory. and the psychoanalytic community ostracised him for his departure from psychoanalytical tenets. but the concepts have become generally accepted. Attachment theory is an interdisciplinary study encompassing the fields of psychological. Its most important tenet is that an infant needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for social and emotional development to occur normally.[8] however. disorganized attachment. in turn. In the early days of the theory. Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with them. Bowlby published a complete study in 3 volumes Attachment and Loss (1969–82). Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment. and ethological theory.[4] After preliminary papers from 1958 onwards. and its .[8] Attachment theory has formed the basis of new therapies and informed existing ones. Immediately after WWII. Bowlby explored a range of fields. evolutionary. control systems theory. object relations theory (a branch of psychoanalysis). emotions. including evolutionary biology.[6] In the 1980s. When an infant begins to crawl and walk they begin to use attachment figures (familiar people) as a secure base to explore from and return to. For infants and toddlers. insecure-avoidant attachment and insecure-ambivalent attachment. these include peer relationships at all ages.[9] Later criticisms of attachment theory relate to temperament. academic psychologists criticized Bowlby. romantic and sexual attraction and responses to the care needs of infants or the sick and elderly. and who remain as consistent caregivers for some months during the period from about six months to two years of age.[1] and psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby was asked by the UN to write a pamphlet on the matter.[2] Separation anxiety or grief following the loss of an attachment figure is considered to be a normal and adaptive response for an attached infant.[3] Infant behaviour associated with attachment is primarily the seeking of proximity to an attachment figure.

[16] "Alarm" is the term used for activation of the attachment behavioural system caused by fear of danger. If the figure is unavailable or unresponsive. The theory proposes that children attach to carers instinctively. paramount in infancy and childhood. but between a child and a caregiver these bonds are based on the child's need for safety. attachment means an affectional bond or tie between an individual and an attachment figure (usually a caregiver). In child-to-adult relationships. infants will form role can be taken by anyone who consistently behaves in a "mothering" attachments to any caregiver who is sensitive and way over a period of time.[13] Nothing in the theory suggests that fathers are not equally likely to become principal attachment figures if they provide most of the child care and related social interaction. with the principal attachment figure at the top. although these may indicate that bonds exist. physical separation is no longer such a threat to the child's bond with the attachment figure. but the Although it is usual for the mother to be the primary attachment figure. The biological mother is the usual principal attachment figure.[11] for the purpose of survival and. By age three or four. security and protection.[16] 159 . genetic replication.[17] In infants. Such bonds may be reciprocal between two adults. nor is it synonymous with love and affection. Threats to security in older children and adults arise from prolonged absence. this means a set of responsive in social interactions with them. physical separation can cause anxiety and anger.[15] The set-goal of the attachment behavioural system is to maintain a bond with an accessible and available attachment figure. These figures are arranged hierarchically. most come to do so during their second year. the child's tie is called the "attachment" and the caregiver's reciprocal equivalent is referred to as the "care-giving bond".[12] The biological aim is survival and the psychological aim is security.[10] Attachment Within attachment theory. breakdowns in communication.[9] Attachment theory is not an exhaustive description of human relationships.[14] Some infants direct attachment behaviour (proximity seeking) towards more than one attachment figure almost as soon as they start to show discrimination between caregivers. "Anxiety" is the anticipation or fear of being cut off from the attachment figure. followed by sadness and despair. The quality of the social engagement is more influential than the amount of time spent.[12] Infants form attachments to any consistent caregiver who is sensitive and responsive in social interactions with them. behaviours that involves engaging in lively social interaction with the infant and responding readily to signals and approaches. ultimately. emotional unavailability or signs of rejection or abandonment.Attachment theory concepts have been used in the formulation of social and childcare policies to support the early attachment relationships of children. In attachment theory. separation distress occurs.

babble and cry to attract the attention of caregivers.[17] The attachment system is very robust and young humans form attachments easily. During the first phase (the first eight weeks).[25] Infants in their first months have no preference for their biological parents over strangers. A securely attached baby is free secure. and if that does not work. The commonly observed attachment behaviour of toddlers staying near familiar people would have had safety advantages in the environment of early adaptation.[24] There is a survival advantage in the capacity to sense possibly dangerous conditions such as unfamiliarity. greeting the caregiver's return. These manifest as protesting the caregiver's departure. these behaviours are directed at anyone in the vicinity. range of attachment behaviours designed to maintain proximity. illness and fatigue will cause a child to increase attachment behaviours. being alone or rapid approach. this indicates that the bond no longer depends on the presence of the caregiver. between the ages of six months and two years.[9] 160 . If the caregiver is inaccessible or unresponsive. becoming more responsive towards the caregiver. plus behaviours which solicit their attention and care. For example.[23] Children begin to notice others' goals and feelings and plan their actions accordingly. the infant is able to display a to concentrate on her or his environment. whereas babies cry because of pain. even in far less than ideal circumstances. Clear-cut attachment develops in the third phase. the infant increasingly discriminates between familiar and unfamiliar adults.[20] With the development of locomotion. infants smile. cry louder. two-year-olds cry to summon their caregiver.[25] In spite of this robustness. a more complex and goal-corrected partnership is formed. clinging when frightened and following when able. According to Bowlby.[9] Tenets Common human attachment behaviours and emotions are adaptive. Bowlby saw the environment of early adaptation as similar to current hunter-gatherer societies.[25] When an infant is upset by separation from their caregiver. the infant begins to use the caregiver or caregivers as a safe base from which to explore. proximity-seeking to the attachment figure in the face of threat is the "set-goal" of the attachment behavioural system. attachment behaviour is more strongly exhibited. are developed over a considerable period of time. and has such advantages today.[19] Infant exploration is greater when the caregiver is present because the infant's attachment system is relaxed and it is free to explore.[18] Pre-attachment behaviours occur in the first six months of life. During the second phase (two to six months). fear. shout or follow. Preferences for certain people. significant separation from a familiar caregiver—or frequent changes of caregiver that prevent the development of attachment—may result in psychopathology at some point in later life. following and clinging are added to the range of behaviours. By the end of the first year. but is of an enduring nature. as the child begins to see the carer as an independent person.[22] After the second year.[21] Anxiety. Human evolution has involved selection for social behaviours that make individual or group survival more likely.Attachment theory Behaviours The attachment behavioural system serves to maintain or achieve closer proximity to the attachment figure. Although infants of this age learn to discriminate between caregivers. The infant's behaviour towards the caregiver becomes organised Insecure attachment patterns can compromise exploration and the achievement of on a goal-directed basis to achieve the conditions that make it feel [19] self-confidence.

Attachment theory

Early experiences with caregivers gradually give
rise to a system of thoughts, memories, beliefs,
expectations, emotions and behaviours about the
self and others.

161
Bowlby's original sensitivity period of between six months and two to
three years has been modified to a less "all or nothing" approach. There
is a sensitive period during which it is highly desirable that selective
attachments develop, but the time frame is broader and the effect less
fixed and irreversible than first proposed. With further research,
authors discussing attachment theory have come to appreciate that
social development is affected by later as well as earlier
relationships.[8] Early steps in attachment take place most easily if the
infant has one caregiver, or the occasional care of a small number of
other people.[25] According to Bowlby, almost from the first many
children have more than one figure towards whom they direct
attachment behaviour. These figures are not treated alike; there is a
strong bias for a child to direct attachment behaviour mainly towards
one particular person. Bowlby used the term "monotropy" to describe
this bias.[26] Researchers and theorists have abandoned this concept
insofar as it may be taken to mean that the relationship with the special
figure differs qualitatively from that of other figures. Rather, current
thinking postulates definite hierarchies of relationships.[8] [27]

Early experiences with caregivers gradually give rise to a system of
thoughts, memories, beliefs, expectations, emotions, and behaviours about the self and others. This system, called
the "internal working model of social relationships", continues to develop with time and experience.[28] Internal
models regulate, interpret and predict attachment-related behaviour in the self and the attachment figure. As they
develop in line with environmental and developmental changes, they incorporate the capacity to reflect and
communicate about past and future attachment relationships.[2] They enable the child to handle new types of social
interactions; knowing, for example, that an infant should be treated differently from an older child, or that
interactions with teachers and parents share characteristics. This internal working model continues to develop
through adulthood, helping cope with friendships, marriage and parenthood, all of which involve different
behaviours and feelings.[28] [29] The development of attachment is a transactional process. Specific attachment
behaviours begin with predictable, apparently innate, behaviours in infancy. They change with age in ways that are
determined partly by experiences and partly by situational factors.[30] As attachment behaviours change with age,
they do so in ways shaped by relationships. A child's behaviour when reunited with a caregiver is determined not
only by how the caregiver has treated the child before, but on the history of effects the child has had on the
caregiver.[31] [32]

Changes in attachment during childhood and adolescence
Age, cognitive growth and continued social experience advance the development and complexity of the internal
working model. Attachment-related behaviours lose some characteristics typical of the infant-toddler period and take
on age-related tendencies. The preschool period involves the use of negotiation and bargaining.[33] For example,
four-year-olds are not distressed by separation if they and their caregiver have already negotiated a shared plan for
the separation and reunion.[34]

Attachment theory

Ideally, these social skills become incorporated into the internal
working model to be used with other children and later with adult
peers. As children move into the school years at about six years old,
most develop a goal-corrected partnership with parents, in which each
partner is willing to compromise in order to maintain a gratifying
relationship.[33] By middle childhood, the goal of the attachment
behavioural system has changed from proximity to the attachment
figure to availability. Generally, a child is content with longer
separations, provided contact—or the possibility of physically
reuniting, if needed—is available. Attachment behaviours such as
clinging and following decline and self-reliance increases.[35] By
middle childhood (ages 7–11), there may be a shift towards mutual
coregulation of secure-base contact in which caregiver and child
negotiate methods of maintaining communication and supervision as
the child moves towards a greater degree of independence.[33]

162

Peers become important in middle childhood and
have an influence distinct from that of parents.

In early childhood, parental figures remain the centre of a child's social world, even if they spend substantial periods
of time in alternative care. This gradually lessens, particularly during the child's entrance into formal schooling.[35]
The attachment models of young children are typically assessed in relation to particular figures, such as parents or
other caregivers. There appear to be limitations in their thinking that restrict their ability to integrate relationship
experiences into a single general model. Children usually begin to develop a single general model of attachment
relationships during adolescence, although this may occur in middle childhood.[35]
Relationships with peers have an influence on the child that is distinct from that of parent-child relationships, though
the latter can influence the peer relationships children form.[9] Although peers become important in middle
childhood, the evidence suggests peers do not become attachment figures, though children may direct attachment
behaviours at peers if parental figures are unavailable. Attachments to peers tend to emerge in adolescence, although
parents continue to be attachment figures.[35] With adolescents, the role of the parental figures is to be available
when needed while the adolescent makes excursions into the outside world.[36]

Attachment patterns
Much of attachment theory was informed by Mary Ainsworth's innovative methodology and observational studies,
particularly those undertaken in Scotland and Uganda. Ainsworth's work expanded the theory's concepts and enabled
empirical testing of its tenets.[5] Using Bowlby's early formulation, she conducted observational research on
infant-parent pairs (or dyads) during the child's first year, combining extensive home visits with the study of
behaviours in particular situations. This early research was published in 1967 in a book titled Infancy in Uganda.[5]
Ainsworth identified three attachment styles, or patterns, that a child may have with attachment figures: secure,
anxious-avoidant (insecure) and anxious-ambivalent or resistant (insecure). She devised a procedure known as the
Strange Situation Protocol as the laboratory portion of her larger study, to assess separation and reunion
behaviour.[37] This is a standardised research tool used to assess attachment patterns in infants and toddlers. By
creating stresses designed to activate attachment behaviour, the procedure reveals how very young children use their
caregiver as a source of security.[9] Carer and child are placed in an unfamiliar playroom while a researcher records
specific behaviours, observing through a one-way mirror. In eight different episodes, the child experiences
separation from/reunion with the carer and the presence of an unfamiliar stranger.[37]
Ainsworth's work in the United States attracted many scholars into the field, inspiring research and challenging the
dominance of behaviourism.[38] Further research by Mary Main and colleagues at the University of California,
Berkeley identified a fourth attachment pattern, called disorganized/disoriented attachment. The name reflects these

Attachment theory

163

children's lack of a coherent coping strategy.[39]
The type of attachment developed by infants depends on the quality of care they have received.[40] Each of the
attachment patterns is associated with certain characteristic patterns of behaviour, as described in the following table:
[37] [39]

Child and caregiver behaviour patterns before the age of 18 months
Attachment
pattern

Child

Caregiver

Secure

Uses caregiver as a secure base for exploration. Protests
Responds appropriately, promptly
caregiver's departure and seeks proximity and is comforted
and consistently to needs. Caregiver
on return, returning to exploration. May be comforted by the has successfully formed a secure
stranger but shows clear preference for the caregiver.
parental attachment bond to the
child.

Avoidant

Little affective sharing in play. Little or no distress on
departure, little or no visible response to return, ignoring or
turning away with no effort to maintain contact if picked up.
Treats the stranger similarly to the caregiver. The child feels
that there is no attachment; therefore, the child is rebellious
and has a lower self-image and self-esteem.

Little or no response to distressed
child. Discourages crying and
encourages independence.

Ambivalent/Resistant Unable to use caregiver as a secure base, seeking proximity
Inconsistent between appropriate
before separation occurs. Distressed on separation with
and neglectful responses. Generally
ambivalence, anger, reluctance to warm to caregiver and
will only respond after increased
return to play on return. Preoccupied with caregiver's
attachment behavior from the infant.
availability, seeking contact but resisting angrily when it is
achieved. Not easily calmed by stranger. In this relationship,
the child always feels anxious because the caregiver's
availability is never consistent.
Disorganized

Stereotypies on return such as freezing or rocking. Lack of
coherent attachment strategy shown by contradictory,
disoriented behaviours such as approaching but with the
back turned.

Frightened or frightening behaviour,
intrusiveness, withdrawal, negativity,
role confusion, affective
communication errors and
maltreatment. Very often associated
with many forms of abuse towards
the child.

The presence of an attachment is distinct from its quality. Infants form attachments if there is someone to interact
with, even if mistreated. Individual differences in the relationships reflect the history of care, as infants begin to
predict the behaviour of caregivers through repeated interactions.[41] The focus is the organisation (pattern) rather
than quantity of attachment behaviours. Insecure attachment patterns are non-optimal as they can compromise
exploration, self-confidence and mastery of the environment. However, insecure patterns are also adaptive, as they
are suitable responses to caregiver unresponsiveness. For example, in the avoidant pattern, minimising expressions
of attachment even in conditions of mild threat may forestall alienating caregivers who are already rejecting, thus
leaving open the possibility of responsiveness should a more serious threat arise.[41]
Around 65% of children in the general population may be classified as having a secure pattern of attachment, with
the remaining 35% being divided between the insecure classifications.[42] Recent research has sought to ascertain the
extent to which a parent's attachment classification is predictive of their children's classification. Parents' perceptions
of their own childhood attachments were found to predict their children's classifications 75% of the time.[43] [44] [45]
Over the short term, the stability of attachment classifications is high, but becomes less so over the long term.[9] It
appears that stability of classification is linked to stability in caregiving conditions. Social stressors or negative life
events—such as illness, death, abuse or divorce—are associated with instability of attachment patterns from infancy
to early adulthood, particularly from secure to insecure.[46] Conversely, these difficulties sometimes reflect particular

Attachment theory
upheavals in people's lives, which may change. Sometimes, parents' responses change as the child develops,
changing classification from insecure to secure. Fundamental changes can and do take place after the critical early
period.[47] Physically abused and neglected children are less likely to develop secure attachments, and their insecure
classifications tend to persist through the pre-school years. Neglect alone is associated with insecure attachment
organisations, and rates of disorganized attachment are markedly elevated in maltreated infants.[40]
This situation is complicated by difficulties in assessing attachment classification in older age groups. The Strange
Situation procedure is for ages 12 to 18 months only;[9] adapted versions exist for pre-school children.[48]
Techniques have been developed to allow verbal ascertainment of the child's state of mind with respect to
attachment. An example is the "stem story", in which a child is given the beginning of a story that raises attachment
issues and asked to complete it. For older children, adolescents and adults, semi-structured interviews are used in
which the manner of relaying content may be as significant as the content itself.[9] However, there are no
substantially validated measures of attachment for middle childhood or early adolescence (approximately 7 to 13
years of age).[48]
Some authors have questioned the idea that a taxonomy of categories representing a qualitative difference in
attachment relationships can be developed. Examination of data from 1,139 15-month-olds showed that variation in
attachment patterns was continuous rather than grouped.[49] This criticism introduces important questions for
attachment typologies and the mechanisms behind apparent types. However, it has relatively little relevance for
attachment theory itself, which "neither requires nor predicts discrete patterns of attachment".[50]

Significance of attachment patterns
There is an extensive body of research demonstrating a significant association between attachment organisations and
children's functioning across multiple domains.[40] Early insecure attachment does not necessarily predict
difficulties, but it is a liability for the child, particularly if similar parental behaviours continue throughout
childhood.[47] Compared to that of securely attached children, the adjustment of insecure children in many spheres of
life is not as soundly based, putting their future relationships in jeopardy. Although the link is not fully established
by research and there are other influences besides attachment, secure infants are more likely to become socially
competent than their insecure peers. Relationships formed with peers influence the acquisition of social skills,
intellectual development and the formation of social identity. Classification of children's peer status (popular,
neglected or rejected) has been found to predict subsequent adjustment.[9] Insecure children, particularly avoidant
children, are especially vulnerable to family risk. Their social and behavioural problems increase or decline with
deterioration or improvement in parenting. However, an early secure attachment appears to have a lasting protective
function.[51] As with attachment to parental figures, subsequent experiences may alter the course of development.[9]
The most concerning pattern is disorganized attachment. About 80% of maltreated infants are likely to be classified
as disorganized, as opposed to about 12% found in non-maltreated samples. Only about 15% of maltreated infants
are likely to be classified as secure. Children with a disorganized pattern in infancy tend to show markedly disturbed
patterns of relationships. Subsequently their relationships with peers can often be characterised by a "fight or flight"
pattern of alternate aggression and withdrawal. Affected maltreated children are also more likely to become
maltreating parents. A minority of maltreated children do not, instead achieving secure attachments, good
relationships with peers and non-abusive parenting styles.[9] The link between insecure attachment, particularly the
disorganized classification, and the emergence of childhood psychopathology is well-established, although it is a
non-specific risk factor for future problems, not a pathology or a direct cause of pathology in itself.[40] In the
classroom, it appears that ambivalent children are at an elevated risk for internalising disorders, and avoidant and
disorganized children, for externalising disorders.[51]
One explanation for the effects of early attachment classifications may lie in the internal working model mechanism.
Internal models are not just "pictures" but refer to the feelings aroused. They enable a person to anticipate and
interpret another's behaviour and plan a response. If an infant experiences their caregiver as a source of security and

164

Attachment theory

165

support, they are more likely to develop a positive self-image and expect positive reactions from others. Conversely,
a child from an abusive relationship with the caregiver may internalise a negative self-image and generalise negative
expectations into other relationships. The internal working models on which attachment behaviour is based show a
degree of continuity and stability. Children are likely to fall into the same categories as their primary caregivers
indicating that the caregivers' internal working models affect the way they relate to their child. This effect has been
observed to continue across three generations. Bowlby believed that the earliest models formed were the most likely
to persist because they existed in the subconscious. Such models are not, however, impervious to change given
further relationship experiences; a minority of children have different attachment classifications with different
caregivers.[9]
There is some evidence that gender differences in attachment patterns of adaptive significance begin to emerge in
middle childhood. Insecure attachment and early psychosocial stress indicate the presence of environmental risk (for
example poverty, mental illness, instability, minority status, violence). This can tend to favour the development of
strategies for earlier reproduction. However, different patterns have different adaptive values for males and females.
Insecure males tend to adopt avoidant strategies, whereas insecure females tend to adopt anxious/ambivalent
strategies, unless they are in a very high risk environment. Adrenarche is proposed as the endocrine mechanism
underlying the reorganisation of insecure attachment in middle childhood.[46]

Attachment in adults
Attachment theory was extended to adult romantic relationships in the late 1980s by Cindy Hazan and Phillip
Shaver. Four styles of attachment have been identified in adults: secure, anxious-preoccupied, dismissive-avoidant
and fearful-avoidant. These roughly correspond to infant classifications: secure, insecure-ambivalent,
insecure-avoidant and disorganized/disoriented.
Securely attached adults tend to have positive views of themselves, their partners and their relationships. They feel
comfortable with intimacy and independence, balancing the two. Anxious-preoccupied adults seek high levels of
intimacy, approval and responsiveness from partners, becoming overly dependent. They tend to be less trusting, have
less positive views about themselves and their partners, and may exhibit high levels of emotional expressiveness,
worry and impulsiveness in their relationships. Dismissive-avoidant adults desire a high level of independence, often
appearing to avoid attachment altogether. They view themselves as self-sufficient, invulnerable to attachment
feelings and not needing close relationships. They tend to suppress their feelings, dealing with rejection by
distancing themselves from partners of whom they often have a poor opinion. Fearful-avoidant adults have mixed
feelings about close relationships, both desiring and feeling uncomfortable with emotional closeness. They tend to
mistrust their partners and view themselves as unworthy. Like dismissive-avoidant adults, fearful-avoidant adults
tend to seek less intimacy, suppressing their feelings.[7] [52] [53] [54]
Two main aspects of adult attachment have been studied. The
organisation and stability of the mental working models that underlie
the attachment styles is explored by social psychologists interested in
romantic attachment.[55] [56] Developmental psychologists interested in
the individual's state of mind with respect to attachment generally
explore how attachment functions in relationship dynamics and
impacts relationship outcomes. The organisation of mental working
models is more stable while the individual's state of mind with respect
to attachment fluctuates more. Some authors have suggested that adults
do not hold a single set of working models. Instead, on one level they
have a set of rules and assumptions about attachment relationships in

Attachment styles in adult romantic relationships
roughly correspond to attachment styles in infants
but adults can hold different internal working
models for different relationships.

Attachment theory
general. On another level they hold information about specific relationships or relationship events. Information at
different levels need not be consistent. Individuals can therefore hold different internal working models for different
relationships.[56] [57]
There are a number of different measures of adult attachment, the most common being self report questionnaires and
coded interviews based on the Adult Attachment Interview. The various measures were developed primarily as
research tools, for different purposes and addressing different domains, for example romantic relationships, parental
relationships or peer relationships. Some classify an adult's state of mind with respect to attachment and attachment
patterns by reference to childhood experiences, while others assess relationship behaviours and security regarding
parents and peers.[58]

History
Earlier theories
The concept of infants' emotional attachment to caregivers has been known anecdotally for hundreds of years. From
the late 19th century onward, psychologists and psychiatrists suggested theories about the existence or nature of
early relationships.[59] Early Freudian theory had little to say about a child's relationship with the mother, postulating
only that the breast was the love object.[60] Freudians attributed the infant's attempts to stay near the familiar person
to motivation learned through feeding and gratification of libidinal drives. In the 1930s, British developmental
psychologist Ian Suttie suggested that the child's need for affection was a primary one, not based on hunger or other
physical gratifications.[61] William Blatz, a Canadian psychologist and teacher of Mary Ainsworth, also stressed the
importance of social relationships for development. Blatz proposed that the need for security was a normal part of
personality, as was the use of others as a secure base.[62] Observers from the 1940s onward focused on anxiety
displayed by infants and toddlers threatened with separation from a familiar caregiver.[63] [64]
Another theory prevalent at the time of Bowlby's development of attachment theory was "dependency". This
proposed that infants were dependent on adult caregivers but outgrew it in the course of early childhood; attachment
behaviour in older children would thus be seen as regressive. Attachment theory assumes older children and adults
retain attachment behaviour, displaying it in stressful situations. Indeed, a secure attachment is associated with
independent exploratory behaviour rather than dependence.[65] Bowlby developed attachment theory as a
consequence of his dissatisfaction with existing theories of early relationships.[1]

166

Attachment theory

167

Maternal deprivation
The early thinking of the object relations school of psychoanalysis, particularly Melanie Klein, influenced Bowlby.
However, he profoundly disagreed with the prevalent psychoanalytic belief that infants' responses relate to their
internal fantasy life rather than real-life events. As Bowlby formulated his concepts, he was influenced by case
studies on disturbed and delinquent children, such as those of William Goldfarb published in 1943 and 1945.[66] [67]
Bowlby's contemporary René Spitz observed
separated children's grief, proposing that
"psychotoxic" results were brought about by
inappropriate experiences of early care.[68] [69] A
strong influence was the work of social worker
and psychoanalyst James Robertson who filmed
the effects of separation on children in hospital.
He and Bowlby collaborated in making the 1952
documentary film A Two-Year Old Goes to the
Hospital which was instrumental in a campaign
to alter hospital restrictions on visits by
parents.[70]

Prayer time in the Five Points House of Industry residential nursery, 1888.
The maternal deprivation hypothesis published in 1951 caused a revolution in
the use of residential nurseries.

In his 1951 monograph for the World Health
Organisation, Maternal Care and Mental Health,
Bowlby put forward the hypothesis that "the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and
continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and
enjoyment", the lack of which may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences. This was also
published as Child Care and the Growth of Love for public consumption. The central proposition was influential but
highly controversial.[71] At the time there was limited empirical data and no comprehensive theory to account for
such a conclusion.[72] Nevertheless, Bowlby's theory sparked considerable interest in the nature of early
relationships, giving a strong impetus to, (in the words of Mary Ainsworth), a "great body of research" in an
extremely difficult, complex area.[71] Bowlby's work (and Robertson's films) caused a virtual revolution in hospital
visiting by parents, hospital provision for children's play, educational and social needs and the use of residential
nurseries. Over time, orphanages were abandoned in favour of foster care or family-style homes in most developed
countries.[73]

Formulation of the theory
Following the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health, Bowlby sought new understanding from the fields
of evolutionary biology, ethology, developmental psychology, cognitive science and control systems theory. He
formulated the innovative proposition that mechanisms underlying an infant's emotional tie to the
caregiver(s)emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure.[1] He set out to develop a theory of motivation and
behaviour control built on science rather than Freud's psychic energy model.[5] Bowlby argued that with attachment
theory he had made good the "deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect" of
Maternal Care and Mental Health.[74]

Opposition to attachment theory coalesced around this issue. stressing the readiness the child brings to social interactions.[85] Over time it became apparent there were more differences than similarities between attachment theory and imprinting so the analogy was dropped. completing her extensive observational studies on the nature of infant [5] attachments in Uganda. Ethologists expressed concern about the adequacy of some research on which attachment theory was based. Bowlby's colleague attachment system is relaxed and he is free to Mary Ainsworth.[86] [87] Schur.[79] Feminists had already criticised the assumption that anatomy is destiny which they saw as implicit in the maternal deprivation hypothesis. a behaviour characteristic of some birds and mammals which involves rapid learning of recognition by the young. with the caregiver present. The second was Harry Harlow's "The Nature of Love". Attachment theory came at a time when women were asserting their right to equality and independence. he considered that attachment behaviour was best explained as instinctive. influenced by adult behaviour. "Separation Infant exploration is greater when the caregiver is Anxiety" (1960a). Bowlby's concepts included the idea that attachment involved learning from experience during a limited age period. in which the precursory concepts of "attachment" were introduced. combined with the effect of experience. Thus lack of proper nurturing of children was blamed on mothers despite societal organisation that left them overburdened.[25] [75] [76] Bowlby followed up his first paper with two more.[88] Ethologists and others writing in the 1960s and 1970s questioned and expanded the types of behaviour used as indications of attachment. Attachment theory itself is not gender specific but in Western society it was largely mothers who bore responsibility for early child care.[77] [78] At the same time. The second and third volumes. Attachment theory was finally presented in 1969 in Attachment.[89] Observational studies of young children in natural settings provided other . the first volume of the Attachment and Loss trilogy. After recognition comes a tendency to follow. particularly the generalisation to humans from animal studies. The latter was based on experiments which showed that infant rhesus monkeys appeared to form an affectional bond with soft.Attachment theory 168 The formal origin of the theory began with the publication of two papers in 1958.[81] Other important influences were ethologists Nikolaas Tinbergen and Robert Hinde. and "Grief and Mourning in Infancy and Early present.[8] This bottle-fed young moose has developed an attachment to its carer.[80] Ethology Bowlby's attention was first drawn to ethology when he read Konrad Lorenz's 1952 publication in draft form (although Lorenz had published earlier work). The learning is possible only within a limited age range known as a critical period. He did not apply the imprinting concept in its entirety to human attachment.[82] Bowlby subsequently collaborated with Hinde. with Bowlby's ethological theories in mind. giving mothers new cause for anxiety. discussing Bowlby's use of ethological concepts (pre-1960) commented that concepts used in attachment theory had not kept up with changes in ethology itself. the infant's Childhood" (1960b). and to pursue the rich vein of research which this union suggests". However. Attachment was revised in 1982 to incorporate later research. cloth surrogate mothers that offered no food but not with wire surrogate mothers that provided a food source but were less pleasant to touch. was explore. Separation: Anxiety and Anger and Loss: Sadness and Depression followed in 1972 and 1980 respectively. of a conspecific or comparable object.[84] Konrad Lorenz had examined the phenomenon of "imprinting".[83] In 1953 Bowlby stated "the time is ripe for a unification of psychoanalytic concepts with those of ethology. the first being Bowlby's "The Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother".

The child's goal is not an object (the caregiver) but a state. Bowlby rejected psychoanalytical explanations for early infant bonds including "drive theory" in which the motivation for attachment derives from gratification of hunger and libidinal drives. Bowlby's decisions left him open to criticism from well-established thinkers working on similar problems.Attachment theory behaviours that might indicate attachment.[90] Although ethologists tended to be in agreement with Bowlby. the observations by Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham of young children separated from familiar caregivers during World War II. Craik had noted the adaptiveness of the ability of thought to predict events.[100] The young child's need for proximity to the attachment figure was seen as balancing homeostatically with the need for exploration. For example. Bowlby identified what he World War II from the book Road to Catastrophe saw as fundamental flaws in psychoanalysis. or an injury. He called this the "cupboard-love" theory of relationships. The actual distance maintained by the child would vary as the balance of needs changed. using knowledge of the past in responding to the present and future. According to Craik. in particular. but the individual's own possible actions. He stressed the survival value of and natural selection for this ability. for example.[8] Internal working model Bowlby adopted the important concept of the internal working model of social relationships from the work of the philosopher Kenneth Craik. existing over and above the observable measures. maintenance of the desired distance from the caregiver depending on circumstances. prediction occurs when a "small-scale model" consisting of brain events is used to represent not only the external environment. Instead he posited that several lines of development were possible. they pressed for more data. blood pressure is kept within limits)."[91] Robert Hinde considered "attachment behaviour system" to be an appropriate term which did not offer the same problems "because it refers to postulated control systems that determine the relations between different kinds of behaviour. the nature of those attachments depends on the environment to which the child is exposed. Firstly the overemphasis of internal dangers rather than external threat. other psychologists were applying these concepts to adult perception and cognition. would cause the child exploring at a distance to seek proximity.[96] [97] [98] Bowlby was effectively ostracized from the psychoanalytic community. objecting to psychologists writing as if there was an "entity which is 'attachment'. bringing them to the mother but not to others. staying within a predictable distance of the mother without effort on her part and picking up small objects. for example. the approach of a stranger."[92] Psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic concepts influenced Bowlby's view of attachment.[99] Cybernetics The theory of visible systems (cybernetics). This model allows a person to try out alternatives mentally. (Bowlby compared this process to physiological homeostasis whereby.[95] From early in the development of attachment theory there was criticism of the theory's lack of congruence with various branches of psychoanalysis. Secondly the view of the development of personality via linear "phases" with "regression" to fixed points accounting for psychological distress.[94] Based on ideas of Evacuation of smiling Japanese school children in primary attachment and neo-Darwinism. In attachment this would mean that although a developing child has a propensity to form attachments. developing during the 1930s and '40s.[1] 169 . influenced Bowlby's thinking. At about the same time Bowlby was applying Craik's ideas to attachment. the outcome of which depended on the interaction between the organism and the environment.[93] However. In his view it failed to see attachment as a psychological bond in its own right rather than an instinct derived from feeding or sexuality.

Behaviourists saw behaviours like crying as a random activity meaning nothing until reinforced by a caregiver's response.[106] In the last decade. This added significantly to the understanding of the complexity of infant/caregiver interactions as an integral part of a baby's emotional and social development. Though they use a different analysis scale. thereby learning to stay close together. the baby ceases to protest and engages in play behaviour. Possible alternative explanations for results of empirical research were proposed.Attachment theory Cognitive development Bowlby's reliance on Piaget's theory of cognitive development gave rise to questions about object permanence (the ability to remember an object that is temporarily absent) in early attachment behaviours.[111] In 1984 Skuse based criticism on the work of Anna Freud with children from Theresienstadt who had apparently developed relatively normally despite serious deprivation in their early years. saw attachment as a remnant of dependency with the quality of attachment being merely a response to the caregiver's cues.[102] Behaviourism In 1969. Such misplaced contingencies may represent the ambivalence on the part of the parent. To attachment theorists. which is then is played out in the operant interaction. frequent responses would result in more crying. there was criticism of the empirical support for the theory. it has been noted that the understanding of mental representation has advanced so much since Bowlby's day that present views can be more specific than those of Bowlby's time. (behaviorism). These behaviour analytic models have received some support from research. Bowlby acknowledged Robertson's study had caused him to modify his views on the traumatic consequences of separation in which insufficient weight had been given to the influence of skilled care from a familiar substitute.[110] In the second volume of the trilogy.[109] Some of Bowlby's interpretations of James Robertson's data were rejected by the researcher when he reported data from 13 young children cared for in ideal rather than institutional circumstances on separation from their mothers.[105] Behaviourists see attachment more as a systems phenomena then a biological predisposition. So did Ainsworth's emphasis on the importance and primacy of maternal attunement for psychological development (a point also argued by Donald Winnicott). To behaviourists. Separation. using micro-analysis of video evidence. This explanation would make it unnecessary to posit innate human characteristics fostering attachment. resulting from misplaced contingencies. Patterson's group has shown that in uncertain environments the lack of contingent relationships can account for problems in attachment and the sensitivity to contingencies.[108] Developments As the formulation of attachment theory progressed. they maintain that behaviours like separation protest in infants result mainly from operant learning experiences.[104] Behaviourists generally disagree with this interpretation. unless there were biological or genetic risk factors. behaviour analysts have constructed models of attachment based on the importance of contingent relationships. The "separation anxiety" resulting from such interactions is seen as learned behaviour.[101] More recently. In the 1970s Daniel Stern undertook research on the concept of attunement between very young infants and caregivers. Gerwitz discussed how mother and child could provide each other with positive reinforcement experiences through their mutual attention. An infant's ability to discriminate strangers and react to the mother's absence seemed to occur months earlier than Piaget suggested would be cognitively possible.[112] Bowlby's arguments that even very young babies were social creatures and primary actors in creating relationships with parents took some time to be accepted.[103] Learning theory. Conscientious responses produce security which enhances autonomy and results in less crying. He concluded there was an excellent prognosis for children with this background. Ainsworth's research in Baltimore supported the attachment theorists' view. When a mother is instructed to ignore crying and respond only to play behaviour. crying is an inborn attachment behaviour to which the caregiver must respond if the infant is to develop emotional security.[107] and meta-analytic reviews.[113] 170 .

secure.[126] Psychoanalyst/psychologists Peter Fonagy and Mary Target have attempted to bring attachment theory and psychoanalysis into a closer relationship through cognitive science as mentalization.[123] Subsequent research has not borne out Kagan's argument. theory of mind. For example a child with an inherently difficult temperament would not elicit sensitive behavioural responses from a caregiver. even where communal sleeping arrangements are the norm.[116] The research showed that though there were cultural differences. R. led some authors to the conclusion that attachment behaviours were best understood in terms of their functions in the child's life.[117] Research indicates that attachment pattern distributions are consistent across cultures.[125] Recent developments Whereas Bowlby was inspired by Piaget's insights into children's thinking. the three basic patterns. Securely attached Gusii infants anticipate and seek this contact. broadly demonstrating that it is the caregiver's behaviours that form the child's attachment style.[114] This way of thinking saw the secure base concept as central to attachment theory's. avoidant and ambivalent.Attachment theory 171 In the 1970s. selecting optimal behavioural strategies. the assumption that attachment is expressed identically in all humans cross-culturally was examined. H. problems with viewing attachment as a trait (stable characteristic of an individual) rather than as a type of behaviour with organising functions and outcomes. stressing the effects of later experience on personality. He argued that heredity was far more important than the transient effects of early environment. is the capacity of human beings to guess with some accuracy what thoughts. logic. Rudolph Schaffer concluded that parents and peers had different functions. This follows logically from the fact that attachment theory provides for infants to adapt to changes in the environment.[124] Harris and Pinker put forward the notion that the influence of parents had been much exaggerated.[128] Since the late 1980s.[118] [119] Critics in the 1990s such as J. current attachment scholars utilise insights from contemporary literature on implicit knowledge. Harris. there has been a developing rapprochement between attachment theory and psychoanalysis. emotions and intentions lie behind behaviours as subtle as facial expression. although how this style is expressed may differ with temperament. fulfilling distinctive roles in children's development. Kagan rejected almost every assumption on which attachment theory etiology was based. Steven Pinker and Jerome Kagan were generally concerned with the concept of infant determinism (nature versus nurture). There are also differences in the distribution of insecure patterns based on cultural differences in child-rearing practices.[117] Most recently a 2007 study conducted in Sapporo in Japan found attachment distributions consistent with global norms using the six-year Main and Cassidy scoring system for attachment classification. can be found in every culture in which studies have been undertaken.[115] Following this argument.[120] [121] [122] Building on the work on temperament of Stella Chess. although the manner in which attachment is expressed may differ. Arguments revolved around the appropriateness of the use of the Strange Situation procedure where amae is practiced. The biggest challenge to the notion of the universality of attachment theory came from studies conducted in Japan where the concept of amae plays a prominent role in describing family relationships. arguing that socialisation took place primarily in peer groups. Ultimately research tended to confirm the universality hypothesis of attachment theory. leading to alterations in attachment theory. coherence and status as an organizational construct. for example Gusii infants are greeted with a handshake rather than a hug.[100] Mentalization. based on .[117] How attachment is expressed shows cultural variations which need to be ascertained before studies can be undertaken. The debate spawned considerable research and analysis of data from the growing number of longitudinal studies. or theory of mind. Selection of the secure pattern is found in the majority of children across cultures studied.[127] This connection between theory of mind and the internal working model may open new areas of study. autobiographical memory and social representation.

Attachment theory 172 common ground as elaborated by attachment theorists and researchers.[132] Although higher rates of atypical insecure attachment patterns were found compared to native-born or early-adopted samples. the effects of poor attachment.[133] As children's experience of care changes. Psychoanalysis has recognised the formative nature of a childs early environment including the issue of childhood trauma. Object relations models which emphasise the autonomous need for a relationship have become dominant and are linked to a growing recognition within psychoanalysis of the importance of infant development in the context of relationships and internalised representations. This social change has made it more difficult for childless people to adopt infants in their own countries. A psychoanalytically based exploration of the attachment system and an accompanying clinical approach has emerged together with a recognition of the need for measurement of outcomes of interventions. yielded reason for optimism as many of the children developed quite well. new relationships. led by Michael Rutter. theory with Western family and child care followed some of the children into their teens. as infants often have multiple relationships within the family and in child care settings.[134] Issues have been raised to the effect that the dyadic model characteristic of attachment theory cannot address the complexity of real-life social experiences. 70% of later-adopted children exhibited no marked or severe attachment disorder behaviours. attempting to unravel patterns characteristic of Bowlby's time. Although only high-quality child care settings are likely to provide this.[126] A third has been the effect on development of children having little or no opportunity to form attachments at all in their early years. Studies of these adoptees.[136] .[130] As a result of this controversy. physical problems and medical issues associated with their early lives. including those with extensive non-parental child care experiences. during which some authors stressed the deleterious effects of day care. and a change in what psychoanalysts consider to be central to psychoanalysis. For example. Adoptions and births to same-sex couples have increased in number and gained legal protection. adoption.[131] Another significant area of research and development has been the connection between problematic attachment patterns. particularly disorganized attachment. There has been an increase in the number of older-child adoptions and adoptions from third-world sources in first-world countries.[129] One focus of attachment research has been the difficulties of children whose attachment history was poor. Concern with the effects of child care was intense during the so-called "day care wars" of the late 20th century. The cultures have noted the connection of attachment English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team. compared to their status in Bowlby's time. so may attachment-related experiences. training of child care professionals has come to stress attachment issues.[135] It is suggested these multiple relationships influence one another reciprocally. more infants in child care receive attachment-friendly care than in the past. A natural experiment permitted extensive study of attachment issues as researchers followed thousands of Romanian orphans adopted into Authors considering attachment in non-western Western families after the end of the Nicolae Ceauşescu regime. including the need for relationship-building by the assignment of a child to a specific carer. at least within a family. whose initial conditions were shocking. changes in attitudes toward female sexuality have greatly increased the numbers of children living with their never-married mothers or being cared for outside the home while the mothers work. and the risk of later psychopathology.[40] Authors considering attachment in non-Western cultures have noted the connection of attachment theory with Western family and child care patterns characteristic of Bowlby's time. Researchers noted that separation from familiar people is only one of many factors that help to determine the quality of development.

the two main areas studied have been autonomic responses. thus focusing on the quality and continuity of caregiver relationships 173 . Attachment theory and research have generated important findings concerning early child development and spurred the creation of programs to support early child-parent relationships". decisions about the care and welfare of children and mental health. there has been psychophysiological research on the biology of attachment.[123] In addition to longitudinal studies. community based service providers and policy makers . and negotiation of reciprocity and justice.. such as heart rate or respiration. social dominance and hierarchical power structures. Zeanah and colleagues stated. the main theoretical framework was psychoanalysis. Child care policies Social policies concerning the care of children were the driving force in Bowlby's development of attachment theory.[144] In 2008 C.[124] Generally temperament and attachment constitute separate developmental domains.[124] Some types of temperament may make some individuals susceptible to the stress of unpredictable or hostile relationships with caregivers in the early years.[142] This suggests that the influence of maternal care on attachment security is not the same for all children. and the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.[138] Biology of attachment Attachment theory proposes that the quality of caregiving from at least the primary carer is key to attachment security or insecurity.[141] In psychophysiological research on attachment. individualised care in group settings. It is plain from research that poor quality care carries risks but that those who experience good quality alternative care cope well although it is difficult to provide good quality. attachment theory has implications and practical applications in social policy. There is some evidence that the quality of caregiving shapes the development of the neurological systems which regulate stress.[145] and applications by foster parents to adopt foster children.[145] Controversy remains over whether non-maternal care. attachment theory had significant policy implications for hospitalised or institutionalised children. group coalitions. "Supporting early child-parent relationships is an increasingly prominent goal of mental health practitioners. particularly in North America.[130] Practical applications As a theory of socioemotional development.[10] Historically.[143] This is because the theory emphasises the importance of continuity and sensitivity in caregiving relationships rather than a behavioural approach on stimulation or reinforcement of child behaviours. Increasingly attachment theory has replaced it. and those in poor quality daycare. has deleterious effects on social development.[140] In the absence of available and responsive caregivers it appears that some children are particularly vulnerable to developing attachment disorders.[139] Another issue is the role of inherited genetic factors in shaping attachments: for example one type of polymorphism of the DRD2 dopamine receptor gene has been linked to anxious attachment and another in the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor gene with avoidant attachment. Infants' physiological responses have been measured during the Strange Situation procedure looking at individual differences in infant temperament and the extent to which attachment acts as a moderator. and have been particularly successful in the design of child abuse prevention programmes. The difficulty lies in applying attachment concepts to policy and practice.[139] Research has begun to include behaviour genetics and temperament concepts. but aspects of both contribute to a range of interpersonal and intrapersonal developmental outcomes.[137] Those explanations have been used to design parental care training. particularly in group settings..[143] Attachment theory has implications in residence and contact disputes. In the past.H. One theoretical basis for this is that it makes biological sense for children to vary in their susceptibility to rearing influence. including mating.Attachment theory Principles of attachment theory have been used to explain adult social behaviours.

deepest research lines in modern psychology. This may be partly due to lack of attention paid to clinical application by Bowlby himself and partly due to broader meanings of the word 'attachment' used amongst practitioners. the caregiver is invariably included.[146] Within adoption. it has.[144] Children tend to have security-providing relationships with both parents and often grandparents or other relatives.[143] Clinical practice in children Although attachment theory has become a major scientific theory of socioemotional development with one of the broadest. family courts have shifted considerably to recognize the complications of attachment relationships.Attachment theory rather than economic well-being or automatic precedence of any one party. Modern prevention and intervention programmes are mostly in the process of being evaluated. the focus is on increasing the responsiveness and sensitivity of the caregiver. Bowlby published a series of lectures indicating how attachment theory and research could be used in understanding and treating child and family disorders.[148] Ongoing research has led to a number of individual treatments and prevention and intervention programmes.[151] 174 . since 1980. arguments tend to focus on whether children are "attached" or "bonded" to the disputing adults rather than the quality of attachments. parenting behaviours and the parents' relationship with the therapeutic intervenor. been less used in clinical practice than theories with far less empirical support. Rutter noted that in the UK. It may also be partly due to the mistaken association of attachment theory with the pseudoscientific interventions misleadingly known as "attachment therapy". His focus for bringing about change was the parents' internal working models. babies will direct if that is not possible.[147] Prevention and treatment In 1988. As attachment develops. as attachment is a two-way process involving attachment behaviour and caregiver response.[148] They range from individual therapy to public health programmes to interventions designed for foster carers. Many researchers in the field were strongly influenced by it. Some programmes are aimed at foster carers because the attachment behaviours of infants or children with attachment difficulties often do not elicit appropriate caregiver responses. so does An assessment of the attachment status or caregiving responses of age-appropriate stranger wariness.[143] Attachment theory can also inform decisions made in social work and court processes about foster care or other placements. or In the early months of life. Judgements need to take this into account along with the impact of step-families. However. Attachment theory has been crucial in highlighting the importance of social relationships in dynamic rather than fixed terms.[149] attachment behaviours towards anyone in the [150] vicinity. For infants and younger children. such as the biological mother. placing the child with a different caregiver. the shift from "closed" to "open" adoptions and the importance of the search for biological parents would be expected on the basis of attachment theory. until recently. Considering the child's attachment needs can help determine the level of risk posed by placement options.

The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. "true" RAD is thought to be rare. Research and Clinical Applications. Research and Clinical Applications. [2] Bretherton I. [3] Prior and Glaser p.511. Shaver PR. "secure base distortion" has been found to be associated with caregiver traumatization. Lieberman AF (2008). Salkind: Child Development 2002.1111/j.759.1037/0012-1649. such as attachment-based family therapy and emotionally focused therapy. In Cassidy J.1469-7610.1037/0022-3514.x. the other an inhibited pattern. ISBN 1572300876.[156] [157] In the first decade of the 21st century. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 36 (4): 549–71. 89–114. PMID 7650083.[156] [160] Notes [1] Cassidy J (1999). Shaver PR. it denotes a lack of age-appropriate attachment behaviours that amounts to a clinical disorder. which may be used to refer to reactive attachment disorder or to the more problematical insecure attachment styles (although none of these are clinical disorders). doi:10. "Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process".5. "Prevention and Intervention Programs for Supporting Early Attachment Security". PMID 3572722. [5] Bretherton I (1992). it can enrich a therapist's understanding of patients and the therapeutic relationship rather than dictate a particular form of treatment. Oxford: Blackwell. 17. Specifically attachment-centred interventions have been developed. pp. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. Handbook of Attachment: Theory.89). however problematic those styles may be. "The Nature of a Child's Ties". 83–121. Munholland KA (1999). Handbook of Attachment: Theory. Research and Clinical Applications.3.Attachment theory Reactive attachment disorder and attachment disorder One atypical attachment pattern is considered to be an actual disorder. Research and Clinical Applications.28. It may also be used to refer to proposed new classification systems put forward by theorists in the field. [4] Simpson JA (1999). ISBN 1572300876. pp. "Clinical Implications of Attachment Concepts: Retrospect and Prospect". ranging from primitive reflex-like "fixed action 175 . doi:10. There are two subtypes.[153] One of the proposed new classifications. New York: Guilford Press. key concepts of attachment were incorporated into existing models of behavioural couple therapy. Zeanah CH. pp. Developmental Psychology 28 (5): 759. one reflecting a disinhibited attachment pattern. "Internal Working Models in Attachment Relationships: A Construct Revisited".[154] and is used within attachment therapy as a form of unvalidated diagnosis. page 34 [7] Hazan C. "The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth".[152] Although the term "reactive attachment disorder" is now popularly applied to perceived behavioural difficulties that fall outside the DSM or ICD criteria. associated with gross pathological care.52. The essential feature of reactive attachment disorder is markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness in most contexts that begins before age five years. In Cassidy J.[153] "Attachment disorder" is an ambiguous term. [8] Rutter. [6] N.[155] Clinical practice in adults and families As attachment theory offers a broad.1/2 and DSM-IV-TR 313. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 745–61. [11] Bretherton I (1992).1995. [10] Berlin L. ISBN 9781606230282. multidimensional family therapy and couple and family therapy. particularly on the Web and in connection with the pseudo-scientific attachment therapy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52 (3): 511–24. New York: Guilford Press. [9] Schaffer R (2007). Shaver PR. Shaver PR. known as reactive attachment disorder or RAD. instead. Shaver PR (March 1987). doi:10. far-reaching view of human functioning. pp. ISBN 1572300876. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. "[Bowlby] begins by noting that organisms at different levels of the phylogenetic scale regulate instinctive behavior in distinct ways. Introducing Child Psychology. which is a recognized psychiatric diagnosis (ICD-10 F94. ISBN 0-631-21628-6. In Cassidy J.J. The dynamics of an individual's attachment organization and their capacity for mentalization can play a crucial role in the capacity to be helped by treatment. RAD is not a description of insecure attachment styles.tb02314. 3–20. "Attachment Theory in Modern Evolutionary Perspective". 115–40. In Cassidy J.[158] [159] Attachment theory and research laid the foundation for the development of the understanding of "mentalization" or reflective functioning and its presence. Michael (1995).[156] Some forms of psychoanalysis-based therapy for adults—within relational psychoanalysis and other approaches—also incorporate attachment theory and patterns. absence or distortion in psychopathology. New York and London: Guilford Press.

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"Report of the APSAC task force on attachment therapy. PMID 16382093. New York: Guilford Press. (2006). "Couple and Family Therapy: An Attachment Perspective". and attachment problems". Shaver PR. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins. New York and London: Guilford Press. Research and Clinical Applications.infbeh. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. pp. A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory. ISBN 978-0-422-76860-3. [159] Johnson S (2002). • Bowlby J (1988). Fonagy P. O'Connor TG (1999). Vol. • Bowlby J (1979). Amaya-Jackson L. "The development of attachment in new relationships: single subject analyses for 10 foster infants". Willheim E (July 2009). 762–82. [160] Allen JP. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. Research and Clinical Applications. "The legacy of early attachments". The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. Chichester. 252–58. Lieberman AF (2008). Attachment. [148] Berlin LJ.chc. ISBN 1593854706. pdf?docID=2542). [149] Prior and Glaser pp. London: Routledge. 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"Implications of Attachment Theory for Child Care Policies". (page numbers refer to Pelican edition 1971) • Bowlby J (1999) [1982]. [141] Prior and Glaser p. ISBN 0415006406 (pbk). "Separation and Reunification: Using Attachment Theory and Research to Inform Decisions Affecting the Placements of Children in Foster Care" (http:/ / www. Research and Clinical Applications. [154] Prior and Glaser pp. Research and Clinical Applications. ISBN 978-0-8018-0010-8. doi:10. ISBN 9781606230282. [150] Bakermans-Kranenburg M. reactive attachment disorder. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34 (10): 1396–405.2005. [153] Chaffin M. Baek JM. Research. Attachment and Loss. Handbook of Mentalization-Based Treatment. London: Penguin Books. pp.195. Northvale. Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy with Trauma Survivors. doi:10. [151] Stovall KC. Infancy in Uganda. Hanson R. 223–25. New York and London: Guilford Press. LCCN 00-266879. [152] Thompson RA (2000). PMID 18687882. [156] Slade A (2008). 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• Tinbergen N (1951). ISBN 0-275-98217-3. ISBN 9781843102458 (pbk).archive.parentaldeficit. ISBN 978-1-903615-42-3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. New York/London: Taylor and Francis Group.psychology.edu/~lerman/etc/BecomingAttached. Attachment from infancy to adulthood: The major longitudinal studies. ISSN 1469–2988. Unraveling the Roots of Attachment Theory. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. John Bowlby & Attachment Theory. ISBN 978-0-521-09445-0. Glaser D (2006). Makers of modern psychotherapy. The study of instinct. Devon and Oregon: Willan Publishing.co.. WAIMH. parenting and child safety.aspx) 181 . Child and Adolescent Mental Health.edu/attachment/index.richardatkins. • Barrett H (2006). • Van der Horst FCP (2011). • Miller WB. Van IJzendoorn MH (2008). html) • The Attachment Theory Website (http://www. • Infant Mental Health Journal. London: Routledge.edu/attachment/online/karen. • Review of Richard Karen. In the Shadow of Man. LCCN 2005-19272. Rodgers JL (2001). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. ISSN 1097–0355. • Bell DC (2010). Oxford: Oxford University Press. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. • Juffer F. ISBN 978-0-470-68364-4. • Karen R (1998). The Dynamics of Connection: How Evolution and Biology Create Caregiving and Attachment.uk/atws) • Richard Karen: 'Becoming Attached (http://www. Lanham MD: Lexington. CT: Praeger Publishers. and Psychological Manifestations. Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. London: Routledge. Further reading • Grossmann KE. External links • Attachment Theory and Research at Stony Brook (http://www. ISBN 978-1-84392-498-2.pdf)'. ISBN 978-0-19-857722-5. • Crittenden PM (2008). OCLC 61115448. The Nature of Explanation. ISBN 0-7923-7478-9. Waters E (2005).pdf) • Rene Spitz's film "Psychogenic Disease in Infancy" (1957) (http://www.org/details/PsychogenicD) • The Parental Deficit Website (http://www. child care. • Mercer J (2006). Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ. ISBN 978-1-59385-381-5. • Attachment & Human Development. The Atlantic Monthly February 1990. Attachment and the perils of parenting: A commentary and a critique. ISSN B0007J4QKE. Understanding Attachment and Attachment Disorders: Theory. ISBN 978-0-7391-4352-0. Westport. Promoting positive parenting: An attachment-based intervention. and emotional development. Neural Bases. ISBN 0-415-07729-X.sunysb. • Prior V.sunysb.isi. New York: Springer.psychology. • Holmes J (1993). Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love (http://www. ISBN 0-19-511501-5. Understanding Attachment: Parenting. London: National Family and Parenting Institute. RCPRTU. • Goodall J (1971).From Psychoanalysis to Ethology. ISBN 978-0-618-05676-7. The Ontogeny of Human Bonding Sysytems: Evolutionary Origins.Attachment theory • Craik K (1943). Raising parents: attachment. Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love. ISBN 13: 978-0-8058-6352-9. New York: Guilford Press. Evidence and Practice. John Bowlby . Houghton Mifflin Co.it/default.

a haven of safety to which the child can return when he or she is afraid or fearful. It is primarily an evolutionary and ethological theory postulating that infants seek proximity to a specified attachment figure in situations of distress or alarm for the purpose of survival. eye contact. See discussion page. the foundation on which all other close. rooting. treatment of children.[6] . Parents can bond with their baby by touching. long-term relationships will be built. Attachment theory and children Attachment theory (Bowlby 1969. Attachment theory has become the dominant theory used today in the study of infant and toddler behavior and in the fields of infant mental health. Attachment is found in all mammals to some degree. In their first year babies brains double in volume and their experiences will be hardwired in as a foundation on which to build their lives. this "crystalizes" into one pattern of attachment that is generally exhibited within most relationships. It also describes the function of availability. listening. and disorganized attachment. the child develops an internal working model (IWM) of the self and others that reflects the response of the caregiver to the child.[2] Attachment theory has led to a new understanding of child development. and this proximity-seeking behavior is naturally selected.[1] Attachment in childhood can also be described as the considerable closeness a child feels to an authority figure. 1973. While infants have relatively few inborn behaviors—such as crying. and facial expressions. The deep bond which babies form with their primary caregiver is called Attachment.Attachment in children 182 Attachment in children Newborn humans infants cannot survive without a caregiver to provide food and protection. By around age five years. According to Bowlby. cuddling. Childhood attachment can define characteristics that will shape the child’s sense of self and how they carry out relationships with others. anxious-ambivalent attachment. and related fields. Mother and child Attachment theory studies and describes this first relationship. attachment provides a secure base from which the child can explore the environment. and will not thrive without other types of support as well. Attachment in children is a theory of attachment between children and their caregivers specifically addressing the behaviors and emotions that children direct toward familiar adults. especially nonhuman primates. and sucking—they also come with many behavioral systems ready to be activated through interaction with another person. Children develop different styles of attachment based on experiences and interactions with their caregivers. 1980) is rooted in the ethological notion that a newborn child is biologically programmed to seek proximity with caregivers. etc. An infant may have different patterns of attachment with different care-givers.[3] [4] [5] Through repeated attempts to seek physical and emotional closeness with a caregiver and the responses the child gets. it's an interdisciplinary study that includes developmental psychology and ethology (behavioral biology). Four different attachment styles or patterns have been identified in children: secure attachment. anxious-avoidant attachment. which is the degree to which the authoritative figure is responsive to the child's needs and shares communication with them.

Each of these groups reflects a different kind of attachment relationship with the mother. infants can be categorized into three 'organized' attachment categories: Secure (Group B). and Anxious/Resistant (Group C). Baby. In the procedure. not accurate and leads to ambiguity when formally discussing attachment theory as it has evolved in the research literature. developed by Mary Ainsworth as a result of her careful in-depth observations of infants with their mothers in Uganda(see below).' The clinical concept of RAD differs in a number of fundamental ways from the theory and research driven attachment classifications based on the Strange Situation Procedure. Attachment style is thus not so much a part of the child's thinking.Attachment in children Attachment classification in children: The Strange Situation Protocol The most common and empirically supported method for assessing attachment in infants (12months-20months) is the Strange Situation Protocol. The 'Strange Situation' is a laboratory procedure used to assess infant patterns of attachment to their caregiver. Stranger (3 mins or less) Episode 4: Stranger. tool and the resulting attachment classifications are not 'clinical diagnoses. The idea that insecure attachments are synonymous with RAD is. Baby.[7] The protocol is conducted in the following format unless modifications are otherwise noted by a particular researcher: Episode 1: Mother (or other familiar caregiver). Baby (3 mins) On the basis of predominately their reunion behaviours (although other behaviors are taken into account) in the Strange Situation Paradigm (Ainsworth et al. can also be assigned to an infant assessed in the Strange Situation although a primary 'organized' classification is always given for an infant judged to be disorganized.[7] The Strange Situation Protocol is a research. Baby (3 mins) Episode 3: Mother. in fact. The procedure consists of eight sequential episodes in which the child experiences both separation from and reunion with the mother as well as the presence of an unfamiliar stranger. Experimenter (30 seconds) Episode 2: Mother. after about age four the child exhibits one primary consistent pattern of attachment in relationships. However. A fourth category. A child may have a different type of attachment to each parent as well as to unrelated caregivers. Baby (3 mins or less) Episode 8: Mother.. but rather that the clinical and research conceptualizations of insecure attachment and attachment disorder are not synonymous. termed Disorganized (D). Baby (3 mins) Episode 6: Baby Alone (3 mins or less) Episode 7: Stranger. the mother and infant are placed in an unfamiliar playroom equipped with toys while a researcher observes/records the procedure through a one-way mirror. not a diagnostic.' While the procedure may be used to supplement clinical impressions. This is not to suggest that the concept of RAD is without merit. but is characteristic of a specific relationship. 1978.[8] 183 . see below). the resulting classifications should not be confused with the clinically diagnosed 'Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD). Avoidant (Group A). There are subclassifications for each group (see below). Baby (3 mins) Episode 5: Mother.

According to some psychological researchers. B2's as 'secure-inhibited'. B2.showing little overt indications of an emotional response. secure infants are denoted as "Group B" infants and they are further subclassified as B1. As Ainsworth et al. (1978) coding of the Strange Situation. Securely attached children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need. B1's have been referred to as 'secure-reserved'. (1978) originally noted: "Perhaps the most conspicuous characteristic of C2 infants is their passivity. the classification of infants (if subgroups are denoted) is typically simply "B1" or "B2" although more theoretical and review-oriented papers surrounding attachment theory may use the above terminology."[7] Anxious-avoidant insecure attachment In general. they were not given specific labels by Ainsworth and colleagues. In the traditional Ainsworth et al. although their descriptive behaviors led others (including students of Ainsworth) to devise a relatively 'loose' terminology for these subgroups. Nevertheless.resistant behavior is particularly conspicuous."[7] C2 infants are often seen as demonstrating 'passive' resistance.' and B4's as 'secure-reactive. In the traditional Ainsworth et al.In general the C2 baby is not as conspicuously angry as the C1 baby. The extent of exploration and of distress are affected by the child's temperamental make-up and by situational factors as well as by attachment status. In the traditional Ainsworth et al.' In academic publications however. assuming the parent's assistance is helpful. the stranger will not be treated much differently from the parent.[7] Although these subgroupings refer to different stylistic responses to the comings and goings of the caregiver.. The mixture of seeking and yet resisting contact and interaction has an unmistakeablely angry quality and indeed an angry tone may characterize behavior in the preseparation episodes. even though they tend to use signalling rather than active approach. Others have pointed out that there are also other determinants of the child's attachment. and protest against being put down rather than actively resisting release. a child with an anxious-avoidant attachment style will avoid or ignore the parent when he or she returns (in the Strange Situation) . secure attachment can be seen as the most adaptive attachment style. B3. (1978) coding of the Strange Situation. and is generally happy to see the caregiver return. and B4. even when the parent is present. is often visibly upset when the caregiver departs... in the reunion episodes they obviously want proximity to and contact with their mothers. Anxious-resistant insecure attachment In general. a child with an anxious-resistant attachment style will typically explore little (in the Strange Situation) and is often wary of strangers. and that behavior of the parent may in turn be influenced by the child's behavior.[7] A1 infants are so judged when there is: 184 . this bolsters the sense of security and also.. typically engages with strangers. anxious-avoidant infants are denoted as "Group A" infants and they are further subclassified into A1 and A2 infants.. B3's as 'secure-balanced. educates the child in how to cope with the same problem in the future. anxious-resistant infants are denoted as "Group C" infants and they are further subclassified into C1 and C2 infants. When assistance is given. the child is often highly distressed.. The child is generally ambivalent when she returns. (1978) coding of the Strange Situation.[7] C1 infants are so judged when: ". Often. Their exploratory behavior is limited throughout the SS and their interactive behaviors are relatively lacking in active initiation. When the mother departs. Therefore. a child becomes securely attached when the parent is available and able to meet the needs of the child in a responsive and appropriate manner. however.Attachment in children Attachment patterns Secure attachment A toddler who is securely attached to its parent (or other familiar caregiver) will explore freely while the caregiver is present.

. Often.[the A2 infant] shows a mixed response to mother on reunion.[10] Abuse is associated with disorganized attachment. (1978) originally noted: ". the caregiver is both the source of the child's alarm as well as the child's haven of safety. avoidant) classification as well.. the caregiver puts the child in an irresolvable paradox of approach-avoidance. although there may be some pointed looking away."[7] A2 infants are often seen as demonstrating a mixture of both some avoidance and resistance... move past her.. Evidence from Main et al. it tends to be a mere look or a smile. The degree to which the organized strategy is fragmented however is often different in degree across infants judged to receive a primary 'disorganized' classification. in fact. 1990) was subsequently identified and empiricized when a sizeable number of infants defied classification in terms of Ainsworth's original tripartite classification scheme.... A frightening caregiver is usually so via aggressive behaviors towards the child (either mild or direct physical/sexual behaviors) and puts the child in a dilemma which Main and colleagues have called 'fear without solution.e.. he may protest or resist momentarily. This paradox.e. may be one explanation for some of the 'stilling' and 'freezing' behaviors observed in children judged to be disorganized. but there is also a tendency to squirm to be put down.[13] [14] 185 . resistance/ambivalence].. who uses social referencing techniques such as checking the adult's facial expression to ascertain whether a situation is safe.Attachment in children ". There is a growing body of research on the links between abnormal parenting. or it tends to only occur after much coaxing. or moving away. secure..conspicuous avoidance of the mother in the reunion episodes which is likely to consist of ignoring her altogether.[9] It can be conceptualized as the lack of a coherent 'organized' behavioral strategy for dealing with the stresses (i. if put down. ambivalent. or they approach in 'abortive' fashions with the baby going past the mother.there may be moderate proximity-seeking. It is important to note that when a child is judged disorganized.' In other words.. avert the gaze from her. the baby may cling momentarily.. the baby shows little or no contact-maintaining behavior... If the child uses the caregiver as a mirror to understand the self.e. with some tendency to greet and approach. Human interactions are experienced as erratic. turning away. organized interactive template. though not always. or ignore her..If there is a greeting when the mother enters. thus children cannot form a coherent. the disorganized child is looking into a mirror broken into a thousand pieces. combined with strong proximity-avoiding. he looks away and he may squirm to get down. and the comings and goings of the caregiver) of the Strange Situation Procedure.If picked up.If picked up. the strange room. A2 infants are judged Disorganized (D). As Ainsworth et al. intermingled with a marked tendency to move or turn away from her. the stranger. he or she is given a secondary best-fitting 'organized' (i.[11] [12] The disorganized style is a risk factor for a range of psychological disorders although it is not in itself considered an attachment disorder under the current classification. Through parental behaviors that are frightening.. he tends not to cuddle in."[7] Disorganized attachment A fourth category termed disorganized attachment (Main & Solomon.Either the baby does not approach his mother upon reunion. A frightened caregiver is alarming to the child. It is more severe than learned helplessness as it is the model of the self rather than of a situation. disorganized attachment and risks for later psychopathologies. has suggested that children with disorganized attachment may experience their caregivers as either frightening or frightened. to turn the face away when being held and other signs of mixed feelings [i. This reflects the fact that attachment disorganization is thought to be a breakdown of an inchoate organized attachment strategy.

and interviews with the mothers have developed in order to extend the data base (see Vaughn & Waters.. Avoidant children are especially vulnerable to family risk. 1990) but it is much more dubious whether the same approach can be used in middle childhood.[22] A further constraint is that the coding procedure results in discrete categories rather than continuously distributed dimensions.[15] Behavioural problems and social competence in insecure children increase or decline with deterioration or improvement in quality of parenting and the degree of risk in the family environment. Insecure-ambivalent children have a tendency to anxiously but unsuccessfully seek positive peer interaction whereas insecure-avoidant children appear aggressive and hostile and may actively repudiate positive peer interaction. which in turn predicts later self and relationship representations and social behaviour. such as the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and the Minnesota Study of Risk and Adaption from Birth to Adulthood.[18] To begin with. it is very dependent on brief separations and reunions having the same meaning for all children. 1994. Q-sort procedures based on much longer naturalistic observations in the home.. However an early secure attachment appears to have a lasting protective function. separation may not provide the same stress for them.However. Thompson.[16] Criticism Michael Rutter describes the procedure in the following terms:[17] "It is by no means free of limitations (see Lamb. Secure children have more positive and fewer negative peer reactions and establish more and better friendships.. It can be scarcely expected to tap all the relevant qualities of a child's attachment relationships.[20] [21] Also. and from cross-sectional studies. 186 . studies have suggested that infants with a high-risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may express attachment security differently from infants with a low-risk for ASD. Not only is this likely to provide boundary problems. It seems much more likely that infants vary in their degree of security and there is need for a measurement systems that can quantify individual variation". where infants are rarely separated from their mothers in ordinary circumstances. 1984). Gardener.Attachment in children Significance of patterns Research based on data from longitudinal studies. because older children have a cognitive capacity to maintain relationships when the older person is not present. the procedure is based on just 20 minutes of behaviour. but also it is not at all obvious that discrete categories best represent the concepts that are inherent in attachment security.[19] Also. Predictions are stronger for close relationships than for less intimate ones. such as that in Japan (see Miyake et al. Greenberg et al. There is no established direct association between early experience and a comprehensive measure of social functioning in early adulthood but early experience significantly predicts early childhood representations of relationships. Insecure children tend to be followers rather than leaders. Modified procedures based on the Strange Situation Father and child have been developed for older preschool children (see Belsky et al. 1985). despite its manifest strengths. 1990). Charnov & Estes. consistently shows associations between early attachment classifications and peer relationships as to both quantity and quality. This maybe a major constraint when applying the procedure in cultures.

. more extreme views (e. correctly predicting about 90% of cases. 1990). Cummings. [2] Kayastha...[23] This global distribution was generally consistent with Ainsworth et al. & Ivey. and Provence and Lipton. maternal bonding) consider certain variants as nonadaptive and as compromising the child's psychological development. In particular. to relationships with a growing number of people.V 187 ..[28] How attachment is expressed shows cultural variations which need to be ascertained before studies can be undertaken.. secure. B (65%). the UK and the USA using the Strange Situation. Morelli. The CCC model developed from the writings of Spitz.[31] References [1] Tronick. Selection of the secure pattern is found in the majority of children across cultures studied.'s (1978) original attachment classification distributions. also discuss the Japanese concept of amae and its relevance to questions concerning whether the insecure-resistant (C) style of interaction may be engendered in Japanese infants as a result of the cultural practice of amae. including several from studies with non-Western language and/or cultural bases found the global distribution of attachment categorizations to be A (21%). This is an epigenetic. it should be noted that continuous measures of attachment security have been developed which have demonstrated adequate psychometric properties... Morelli. Supporters of the CCC model generally recognize that the infant and caregiver are able to adjust to a range of conditions. P. E. (1998) scale is strongly related to secure versus insecure classifications.568. p.Attachment in children Ecological validity and universality of Strange Situation attachment classification distributions With respect to the ecological validity of the Strange Situation. However.. Sroufe. 1992. scientific accounts . Security of attachment in children and adolescents. two studies diverged from the global distributions of attachment classifications noted above. including Japan. and C (14%). Van IJzendoorn et al. Bangalore:Elsevier B. avoidant and ambivalent. In a recent study conducted in Sapporo.. China. "Until recently. hierarchical view of social development. & Ivey. where more resistant (C) infants were found.. Waters & T. 1998.. One study was conducted in North Germany in which more avoidant (A) infants were found than global norms would suggest. and M.[29] [30] The original Richter’s et al. even where communal sleeping arrangements are the norm. We have labeled this dominant view the continuous care and contact model (CCC.. but they consider the adjustments observed to reflect biological variation. Beauchaine. (1978).[26] [27] In addition to these findings supporting the global distributions of attachment classifications in Sapporo. Germany.. These have been used either individually or in conjunction with discrete attachment classifications in many published reports (see Richters et al. Behrens et al.. 1992. controversy has been raised over a few cultural differences in these rates of 'global' attachment classification distributions.[24] [25] Of these two studies. of the infant's early social experiences converged on the view that the infant progresses from a primary relationship with one individual.. (2007) found attachment distributions consistent with global norms using the six-year Main & Cassidy scoring system for attachment classification. a meta-analysis of 2. the three basic patterns.g. p.. selecting optimal behavioural strategies. the Japanese findings have sparked the most controversy as to the meaning of individual differences in attachment behavior as originally identified by Ainsworth et al. A.. The research showed that though there were cultural differences.). Common to the different conceptual frameworks is the belief that parenting practices and the infant's capacity for social engagement are biologically based and conform to a prototypical form.000 infant-parent dyads. Behrens et al.. Bowlby. Cassidy. Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg conducted a meta-analysis of various countries. However." (Tronick.[30] Readers further interested in the categorical versus continuous nature of attachment classifications (and the debate surrounding this issue) should consult a paper by Fraley and Spieker and the rejoinders in the same issue by many prominent attachment researchers including J. Japan. This follows logically from the fact that attachment theory provides for infants to adapt to changes in the environment. and the other in Sapporo.. can be found in every culture in which studies have been undertaken.[and others].. Bowlby's concept of monotropism is an exemplar of the CCC perspective. Israel... 568). on institutionalized children and is represented in the psychological views of Bowlby.. (2010).[28] Attachment measurement: discrete or continuous? Regarding the issue of whether the breadth of infant attachment functioning can be captured by a categorical classification scheme.

Braunwald. Bretherton & E Waters (Eds). PMID 18020832. New York: Basic Books. D. Child Development 59 (2): 512–522. Grossmann.) Handbook of Attachment: Theory. Ainsworth. Security of Infantile attachment as assessed in the 'Strange Situation'. Cassidy.). H. "Expanding the concept of unresolved mental states: Hostile/Helpless states of mind on the Adult Attachment Interview are associated with disrupted mother-infant communication and infant disorganization". [13] Lyons-Ruth K. pp. (1973). Charnov & Estes. E.1037/0012-1649. M. Messinger DS (July 2011). NY. M. Cicchetti. Waters. doi:10. "Attachment relationship experiences and childhood psychopathology". M. (1999). Ekas NV. Behavioural and Brain Sciences. Seifer R. J. [21] Greenberg. PMID 3359869. J.. (2007). Bakermans Kranenburg M.. Developmental Psychology 22 (2): 265–270. [25] Takahashi. Guilford Press ISBN 1-57230-087-6. [22] Vaughn. Waters... doi:10. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago. Retrieved 1 December 2011. "Attachment behaviour at home and in the laboratory". Hillsdale. New York: Basic Books. Blackwell Scientific Publications.3. Attachment security in infants at-risk for autism spectrum disorders 41 (7): 962-967. [28] van IJzendoorn MH. (1999) Handbook of Attachment. Attachment Theory and Evidence.. Gardener. [10] Zeanah CH. Bowlby. K. In Cassidy J. [20] Belsky. III: Loss. JSTOR 1130329.1037/0012-1649.M. Attachment and loss: Vol. [8] J. 2009. Y. D. et al. (1989). (1994). doi:10. 188 . PMID 14998869. "Disorganized/disoriented attachment relationships in maltreated infants". its study and biological interpretations. Research and Clinical Applications. Dev Psychopathol 17 (1): 1–23.(1984). Hesse. II: Separation: Anxiety and anger... (1990). 127-147 [19] Miyake.E. (1988). E. 121-160). D. F. K. (1988).S. theory research and intervention. Schuengel C. Attachment in the preschool years. Research and Clinical Applications. Cassidy J.. and Lapses in Behavioral and Attentional Strategies". Settles L (2003). . [18] Lamb. "Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period". The Influence of Early Attachments on Other Relationshipsencyclopedia=Handbook of Attachment: Theory. B. K. Huber. [12] Carlson. JD. Y. Rutter & D. "Mothers' Attachment Status as Determined by the Adult Attachment Interview Predicts Their 6-Year-Olds' Reunion Responses: A Study Conducted in Japan". doi:10. "Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: A meta-analysis of the strange-situation". Bowlby. ebscohost.525. J. J. Helnick S. Development and Psychopathology. P. Attachment and loss: Vol. I: Attachment. M.H.. New York and London: Guilford Press. NY:Guilford [9] Main.1553. Developmental Psychology 25 (4): 525–531. 225-249.Attachment in children [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Bowlby.2. Cicchetti. "Cross-Cultural Patterns of Attachment. Waters. 373-402). "Examining the Strange-Situation procedure with Japanese mothers and 12-month old infants". [11] Van IJzendoorn M.D. Shaver. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 36: 549–571.415.24.. (Eds).4. Shaver PR. Chicago. N. Hay (Eds) Development Through Life. 1008 (1): 22–30. research.. J. J. U. New York and London: Guilford Press. (1995).22. M. (1990). Sagi-Schwartz A (2008). 7. M. Cassidy & P. T. & Cassidy. Developmental Psychology 43 (6): 1553–1567. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. Blehar. ISBN 9781593858742.1177/016502548100400202. Oxford. Main. Chen. & Cummings. PMID 15971757... S. J. edited by Shaver and Cassidy. Universal and Contextual Dimensions". V.1037/0012-1649. Kroonenberg. Cicchetti. M. J. Vaughn. In Greenberg. E. Yellin C. (1990). & Cummings. Acad. Keyes A. Research and Clinical Applications".1301.265. [27] Main.1196/annals. M. and sequelae. doi:10.. E. [14] Lyons-Ruth K. 276-297.1037/0012-1649. (Eds. C. & Campos (1985). E.. Ann. PMC 1857275. "Attachment security in infants at-risk for autism spectrum disorders. Child Development 61 (6): 1965–1973. K. 333–47. pp. (1978). Thompson. Research and Clinical Applications. doi:10. [29] Richters. D. Wartner.. [15] Haltigan. Atwood G (2005). Growing points of attachment theory and research.. NJ: Earlbaum.1017/S0954579405050017. 50.. (1986).2307/1130329. doi:10." (http:/ / web. Infant temperament and mother's mode of interaction and attachment in Japan.. M. ISBN 9781593858742. Relational Violence.6. M & Solomon. Appleyard K. and intervention (pp. E. (1981). [26] Behrens.003. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. "The Influence of Early Attachments on Other Relationshipsencyclopedia=Handbook of Attachment: Theory. Barnett. doi:10. In M. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. [17] Rutter. International Journal of Behavioral Development 4: 157–184. In Cassidy J and Shaver PR (Eds.. T. Handbook of Attachment. 89—111. [24] Grossmann. Sci. University of Chicago Press.25..43. 11. concomitants. Child Development 59: 147–156. Attachment in the preschool years: Theory. New York: Basic Books. 880–905. PMID 2083508. B. an interim report. K. J. Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors. [23] Van IJzendoorn. "Clinical implications of attachment concepts: Retrospect and Prospect". A Handbook For Clinicians (pp. In I. Developmental Psychology 24 (3): 415–426. Serial No 209.. Shaver PR. E. "German children's behavior toward their mothers at 12 months and their fathers at 18 months in Ainsworth's strange situation". et al. com/ ehost/ detail?vid=3& hid=7& sid=4ee26e89-71a6-4d34-930d-cfd04877e6fa@sessionmgr11& bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==#db=cmedm& AN=20859669). pp. In Cassidy J. (1980). "Empirical classification of infant-mother relationships from interactive behavior and crying during reunion". Guilford Press.. Jacobvitz C (1999) "Attachment Disorganization: Unresolved Loss. M. (1988). [16] Berlin LJ. & Wall.

P. (2003). Washington. London: Brunner-Routledge. DeLoache. MT. N. NY.. (Eds) (1990) Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory. & Cummings.. • Zeanah. and Clinical Applications. R. & Eisenberg.. Infant Behavior and Development 13 (4): 469–485. Oxford University Press. 32. Cicchetti. Guilford. Recommended Reading • Cassidy.. M. J. C. S. J. (2001) The Search for the Secure Base: Attachment Theory and Psychotherapy. : Parents' Action for Children. (1990). Marris. ISBN 0-8236-2633-4..1037/0012-1649. & Shaver. (1993) John Bowlby and Attachment Theory. ISBN 0-415-07730-3.3. EM. (1993) Infancy and Early Childhood.. (Eds.387. Spieker. J. (Eds).Attachment in children [30] Van IJzendoorn. P. H.. doi:10.C. C. Routledge. Madison. (1999) Handbook of Attachment: Theory. NY. ISBN 0-415-05651-9 • Siegler R. J. J. Research. Chicago. ISBN 1-58391-152-9. CT: International Universities Press. • Holmes. D. ISBN 0-19-511501-5.1016/0163-6383(90)90017-3. • Bausch. J. M. Stevenson-Hinde. • Parkes. (1993) Handbook of Infant Mental Health. 189 . The First Years Last Forever (2005) [DVD]. Praeger 2005. (2003) How Children develop. Kroonenberg. Karl Heinz (2002) Treating Attachment Disorders NY: Guilford Press. • Greenberg. D. • Mercer. • Greenspan. J. CM. [31] Fraley. New York: Worth. NY. Research and Intervention University of Chicago.. "Cross-cultural consistency of coding the strange situation". "Are Infant Attachment Patterns Continuously or Categorically Distributed? A Taxometric Analysis of Strange Situation Behavior". • Karen R (1998) Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love..39. Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57259-249-4.) (1991) Attachment Across The Life Cycle Routledge. S. PMID 12760508. P. doi:10.. • Holmes. Developmental Psychology 39 (3): 387–404. Understanding Attachment.

4. 3. anxious-avoidant and anxious-ambivalent. the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System. A variety of methods allow children to be classified into four attachment pattern groups: secure. 190 . although there is to date no research that links how childhood attachment patterns are related to attachment personality dimensions with romantic partners. A child classified with the disorganized/controlling attachment will be given a "next best fit" organized classification. Mother enters and waits to see how the infant greets her. The most common approach to defining attachment style is a two-dimension approach in defining attachment style. If the infant becomes distressed this episode is ended. Another approach defines four adult attachment style categories: secure." draw a picture of their family. One dimension deals with anxiety about the relationship. 5. The stranger comes back and repeats episode 3. and then she leaves again. Researchers have developed various ways of assessing patterns of attachment in children. talks to the mother then gradually approaches infant with a toy. This episode is curtailed if the infant appears to be distressed. or describe their relationships. The disorganized/controlling attachment classification is thought to represent a break-down in the attachment-caregiving partnerhip such that the child does not have an organized behavioral or representational strategy to achieve protection and care from the attachment figure. A stranger enters. It was developed by Mary Ainsworth. As research accumulated and atypical patterns of attachment became more apparent it was further developed by Main and Solomon in 1986 and 1990 to include the new category of disorganized/disoriented attachment.Attachment measures Attachment measures Attachment measures refer to the various procedures used to assess attachment in children and adults.[2] [3] In this procedure the child is observed playing for 20 minutes while caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room. and fearful-avoidant. 7. Each pattern group is further broken down into several sub-categories. preoccupied. The infant is alone. Avoidant (Group A) and Disorganized/Controlling (Group D). Mother sits quietly on a chair. Mother (or other familiar caregiver) and baby enter room. Anxious/Resistant (Group C). Other methods. recreating the flow of the familiar and unfamiliar presence in most children's lives. The situation varies in stressfulness and the child's responses are observed. or assess disorders of attachment. These patterns are also referred to as Secure (Group B). The Strange Situation The Strange Situation procedure was formulated to observe attachment relationships between a caregiver and children between the age of nine and 18 months. dismissive-avoidant. The child experiences the following situations: 1. The mother leaves the room. responding if the infant seeks attention. Attachment style is thought to be similar to childhood attachment patterns. and self-report questionnaires. Measuring attachment in children Some methods are based on observation of infants and toddlers either in natural or 'arranged' situations. 2. The stranger leaves quietly and the mother waits until the baby settles. Attachment in adults is commonly measured using the Adult Attachment Interview. anxious-ambivalent. and disorganized/disoriented. suitable for older children. anxious-avoidant. are based on asking children to complete "attachment story stems. and the other dimension dealing with avoidance in the relationship. a developmental psychologist[1] Originally it was devised to enable children to be classified into the attachment styles known as secure. 6. Self-report questionnaires assess attachment style. a personality dimension that describes attitudes about relationships with romantic partners. The stranger leaves the infant playing unless he/she is inactive and then tries to interest the infant in toys.

The classifications include all the SSP categories plus patterns that develop during the second year of life. (1999). excessive clinging. It covers 12 items. Reunion behaviour is noted and then the situation is ended. Marvin and the MacArthur Working group. The methods in development are intended as research measures. not as diagnostic techniques for individual children. It consists of nearly 100 items intended to cover the spectrum of attachment related behaviors including secure base and exploratory behaviors. It is aimed at 6 year olds and classifies their attachment status. as some items to be assessed require interpretation reliability (e. seeking comfort when distressed.g. namely having a discriminated. vigilance/hypercompliance and role reversal. defended. Attachment Q-set This method. these techniques need to be "lean" enough to carry out fairly quickly.0. Developing methods for older toddlers and children The Strange Situation is not designed for children older than about 18 months. It is also intended to be able to distinguish the unendangered from the endangered compulsive and obsessive subpatterns that may have implications for emotional and behavioral development. social and emotional reciprocity.g. Main & Cassidy attachment classification system This system. utilises Q-Sort methodology. child is "suddenly aggressive toward mother for no reason"). and • The child's reactions to the departure and return of its caregiver. 1987. affective response and social cognition. preferred adult. checking back after venturing away from the care giver. It can rate a child along a continuum from secure to insecure but does not classify the type of insecurity. or Type B. but has been modified for preschool and elementary-school aged children. reticence with unfamiliar adults. The three basic strategies for negotiating interpersonal relationships are modified to fit preschoolers and the patterns are renamed secure/balanced. self endangering behavior. the tendency of evaluators to change their criteria as they assess more and more children over long periods of time. willingness to go off with relative strangers. Like the SSP it involves an observation which is then coded. emotional regulation.[5] The current version is Attachment Q-set Version 3.[6] Preschool Assessment of Attachment (PAA) The PAA was devised by P. responding to comfort when offered. This method is designed to pick up not only reactive attachment disorder but also Zeannah et al. They also need to include ways of guarding against "coder drift". analyses the reunion of child and parent after a 1 hour separation. as described below.[4] Preschool strange situation A version of the Strange Situation procedure designed for an older age group of between 3 and 4 years by Cassidy.[7] Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI) More recent research uses the Disturbances of Attachment Interview or "DAI" developed by Smyke and Zeanah. The mother returns and the stranger goes. Two aspects of the child's behaviour are observed: • The amount of exploration (e. devised by Waters and Deane in 1985.Crittenden for the purpose of assessing patterns of attachment in 18-month to 5 year old children. This is a semi-structured interview designed to be administered by clinicians to caregivers.'s (1993) suggested new alternative categories of disorders of 191 . It is based on a set period of observation of children aged 1 – 5 in a number of environments.. Effective training of evaluators is essential. or Type A and coercive or Type C. playing with new toys) the child engages in throughout. and there is an ongoing effort to develop assessment methods that are suitable for older toddlers and preschoolers. devised in 1988. As such.Attachment measures 8.

Direct interview techniques Child Attachment Interview (CAI) This is a semi-structured interview designed by Target et al. Narrative story stem techniques This method uses dolls and narrative to enact a story. Methods include the MacArthur Story Stem Battery (MSSB) and the Attachment Story Completion Test. no established observational protocol has been established" [10] Also. Criticism Existing measures have not necessarily been developed to a useful level. developed in 1990 for children between the age of 3 to 8 years. the Attachment Doll Play Assessment developed in 1995 for children age 4. and teens. "Behavioral observation is a natural starting point for assessing attachment disorders because behavioral descriptions. three different techniques to determine their state of mind with respect to attachment are used. The dolls represent family members..[9] Attachment Interview for Childhood and Adolescence (AICA) This again is a version of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) rendered age appropriate for adolescents. the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST) developed in 2000 for children aged 4. secure. the Randolph Attachment Disorder Questionnaire. Picture response techniques Like the stem stories. Unfortunately. that was itself poorly validated and that is based on a nonconventional view of attachment. The third involves asking children actual questions about their attachment relationships. adapted for children by focussing on representations of relationships with parents and attachment related events. It is based on the Adult Attachment Interview. (2003) for children aged 7 to 11. Revised versions have been produced for 4 . the Story Stem Assessment Profile (SSAP) developed in 1990 for children aged 4 – 8. this protocol was validated against another technique..5 . have been central to the development of the concept. The interviewer enacts the beginning of the story and then hands the dolls over for the child to complete it with varying degrees of prompting and encouragement.5-11..8. questionable measures of attachment in school-age children have been presented. these techniques are designed to access the childs internal working models of attachment relationships.. Methods include the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT) developed in 1972 for children aged between 11 and 17... The classifications of dismissing.[8] Other approaches With older toddlers. Scores are based on both verbal and non-verbal communications. a protocol for establishing attachment status was described by Sheperis and his colleagues [11] . The child is shown attachment related pictures and asked to respond. The second method asks children to respond to pictures. The first is the Story Stem in which children are asked to complete and describe stories having been given the 'stem' or beginning. children.5.7 year olds. despite the fact that observations have figured prominently. For example. preoccupied and unresolved are the same as under the AAI described below. 192 .Attachment measures attachment. These techniques are designed to access the childs internal working models of their attachment relationships.

1984)[13] . 193 . 1990)[17] . It seems much more likely that infants vary in their degree of security and there is need for a measurement systems that can quantify individual variation". because older children have a cognitive capacity to maintain relationships when the older person is not present.'s (1978) original attachment classification distributions.. also discuss the Japanese concept of amae and its relevance to questions concerning whether the insecure-resistant (C) style of interaction may be engendered in Japanese infants as a result of the cultural practice of amae. In particular...000 infant-parent dyads. Gardener. Behrens. However.[21] found attachment distributions consistent with global norms using the six-year Main & Cassidy scoring system for attachment classification. Behrens et al. despite its manifest strengths. Of these two studies. One study was conducted in North Germany [19] in which more avoidant (A) infants were found than global norms would suggest. Modified procedures based on the Strange Situation have been Mother and child developed for older preschool children (see Belsky et al. and the other in Sapporo. the Japanese findings have sparked the most controversy as to the meaning of individual differences in attachment behavior as originally identified by Ainsworth et al. including several from studies with non-Western language and/or cultural bases found the global distribution of attachment categorizations to be A (21%). Ecological validity and universality of Strange Situation attachment classification distributions With respect to the ecological validity of the Strange Situation. and interviews with the mothers have developed in order to extend the data base (see Vaughn & Waters. Japan [20] where more resistant (C) infants were found. It can be scarcely expected to tap all the relevant qualities of a child's attachment relationships. but also it is not at all obvious that discrete categories best represent the concepts that are inherent in attachment security. 2007. To begin with. a meta-analysis of 2. Thompson. A further constraint is that the coding procedure results in discrete categories rather than continuously distributed dimensions.Attachment measures Reception and development of SSP Psychiatrist Michael Rutter describe the limitations of the procedure in the following terms. et al. it is very dependent on brief separations and reunions having the same meaning for all children. controversy has been raised over a few cultural differences in these rates of 'global' attachment classification distributions. 1994. 1990)[15] [16] but it is much more dubious whether the same approach can be used in middle childhood. Also. and C (14%) [18] This global distribution was generally consistent with Ainsworth et al.[12] "It is by no means free of limitations (see Lamb. Also. two studies diverged from the global distributions of attachment classifications noted above. separation may not provide the same stress for them. the procedure is based on just 20 minutes of behaviour. B (65%). where infants are rarely separated from their mothers in ordinary circumstances.[22] In addition to these findings supporting the global distributions of attachment classifications in Sapporo. In a recent study conducted in Sapporo. This maybe a major constraint when applying the procedure in cultures. 1985)[14] . such as that in Japan (see Miyake et al. (1978). Greenberg et al. Q-sort procedures based on much longer naturalistic observations in the home. Not only is this likely to provide boundary problems. Charnov & Estes...

. and self-report questionnaires. and the self-report questionnaires were created with somewhat different aims in mind." and is written by E. perspectives on adult attachment. The AAI. In principle. One asks about a person's feelings and behaviors in the context of romantic or other close relationships. Beauchaine. NY.). Their discourse is coherent.[24] ] The original Richter’s et al. (1998) scale is strongly related to secure versus insecure classifications. internally consistent. Minimize negative aspects and deny personal impact on relationships. Cassidy and P. R. Their positive descriptions are often contradicted or unsupported. It's therefore worthwhile to become familiar with both approaches. 194 . Shaver. Have angry or ambivalent representations of the past. The interview taps into adult representation of attachment (i. These have been used either individually or in conjunction with discrete attachment classifications in many published reports [see Richters et al. 2008. 2004) [26] The AAI and the self-report questionnaires offer distinct. and M. this is a quasi-clinical semi-structured interview that takes about one hour to administer. describe them in a balanced way and as influential. The chapter title is "The Adult Attachment Interview: Historical and Current Perspectives. what is most important for you to know is that self-report measures of romantic attachment and the AAI were initially developed completely independently and for quite different purposes. A good description can be found in Chapter 25 of Attachment Theory. Shaver and Fraley note: "If you are a novice in this research area. it should be noted that continuous measures of attachment security have been developed which have demonstrated adequate psychometric properties. 1990).Attachment measures Attachment measurement: discrete or continuous? Regarding the issue of whether the breadth of infant attachment functioning can be captured by a categorical classification scheme. the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). but in fact they seem to be only moderately related--at least as currently assessed. the other is used to make inferences about the defenses associated with an adult's current state of mind regarding childhood relationships with parents. Hesse.. although a few studies have found the AAI to be related to marital relationship quality and a few have found self-report romantic attachment measures to be related to parenting. Correlations of the two kinds of measures with other variables are likely to differ. Guilford Press. these might have been substantially associated. The discourse is defensive. • Dismissing: They show memory lapses. It involves about twenty questions and has extensive research validation to support it. Cummings. Incoherent discourse. Cassidy. Parental AAI Attachment status includes: • Autonomous: They value attachment relationships. and non-defensive in nature. edited by J. One kind of measure receives its construct validity mostly from studies of romantic relationships. Sroufe. the other from prediction of a person's child's behavior in Ainsworth's Strange Situation. A. Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) Developed by Carol George. E. Nancy Kaplan. Categories are designed to predict parental stances on Berkeley infant data. internal working models) by assessing general and specific recollections from their childhood. Research and Clinical Applications (2nd ed.e. The interview is coded based on quality of discourse (especially coherence) and content. 1998. Waters & T. and Mary Main in 1984. but equally valid.[23] Van IJzendoorn et al. • Preoccupied: Experience continuing preoccupation with their own parents. correctly predicting about 90% of cases [24] . AAP." (Shaver & Fraley. Readers further interested in the categorical versus continuous nature of attachment classifications (and the debate surrounding this issue) should consult the paper by Fraley and Spieker [25] and the rejoinders in the same issue by many prominent attachment researchers including J. Measuring attachment in adults The three main ways of measuring attachment in adults include the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI).

I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. • Anxious/Ambivalent . A book describing the measure is forthcoming from Guilford Press in spring 2011. Bartholomew and Horowitz presented a model that identified four categories or styles of adult attachment. Bartholomew).. I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. the AAP is also used to code attachment defensive processing patterns. love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. and whether or not people judge themselves to be the kind of individuals towards which others want to respond and lend help. I don't often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me. A. The AAP is being used to assess attachment in adults and adolescents. The AAP identifies the same adult attachment groups as the AAI. (2000). difficult to allow myself to depend on them. 195 . One important advance in the development of attachment questionnaires was the addition of a fourth style of attachment. I want to merge completely with another person. A good description can be found in George and West's 1999 paper in the journal Attachment and Human Development. People participating in their study were asked to choose which set of statements best described their feelings.I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. They proposed four categories based on positive or negative thoughts about partners and on positive or negative thoughts about self.I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others. The AAP is demonstrated to be increasingly useful in clinical and neurobiological settings. The questionnaire consisted of three sets of statements. In addition to providing adult group classifications. attachment styles depended on whether or not people judge their partners to be generally accessible and responsive to requests for support. as reported by Shaver. The chosen set of statements indicated their attachment style. Self-report questionnaires Hazan and Shaver created the first questionnaire to measure attachment in adults. I am nervous when anyone gets too close. [28] Their questionnaire was designed to classify adults into the three attachment styles identified by Ainsworth. attachment synchrony. Belsky. it taps primarily into a person's state of mind regarding their attachment in their family of origin (nuclear family). The strongest concurrent validation of the measure is the correspondence between AAP and AAI classification agreement. • Avoidant . The measure also has been shown to have some overlap with attachment constructs measured by the less time-intensive measures of the peer/romantic attachment tradition (Hazan & Shaver. Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) Developed by Carol George and Malcolm West in 1999..[27] However. Some of the strongest external validation of the measures involves its demonstrated ability to predict interviewees' children's classifications in the Strange Situation. each set of statements describing an attachment style: • Secure . Later versions of this questionnaire presented scales so people could rate how well each set of statements described their feelings. as described above. this is a free response task that involved telling stories in response to eight picture stimuli (1 warm-up & 7 attachment scenes). there are important differences in what is measured by the AAI—rather than being a measure of romantic attachment. R. J.Attachment measures • Unresolved/Disorganized:Show trauma resulting from unresolved loss or abuse. Specifically. and personal agency. and often. & Brennan. and this desire sometimes scares people away. [29] Their model was based on the idea attachment styles reflected people's thoughts about their partners and thought about themselves. K. I find it difficult to trust them completely. P.

Tests demonstrated the four attachment styles were distinct in how they related to other kinds of psychological variables. people rated how strongly they agreed with dozens of individual statements. Clark. 196 . or to depend on them. together with a large number of colleagues.Attachment measures Bartholomew and Horowitz used this model to create the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ-CV). David Schmitt. The four attachment styles had somewhat different meanings across cultures. • Fearful . The RQ-CV consisted of four sets of statements. but I find it difficult to trust others completely. Adults indeed appeared to have four styles of attachment instead of three attachment styles. Two popular questionnaires of this type are the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) questionnaire and the Experiences in Close Relationships . I am comfortable depending on others and having others depend on me.I want to be completely emotionally intimate with others.I am comfortable without close emotional relationships. I don't worry about being alone or having others not accept me. The ratings for the individual statements were combined to provide an attachment score. • Dismissive . I sometimes worry that I will be hurt if I allow myself to become too close to others.I am somewhat uncomfortable getting close to others. I am uncomfortable being without close relationships. the way these two kinds of thoughts interacted to form attachment styles varied somewhat across cultures. • Preoccupied . and Brennan in 2000.Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire. but I sometimes worry that others don't value me as much as I value them. A second important advance in attachment questionnaires was the use of independent items to assess attachment. each describing a category or style of attachment: • Secure . [31] The ECR-R was created by Fraley. It is very important to me to feel independent and self-sufficient. I want emotionally close relationships. but I often find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. The ECR was created by Brennan. [30] The distinction of thoughts about self and thoughts about partners proved valid in nearly all cultures. Waller. and Shaver in 1998. Instead of asking people to choose between three or four sets of statements. and I prefer not to depend on others or have others depend on me. However.It is relatively easy for me to become emotionally close to others. validated the attachment questionnaire created by Bartholomew and Horowitz in 62 cultures. [32] Readers who wish to take the ECR-R and learn their attachment style can find an online version of the questionnaire at http:/ / www. Investigators have created several questionnaires using this strategy to measure adult attachment.

The anxiety scale in the ECR and ECR-R reflect thoughts about self. Combinations of anxiety and avoidance can thus be used to define the four attachment styles. The remaining items deal with how avoidant a person is in their relationship.pl.net/cgi-bin/crq/crq. Attachment anxiety relates to beliefs about self-worth and whether or not one will be accepted or rejected by others. One group of questionnaire items deal with how anxious a person is about their relationship. 197 . These items serve as a scale for avoidance. The avoidance scale in the ECR and ECR-R relates to thoughts about partners.Attachment measures web-research-design. These items serve as a scale for anxiety. the dismissive avoidant style of attachment is characterized by low anxiety and high avoidance. Many researchers now use scores from the anxiety and avoidance scales to perform statistical analyses and test hypotheses. the preoccupied style of attachment is characterized by high anxiety and low avoidance. Analysis of the ECR and ECR-R reveal that the questionnaire items can be grouped into two dimensions of attachment. The secure style of attachment is characterized by low anxiety and low avoidance. Attachment avoidance relates to beliefs about taking risks in approaching or avoiding other people. Scores on the anxiety and avoidance scales can still be used to classify people into the four adult attachment styles. and the fearful avoidant style of attachment is characterized by high anxiety and high avoidance. [31] [33] [34] The four styles of attachment defined in Bartholomew and Horowitz's model were based on thoughts about self and thoughts about partners.

C. K. Hay (Eds) Development Through Life. H. [7] Crittenden PM (1992). 59. theory research and intervention. T.M. [24] Van IJzendoorn. (1990). (2007). ISBN 0-89859-461-8. & Cassidy. & Kroonenberg. Romantic love conceptualized as an attachmenpt process. Child Development. from http:/ / www. Braxelton and M. 627-646. p. 2006.A. P.Y. & Campos (1985). doi:10. J. 373-402). 469-485.. 28(6). C. The adult attachment interview and self-reports of romantic attachment: Associations across domains and methods. & Hesse.Yogman (eds) Affective development in infancy. (1987).1017/S0954579400000110. J. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. [5] Waters Waters. 276-297. & Zeanah. Measuring socioemotional functioning in a national birth cohort study. Renfro-Michael. N. its study and biological interpretations. E... (1994). [20] Takahashi. (2003).K (1985) 'Defining and assessing individual differences in attachment relationships: Q-methodology and the organization of behavior in infancy and early childhood. com/ Preschool-assesment. (2003) 'Attachment representations in school-age children: the development of the Child Attachment Interview (CAI). & Shaver. Cicchetti. & Cassidy. patcrittenden. J.. & Wartner. E. Waters. and Solomon. T. 512-522.Doggett. P. & Spieker.. [4] Andreassen. Attachment Theory and Evidence. Behavioural and Brain Sciences. & Cassidy. 2. Security of Infantile attachment as assessed in the 'Strange Situation'. R."Attachment disorders: Assessment strategies and treatment approaches. F. findings and implications for the classification of behavior. "Quality of attachment in the preschool years" (http:/ / www. Blanchard.. 209 (1-2). (1986). [22] Main. [17] Vaughn. [21] Behrens.H. M. M. 25-43."Journal of Mental Health Counseling.' In t. and Zeanah. M. & West. Self-report measures of adult attachment. E. R. K. Belsky. Bretherton & E Waters (Eds). M.H. 7. Mothers’ Attachment Status as Determined by the Adult Attachment Interview Predicts Their 6-Year-Olds’ Reunion Responses: A Study Conducted in Japan.J.. [25] Fraley.' Journal of Child Psychotherapy 29. 5(3):223-244." Attachment & Human Development. [19] Grossmann. Gardener.M. (1990) 'Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation' In M. 157-184.. 171-186 [10] O'Connor. J. (Eds). Grossmann. Personal Relationships. Cross-cultural consistency of coding the strange situation. Developmental Psychology. In I.Greenberg. Holdiness. B. 24. Serial No 209. Infant temperament and mother's mode of interaction and attachment in Japan. .. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. M. International Journal of Behavioral Development. uiuc.P. J. Huber. Infant Mental Health Journal. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 36 (4): 552–553 [13] Lamb. [27] Shaver. Developmental Psychology. R. & Cummings.com [9] Target. [8] Smyke. Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period. 22. Fonagy. E. 265-270.. (2003).E. 41-65 [6] Main.Attachment measures References [1] Ainsworth. Mary D.. Main. P. C. J.. html .E. [18] Van IJzendoorn. German children's behavior toward their mothers at 12 months and their fathers at 18 months in Ainsworth's strange situation.. [28] Hazan. (2000). edu/ ~rcfraley/ measures/ measures. E. & Brennan. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 147-156.Bretherton and E. Developmental Psychology. html). E. & Kroonenberg.M. Development and Psychopathology 4 (02): 209–41. B. Chen. [23] Richters. (1988). Cicchetti and E. and deane. Serial No. A. M.m.. Growing points of attachment theory and research. M.. [15] Belsky. 1553–1567. 511-524. 39. & Waters. 415-426. [2] Main.. [16] Greenberg. Available on the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry website at www. Empirical classification of infant-mother relationships from interactive behavior and crying during reunion. R. C. D.E. Developmental Psychology 24.L. R. Cummings (eds) Attachment in the preschool years: Theory. 229 [11] Sheperis. 198 . S. Hoda. Charnov & Estes. Norwood. University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 2008-01-06. (1988). M. NJ: Ablex [3] Main. K. psych. (1999)'Disturbances of Attachment Interview'. and Schmueli-Goetz. Child Development. 415-426. J. & Vaughn.' In I. Thompson. Retrieved June 20. 4. Examining the Strange-Situation procedure with Japanese mothers and 12-month old infants. [26] Shaver. research and intervention. 7. (1988) "Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period. K. 59. "The development of an assessment protocol for Reactive Attachment Disorder. & Schlagheck. Attachment in the preschool years. (1990). Child Development. P. T. C. In M.. 13. 127-147 [14] Miyake. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (2007). (2004). 387-404. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Infant Behavior and Development. and Solomon.J.. Online article.H. (1990).jaacap.. P. 25(4):291-310 [12] "The Clinical Implications of Attachment Concepts".. K. (1978) Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation.(1984).C. (1986) 'Discovery of an insecure disorganized/dioriented attachment pattern:procedures. Developmental Psychology. 61. A Handbook For Clinicians (pp. U. 43. 1965-1973. Waters (eds) Growing pains of attachment theory and research: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 50. Y. 50. (1981). C. J.. Oxford. Rutter & D. (1988). (2003). Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: A meta-analysis of the strange-situation. Attachment behaviour at home and in the laboratory. Chicago.A. Are Infant Attachment Patterns Continuously or Categorically Distributed? A Taxometric Analysis of Strange Situation Behavior.. D. & Fraley.J... E.A. an interim report. 52. S.

pp. Oxford University Press.. CM. Waller. MT..Attachment measures [29] Bartholomew. In J. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07730-3. Chicago. C. Research and Intervention University of Chicago..Australian Intercountry Adoption Network (http://www. N. Methods of assessing adult attachment. (1998). J. • Greenspan.. ISBN 0-415-05651-9 • Siegler R. Marris. S. Handbook of Closeness and Intimacy. (1998). NY: Guilford Press. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. • Greenberg. EM. Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. A. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. richardatkins. NY. (2000). & Brennan. ISBN 1-57259-249-4.J... New York.. (Eds. 25-45. (1993) John Bowlby and Attachment Theory. [34] Collins.A. K. Attachment theory and close relationships. Rholes (Eds.R. • Parkes. • Karen R (1998) Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love.A. New York: Guilford Press. & Shaver.S. CT: International Universities Press. In J. NY. [32] Fraley.). 35. P..).G.htm) • Attachment Questionnaire (http://www. 46-76). K. New York: Worth. (2004). et al. (1999) Handbook of Attachment: Theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.. Research.org/) • Relationship Advice: How Understanding Adult Attachment Can Help (http://www. Clark. 78. DeLoache.A. External links • AICAN . Further reading • Cassidy. 61. Simpson & W. Guilford Press. [33] Bartholomew.web-research-design. J. Rholes (Eds. N.L. [30] Schmitt.C. An Attachment Theory Perspective on Closeness and Intimacy. Patterns and universals of adult romantic attachment across 62 cultural regions. Madison. (1991). [31] Brennan. ISBN 0-8236-2633-4.L. J. Self-report measurement of adult romantic attachment: An integrative overview. N. K. D.) (1991) Attachment Across The Life Cycle Routledge. & Shaver.org/mental/ relationship_advice_adult_attachment. 350-365.P. (1993) Infancy and Early Childhood. P. ISBN 1-58391-152-9.. (Eds). P. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. K. In D.R. P.. pp. 163-188. (Eds) (1990) Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory. 367-402. • Holmes. Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. ISBN 0-19-511501-5..aican.uk/atws/page/55. (2001) The Search for the Secure Base: Attachment Theory and Psychotherapy. • Holmes. & Shaver. Stevenson-Hinde. & Freeney. Aron (Eds. S. and Clinical Applications. Mashek & A. D. L. Cicchetti. B.). J. & Eisenberg. Mahwah. J. & Horowitz.C. (2004). An item-response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. R. 226-244.co. Simpson & W.M.html) 199 .pl) • Articles on attachment measures including 11 self-report measures with scoring instructions (http://www. (2003) How Children develop. London: Brunner-Routledge.helpguide. & Cummings.net/cgi-bin/crq/crq.

Zaslow. established his clinic in the 1970s. commissioned by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) which was largely critical of attachment therapy. is scientifically unvalidated and is not considered to be part of mainstream psychology or. 200 . the child is reduced to an infantile state in which he or she can be "re-parented" by methods such as cradling. The common form of attachment therapy is holding therapy. including at least six documented child fatalities.[8] Some leading attachement therapists have also specifically moved away from coercive practices. Colorado where Foster Cline. an organization originally set up by attachment therapists.[4] [5] It is primarily based on Robert Zaslow's rage-reduction therapy from the 1960s and '70s and on psychoanalytic theories about suppressed rage. This form of treatment differs significantly from evidence-based attachment-based therapies. It has been described as a potentially abusive and pseudoscientific intervention that has resulted in tragic outcomes for children. This change may have been hastened by the publication of a Task Force Report on the subject in January 2006. in which a child is firmly held (or lain upon) by therapists or parents. These accompanying parenting techniques are based on the belief that a properly attached child should comply with parental demands "fast. to be based on attachment theory. bottle feeding and enforced eye contact. catharsis. "rebirthing". some advocates of attachment therapy began to alter views and practices to be less potentially dangerous to children. snappy and right the first time" and should be "fun to be around". Control over the children is usually considered essential and the therapy is often accompanied by parenting techniques which emphasize obedience. This article describes this particular set of interventions although in clinical literature the term "attachment therapy" is sometimes used loosely to mean any intervention based.[7] In April 2007. ATTACh. "compression therapy". In theory. Martha Welch and other early proponents used it as a treatment for autism. therapists seek to produce in the child a range of responses such as rage and despair with the goal of achieving catharsis. promoting instead newer techniques of attunement. based on the now discredited belief that autism was the result of failures in the attachment relationship with the mother.[1] It is found primarily but not exclusively in the United States and much of it is centered in about a dozen clinics in Evergreen. regression. Two of the most well-known cases are those of Candace Newmaker in 2000 and the Gravelles in 2003. sensitivity and regulation. formally adopted a White Paper stating its unequivocal opposition to the use of coercive practices in therapy and parenting. on attachment theory.[2] These techniques have been implicated in several child deaths and other harmful effects. Following the associated publicity. Attachment therapy is a treatment used primarily with fostered or adopted children who have behavioral difficulties. "rage-reduction". Further. rocking. but including disobedience and perceived lack of gratitude or affection for their caregivers. sometimes severe. or claiming to be based. Tinbergen. Other names or particular techniques include "the Evergreen model". talking psychotherapies such as attachment-based psychotherapy and relational psychoanalysis or the form of attachment parenting advocated by the pediatrician William Sears. The children's problems are ascribed to an inability to attach to their new parents because of suppressed rage due to past maltreatment and abandonment. "holding time".[1] The term generally includes accompanying parenting techniques. with which it is considered incompatible. including diagnosis and accompanying parenting techniques. the form of rebirthing sometimes used within attachment therapy differs from Rebirthing-Breathwork. Through this process of restraint and confrontation. The aim is to promote attachment with the new caregivers. breaking down of resistance and defence mechanisms. particularly outside the USA.Attachment therapy Attachment therapy Attachment therapy is the most commonly used term for a controversial category of alternative child mental health interventions intended to treat attachment disorders. "corrective attachment therapy" and Coercive Restraint Therapy. one of the founders.[3] This form of therapy. despite its name. when the child's resistance is overcome and the rage is released.[6] Since the 1990s there have been a number of prosecutions for deaths or serious maltreatment of children at the hands of "attachment therapists" or parents following their instructions.

(3) the therapist takes advantage of the child's capitulation by showing nurturance and warmth. a variety of coercive techniques are used. this is explained to the child as a consequence of not choosing to be a 'family boy or girl. as outlined in the 2006 American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) Task Force Report. Variants of these treatments have carried various labels that change frequently. may have several adults lie on top of them. physical. including scheduled holding. and/or licking. These include deep tissue massage. or aggressive means to provoke the child to catharsis. or aversive procedures. The Center induces rage by physically restraining the child and forcing eye contact with the therapist (the child must lie across the laps of two therapists. enforced eye contact. Proponents emphasize the child's resistance to attachment and the need to break it down. encouraging children to regress to infant status. In rebirthing and similar approaches. rib cage stimulation (e. as indicated by the child breaking down emotionally ('sobbing'). According to The Center's treatment protocol. Evergreen) as follows: "Like Welsh (sic)(1984.[12] They also provide a list of additional therapies used by attachment therapists which they consider to be unvalidated.[11] It is this form of treatment for attachment difficulties or disorders which is popularly known as "attachment therapy". a group that campaigns against attachment therapy. or their faces may be held so they can be forced to engage in prolonged eye contact. requiring children to submit totally to adult control over all their needs. Similar but less physically coercive approaches may involve holding the child and psychologically encouraging the child to vent anger toward her or his biological parent.g.. he or she may be threatened with detainment for the day at the clinic or forced placement in a temporary foster home. "holding time". If the child is well-behaved outside the home this is seen as successful manipulation of outsiders. They may be known as "rebirthing therapy".[10] Some authors critical of this therapeutic approach have used the term Coercive Restraint Therapy.[13] Matthew Speltz of the University of Washington School of Medicine describes a typical treatment taken from The Center's material (apparently a replication of the program at the Attachment Center. ventilation of rage. Children may be held down.. the following sequence of events is described: (1) therapist 'forces control' by holding (which produces child 'rage'). binding. knuckling). The APSAC Task Force noted that this perspective has its attractions because it relieves the caregivers of responsibility to change aspects of their own behavior and aspirations. looking up at one of them). "A central feature of many of these therapies is the use of psychological. or techniques designed to provoke cathartic emotional discharge. barring normal social relationships outside the primary caretaker. the child is then required to 'earn the way back to therapy' and a chance to resume living with the adoptive family. (4) this new trust allows the child to accept 'control' by the therapist and eventually the parent."[14] According to the APSAC Task Force. 1989). pinching..[1] Advocates for Children in Therapy. Proponents believe that traditional therapies fail to help children with attachment problems because it is impossible to establish a trusting relationship with them. reparenting. In a workshop handout prepared by two therapists at The Center.e. with some sessions reportedly lasting longer. To do this. if the child 'shuts down' (i.' If the child is actually placed in foster care. aversive tickling. "corrective attachment therapy". "compression therapy". "the Evergreen model". punishments related to food and water intake. Sessions may last from 3 to 5 hours.[7] has broadly centered around "holding therapy"[9] and coercive. or other sorts of acute emotional discharge. protests of distress from the child are considered 201 . give a list of therapies they state are attachment therapy by another name. restraining.. refuses to comply).Attachment therapy Treatment characteristics The controversy. rather than as evidence of a problem in the current home or current parent-child relationship. "rage-reduction therapy"[1] or "prolonged parent-child embrace therapy". They believe this is because children with attachment problems actively avoid forming genuine relationships."[2] The APSAC Task Force describes how the conceptual focus of these treatments is the child's individual internal pathology and past caregivers rather than current parent-child relationships or current environment. attachment parenting. (2) rage leads to child 'capitulation' to the therapist. tickling.

[22] Attachment parenting expert Nancy Thomas states that attachment-disordered children act worse when given information about what is going to occur because they will use the information to manipulate their environment and everyone in it. for example obedience-training techniques such as "strong sitting" (frequent periods of required silence and immobility) and withholding or limiting food.. early 1990s.[4] According to Advocates for Children in Therapy.. fight against it and seek to control others to avoid attaching. Children may be encouraged to regress to an earlier age where trauma was experienced or be reparented through holding sessions. . to force the children into loving (attaching to) their parents. Typically. Children described as attachment-disordered are expected by attachment therapists[21] to comply with parental commands "fast and snappy and right the first time". Similarly.[19] In some programmes children undergoing the two-week intensive stay with "therapeutic foster parents" for the duration or beyond and the adoptive parents are trained in their techniques. home schooling. usually for hours at a time. may also serve the intended purpose of demonstrating dominance over the child. as instrumental in obtaining lengthy and detailed alleged "disclosures" from children. or alternatively an adult lies on top of a child lying prone on the floor. and winning the battle by defeating the child is paramount. and information. because it is believed children with attachment problems resist attachment. produces obedience based on fear. Restraint of the child by more powerful adult(s) is considered an essential part of the confrontation. the child's character flaws must be broken before attachment can occur.[18] 202 ."[16] Psychiatrist Bruce Perry cites the use of holding therapy techniques by caseworkers and foster parents investigating a Satanic Ritual Abuse case in the late 1980s. the "holding" approach would be viewed as intrusive and therefore non-sensitive and countertherapeutic. is deliberately withheld. hard labor or meaningless repetitive chores throughout the day. often hostile confrontation of a child by a therapist or parent (sometimes both). such as how long a child will be with therapeutic foster parents or what will happen to him or her next.[15] Coercive techniques. and control of all food and water intake and bathroom needs. Attachment parenting may include keeping the child at home with no social contacts.[20] According to the APSAC Task Force. such as not finishing chores or arguing. Attachment Therapy is the imposition of boundary violations – most often coercive restraint – and verbal abuse on a child. Establishing total adult control. and the use of "therapeutic foster parents" with whom the child stays whilst undergoing therapy. demonstrating to the child that he or she has no control. is a central tenet of many controversial attachment therapies. and demonstrating that all of the child's needs are met through the adult. In his opinion." The purported correction is described as ". is interpreted as a sign of attachment disorder that must be forcibly eradicated. using force or coercion on traumatised children simply re-traumatizes them and far from producing love and affection. such as scheduled or enforced holding. parenting a child with an attachment disorder is a battle. in contrast with accepted theories of attachment. .. According to O'Connor and Zeanah..[2] Deviation from this standard. From this perspective..[17] Parenting techniques Therapists often instruct parents to follow programs of treatment at home. there is a hands-on treatment involving physical restraint and discomfort. as in the trauma bond known as Stockholm syndrome. "Attachment Therapy almost always involves extremely confrontational.. motionless sitting for prolonged periods of time.Attachment therapy to be resistance that must be overcome by more coercion.[15] Other features of attachment therapy are the "two week intensive" course of therapy. many controversial treatments hold that children described as attachment–disordered must be pushed to revisit and relive early trauma.[2] [18] Earlier authors sometimes referred to this as "German Shepherd training". the child is put in a lap hold with the arms pinned down. and to always be "fun to be around" for their parents.[2] Proper appreciation of total adult control is also considered vital.

attachment problems will result.[15] In contrast to traditional attachment theory. as attachment patterns develop within relationships. even though they are more antithetical to than consistent with attachment theory.[33] and not based on attachment theory or research. Therapy based on this viewpoint emphasizes providing a stable environment and taking a calm. rocked. criminal. attachment therapy is based on some assumptions that differ strongly from the theoretical foundations of other attachment based therapies. Such children are said to fail to develop a conscience. and fed with a bottle and given sweets. the theory of attachment described by attachment therapy proponents is that young children who experience adversity (including maltreatment. frequent changes in child care.[27] [28] Some interventions focus specifically on increasing caregiver sensitivity in foster parents. According to attachment therapist Elizabeth Randolph. to seek control rather than closeness. These sessions are carried out at the caregiver's wish and not upon the child's request. patient. parents are advised to provide daily sessions in which older children are treated as if they were babies to create attachment.[15] This results in a lack of ability to attach or to be genuinely affectionate to others. responsiveness to children's physical and emotional needs and consistency. attachment will again be blocked. predictable. hugged and kissed.[18] The child is held in the caregiver's lap. adoption.[29] Advocates of this treatment also believe that emotional attachment of a child to a caregiver begins during the prenatal period. especially if she considers abortion. colic or even frequent ear infections) become enraged at a very deep and primitive level. and antisocial behaviors if left untreated.[15] The tone in which the attributes of these children are described has been characterized as "demonizing". support the development of healthy attachment. separations.[30] If the child has had a peaceful gestation. the child responds with distress and anger that continue through postnatal life.[4] There are many ways in which holding therapy/attachment therapy contradicts Bowlby's attachment theory. the child again feels distress and rage that will block attachment to a foster or adoptive caregiver.[6] Indeed they are considered incompatible.Attachment therapy In addition to restrictive behavior. Suppressed or unconscious rage is theorized to prevent the child from forming bonds with caregivers and leads to behavior problems when the rage erupts into unchecked aggression. during which the unborn child is aware of the mother's thoughts and emotions. and nurturing approach toward children. Attachment therapists believe that reenactments of aspects of infant care have the power to rebuild damaged aspects of early development such as emotional attachment. They are seen as highly manipulative and as trying to avoid true attachments while simultaneously striving to control those around them through manipulation and superficial sociability. but is not treated with strict authority during the second year. and to engage in endless power struggles. to resist the authority of caregivers. creating positive interactions with caregivers.[23] Contrasting attachment theory based methods In contrast.[31] [32] Critics say holding therapies have been promoted as "attachment" therapies. If the mother is distressed by the pregnancy.[24] [25] [26] All mainstream interventions with an existing or developing evidential foundation focus on enhancing caregiver sensitivity. methods to correct problems with attachment focus on improving the stability and positive qualities of the caregiver-child interactions and relationship. or change of caregiver if that is not possible with existing caregivers. non-threatening. Such children are said to be at risk of becoming psychopaths who will go on to engage in very serious delinquent. to not trust others. but after birth suffers pain or ungratified needs during the first year. sensitive. attachment theory's fundamental and evidence-based statement that security is promoted by 203 . If the child is separated from the mother after birth.g. attachment problems can be diagnosed even in an asymptomatic child through observation of the child's inability to crawl backward on command. e. but these may not be revealed until the child is much older. non-intrusive. no matter how early this occurs. according to the so-called "attachment cycle".[27] [28] Theoretical principles Like a number of other alternative mental health treatments for children. If the child reaches the toddler period safely. traditional attachment theory holds that the provision of a safe and predictable environment and caregiver qualities such as sensitivity. Failure of attachment results in a lengthy list of mood and behavior problems. loss. Further.

persistent nonsense questions or incessant chatter. "This polarization is compounded by the fact that attachment therapy has largely developed outside the mainstream scientific and professional community and flourishes within its own networks of attachment therapists. food related issues (such as gorging or hoarding). They also give an example from the Evergreen Consultants in Human Behavior which offers a 45-symptom checklist including bossiness."[41] Prior and Glaser describe the lists as "wildly inclusive" and state that many of the behaviors in the lists are likely to be the consequences of neglect and abuse rather than located within the attachment paradigm. within attachment therapy. The Attachment Disorder Symptom Checklist includes statements about the parent's feelings toward the child as well as statements about the child's behavior.[34] According to Mary Dozier "holding therapy does not emanate in any logical way from attachment theory or from attachment research". which originated at the Institute for Attachment in Evergreen. non-academic literature and on the Internet where claims are made which have no basis in attachment theory and for which there is no empirical evidence. avoiding eye contact except when lying. like Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder or are not related to attachment difficulties. "These types of lists are so nonspecific that high rates of false-positive diagnoses are virtually certain.[36] and reactive attachment disorder.[35] Diagnosis and attachment disorder Attachment therapists claim to diagnose attachment disorder. that are not in accord with either DSM or ICD classifications and which are partly based on the unsubstantiated views of Zaslow and Menta[40] and Cline. enuresis and language disorders. O'Connor and Zeanah and colleagues as respected attachment theorists and researchers in the field. Hodges. Indeed. fascination with fire. by proponents of attachment therapy.[42] It is presented not as an assessment of reactive attachment disorder but rather attachment disorder.[39] The APSAC Task Force describes the relationship between the proponents of attachment therapy and mainstream therapies as polarized. treatment centers. the diagnoses of attachment disorder and reactive attachment disorder are used in a manner not recognised in mainstream practice.[29] A commonly used diagnostic checklist in attachment therapy is the Randolph Attachment Disorder Questionnaire or "RADQ". It also purports to diagnose 204 . Examples given from lists of attachment disorder symptoms found on the internet include lying. found in academic journals and books with careful reference to theory. Ainsworth. The other discourse is found in clinical practice.[7] [19] [29] According to the Task Force.Attachment therapy sensitivity. many of which either overlap with other disorders. Descriptions of children are frequently highly pejorative and "demonizing".[43] It is largely based on the earlier Attachment Disorder Symptom Checklist which itself shows considerable overlap with even earlier checklists for indicators of sexual abuse. The compiler of the RADQ claims validity by reference to the Attachment Disorder Symptom Checklist. Prior and Glaser describe two discourses on attachment disorder. cruelty to animals and lack of conscience. The child's behavior is referred to in such statements as "Child has a grandiose sense of self-importance" and "Child 'forgets' parental instructions or directives"."[15] Diagnosis lists and questionnaires Both the APSAC Task Force and Prior and Glaser describe the proliferation of alternative "lists" and diagnoses. stealing. proponents and critics of the controversial attachment therapies appear to move in different worlds. The checklist includes 93 discrete behaviors. international classifications and evidence. caseworkers.[37] However. In particular unfounded claims are made as to efficacy of treatments. and "Parents feel more angry and frustrated with this child than with other children". blood.[38] One is science-based. For example. parental feelings are evaluated through responses to such statements as "Parent feels used" and "is wary of the child's motives if affection is expressed". Tizard. gore and evil. They list Bowlby.[38] The Internet is considered essential to the popularization of holding therapy as an "attachment" therapy. Posting these types of lists on internet sites that also serve as marketing tools may lead many parents or others to conclude inaccurately that their children have attachment disorders. and parent support groups. Chisholm. particularly on the Internet.

Both classification systems warn against automatic diagnosis based on abuse or neglect. Attachment behaviors used for the diagnosis of RAD change markedly with development and defining analogous behaviors in older children is difficult. By the use of confrontation the model offers the means to condition children to comply with parental expectations.[45] Patient recruitment In addition to concerns about the use of non-specific diagnostic checklists on the Internet being used as a marketing tool.[44] A critic has stated that a major problem of the RADQ is that it has not been validated against any established objective measure of emotional disturbance.[46] Rachel Stryker in her anthropological study "The Road to Evergreen" argues that adoptive families of institutionalized children who have difficulties transitioning to a nuclear family are attracted to the Evergreen model despite the controversy.Attachment therapy attachment disorder for which there is no classification. Some proponents suggest most or a high proportion of adopted children are likely to suffer attachment disorder. Institutionalized or abused children often do not conform to adopters conceptualizations of family behaviours and roles.[2] They are seen as manipulative. Many symptoms are present in a variety of other more common and more easily treatable disorders. without conscience and dangerous. and Jeffrey Dahmer.[2] Some attachment therapy sites predict that attachment-disordered children will grow up to become violent predators or psychopaths unless they receive the treatment proposed. There is as yet no other accepted definition of attachment disorders. the Task Force also noted the extreme claims made by proponents as to both the prevalence and effect of attachment disorders. The Evergreen model pathologizes the childs behaviour by a medical diagnosis. thus legitimising the family.[2] Problematical or less desirable styles such as insecure or disorganized attachment are conflated with attachment disorder. "RAD-kids" or "RADishes".[47] According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) practice parameter published in 2005. the question of whether attachment disorders can be reliably diagnosed in older children and adults has not been resolved.[28] 205 . attachment therapy also offers the idea of attachment as a negotiable social contract that can be enforced in order to convert the unsatisfactory adoptee into the "emotional asset" the family requires. Where the therapy fails to achieve this the fault is attributed to the child's conscious choice to not be a family member. were examples of children who were attachment-disordered who "did not get help in time". and Disinhibited attachment disorder. because it legitimises and reanimates the same ideas about family and domesticity as does the adoption process itself. Children are labeled as "RADs". O'Connor and Nilson cite the use of the Internet to publicize attachment therapy and the lack of knowledgeable mainstream professionals or appropriate mainstream treatments or interventions.[20] Contrasting mainstream position Within mainstream practice.[2] A sense of urgency is created which serves to justify the application of aggressive and unconventional techniques.[2] Foster Cline in his seminal work on attachment therapy Hope for high risk and rage filled children uses the example of Ted Bundy.[19] In answering the question posed as to how a treatment widely regarded by attachment clinicians and researchers as destructive and unethical came to be linked with attachment theory and to be seen as a viable and useful treatment. There are no substantially validated measures of attachment in middle childhood or early adolescence.[2] One site was noted to contain the argument that Saddam Hussein. or the child's inability to perform as family material. They set out recommendations for the better dissemination of both understanding of attachment theory and knowledge of the more recent evidence-based treatment options available. disorders of attachment are classified in DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 as reactive attachment disorder (generally known as RAD). offering renewed hope of "normal" family life. Statistics on the prevalence of maltreatment are wrongly used to estimate the prevalence of RAD. Adolf Hitler. dishonest. As well as the promise of working where traditional therapies fail.

[7] American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.[56] Some practitioners condemn the most dangerous techniques but continue to practice other coercive techniques. points out that all the therapies.Attachment therapy Prevalence Attachment therapy prospered during the 1980s and '90s as a consequence of both the influx of older adopted orphans from Eastern European and third world countries and the inclusion of reactive attachment disorder in the 1980 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders which attachment therapists adopted as an alternative name for their existing unvalidated diagnosis of attachment disorder. therapists calling themselves "attachment therapists" practicing in the UK tend to be practicing conventional forms of psychotherapy based on attachment theory. of which there were 216. Holding is described as gentle or nurturing and it is maintained that intense. American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children.[55] Developments The APSAC Task Force stated that proponents of attachment therapy correctly point out that most critics have never actually observed any of the treatments they criticize or visited any of the centers where the controversial therapies are practiced. underground movement for the 'treatment' of children who pose disciplinary problems to their parents or caregivers.[50] [51] Two American states. respectful and nurturing.[15] According to the APSAC Task Force. National Association of Social Workers [49] (and its Utah Chapter). the treatments appear to be continuing among networks of attachment therapists. present themselves as humane. there are controversies within the attachment therapy community about coercive practices.[54] However.000 between 1998 and 2008. or misunderstanding by parents.[15] The advocacy group ACT states. cathartic approaches are necessary to help children with attachment disorders. therefore caution is advised. "Attachment Therapy is a growing. Despite this. Prior and Glaser cite at least one clinic in the UK. Proponents argue that their therapies present no physical risk if undertaken properly and that critics' concerns are based on unrepresentative occurrences and misapplications of techniques. She cites the large number of formerly institutionalized domestic and foreign adoptees in the USA and the apparently higher risk of disruption of foreign adoptions.[53] Attachment therapists from the USA have conducted conferences in the UK. Colorado and North Carolina. attachment therapy centers. notably Hughes. have outlawed rebirthing. including those using frankly coercive practices. these therapies are sufficiently prevalent to have prompted position statements or specific prohibitions against using coercion or restraint as a treatment by mainstream professional societies such as: American Psychological Association (Division on Child Maltreatment). an organization for professionals and families associated with attachment therapy. caseworkers. (ATTACh). There has been a move away from coercive and confrontational models towards attunement and emotional regulation amongst some leaders in the field. and adoptive or foster parents.[28] and American Psychiatric Association. (BAAF). Their evidence for this is primarily clinical experience and testimonials. has also issued statements against coercive practices."[13] Rachel Stryker in her anthropological study "The Road to Evergreen" states that attachment therapies "of all stripes" are increasingly popular in the USA and that the number of therapists associated with the Evergreen model registering with ATTACh grows each year.[20] The practice of holding therapy is not confined to the US.[48] According to the APSAC Task Force.[15] Others have taken a public stand 206 .[52] There have been professional licensure sanctions against some leading proponents and successful criminal prosecutions and imprisonment of therapists and parents using attachment therapy techniques. A number of therapies are quite different from those that have led to the abuse and deaths of children in much publicized court cases. however. Kelly and Popper. The Task Force. has issued an extensive position statement on the subject which covers not only physical coercion but also the underlying theoretical principles. The Association for the Treatment and Training in the Attachment of Children.[20] The British Association for Adoption and Fostering.

[14] [40] Zaslow attempted to force attachment in those suffering from autism by creating rage while holding them against their will.[8] A modest social work study and "invitation to a debate". among other overtly coercive techniques (and indeed continue to offer for sale books by controversial proponents) but state that the organization has evolved significantly away from earlier positions. The Task Force was of the view that all could benefit from more transparency and specificity as to how the therapy is behaviorally delivered. circulation.[60] Zaslow's ideas on the use of the Z-process and holding for autism have been dispelled by research on the genetic/biologic causes of autism. influenced Foster Cline (known as the "father of attachment therapy") and associates at his clinic in Evergreen[61] A key tenet of Zaslow's approach was the notion of "breaking through" a child's defenses—based on the model of ego defenses borrowed from psychoanalytic theory. making them more receptive to others. ATTACh. The "breaking through" metaphor was then applied to children whose 207 ." They acknowledge ATTACh's historical links with catharsis. 2003 and 2006. The intervention was not described as "holding therapy" but as using a degree of holding in the course of therapy. an organization set up by Foster Cline and associates. the infant would not form an attachment and would not make eye contact with other people. learned defensive responses to profoundly overwhelming experiences of fear and terror.[58] Holding therapies derive from these "rage-reduction" techniques applied by Zaslow.[14] In 1971. the holding aspect was the least liked. temperature. away from viewing these children as driven by a conscious need for control toward an understanding that their often controlling and aggressive behaviors are automatic. after the death of Candace Newmaker they stated "The child will never be restrained or have pressure put on them in such a manner that would interfere with their basic life functions such as breathing."[57] A White Paper. They state that their recent evolution is due to a number of factors including tragic events resulting from such techniques.[56] In 2001.[58] Zaslow believed that creating pain and rage and combining them with eye contact would cause attachment to occur. issued a series of statements in which they progressively changed their stance on coercive practices.[14] Zaslow and his "Z-process".. The authors call for research and a debate on issues of what constitutes "coercion" and the distinctions between the different variants of "holding" in therapy. etc. and that nurturing touch and treatment aimed at the perceived developmental rather than chronological age are an integral part of the therapy. sensitivity and regulation and deprecates coercive practices such as enforced holding or enforced eye contact. fear and rage. The intervention also used a degree of intrusiveness. based on the idea that the recipients need this as they have no basis on which to build a reciprocal relationship. based on interviews with the deliverers and recipients of a therapeutic intervention incorporating non-coercive holding at one centre in the UK.[59] The holding is not used for safety purposes but is initiated for the purpose of provoking strong negative emotions such as fear and anger. The child's release typically depends upon his or her compliance with the therapist's clinical agenda or goals. If an infant did not experience this cycle of events by having his fear and rage relieved. provocation of rage. formally accepted in April 2007. Although recipients were generally positive about the therapy received. the White Paper promotes the techniques of attunement. "unequivocally state(s) our opposition to the use of coercive practices in therapy and parenting. and then made eye contact with the carer who relieved those feelings. an influx of members practicing other techniques such as attunement and a "fundamental shift .[55] History Matthew Speltz of the University of Washington School of Medicine states that the roots of attachment therapy are traceable to psychologist Robert Zaslow and his "Z-process" in the 1970s. Zaslow surrendered his California psychology license following an injury to a patient during rage-reduction therapy.[14] Zaslow thought attachment arose when an infant experienced feelings of pain. In 2001.Attachment therapy against coercion. which critics state has been misapplied."[8] [51] While being of the view that authoritative practices are necessary. long after the normal age for such developments. He believed this would lead to a breakdown in their defense mechanisms. and intense confrontation. reports generally positive effects of the overall therapeutic process and calls for further consideration of the use of this type of intervention. a physically rough version of holding therapy..

[63] Tinbergen's interpretations of autism were without scientific rigor and were contrary to the then growing acceptance that autism had a genetic cause.Attachment therapy attachments were thought to be impaired. 3) relaxation and the development of bonding. other metaphors were adopted by practitioners relating to the supposed effects of early deprivation. with apparent approval.[62] These included one set up by Connell Watkins. and.[9] as the next significant development. Erickson advised the mother to sit on the child for hours at a time and to feed him only on cold oatmeal while she and a daughter ate appetizing food. Despite the lack of a sound theoretical or scientific base. thus making the child receptive to forming attachment by the application of early parenting behaviors such as bottle feeding. Welch believed autism was caused by the failure of the attachment relationship between mother and child. and Erickson noted.[9] Foster Cline and associates at the Attachment Center at Evergreen. provoking anger and rage.[64] Speltz cites child psychiatrist Martha Welch and her 1988 book.[34] In attachment therapy. enabling a child to make up for physical affection missed earlier in life. and reprints parts of a case of Erickson's published in 1961. originally called the Youth Behavior Program.[14] A number of other clinics arose in Evergreen.[63] Tinbergen believed that autism related to a failure in the bond between mother and child caused by "traumatic influences" and that enforced holding and eye contact could establish such a relationship and rescue the child from autism. ethologist Nikolas Tinbergen published a book recommending the use of holding therapy by parents as a treatment or "cure" for autistic children. The concept of suppressed rage has. but by no means all.[69] Some. This was replicated elsewhere such as at "The Center" in the Pacific Northwest. Cline commented.[62] In 1983.[19] [68] The report describes the case of a divorced mother with a non-compliant son.[59] Practitioners of holding therapy also added some components of Bowlby's attachment theory and the therapy came to be known as attachment therapy. that he trembled when his mother looked at him. Parents were advised to hold their autistic children despite resistance and to endeavor to maintain eye contact and share emotions. Language from attachment theory is used but descriptions of the practices contain ideas and techniques based on misapplied metaphors deriving from Zaslow and psychoanalysis. was subsequently renamed the Attachment Center at Evergreen. until such time as the child ceased to resist.[65] Mothers were instructed to hold their defiant child.[59] Regression is key to the holding therapy approach. Holding Time. attachment therapists have used rebirthing 208 . that in his opinion all bonds were trauma bonds. The child did increase in compliance. continued to be a central focus explaining the children's behavior. Watkins was one of the therapists convicted in the Candace Newmaker case in 2001 in which a child was asphyxiated during a rebirthing process in the course of a two-week attachment therapy "intensive". breaking down the child's resistance by confrontational techniques is thought to reduce the child to an infantile state. These included the idea of the child's development being "frozen" and treatment being required to "unfreeze" development. it illustrates the three essential components of 1) taking control. 2) the child's expression of rage. Welch recommended holding therapy as a treatment for autism. Like Zaslow and Tinbergen. notably Europe.[62] In addition to the notion of "breaking through" defence mechanisms. rocking and eye contact. at which point a bonding process was believed to begin. According to Cline. abuse or neglect on the child's ability to form relationships. with respect to this and other cases. not attachment theory."[53] Cline's privately-published work Hope for high risk and rage filled children also cites family therapist and hypnotherapist Milton Erickson as a source. cradling. holding therapy as a treatment for autism is still practiced in some parts of the world.[67] According to Prior and Glaser "there is no empirical evidence to support Zaslow's theory. nevertheless. maltreated children who were said to have an "attachment disorder".[19] In addition. Tinbergen based his ideas on his methods of observational study of birds. Colorado. set up by those involved in or trained at the Attachment Center at Evergreen (renamed the Institute for Attachment and Development in about 2002). Colorado began to promote the use of the same or similar holding techniques with adopted. proponents believed that holding induced age regression.[66] Foster Cline gave up his license and moved to another state following an investigation of a separate attachment therapy related incident.[59] The clinic.[9] Like Tinbergen. formerly an associate of Foster Cline at the Attachment Center and its clinical director.

although other aspects of treatment are applied.[56] Two approaches on which published studies have been undertaken are holding therapy[75] and dyadic developmental psychotherapy. claims that traditional treatments do not work and dire predictions for the future of children who do not receive attachment therapy. the holding component has attracted most attention because proponents believe it is an essential ingredient. beliefs."[3] In 2007. not based on attachment theory or research. described by the Task Force as a "leading attachment therapist". reactive attachment disorder. which the Task Force took as a description of attachment therapy techniques. which "purports to be an evaluation of holding therapy". Scott Lilienfeld included holding therapy as one of the potentially harmful therapies (PHT's) at level 1 in his Psychological Science review. They also considered the lack of available and suitable interventions from mainstream professionals as essential to the popularization of holding therapy as an attachment therapy.[71] Attachment researchers and authors condemned it as empirically unfounded. "Although focused primarily on specific attachment therapy techniques. theoretically flawed and clinically unethical..[76] Each of these non-randomized studies concluded that the treatment method studied was effective.[5] Claims According to the APSAC Task Force. and to the patient recruitment and advertising practices used by their proponents.[74] Nor did it accept more recent claims to evidence base in its November 2006 Reply. diagnostic practices.[4] It has also been described as potentially abusive and a pseudoscientific intervention.[75] [77] [78] This study covers the "across the lap" approach.[73] A mistaken association between attachment therapy and attachment theory may have resulted in a relatively unenthusiastic view towards the latter among some practitioners despite its relatively profound lines of research in the field of socioemotional development."[53] [70] According to O'Connor and Nilsen. which he stated do not or should not form part of dyadic developmental psychotherapy.[33] In 2003.Attachment therapy techniques to aid regression. described as "not restraint" by Howe and Fearnley but "being held whilst unable to gain release. repeated by the APSAC Task Force from an earlier website. another therapy based on beliefs in very early trauma and the transformational nature of age regression. practices.[1] The APSAC Task Force was largely critical of Attachment Therapy's theoretical base. non-specific symptoms lists published on the internet."[79] Prior and Glaser state that although the Myeroff study claims it is based on attachment theory. Mary Dozier and Michael Rutter consider it critical to differentiate it from treatments derived from attachment theory.[15] The APSAC Task Force expressed concern over claims by therapies to be "evidence-based". that has resulted in tragic outcomes for children including at least six documented child fatalities. Both the APSAC Task Force and Prior and Glaser cite and criticize the one published study on holding therapy undertaken by Myeroff et al. Hughes' website gave a list of attachment therapy techniques. the theoretical basis for the treatment is in fact Zaslow. and attachment problems and laid down guidelines for the future diagnosis and treatment of attachment disorders. proponents of attachment therapy commonly assert that their therapies alone are effective for attachment-disordered children and that traditional treatments are ineffective or harmful. when the Task Force found no credible evidence base for any such therapy so advertised. the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) Task Force reported on the subjects of attachment therapy. the controversy also extends to the theories. or the only evidence-based therapy. an issue of Attachment & Human Development was devoted to the subject of attachment therapy with articles by well-known experts in the field of attachment.[48] Bowlby explicitly rejected the notion of regression stating "present knowledge of infant and child development requires that a theory of developmental pathways should replace theories that invoke specific phases of development in which it is held a person may become fixated and/or to which he may regress.[6] In 2006.[72] Describing it as "unfortunately" referred to as "attachment therapy". diagnoses. claims to an evidence base. and social group norms supporting these techniques.[34] Dyadic developmental psychotherapy was developed by psychologist Daniel Hughes. The roots of the form of rebirthing used within attachment therapy lie in primal therapy (sometimes known as primal scream therapy).[80] [81] Two studies on 209 .

A visitor found her dead in the hallway. a two-year-old adopted boy who was beaten to death by his adoptive mother. a seven-year-old adopted boy who was starved. before-and-after 2006 pilot study by Welch (the progenitor of "holding time") et al. 1995.Attachment therapy dyadic developmental psychotherapy have been published by Dr. She was placed with "therapeutic foster parents". having asked her foster parents what would happen if she took an overdose of drugs or slit her wrist. supported by attachment therapists practising the Evergreen model. No violent or angry behaviors were reported at school. attachment therapy was placed on a list of treatments that have the potential to cause harm to clients in the APS journal. The adoptive mother was convicted as the abuser and the adoptive father of being aware but doing nothing to prevent it or seek help. Becker-Weidman. bitten and forced to sleep in a stripped bathroom. the second being a four-year follow up of the first. Evergreen.[93] [94] • David Polreis. but the advocacy group ACT and the Task Force place Hughes within the attachment therapy paradigm. This categorization by Craven and Lee has been criticized as unduly favorable. though with "little application of attachment theory". At the post-mortem he was found to have 200 bruises and five old broken ribs.[10] In March 2007. breathing heavily and still vomiting in the morning. The suit was settled out of court.[56] [82] [83] In 2004. Nevertheless the foster parents went bowling.[86] They considered both dyadic developmental psychotherapy and holding therapy. Perspectives on Psychological Science. David had been diagnosed with attachment disorder by an attachment therapist and was undergoing 210 . Becker-Weidman's study was described by the Task Force as "an important first step toward learning the facts about DDP outcomes" but falling far short of the criteria necessary to constitute an evidence base.[56] Some studies are still being undertaken on coercive therapies.[20] (She subsequently claimed he had attacked her and she had acted in self defense). 1996. and the lack of randomized. An estimated six children have died as a consequence of the more coercive forms of such treatments or the application of the accompanying parenting techniques. Andrea. the adoptive parents were asked to allow the foster parents to adopt Andrea so that a fresh claim could be made. claimed he had beaten himself to death as a consequence of his attachment disorder.'s study and Becker-Weidman's first study (published after the main Report) were examined in the Task Force's November 2006 Reply to Letters and were criticized as to their methodology.[89] Both Myeroff et al. Foster Cline gave evidence for the mother claiming David suffered from reactive attachment disorder.[76] Prior and Glaser state Hughes' therapy reads as good therapy for abused and neglected children.[75] [87] They placed both in Category 3 as "Supported and acceptable". When the insurance company refused to continue to pay for her treatment.[88] a point to which Craven and Lee responded by arguments in support of holding therapy. Saunders. She was violently ill during the night and was incoherent. holding therapy was placed in Category 6 as a "Concerning treatment". and been told she would die.[72] Cases There have been a number of cases of serious harm to children in which controversial attachment therapy techniques. Berliner & Hanson system. Foster Cline gave evidence for both parents claiming Lucas suffered from reactive attachment disorder and that living with such a child was like living "in a situation with the same psychic pressures as those experienced in a concentration camp or cult" and that the parents were in no way responsible for the genesis of Lucas' alleged difficult behaviors. Berliner and Hanson developed a system of categories for social work interventions which has proved somewhat controversial. A nonrandomized. took an overdose of aspirin. controlled experiments showing the effectiveness of the treatment. leaving her alone.[4] [90] • Andrea Swenson. 1990. a 13-year-old adopted girl undergoing attachment therapy at The Attachment Center.[84] [85] In their first analysis. theories or belief systems have been implicated. The adoptive mother. beaten. Concern was expressed about methods that involve holding and restraint.[91] [92] • Lucas Ciambrone. on Welch's "prolonged parent-child embrace therapy" was conducted on children with a range of diagnoses for behavioral disorders and claimed to show significant improvement. In 2006 Craven and Lee classified 18 studies in a literature review under the Saunders.

Duke series in child development and public policy. Amaya-Jackson L. He lay on top of Krystal. Amaya-Jackson L.[101] • Logan Marr. After his release from a five-year prison sentence the adoptive father campaigned to have attachment therapy banned. 2001. Intervention and Policy. The children were home-schooled. (2005). and left in a basement where she suffocated. Her inability to struggle out was interpreted as "resistance". and permitted only primitive sanitary facilities. Her adoptive mother and the "therapeutic foster parents" with whom she had been placed received lesser penalties. Research.[95] [96] [97] • Krystal Tibbets. 1997.[112] [113] Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] Task Force Report. 2002. Zeanah CH (2003). a technique known as "compression therapy". xvii. This apparently occurred when she was restrained in a chair and forced to drink excessive amounts of water by her adoptive parents as part of an "attachment-based" treatment using techniques they claimed had been taught to them at the attachment therapy center where Cassandra was undergoing treatment. This was denied by the therapist and the adoptive mother. p. Chaffin et al. "Attachment-Based Intervention programs: Implications for Attachment Theory and Research". Ziv Y. 11 special needs children adopted by Michael and Sharon Gravelle. Research. The two attachment therapists.1080/14616730310001593974. Connell Watkins (formerly of The Attachment Center. There was no therapist in this case but the adoptive mother claimed that three of her four adopted children had reactive attachment disorder. fed limited diets. in Berlin LJ. Mourners at the funeral were asked to contribute to The Attachment Center.[108] [109] [110] [111] • Vasquez. wrapped with duct tape. The adoptive mother received a prison sentence of less than a year and her parental rights were terminated in 2007. Greenberg MT. Chaffin et al. p.[102] [103] • Cassandra Killpack. in Berlin LJ. Theory. Guilford Press. ISBN 1-59385-470-6 [7] Task Force Report. the favorite. p. Attach Hum Dev 5 (3): 223–44. It appears this was a punishment for having drunk some of her sister's drink. against the weight of several adults. pp. Chaffin et al. informaworld. Enhancing Early Attachments. Many of the 11 children slept in cages. 1080/ 14616730310001593974& magic=pubmed). a four-year-old adopted child who died from complications of hyponatremia secondary to water intoxication. 77 O'Connor TG. The foster mother claimed to have used some attachment therapy ideas and techniques she had picked up when working as a caseworker. three of whom were kept in cages. Guilford Press. 79 Task Force Report. Some of the children underwent holding therapy from their attachment therapist and the adoptive parents used accompanying attachment therapy parenting techniques at home. When she stopped screaming and struggling he believed she had "shut down" as a form of "resistance". The fourth child. Evergreen) and Julie Ponder were each sentenced to 16 years imprisonment for their part in the therapy during which Candace was wrapped in blankets and required to struggle to be reborn. While having a tantrum. Enhancing Early Attachments: Theory. [5] Ziv Y (2005). The adoptive parents and therapist were prosecuted and convicted in 2003. 2007: four adopted children. 211 . Ziv Y. Duke series in child development and public policy. 63.[98] [99] • Candace Newmaker. "Attachment disorders: assessment strategies and treatment approaches" (http:/ / www. PMID 12944216. was given medication to delay puberty.Attachment therapy treatment and accompanying attachment parenting techniques. Intervention and Policy. pp. com/ openurl?genre=article& doi=10. a five-year-old child who had been fostered by a caseworker. including over her mouth. 2003. and pushed his fist into her abdomen to release "visceral rage" and to enforce bonding. a ten-year-old adopted girl who was killed by asphyxiation during a rebirthing session used as part of a two week attachment therapy "intensive". doi:10. ISBN 1-59385-470-6 [6] Berlin LJ et al. the screaming girl was buckled into a highchair. The case also involved allegations of extreme control over food and toileting and severe punishments for disobedience. Greenberg MT.[66] [100] Watkins was released on parole in August 2008 after serving approximately 7 years of her sentence. 83 Task Force Report.[104] [105] [106] [107] • Gravelles. 2000. "Preface". Chaffin et al. a three-year-old adopted child who was killed by her adoptive father using holding therapy techniques he claimed had been taught to him by an attachment therapy center.

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North Carolina Bans "Rebirthing" (http:/ / www.1080/17470210701508665.. 263 [54] BAAF Position Statement 4 (PDF).00294. 317 [60] The Executive Secretary of the Board of Medical Examiners of the State of California (1971) (PDF).CO. childrenintherapy. 75 [59] O'Connor and Nilsen p. pdf).1007/s10560-005-2556-2. "Correlates of the Randolph Attachment Disorder Questionnaire (RADQ) in a Sample of Children in Foster Placement".1093/bjsw/bcp078 [56] Chaffin M. 269. Evergreen CO [43] Cappelletty G. their Assessment and Intervention/Treatment (http:/ / www. kidscomefirst. "Special Issue: Current perspectives on assessment and treatment of attachment disorders" (http:/ / www. . these lists of nonspecific problems extend far beyond the diagnostic criteria for RAD and beyond attachment relationship problems in general. MedGenMed 7 (3): 6. ATTACh. London: Allen & Unwin [64] Bishop DVM (January 2008). persistent nonsense questions or incessant chatter. ed.

-b). in Cassidy J and Shaver PR. Research on Social Work Practice 16 (3): 287–304. 78 [75] Myeroff R. Making a child repeatedly kick with his/her legs until s/he responds. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 8 (3): 369–387. aggression and holding: a cautionary tale". Category 5: Novel and experimental. when the adult actually feels no empathy. musc. 2004) (PDF). 15. doi:10. "An attachment-based treatment of maltreated children and young people. 264 [79] Howe D. Sarcasm. Category 3: Supported and acceptable. E. 9.com. Pressing against "pressure points" to get a response. until the child complies. or that their methods are evidence based. such as saying “sad for you”. .).1177/1077559506292636. 4. denverpost. doi:10. D. Attach Hum Dev 5 (3): 245–7. Research on Social Work Practice 16 (3): 338–357. . This Task Force was unable to locate any methodologically adequate clinical trials in the published peer-reviewed scientific literature to support any of these claims for effectiveness. Labeling the child as a "boarder" rather than as one's child.p. Holding a child to provoke a negative emotional response. Center4familyDevelop. Victim of Attachment Therapy (http:/ / www. childrenintherapy. Craven P (2007). childrenintherapy. Research and Clinical Applications (2nd ed. Covering a child's mouth/nose with one's hand to get a response. 3. Child Maltreat 11 (4): 381.85 [78] Prior and Glaser p. "Firing" a child from treatment because s/he is not compliant. 16.1177/1049731505284863 [87] Becker-Weidman A (2004). "Comparative effectiveness of holding therapy with aggressive children". informaworld. Having to live in his/her bedroom until s/he complies. 17. doi:10. "Category 1: Well-supported. htm) on 2001-03-09. 11. com/ openurl?genre=article& doi=10. Karen (2000). Chaffin et al. 5. al. "Treatment for Children with Trauma-Attachment Disorders: Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy". 7. Holding a child until s/he complies with a demand. SC: National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center. doi:10. Interpreting the child's behaviors as meaning that "s/he does not want to be part of the family". 8. 20. htm).1080/14616730310001593947. Revised Report (http:/ / academicdepartments. retrieved 2008-09-17 214 . retrieved 2008-10-19. Depriving a child of any of the basic necessities. 1080/ 14616730412331281539& magic=pubmed). for example. "Challenges to the Development of Attachment Relationships Faced by Young Children in Foster and Adoptive Care". html). yet these proponents provide no citations to credible scientific research sufficient to support these claims (Becker-Weidman. PMID 10422354 [76] Becker-Weidman A (April 2006). Mercer J (2007). food or sleep.1080/14616730412331281539. Category 4: Promising and acceptable. org/ victims/ swenson. Punishing a child at home for being "fired" from treatment. New York: London: Guilford Press. com). Laughing at a child over the consequences which are being given for his behavior. . "Reply to Letters" (http:/ / cmx. "German shepherd training. B." (http:/ / www. Fearnley S (2003). pdf).1007/s10560-005-0039-0 [77] Task Force Report.)" [81] Hughes D (2004). Hughes (http:/ / www. Chaffin et. F. "Therapeutic Interventions for Foster Children: A Systematic Research Synthesis". retrieved 2008-09-17 [84] Saunders BE.Attachment therapy [73] Dozier M and Rutter M (2008). C. Having to sit motionless until s/he complies. Hanson RF (April 26. . Research on Social Work Practice 17 (4): 520–521. and Category 6: Concerning treatment" [85] Gambrill E (2006). "Alternative therapies not new in Evergreen" (http:/ / web. (Hughes.1177/1049731505284205 [86] Craven P.d." which bases the relationship on total obedience. let alone claims that these treatments are the only effective available approaches." Task Force Report. n. Category 2: Supported and probably efficacious. archived from the original (http:/ / www. edu/ ncvc/ resources_prof/ ovc_guidelines04-26-04. 18. . DenverPost. "Disorders of attachment in adopted and fostered children: Recognition and treatment". 12. doi:10. Hitting a child. Research on Social Work Practice 17 (4): 513–519 [89] Lee RE. "Reply to Pignotti and Mercer: Holding Therapy and Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy are not supported and acceptable social work interventions". com/ cgi/ reprint/ 11/ 4/ 381). doi:10. 19. archive. done repeatedly. [82] Prior and Glaser p. PMID 15513268. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. Having "peanut butter" meals until s/he complies. 14. p. Mertlich G. Charleston. "Holding Therapy and Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy are not supported and acceptable social work interventions: A systematic research synthesis revisited". Saunders BE (2006). com/ news/ news0617d. Being put in a tent in the yard until s/he complies. Any actions that utilize shame and fear to elicit compliance. Hanson R. 6.1177/1049731506297043 [90] Boris NW (2003). Lee R (2006). ISBN 978-1-60623-028-2 [74] "Some proponents have claimed that research exists that supports their methods. Any actions based on power/submission. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 23 (2): 147–171. Being sent away to live until s/he complies. html). or are even the sole evidence-based approach in existence.1023/A:1021349116429. op. sagepub. Poking a child on any part of his/her body to get a response. Holding a child and confronting him/her with anger. "Attachment. n. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 29 (4): 303–13. 13. Attach Hum Dev 6 (3): 263–78. denverpost. PMID 12944217 [91] Auge. org/ web/ 20010309205804/ http:/ / www. Center for Family Development. Having to eat in the basement/on the floor until s/he complies. Dyadic developmental psychotherapy: An effective treatment for children with trauma-attachment disorders (http:/ / www. Gross J (1999). efficacious treatment. Blaming the child for one's own rage at the child. com/ news/ news0617d. retrieved 2008-06-25 [92] Advocates for Children in Therapy. 261 [83] Advocates for Children in Therapy. Daniel A. retrieved 2005–05–10 [88] Pignotti M. 10. cit p. 2002. doi:10. "Evidence-based practice and policy: Choices ahead". which then elicits consequences such as: A. 2.1177/1359104503008003007 [80] Chaffin M. . doi:10. Wrapping a child in a blanket and lying on top of him/her. doi:10. org/ proponents/ hughes. Berliner L. "1. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse: Guidelines for Treatment.

org/ victims/ marr. com/ local/ denver. Sarner L. Jennete Killpack (http:/ / www. Hanson R. independent. a troubling defense" (http:/ / web. . Saunders BE. retrieved 2008-04-18 [103] Advocates for Children in Therapy. Nilsen WJ (2005). FRONTLINE report. ISBN 0670491926. Amaya-Jackson L. htm) on 1997-07-31. Duke series in child development and public policy. txt). . com/ usnews/ issue/ 970714/ 14atta. .509588. harmed himself. cleveland. archived from the original (http:/ / www. 2. com/ dn/ view/ 0. Houston Press: 3–4. usnews. Child Maltreat 11 (1): 76–89. html). 786701. Research. heraldtribune. "'Caged Kids' Case Nears End. Michael A (17 May 2007). Parental Murder Victim (http:/ / www. utcourts. "Therapist In 'Rebirthing' Death In Halfway House" (http:/ / cbs4denver. htm). "Holding On" (http:/ / www. News online. com/ news/ pdf/ gravelleletter. retrieved 2008-04-18 [99] Grossman. westword.com. retrieved 2008-07-24 [108] Associated Press. . pbs. Peter S (17 April 1997). Rosa L (2003). Jesse (26 September 2005). com/ news/ 2007/ may/ 11/ judge-brings-hammer-down-caged-kids-case/ ). Nick (11 May 2007). Logan Lyn Marr (http:/ / www.595108152. html). ISBN 1-59385-470-6 • Prior V and Glaser D (2006). "Judge Brings Hammer Down in 'Caged Kids' Case" (http:/ / www. watkins. retrieved 2008-06-20 [111] Harper. "Models versus Metaphors in Translating Attachment Theory to the Clinic and Community".00. Boston Globe (Boston. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Series. Jesse (14 June 2005). . "Therapy or abuse? Controversial treatments may sink Cascade" (http:/ / deseretnews. retrieved 2008-04-18 [113] Welsh. dll/ article?AID=/ 20070517/ NEWS/ 705170460). html). ISBN 1-84310-245-5. . com/ apps/ pbcs. pdf). . U. org/ web/ 19970731005244/ http:/ / www. PMID 16382093 • Mercer J. ISBN 0275976750 • O'Connor TG. html). retrieved 2008-04-18 [107] Supreme Court of the State of Utah (2008) (PDF). "A dead child. pdf) (PDF). Ziv Y.1249.". Praeger. Deseret Morning News. . com/ news/ 2007/ may/ 03/ caged-kids-case-nears-end-vasquezs-fate-judges-han/ ). "Court Hears Taped Killpack Interview" (http:/ / deseretnews. Wendy (19 September 2003). .00. "Report of the APSAC Task Force on attachment therapy. 27 November 2004. (2006). html). retrieved 2008-06-18 References • (APSAC Task Force report). retrieved 2008-04-18 [96] Bowers. retrieved 2008-06-24 [112] Welsh. retrieved 2008-04-18 [101] The Associated Press (3 August 2008). html). uproar Mother's murder defense: Son. "Special Report: Gravelle trial" (http:/ / www. com/ articles/ 2007/ 02/ 21/ front/ 181339.1249. childrenintherapy.): A. 2. guardian. Denver Westword News. London: Jessica Kingsley. Herald Tribune. "The Therapy That Killed" (http:/ / www. Mass. The Plain Dealer. com/ dn/ view/ 0. childrenintherapy. The Plain Dealer. sanduskyregister.S. The Santa Barbara Independent. . et al. Vasquez's Fate in Judge's Hands" (http:/ / www. org/ wgbh/ pages/ frontline/ shows/ fostercare/ marr/ ).. retrieved 2008-08-08 [102] "The Taking of Logan Marr" (http:/ / www. "Gravelle Daughter's Letter" (http:/ / www. gov/ opinions/ supopin/ Killpack071608. . The Santa Barbara Independent. cbs4denver. Carol (21 February 2007). org/ victims/ gravelle.v. retrieved 2008-10-25 [100] Gillan. "Adoption ends in death. State of Utah .595108087. . . org/ victims/ ciambrone. and attachment problems. . Intervention and Policy. com/ usnews/ issue/ 970714/ 14atta. retrieved 2008-09-17 [95] Horn. "Suffer-the-children" (http:/ / www. co. Deseret Morning news. html). retrieved 2008-04-18 [106] Hyde. Enhancing Early Attachments: Theory.Attachment therapy [93] Scarcella. Guardian. retrieved 2008-06-18 [94] Advocates for Children in therapy. Miriam (14 July 1997). Nick (3 May 2007). houstonpress. "Ciambrone convicted of murder.1 [98] "Timeline: Techniques blamed for several deaths" (http:/ / deseretnews. . The Salt Lake Tribune [105] Hyde. childrenintherapy. . Attachment Therapy on Trial: The Torture and Death of Candace Newmaker. Karen (27 July 2000). "Families struggle to bond with kids". Greenberg MT. cleveland. usnews. html). gets life" (http:/ / www.00. Deseret Morning News. Chaffin M. Audrey (20 June 2001). OCLC 70663735 215 . com/ 2002-09-19/ news/ holding-on/ ). in Berlin LJ. uk/ g2/ story/ 0. Sandusky Register online. com/ article/ 1. doi:10. "Plea deal for Gravelle kids' therapist" (http:/ / www.615153274. . rebirthing. reactive attachment disorder.". . retrieved 2008-09-17 [104] Adams B (29 September 2002). . retrieved 2008-04-18 [97] Canellos. retrieved 2008-04-18 [109] "Gravelle Siblings" (http:/ / www. independent. Advocates for Children in Therapy. Understanding Attachment and Attachment Disorders: Theory.1177/1077559505283699. Evidence and Practice. com/ gravelle/ ). Guilford Press. retrieved 2008-04-17 [110] Associated Press.00. com/ 2000-07-27/ news/ suffer-the-children/ ). archive.5143.

For example. and a child's attachment-related behaviors may be very different with one familiar adult than with another. in a toddler. There are currently two main areas of theory and practice relating to the definition and diagnosis of attachment disorder. USAtoday article. It is described in ICD-10 as reactive attachment disorder.htm) • 2008 investigation into death of a foster child (http://www.mi.html) from Quackwatch – medical watchdog website • "Underground network moves children from home to home" (http://www. but has little or no evidence base. and considerable discussion about a broader definition altogether.html) – Child advocacy group opposing attachment therapy • "Be Wary of Attachment Therapy" (http://www. or lack of caregiver responsiveness to child communicative efforts. • ebm-first. or "DAD" for the disinhibited form.evidence-based medicine campaign group. • kidscomefirst (http://www.state. frequent change of caregivers or excessive numbers of caregivers. suggesting that the disorder is within the relationship and interactions of the two people rather than an aspect of one or the other personality. on websites and in books and publications.com (http://www. but does not result in attachment disorder.pdf) Attachment disorder Attachment disorder is a broad term intended to describe disorders of mood.[1] No list of symptoms can legitimately be presented but generally the term attachment disorder refers to the absence or distortion of age appropriate social behaviors with adults.info/) anti-attachment therapy source site • Attachment therapy page from Coalition Against Institutionalized Child Abuse (CAICA) (http://www. and social relationships arising from a failure to form normal attachments to primary care giving figures in early childhood. and disinhibited attachment disorder.ebm-first.dleg. but is sometimes applied to school-age children or even to adults. abuse.[2] [3] 216 .childrenintherapy.us/fhs/brs/reports/ CP140201012_SIR_2008C0105024.htm) Koch W.org/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/at. The first main area is based on scientific enquiry. It makes controversial claims relating to a basis in attachment theory. In DSM-IV-TR both comparable inhibited and disinhibited types are called reactive attachment disorder or "RAD".[2] The second area is controversial and considered pseudoscientific.kidscomefirst. attachment-disordered behavior could include a failure to stay near familiar adults in a strange environment or to be comforted by contact with a familiar person. abrupt separation from caregivers after about six months but before about three years. is found in academic journals and books and pays close attention to attachment theory.org/index. org/Attachment Disorder Main. The term attachment disorder is most often used to describe emotional and behavioral problems of young children.org) – Self-described as "an international coalition of professionals and families dedicated to helping those with attachment difficulties by sharing our knowledge.[3] It is found in clinical practice.caica.com/news/nation/ 2006-01-18-swapping-children_x. Such a failure would result from unusual early experiences of neglect. resulting in problematic social expectations and behaviors.Attachment therapy External links • Association for Treatment and Training in the Attachment of Children (ATTACh) (http://www. talents and resources" • (http://www. whereas in a six-year-old attachment-disordered behavior might involve excessive friendliness and inappropriate approaches to strangers.quackwatch.[4] The use of these controversial diagnoses of attachment disorder is linked to the use of pseudoscientific attachment therapies to treat them. or "RAD" for the inhibited form.attach. The specific difficulties implied depend on the age of the individual being assessed. A problematic history of social relationships occurring after about age three may be distressing to a child. behavior.com/?cat=67) .usatoday.

although they are not disorders in the clinical sense. "secure base distortions" and "disrupted attachment disorder". or other problematic styles.[11] 217 . Discussion of the disorganized attachment style sometimes includes this style under the rubric of attachment disorders because disorganized attachment is seen as the beginning of a developmental trajectory that will take the individual ever further from the normal range. culminating in actual disorders of thought. Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant. (all organized). and. it primarily consists of proximity seeking to an attachment figure in the face of threat. anxious-ambivalent. the term is also sometimes used to cover difficulties arising in relation to various attachment styles which may not be disorders in the clinical sense. Current official classifications of RAD under DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 are largely based on this understanding of the nature of attachment. In relation to infants.[8] In the clinical sense. This can occur either in institutions. The words attachment style or pattern refer to the various types of attachment arising from early care experiences.[7] Although an attachment is a "tie" it is not synonymous with love and affection although they often go together and a healthy attachment is considered to be an important foundation of all subsequent relationships. Attachment and attachment disorder Attachment theory is primarily an evolutionary and ethological theory. This spectrum would have at one end the characteristics called secure attachment. namely "no discriminated attachment figure". anxious-avoidant.[5] Agreement has not yet been reached with respect to diagnostic criteria. thoughts and expectations in later relationships. Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment which in turn lead to 'internal working models' which will guide the individual's feelings. called secure. These classifications consider that a disorder is a variation that requires treatment rather than an individual difference within the normal range. behavior. or from extremely neglectful primary caregivers who show persistent disregard for the child's basic attachment needs after the age of 6 months. and disorganized. Some of these styles are more problematic than others. or with repeated changes of caregiver. or mood. as an aspect of emotional development. Zeanah and colleagues proposed an alternative set of criteria (see below) of three categories of attachment disorder.Attachment disorder Some authors have suggested that attachment.[10] Early intervention for disorganized attachment.[6] Finally. Reactive attachment disorder indicates the absence of either or both the main aspects of proximity seeking to an identified attachment figure. midway along the range of disturbance would be insecure or other undesirable attachment styles.[9] There is a lack of consensus about the precise meaning of the term 'attachment disorder' although there is general agreement that such disorders only arise following early adverse caregiving experiences. at the other extreme would be non-attachment. are sometimes discussed under the term 'attachment disorder'. and who remain as consistent caregivers for some time. a disorder is a condition requiring treatment as opposed to risk factors for subsequent disorders. for the purpose of survival. is directed toward changing the trajectory of development to provide a better outcome later in the person's life. is better assessed along a spectrum than considered to fall into two non-overlapping categories.

Abuse can occur alongside the required factors but on its own does not explain attachment disorder.. are a real and appropriate concern for professionals working with children".Attachment disorder Classification ICD-10 describes Reactive Attachment Disorder of Childhood. DSM-IV-TR also describes Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood.[12] While RAD is likely to occur following neglectful and abusive childcare. as manifest by excessively inhibited responses" and such infants do not seek and accept comfort at times of threat. an essential element of attachment behavior. and • implicit lack of identifiable. The ICD-10 descriptions are comparable. The disinhibited form shows "indiscriminate sociability. Inhibited Type and Disinhibited Type. those where there is a distorted relationship. • onset before 5 years of age. less well known as DAD. • requires a history of significant neglect. ICD-10 includes in its diagnosis psychological and physical abuse and injury in addition to neglect. thus failing to maintain 'proximity'. The inhibited form has a greater tendency to ameliorate with an appropriate caregiver whilst the disinhibited form is more enduring.[13] Boris and Zeanah's typology Many leading attachment theorists.[15] have offered an approach to attachment disorders that considers cases where children have had no opportunity to form an attachment. 'Disinhibited' and 'inhibited' are not opposites in terms of attachment disorder and can co-exist in the same child. This would significantly extend the definition beyond the ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR definitions because those definitions are limited to situations where the child has no attachment or no attachment to a specified attachment figure. Experiences of abuse are associated with the development of disorganised attachment. not all children raised in these conditions develop an attachment disorder. repeated changes of primary caregiver or extremely neglectful identifiable primary caregivers who show persistent disregard for the child's basic attachment needs. preferred attachment figure. Boris and Zeanah use the term "disorder of attachment" to indicate a situation in which a young child has no preferred adult caregiver.[14] Boris and Zeanah (1999). Further although attachment disorders tend to occur in the context of some institutions. being a commission rather than omission and because abuse of itself does not lead to attachment disorder. • the disturbance is not accounted for solely by developmental delay and does not meet the criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder. both known as RAD. The APSAC Taskforce recognised in its recommendations that "attachment problems extending beyond RAD. alarm or distress. known as RAD. attachment disorganization is a risk factor but not in itself an attachment disorder.. there should be no automatic diagnosis on this basis alone as children can form stable attachments and social relationships despite marked abuse and neglect. There is as yet no official consensus on these criteria. and Disinhibited Disorder of Childhood. but responds to that person in an unpredictable and somewhat bizarre way. and those where an existing attachment has been abruptly disrupted.excessive familiarity with relative strangers" (DSM-IV-TR) and therefore a lack of 'specificity'. The inhibited form is described as "a failure to initiate or respond. have recognized the limitations of the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria and proposed broader diagnostic criteria.to most social interactions. such as Zeanah and Leiberman. The two classifications are similar and both include: • markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness in most contexts.. This is somewhat controversial. in which the child prefers a familiar caregiver. Within official classifications. Such children may be indiscriminately sociable and approach all adults. and set out recommendations for assessment. whether familiar 218 . It divides this into two subtypes. the second basic element of attachment behavior..

hypervigilance. and finally detachment from the original relationship and recovery of social and play activities.Attachment disorder or not. they appear to be on developmental trajectories that will end in poor social skills and relationships. Their less desirable attachment styles may be predictors of poor later social development. These children are more likely to have later social problems with peers and teachers. Such children are said to have a secure attachment style. This type of attachment problem is parallel to Reactive Attachment Disorder as defined in DSM and ICD in its inhibited and disinhibited forms as described above. it may be appropriate to think of certain attachment styles as part of the range of attachment disorders. or may show role reversals in which they care for or punish the adult. results from an abrupt separation or loss of a familiar caregiver to whom attachment has developed. Smaller numbers of children show less positive development at age 12 months. Most recently. or may go to the person but then resist being picked up. This type of problem. sadness. Such children may endanger themselves. which is not covered under other approaches to disordered attachment. the child has a preferred familiar caregiver. this reunion pattern can involve looking dazed or frightened. they may be emotionally withdrawn and fail to seek comfort from anyone. The third type of disorder discussed by Boris and Zeanah is termed "disrupted attachment". with progressive changes from protest (crying and searching) to despair. Daniel Schechter and Erica Willheim have shown a relationship between maternal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder and secure base distortion (see above) which is characterized by child recklessness. or showing other behaviors that seem to imply fearfulness of the person who is being sought.[17] Disorganized attachment has been considered a major risk factor for child psychopathology. A small group of toddlers show a distressing way of reuniting after a separation. The young child's reaction to such a loss is parallel to the grief reaction of an older person. Although these children's behavior at 12 months is not a serious problem. Called a disorganized/disoriented style. may be excessively compliant. and withdrawal from communication or play. but some of them spontaneously develop better ways of interacting with other people. In this situation. Because attachment styles may serve as predictors of later development. and characteristically continue to develop well both cognitively and emotionally. alternatively. but the relationship is such that the child cannot use the adult for safety while gradually exploring the environment. as it appears to interfere with regulation or tolerance of negative emotions and may thus foster aggressive behavior. backing toward the caregiver or approaching with head sharply averted. and role-reversal. separation anxiety. These children also use familiar people as a "secure base" and return to them periodically when exploring a new situation. Boris and Zeanah also describe a condition they term "secure base distortion".[18] Disorganized patterns of attachment have the strongest links to concurrent and subsequent psychopathology. freezing in place.[19] 219 .[16] Problems of attachment style The majority of 12-month-old children can tolerate brief separations from familiar caregivers and are quickly comforted when the caregivers return. may cling to the adult. Insecure attachment styles in toddlers involve unusual reunions after separation from a familiar person. and considerable research has demonstrated both within-the-child and environmental correlates of disorganized attachment. The children may snub the returning caregiver.

[43] Possible mechanisms One study has reported a connection between a specific genetic marker and disorganized attachment (not RAD) associated with problems of parenting.[45] Typical attachment development begins with unlearned infant reactions to social signals from caregivers. Medication can be used as a way to treat similar conditions.'. This developmental combination of social skills and the emergence of fear reactions results in attachment behavior such as proximity-seeking.[25] More recent research also uses the Disturbances of Attachment Interview or "DAI" developed by Smyke and Zeanah. like depression. although DIR is primarily directed to treatment of pervasive developmental disorders[42] Some of these approaches. changing the caregiver.[34] 'Circle of Security'. checking back after venturing away from the care giver. there is no quick fix for treating reactive attachment disorder.'[30] manipulation of sensitive responsiveness. vigilance/hypercompliance and role reversal. and parenting education. such as negotiation of separation in the toddler and preschool period. and to look to the faces of familiar caregivers for information that either justifies or soothes their fear.[44] Another author has compared atypical social behavior in genetic conditions such as Williams syndrome with behaviors symptomatic of RAD. as children with poor attachment experiences often do not elicit appropriate caregiver responses from their attachment behaviors despite 'normative' care. seeking comfort when distressed. sensitive. All such approaches for infants and younger children concentrate on increasing the responsiveness and sensitivity of the caregiver. special education services and parenting skills classes. anxiety.[41] Other known treatment methods include Developmental. play therapy.[35] [36] Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC). infants typically begin to respond with fear to unfamiliar or startling situations. responsive. excessive clinging. namely having a discriminated.Attachment disorder Diagnosis Recognised assessment methods of attachment styles.[20] [21] [22] the separation and reunion procedure and the Preschool Assessment of Attachment ("PAA"). These must be designed to make sure the child has a safe environment to live in and to develop positive interactions with caregivers and improves their relationships with their peers. gestures and voice develops with social experience by seven to nine months. difficulties or disorders include the Strange Situation procedure (Mary Ainsworth). This makes it possible for an infant to interpret messages of calm or alarm from face or voice. The ability to send and receive social communications through facial expressions. depend on factors such as the 220 . consider the attachment status of the adult caregiver to play an important role in the development of the emotional connection between adult and child. reticence with unfamiliar adults. Relationship-based therapy (DIR) (also referred to as Floor Time) by Stanley Greenspan. Individual-difference. It covers 12 items. a mix of family therapy. Treatment There are a variety of mainstream prevention programs and treatment approaches for attachment disorder. however.[37] the New Orleans Intervention. or hyperactivity.[31] [32] modified 'Interaction Guidance. At about eight months. individual psychological counseling.'.[27] [28] [29] Such approaches include 'Watch. Further developments in attachment. if a familiar. social and emotional reciprocity. or if that is not possible. . emotional regulation. self endangering behavior. wait and wonder. attachment problems and moods or behaviors considered to be potential problems within the context of attachment theory. For example. (1999). responding to comfort when offered. such as that suggested by Dozier. and cooperative adult is available.[23] the Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment ("ORCE")[24] and the Attachment Q-sort ("AQ-sort"). A pediatrician may recommend a treatment plan. willingness to go off with relative strangers.[37] Treatment for reactive attachment disorder for children usually involves a mix of therapy. counseling. This includes foster parents.[26] This is a semi-structured interview designed to be administered by clinicians to caregivers.[33] 'Preschool Parent Psychotherapy.[38] [39] [40] and Parent-Child psychotherapy. preferred adult.

refusal to 221 .[50] Alternatively. or the seeking of proximity to all adults. some ability of this kind must be in place before mutual communication through gaze or other gesture can occur.[56] [57] It has been described as potentially abusive and a pseudoscientific intervention. despite its name. This may explain why children diagnosed with the inhibited form of RAD from institutions almost invariably go on to show formation of attachment behavior to good carers. destructive behaviors. or frequent changes. and beyond the ambit of the discourse on a broader set of criteria discussed above. such as autism.[47] Either of these behavior patterns may create a developmental trajectory leading ever farther from typical attachment processes such as the development of an internal working model of social relationships that facilitates both the giving and the receiving of care from others. An infant who is not in a position do this cannot afford not to show interest in any person as they may be potential attachment figures. that has resulted in tragic outcomes for children.[3] A common feature of this form of diagnosis within attachment therapy is the use of extensive lists of "symptoms" which include many behaviours that are likely to be a consequence of neglect or abuse. An infant who experiences fear but who cannot find comforting information in an adult's face and voice may develop atypical ways of coping with fearfulness such as the maintenance of distance from adults. an infant may have few experiences that encourage proximity seeking to a familiar person.[58] The APSAC Taskforce (2006) gives examples of such lists ranging across multiple domains from some elements within the DSM-IV criteria to entirely non-specific behavior such as developmental lags. might be necessary before an infant is vulnerable to the effects of poor attachment experiences. or a disrupted attachment relationship.[54] Although there are no studies examining diagnostic accuracy. the term attachment disorder has been increasingly used by some clinicians to refer to a broader set of children whose behavior may be affected by lack of a primary attachment figure. However the innate capacity for attachment behavior cannot be lost. the development of Theory of Mind may play a role in emotional development. However. Such lists have been described as "wildly inclusive". It is thought this process may lead to the disinhibited form. the two variations of RAD may develop from the same inability to develop "stranger-wariness" due to inadequate care. However children who suffer the inhibited form as a consequence of neglect and frequent changes of caregiver continue to show the inhibited form for far longer when placed in families. Theory of Mind is the ability to know that the experience of knowledge and intention lies behind human actions such as facial expressions. or the lack of experiences with caregivers who communicate in a predictable fashion. Faced with a swift succession of carers the child may have no opportunity to form a selective attachment until the possible biological-determined sensitive period for developing stranger-wariness has passed. Although it is reported that very young infants respond differently to humans and objects. could underlie the development of reactive attachment disorder. with a constitutional tendency either to excessive or inadequate fear reactions. with which it is considered incompatible.[55] This form of therapy. It is possible that the congenital absence of this ability. have been attributed to the absence of the mental functions that underlie Theory of Mind. is scientifically unvalidated and is not considered to be part of mainstream psychology or. but are not related to attachment. including diagnosis and accompanying parenting techniques.[46] With insensitive or unresponsive caregivers. concern is expressed as to the potential for over-diagnosis based on broad checklists and 'snapshots'. a seriously unhealthy attachment relationship with a primary caregiver. to be based on attachment theory. or not related to any clinical disorder at all. Appropriate fear responses may only be able to develop after an infant has first begun to form a selective attachment. These symptoms accord with the DSM criteria for reactive attachment disorder.[48] [49] Atypical development of fearfulness. as it does by seven to nine months. Some neurodevelopmental disorders.[52] [53] Pseudoscientific diagnoses and treatment In the absence of officially recognized diagnostic criteria.[51] In the inhibited form infants behave as if their attachment system has been "switched off".Attachment disorder caregiver's interaction style and ability to understand the child's emotional communications. Theory of Mind develops relatively gradually and possibly results from predictable interactions with adults.[51] Additionally.

[17] Mercer. fighting for control over everything. Intervention and Policy. of which the best known are holding therapy. 18(3). Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinics of North America.95-124. Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health Issue. Some checklists suggest that among infants.[60] The theoretical base is broadly a combination of regression and catharsis. [13] Prior & Glaser (2006) p218-219 [14] Chaffin (2006) p 86 [15] Boris & Zeannah (1999) [16] Schechter DS. lack of a conscience. 121-160.Attachment disorder make eye contact. Enhancing Early Attachments: Theory. 665-687. lack of cause and effect thinking. rage-reduction and the Evergreen model. These therapies have little or no evidence base and vary from talking or play therapies to more extreme forms of physical and coercive techniques. (2003) [20] Ainsworth (1978). The APSAC Taskforce expresses concern that high rates of false positive diagnoses are virtually certain and that posting these types of lists on web sites that also serve as marketing tools may lead many parents or others to conclude inaccurately that their children have attachment disorders. an organisation originally set up by attachment therapists.[62] An estimated six children have died as a consequence of the more coercive forms of such treatments and the application of the accompanying parenting techniques. cruelty to animals and siblings.[67] Notes [1] Zeanah. stealing. Amaya-Jackson L. 2005 [2] Chaffin et al. pp. J (2006) p 107 [18] VanIJzendoorn & Bakermans-Kranenburg (2003) [19] Zeanah et al. although these practices continue. blood and gore. "Preface". p. (2005) [11] Prior & Glaser (2006) p 223 [12] Prior & Glaser 2006. commissioned by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) which was largely critical of attachment therapy. (2006) [7] Bowlby (1970) p 181 [8] Bretherton & Munholland (1999) p 89 [9] AACAP 2005.[63] [64] [65] Two of the most well-known cases are those of Candace Newmaker in 2001 and the Gravelles in 2003 through 2005. poor impulse control. ATTACh. [21] Main & Solomon (1986). xvii. p1208 [10] Levy K. Following the associated publicity. Willheim E (2009). persistent nonsense questions or incessant chatter. formally adopted a White Paper stating its unequivocal opposition to the use of coercive practices in therapy and parenting. 220-221. (2005). ISBN 1-59385-470-6.[61] These therapies concentrate on changing the child rather than the caregiver. some advocates of attachment therapy began to alter views and practices to be less potentially dangerous to children. et al. [4] Prior & Glaser p 183 [5] O'Connor & Zeanah. Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood. Ziv Y. preoccupation with fire. accompanied by parenting methods which emphasise obedience and parental control.N. In general these therapies are aimed at adopted or fostered children with a view to creating attachment in these children to their new caregivers. Research. Critics maintain these therapies are not based on an accepted version of attachment theory. Greenberg MT. [22] Main & Solomon (1990). In Berlin LJ. Guilford Press.[66] In April 2007. This change may have been hastened by the publication of a Task Force Report on the subject in January 2006. p. poor peer relationships."[59] There is also a considerable variety of treatments for alleged attachment disorders diagnosed on the controversial alternative basis outlined above. and hoarding or gorging on food. Duke series in child development and public policy. pp. lying. 222 . “prefers dad to mom” or “wants to hold the bottle as soon as possible” are indicative of attachment problems. (2003) [6] Chaffin et al. (2006) p78 [3] Berlin LJ et al. rebirthing. popularly known as attachment therapy. pp. abnormal speech patterns.

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Cicchetti and E. (1999). Child Development 65... PMID 8556900. (1994). "Do first-year intervention effects endure? Follow-up during toddlerhood of a sample of Dutch irritable infants". 313–320(8) DOI: 10. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 11 (3): 269–306. Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Disturbances of Attachment Interview. J.. htm. NJ: Ablex ISBN 0893913456 Main.Yogman (eds) Affective development in infancy. Zeanah.jsessionid=H5QGQZ70p3VqMFJnGb5k207f5McynvWT1XQGv9hVxnDCPm4kp9Y1!901085598!181195628!8091!-1) • Toth S. doi:10.jaacap. 121–160). Number 3. doi:10. Glaser. K. (2003). M. Understanding Attachment and Attachment Disorders: Theory. (1986). • O'Connor TG. D. • van den Boom. Attachment & Human Development Vol 4 No 1 April 2002 107–124. Cummings (eds) Attachment in the preschool years: Theory. New York: Guilford Press ISBN 1593852452 Levy KN. (2002). • Van Ijzendoorn M. doi:10. B.1080/14616730310001593974&magic=pubmed). The Circle of Security project: Attachment-based intervention with caregiver – pre-school child dyads (http://www. E. Pawl. (2009). 18(3). • Smyke. Greenberg. CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group. and Powell. Weber M. • Prior. Lieberman. Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood. L. Braxelton and M. 1457–1477. (1990). and Solomon. 243–264).. Volume 5. In M. D. A. Bakermans-Kranenburg M. Child Dev 66 (6): 1798–816. Maughan A.com/produktedb/produkte.org/docs/languages/08 AHD final. & Rosa.H.F.karger. V. Inc. PMID 12944216. Mercer.com/routledg/rahd/2003/00000005/ 00000003/art00016) . Manly J. research and intervention. Norwood. pp.1017/S095457940200411X. Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health Issue. C.. 95–124).informaworld.) (p. Attach Hum Dev 5 (3): 223–44.2307/1131277 • van den Boom DC (1995). The influence of temperament and mothering on attachment and exploration: an experimental manipulation of sensitive responsiveness among lower-class mothers with irritable infants. J.com/pt/re/jaacap/ home.. D.1016/S0885-2006(96)90009-5. Clarkin JF (2005). Development and psychopathology 14 (4): 877–908. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinics of North America. Attachment disorders and disorganized attachment: Similar and different Attachment & Human Development. L.. findings and implications for the classification of behavior. "The relative efficacy of two in altering maltreated preschool children's representational models: implications for attachment theory". "Characteristics of infant child care: Factors contributing to positive caregiving". Westport. "Attachment and borderline personality disorder: implications for psychotherapy" (http://content. R. Westport. • Health Child. "Attachment disorders: assessment strategies and treatment approaches" (http:/ /www. Infant-parent psychotherapy.1159/000084813. Willheim. Cicchetti D.H. Zeanah CH (2003).2307/1131911. CT: Praeger ISBN 0275982173 • Marvin.pdf). (pp. September 2003 . Hoffman. Cooper. (pp. ISBN 1593851715 Main. Attachment therapy on trial: The torture and death of Candace Newmaker. A. Psychopathology 38 (2): 64–74. Jr. ISBN 0275976750 Mercer. Jessica Kingsley Publishers London ISBN 1843102455 OCLC 70663735 • Schechter. New York: Guilford Press. child care and emotional development. J. In T. In C. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Series. Available on the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry website at (http://www. doi:10.Attachment disorder • • • • • • 225 relationship problems (pp. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.. (ed.1080/14616730310001593974. J (2006) Understanding Attachment: Parenting. 665-687.) Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed. Spagnola M. ISBN 0226306305.1080/14616730310001593938 (http://www. and Zeanah. Sarner.. J.S. Evidence and Practice (2006). Discovery of an insecure disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern: procedures. Reynoso J. (2000).. M. doi:10.doi:10.ingentaconnect.. D. G. Meehan KB. R.asp?typ=fulltext& file=PSP2005038002064). PMID 12549708. Human (1996).. PMID 15802944. Silverman.com/openurl?genre=article&doi=10.circleofsecurity. and Solomon. 432).

Y. 1008: 22–30.. L. E. and Smyke. In I. Shaver.L.Attachment disorder • Waters.. New York: Guilford Press. T.1301. Attach Hum Dev 5 (3): 223–44. Settles L (2003). and policy The Guilford Press. Theory. "Attachment disorders: assessment strategies and treatment approaches" (http:/ /www. Ann. T. J. Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge. A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. Defining and assessing individual differences in attachment relationships: Q-methodology and the organization of behavior in infancy and early childhood. Ziv. doi:10. ISBN 1-57230-087-6. Serial No. and Greenberg. doi:10. 209 (1–2). C. J (1988).1080/14616730310001593974&magic=pubmed). and Clinical Applications. CH (ed. "Building Attachment Relationships Following Maltreatment and Severe Deprivation" In Berlin. Amaya-Jackson.) (1999). PMID 12944216. ISBN 1593851715 • Bowlby. and Deane.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14998869).eric. M.003. Handbook of Attachment: Theory.. New York: Basic Books. research. PMID 14998869. 2005 pps 195-216 ISBN 1593854706 (pbk) Further reading • Holmes. Zeanah CH (2003). 226 . • Zeanah CH. N.. Bretherton and E.com/openurl?genre=article&doi=10. Waters (Eds) Growing pains of attachment theory and research: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 50.informaworld. K (1985).gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/ recordDetails/detailmini.1196/annals. H. Sci. A. ISBN 0-415-00640-6.) (1993). London: Routledge.ed. New York: Guilford Press. J (2001). 41–65 (http://www. Acad. Enhancing Early Attachments..annalsnyas. P (eds.. intervention. The Search for the Secure Base.1080/14616730310001593974. • Zeanah. Handbook of Infant Mental Health. Keyes A. Y.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ334806& ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ334806) • O'Connor TG. Research. • Zeanah. "Attachment relationship experiences and childhood psychopathology" (http://www. ISBN 1583911529 • Cassidy.J.

In the area of early relationships it has largely been superseded by attachment theory and other theories relating to even earlier infant–parent interactions. and in changing practices relating to the stays of small children in hospitals so that parents were allowed more frequent and longer visits. cognitive science and control systems theory and drew upon them to formulate the innovative proposition that the mechanisms underlying an infant's ties emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure. including Spitz (1946) and Goldfarb (1943. psychoanalysts. amongst others. parental deficiencies are seen as a vulnerability factor for.[5] Following the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health Bowlby sought new understanding from such fields as evolutionary biology. The limited empirical data and lack of comprehensive theory to account for the conclusions in Maternal Care and Mental Health led to the subsequent formulation of attachment theory by Bowlby. later difficulties. "maternal deprivation" as a discrete syndrome is not a concept that is much in current use other than in relation to severe deprivation as in "failure to thrive". that "the infant and young child should experience a warm. intimate. Bowlby's work went beyond the suggestions of Otto Rank and Ian Suttie that mothering care was essential for development. rather than a direct cause of. John Bowlby on the effects of separating infants and young children from their mother (or mother substitute)[1] although the effect of loss of the mother on the developing child had been considered earlier by Freud and other theorists. developmental psychology. and sparked significant debate and research on the issue of children's early relationships. and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment" and that not to do so might have significant and irreversible mental health consequences.Maternal deprivation Maternal deprivation The term maternal deprivation is a catch-phrase summarising the early work of psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. The 1951 WHO publication was highly influential in causing widespread changes in the practices and prevalence of institutional care for infants and children. Although the monograph was primarily concerned with the removal of children from their homes it was also used for political purposes to discourage women from working and leaving their children in daycare by governments concerned about maximising employment for returned and returning servicemen. In relation to 227 . psychologists and learning theorists. His main conclusions. ethology. which sets out the maternal deprivation hypothesis. The publication was also highly controversial with. discipline and child care—has become generally accepted.[6] Bowlby claimed to have made good the "deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect" in Maternal Care and Mental Health in his later work Attachment and Loss published between 1969 and 1980. As a concept.[3] Bowlby drew together such empirical evidence as existed at the time from across Europe and the USA. and focused on the potential outcomes for children deprived of such care. Bowlby's work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospital and institutional care lead to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organisation's report on the Mother and child mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe whilst he was head of the Department for Children and Parents at the Tavistock Clinic in London after World War II.[2] The result was the monograph Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951.[4] The monograph was published in 14 different languages and sold over 400. 1945).000 copies in the English version alone. were both controversial and influential.[7] Although the central tenet of maternal deprivation theory—that children's experiences of interpersonal relationships are crucial to their psychological development and that the formation of an ongoing relationship with the child is as important a part of parenting as the provision of experiences.

In the 19th century. anger. undertook research in the 1930s and '40s on the effects of maternal deprivation and hospitalism. but also in the IQ of institutionalised children as compared to a matched group in foster care. when the mother was sent to prison. as. seemed indifferent underneath. rather than birth as an uncomfortable physical event. Skeels study was attacked for lack of scientific rigour though he achieved belated recognition decades later. Ian Suttie. The toddlers' IQ rose dramatically. and no concern was evinced at the possible effect of this double separation on the child. One rare paediatrician went so far as to replace a sign saying "Wash your hands twice before entering this ward" with one saying "Do not enter this nursery without picking up a baby". recovery is prompt but after five months.[12] In a series of studies published in the 1930s. removed toddlers from a sterile orphanage and gave them to "feeble-minded" institutionalised older girls to care for. Not long after Rank's introduction of this idea. though often pleasant on the surface.[11] A few psychiatrists. Following Freud's early speculations about infant experience with the mother.[13] Rene Spitz. comparable to a deficiency of vital nutritional elements Sister Irene at her New York Foundling Hospital within the developing organism". These children. He called this reaction to total deprivation 228 . Harold Skeels. noting the decline in IQ in young orphanage children. returning to the biological family after weaning. These studies and conclusions were thus different from the investigations of institutional rearing. David Levy noted a phenomenon he called "primary affect hunger" in children removed very early from their mothers and brought up in institutions and multiple foster homes. Many traditions have stressed the grief of mothers over deprivation of their children but little has been said historically about young children's loss of their mothers.[8] Sigmund Freud may have been among the first to stress the potential impact of loss of the mother on the developing child. psychologist Bill Goldfarb noted not only deficits in the ability to form relationships. little effort was made to consider the effects of real experiences of loss.[9] As little of Freud's theory was based on actual observations of infants. psychologists in the 1890s and paediatricians were also concerned by the high mortality rate in hospitals and institutions obsessed with sterility to the detriment of any human or nurturing contact with babies. understimulation and deficiencies that may arise from institutional care.[12] In another study conducted in the 1930s. a psychoanalyst. French society bureaucratised a system in which infants were breast-fed at the homes of foster mothers. long-term separation from the familiar caregiver. and his greatest anxiety is that such love will be lost. this may have been because loss of the mother in infancy frequently meant death for a breast-fed infant. Spitz adopted the term anaclitic depression to describe the child's reaction of grief. deprivation. His investigation focused on infants who had experienced abrupt. suggested that the child's basic need is for mother-love. and apathy to partial emotional deprivation (the loss of a loved object) and proposed that when the love object is returned to the child within three to five months. He questioned whether there could be a "deficiency disease of the emotional life.[9] [10] In the 1930s. History Bri. Rank stressed the traumatic experience of birth as a separation from the mother. they will show the symptoms of increasingly serious deterioration. a British physician whose early death limited his influence. but his concern was less with the actual experience of maternal care than with the anxiety the child might feel about the loss of the nourishing breast.Maternal deprivation institutional care there has been a great deal of subsequent research on the individual elements of privation. for instance. Otto Rank suggested a powerful role in personality development for birth trauma.

had direct experience of working with deprived children through his work at the London Child Guidance Clinic. These authors were mainly unaware of each others' work and Bowlby was able to draw together the findings and highlight the similarities described despite the variety of methods used ranging from direct observation to retrospective analysis to comparison groups. paediatricians and child psychiatrists including those who had already published literature on the issue.[16] 229 [15] The conclusions were During the years of World War II. intimate. but also policies of removing children from "unwed mothers" and untidy and physically neglected homes. Of the forty-four thieves. The second was the mother's emotional attitude towards her child. and lack of support for families in difficulties.Maternal deprivation "hospitalism"."[4] . Naturally extreme emotions would be moderated and become amenable to the control of the child's developing personality. called for more investigation of children's early lives in a paper published in 1940.[2] Bowlby travelled on the Continent and in America. "It is this complex rich and rewarding relationship with the mother in the early years. twelve had suffered prolonged maternal separations as opposed to only two of the control group. He stated.[3] The WHO report was followed by the publication of an abridged version for public consumption called Child Care and the Growth of Love. varied in countless ways by relations with the father and with siblings. there was work from England undertaken by Dorothy Burlingham and Anna Freud on children separated from their families due to wartime disruption. Bowlby tackled not only institutional and hospital care. Of these fourteen. emotions of guilt and anxiety (characteristics of mental illness when in excess) would develop in an organised and moderate way. which sets out the maternal deprivation hypothesis.[20] Maternal Care and Mental Health Bowlby's work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospital and institutional care lead to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organisation's report on the mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe whilst he was head of the Department for Children and Parents at the Tavistock Clinic in London after World War II. It was believed to be essential that the infant and young child should experience a warm.[19] This was followed by a study on forty–four juvenile thieves collected through the Clinic.[21] The result was the monograph Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951. evacuated and orphaned children were the subjects of studies that outlined their reactions to separation. and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both found satisfaction and enjoyment. Some of this material remained unpublished until the post-war period and only gradually contributed to understanding of young children's reactions to loss. There were many problematic parental behaviours in the samples but Bowlby was looking at one environmental factor that was easy to document. including the ability to cope by forming relationships with other children. and Bowlby's own work. He was also one of the first to undertake direct observation of infants. The first was death of the mother. Given this relationship.[14] hotly disputed and there was no widespread acceptance. This book sold over half a million copies worldwide. unlike most psychoanalysts. communicating with social workers.[17] [18] Bowlby. or prolonged separation from her. He proposed that two environmental factors were paramount in early childhood. namely prolonged early separations of child and mother. who. In a range of areas Bowlby cited the lack of adequate research and suggested the direction this could take. that child psychiatrists and many others now believe to underlie the development of character and mental health.[22] Principal concepts of Bowlby's theory The quality of parental care was considered by Bowlby to be of vital importance to the child's development and future mental health. fourteen fell into the category which Bowlby characterised as being of an "affectionless character". In addition.

. informative discussions with children about their parents and why they ended up in care and how they felt about it rather than the "least said.[23] Complete or almost complete deprivation could "entirely cripple the Residential nursery capacity to make relationships". The point that children were loyal to and loved even the worst of parents.[24] Other proposals included the proper payment of foster homes and careful selection of foster carers. or of the experience of the type of care called "mothering" in many cultures. 'discontinuity'.. for the child has been . and needed to have that fact understood non-judgementally. and 'distortion' instead. neither the word "maternal" nor the word "deprivation" seems to be a literally correct definition of the phenomenon under consideration... the main focus of the monograph was on the more extreme forms of deprivation.. This term covered a range from almost complete deprivation. The end product of such psychic disturbance could be neurosis and instability of character. of an emotional relationship. of an adoptive or foster mother. neediness and powerful emotions which the child could not regulate. [It may be better to] discourage the use of [the term 'deprivation'] and encourage the substitution of the terms 'insufficiency'. deprived of interaction with a father-figure as well as a mother-figure .. to partial deprivation where the mother. He was strongly in favour of support being provided to parents and extended families to improve the situation and provide care within the family rather than removal if possible. as the following statement by Mary Ainsworth in 1962 indicates: "Although in the early months of life it is the mother who almost invariably interacts most with the child .. "children thrive better in bad homes than in good institutions". was strongly made.Maternal deprivation The state of affairs in which the child did not have this relationship he termed "maternal deprivation". or mother substitute. Also "husbandless" mothers of children under 3 should be supported to care for the child at home rather than the child be left in inadequate care whilst the mother sought work.. The focus was the child's developing relationships with his mother and father and disturbed parent–child relationships in the context of almost complete deprivation rather than the earlier concept of the "broken home" as such. [P]aternal deprivation .."[28] Ainsworth implies. was unable to give the loving care a small child needs. 230 . Fathers left with infants or small children on their hands without the mother should be provided with "housekeepers" so that the children could remain at home. the term maternal deprivation is ambiguous as it is unclear whether the deprivation is that of the biological mother. Questions about the exact meaning of this term are by no means new. the role of other figures.. has received scant attention .. Bowlby advised that parents should be supported by society as parents are dependent on a greater society for economic provision and "if a community values its children it must cherish its parents".. (It was assumed the mother of the illegitimate child would usually be left with the child). the term 'parental deprivation' would have been more accurate. [In the case of] institutionalization .[23] However. Partial deprivation could result in acute anxiety.[3] In terms of social policy. soonest mended" approach. especially the father. is acknowledged to be significant . not uncommon in institutions. to mild deprivation where the child was removed from the mother's care but was looked after by someone familiar whom he trusted.[4] As it is commonly used.[26] On the issue of removal of children from their homes. a consistent caregiving adult of any gender or relationship to the child. as he put it. Bowlby emphasised the strength of the tie that children feel towards their parents and discussed the reason why.. residential nurseries and hospitals.[25] and frank. depression.[27] "Maternal" Bowlby used the phrase "mother (or permanent mother substitute)"..

when he was effectively ostracised). the change was given added impetus by the work of social worker and psychoanalyst James Robertson who filmed the distressing effects of separation on children in hospital and collaborated with Bowlby in making the 1952 documentary film A Two-Year Old Goes to the Hospital. another contemporary referred to "the quasi-mystical union of mother and child.[30] Influence on institutionalised care The practical effects of the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health were described in the preface to the WHO 1962 publication Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects as "almost wholly beneficial" with reference to widespread changes in the institutional care of children. the important area to study was how a child was actually treated by his parents in real life and in particular the interaction between them. contrary to the focus of psychoanalysts on the internal fantasy world of the child. This led him to see that far more systematic knowledge was required 231 . Bowlby also broke with social learning theory's view of dependency and reinforcement. a term by which we mean both the child's actual mother and/or any other person of either sex who may take the place of the child's physical mother during a significant period of time". and because he believed it could have serious effects on a child's development and because it was preventable. Although this view was rejected by many at the time. 1955 According to Michael Rutter. He chose the actual removal of children from the home at this particular time because it was a specific event. children needed a close and continuous caregiving relationship.[2] Food was seen as the primary drive and the relationship. rather than to events in the external world. views that he had already expressed about the importance of a child's real life experiences and relationship with carers had been met by "sheer incredulity" by colleagues before World War II.[2] Bowlby later stated that he had concluded that. In addition. and a move towards the professionalisation of alternative carers. In hospitals. the importance of Bowlby's initial writings on "maternal deprivation" lay in his emphasis that children's experiences of interpersonal relationships were crucial to their psychological development and that the formation of an ongoing relationship with the child was as important a part of parenting as the provision of experiences.Maternal deprivation A contemporary of Ainsworth spoke of "the mother. or "dependency" was secondary.[31] Psychoanalysis Bowlby departed from psychoanalytical theory which saw the gratification of sensory needs as the basis for the relationship between infant and mother. the effects of which could be studied. the argument focussed attention on the need to consider parenting in terms of consistency of caregivers over time and parental sensitivity to children's individuality and it is now generally accepted.[33] Bowlby's theory sparked considerable interest and controversy in the nature of early relationships and gave a strong impetus to what Mary Ainsworth described as a "great body of research" in what was perceived as an extremely difficult and complex area. rather than in institutions.[29] However.[31] The practice of allowing parents frequent visiting to hospitalised children became the norm and there was a move towards placing homeless children with foster carers.[32] Maternity ward.[5] He had already found himself in conflict with dominant Kleinian theories that children's emotional problems are almost entirely due to fantasies generated from internal conflict between aggressive and libidinal drives. discipline and child care. (His breach with the psychoanalysts only became total and irreparable after his later development of attachment theory incorporating ethological and evolutionary principles. Bowlby proposed instead that to thrive emotionally. of the dynamic union that mother and child represent".

There was criticism of the confusion of the effects of privation (no primary attachment figure) and deprivation (loss of the primary attachment figure) and in particular. addressed the many different underlying social and psychological mechanisms and showed that Bowlby was only partially right and often for the wrong reasons. that children thrived better in bad homes than in good institutions. Bowlby's close colleague. although Bowlby was of the view that proper care could not be provided "by roster". the theoretical basis of Bowlby's monograph was controversial in a number of ways. his ideas were often oversimplified. Rutter 1979) comprise the definitive empirical evaluation and update of Bowlby's early work on maternal deprivation. He then goes on to describe the subsequent development of attachment theory. he was also of the view that babies should be accustomed to regular periods of care by another and that the key to alternative care for working mothers was that it should be regular and continuous.[31] Bowlby's work was misinterpreted to mean that any separation from the natural mother.[37] It was also pointed out that there was no explanation of how experiences subsumed under the broad heading of "maternal deprivation" could have effects on personality development of the kinds claimed.[39] was often taken to extremes leading to reluctance on the part of Children's Officers (the equivalent of child care social workers) to remove children from homes however neglectful and inadequate. Some profoundly disagreed with the necessity for maternal (or equivalent) love in order to function normally.[5] In addition to criticism. Ainsworth in the WHO 1962 publication also attempted to address this misapprehension by pointing out that the requirement for continuity of care did not imply an exclusive mother–child pair relationship. any experience of institutional care or a multiplicity of "mothers" necessarily resulted in severe emotional deprivation and sometimes. to present the recent research and developments and to address misapprehensions. In fact. Rutter highlighted the other forms of deprivation found in institutional care and the complexity of separation distress.[37] He addressed this point in a 1958 publication called Can I Leave My Baby?.[35] or that the formation of an ongoing relationship with a child was an important part of parenting.[37] Such strictures suited the policies of governments concerned about finding employment for returned and returning servicemen after World War II. His 1981 monograph and other papers (Rutter 1972.[40] Michael Rutter made a significant contribution to the controversial issue of Bowlby's maternal deprivation hypothesis.[33] The idea that early experiences have serious consequences for intellectual and psychosocial development was controversial in itself.Maternal deprivation of the effects on a child of early experiences. misrepresented.[36] In 1962. contributed with his approval. the WHO published Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects to which Mary Ainsworth. He amassed further evidence. As a consequence it was claimed that only 24-hour care by the same person (the mother) was good enough.[36] Others questioned the extent to which his hypothesis was supported by the evidence. This heightened the controversy. that all children undergoing such experiences would develop into "affectionless children".[38] In fact. this was not fully investigated in his monograph as the main focus was on the risks of complete or almost complete deprivation. and suggested that anti-social behaviour was not linked to maternal deprivation as 232 . Bowlby and his colleagues were pioneers of the view that studies involving direct observation of infants and children were not merely of interest but were essential to the advancement of science in this area. distorted or exaggerated for various purposes. although Bowlby mentioned briefly the issue of "partial deprivation" within the family. of the failure to distinguish between the effects of the lack of a primary attachment figure and the other forms of deprivation and understimulation that might affect children in institutions. Bowlby explained in his 1988 work that the data were not at the time "accommodated by any theory then current and in the brief time of my employment by the World Health Organisation there was no possibility of developing a new one". misinterpretation and criticism Aside from his profound differences with psychoanalytic ideas.[28] Bowlby's quotable remark. day care and nurseries were not good enough and mothers should not go out to work. The WHO advised that day nurseries and creches could have a serious and permanent deleterious effect.[34] Controversy.

[42] Fathers In accordance with the prevailing social realities of his time.[28] Father and child Michael Rutter in Maternal Deprivation Reassessed (1972). Children also have fathers!"[40] Within attachment theory. although Ainsworth preferred the terms "insufficiency". sex and temperamental development. namely the assumption that the daily care of infants and small children was undertaken by women and in particular. makes it quite clear that infants become attached to carers who are sensitive and responsive in their social interactions with them and that this does not have to be the mother or indeed a female. Bowlby's work was misinterpreted by some to mean natural mothers only.[45] [46] . "parental deprivation" would have been more accurate. Schaffer in Social Development (1996) suggests that the father–child relationship is primarily a cultural construction shaped by the requirements of each society. A less exclusive focus on the mother is required. described by New Society as a "classic in the field of child care". attachment theory relates to the development of attachment behaviours and relationships after about 7 months of age and there are other theories and research relating to earlier carer–infant interactions.Maternal deprivation 233 such but to family discord. for some the person who plays and talks most with the child and for others the person who feeds the child. In societies where the care of infants has been assigned to boys rather than girls.[44] However. "discontinuity" and "distortion" to either. It was also stated that in relation to institutional care.[43] The hope was expressed by Ainsworth that in the future there would be more such research and indeed her early research. argued that research showed that it did not matter which parent the child got on well with as long as he got on well with one of them. "For some aspects of development the same-sexed parent seems to have a special role. there having by 1962 been some limited research on the issue which illustrated the importance of the father's relationship with his children. that both parents influence their child's development and that which parent is more important varies with age.[41] Rutter has more recently advised attention to the complexity of development and the roles of genetic as well as experiential factors.[2] Fathers are mentioned only in the context of the practical and emotional support they provide for the mother but the monograph contains no specific exploration of the father's role. Nor is there any discussion as to whether the maternal role had. but the process of attachment applies to any carer and infants develop a number of attachments according to who relates to them and the intensity of the engagement. The importance of these refinements of the maternal deprivation hypothesis was to reposition it as a "vulnerability factor" rather than a causative agent. school-teachers and others all have an impact on development. volume one of Attachment (1969). of necessity. to be filled by women as such. with a number of varied influences determining which path a child would take. As a matter of social reality mothers are more often the primary carers of children and therefore are more likely to be the primary attachment figure. Bowlby. but their influences and importance differ for different aspects of development. The father. covered infants relationships with all family members. Bowlby referred primarily to mothers and "maternal" deprivation.[43] The 1962 WHO publication contains a chapter on the effect of "paternal deprivation". brother and sisters. He concluded. although the words "parents" and "parental" are also used. mothers. noting that separation is only one of many risk factors related to poor cognitive and emotional development. no difference in nurturing capacity was found. the mother. which contributed significantly to attachment theory. friends. in Attachment and Loss.

Certainly his hypothesis was used by governments to close down much needed residential nurseries although governments did not seem so keen to pay mothers to care for their children at home as advocated by Bowlby. Maternal deprivation as a discrete syndrome is a concept that is rarely used other than in connection with extreme deprivation and failure to thrive.. cybernetics.. Thirdly. Bowlby's (1951) monograph. They argued that anthropology showed that it is normal for childcare to be shared by a stable group of adults of which maternal care is an important but not exclusive part. little remains of the underlying detail of Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation that has not been either discredited or superseded by attachment theory and other child development theories and research. of which attachment is only one aspect. except in the area of extreme deprivation. rather than a hierarchy (subsequently thought to be the case within developments of attachment theory) had not been borne out by research and this view placed too high an emotional burden on the mother. developmental psychology and psychoanalysis.[5] Aside from its central proposition of the importance of an early.[49] Rather. 1959 and 1960. The studies on which he based his conclusions involved almost complete lack of maternal care and it was unwarranted to generalise from this view that any separation in the first three years of life would be damaging. there was little research in this area and no comprehensive theory on the development of early relationships. however such research rarely mentions "maternal deprivation" other than in a historical context. The opening of East European orphanages in the early 1990s following the end of the Cold War provided substantial opportunities for research on attachment and other aspects of institutional rearing. "ethological attachment theory. there are many significant differences between the two. His major work Attachment was published in three volumes between 1969 and 1980. Bowlby drew on concepts from ethology. Subsequent research showed good quality care for part of the day to be harmless. the monograph concentrates mostly on social policy.[6] According to Zeanah. or lack of care. Rather there is consideration of a range of different lacks and deficiencies in different forms of care. For his subsequent development of attachment theory. reviewed the world literature on maternal deprivation and suggested that emotionally available caregiving was crucial for infant development and mental health. as outlined by John Bowlby . Attachment theory revolutionised thinking on the nature of early attachments and extensive research continues to be undertaken.Maternal deprivation Feminist criticism There were three broad criticisms aimed at the idea of maternal deprivation from feminist critics. they criticised Bowlby's historical perspective and saw his views as part of the idealisation of motherhood and family life after World War II.. Secondly."[48] Beyond that broad statement. feminists objected to the idea of anatomy as destiny and concepts of "naturalness" derived from ethnocentric observations. continuous and sensitive relationship.. has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development in the first 3 years of life. it is now conceptualised as a series of pathways through childhood and a number of varied influences will determine which path a particular child takes.[42] Subsequent studies have however confirmed Bowlby's concept of "cycles of disadvantage" although not all children from unhappy homes reproduce the deficiencies in their own experience. information processing. as well as consideration of constitutional and genetic factors in determining developmental outcome. At the time of the 1951 publication. which is now generally accepted. The first early formal statements of attachment theory were presented in three papers in 1958. The idea of exclusive care or exclusive attachment to a preferred figure. 1969 to 1980 .[47] The first was that Bowlby overstated his case. Maternal Care and Mental Health.[37] 234 .[47] Maternal deprivation today Whilst Bowlby's early writings on maternal deprivation may be seen as part of the background to the later development of attachment theory.

Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1: 53–74. the "tender years" doctrine was long applied when custody of infants and toddlers was preferentially given to mothers. pp. Geneva: World Health Organisation. "Relevance of direct infant observation". are concepts that connect easily to the unfounded assumption that all adopted children suffer emotional disorders. The Writings of Anna Freud. even if this occurs on the day of birth and even if the adoptive family provides all possible love and care. Infants Without Families and Reports on the Hampstead Nurseries. ISBN 0415210429. New York: Blackwell. 62–66 [23] Bowlby J. [10] Suttie. Maternal Care and Mental Health. 13–17 [12] Karen R. upenn. J. [15] Spitz R (1950). . pdf) (PDF). 117–122 235 . [19] Karen J.[50] Concern with the negative impact of separation from the mother is characteristic of the belief systems behind some complementary and alternative (CAM) psychotherapies. PMID 21004303. (1988) p. [9] Brown.R. "The Nature of the Child's Ties". and Shaver.28. p. A.T. mental communication between mother and unborn child. and emotional attachment of child to mother as a prenatal phenomenon. [7] Bowlby. however. 11 [5] Bowlby J. J. and Burlingham. pp. (1935). 24 [6] Cassidy. garfield. (1943). (1999). Handbook of Attachment: Theory.[53] Notes [1] Holmes J.1037/0012-1649. JAC (1961). "Forty-four juvenile thieves: Their characters and home life". A.[9] [51] Today. 3. In Cassidy. [11] Karen R.5. (1992). (1945). Research and Clinical Applications.[52] Belief in prenatal fetal awareness. War and Children. In United States law. [4] Bowlby J. (1951) pp. edu/ classics1986/ A1986F063100001. "Maternal Care and Mental Health" (http:/ / www. R. 25 [17] Freud. 18–22 [14] Spitz. London: Penguin.. D. Such belief systems are concerned not only with the impact of the young child's separation from the care of the mother. some decisions appear to have been derived from the "tender years" concept. and Burlingham. "sometimes referred to by Bowlby's colleagues as "Ali Bowlby and the Forty Thieves"" [21] Karen R. "Hospitalism: An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood". D.759. ISBN 0837169429. New York: Medical War Books. 59–62 [22] Karen R. [16] Karen R. New York: International Universities Press. 26–29 [20] Bowlby J (1944). "The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth". pp. which purport to bring about age regression and to recapitulate early development to produce a better outcome. (1939–1945). 20–21 [13] Karen R. [8] Fildes.T. Freud and the post-Freudians. p. doi:10. pp. 11–12 [24] Bowlby J. 84–90 [25] Bowlby J. These beliefs are also congruent with CAM psychotherapies such as attachment therapy (not based on attachment theory). ISBN 978-1572308268.Maternal deprivation The maternal deprivation concept outside mainstream psychology The idea that separation from the female caregiver has profound effects is one with considerable resonance outside the conventional study of child development. [18] Freud. 221 [2] Bretherton. London: Penguin. Wet Nursing. V. I. Such attachment is said to lead to emotional trauma if the child is separated from the birth mother and adopted. (1951) pp. pp. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 5: 66–73. ISBN 1568217579. J. (1986). Developmental Psychology 28 (5): 759–775. but others involve the contrary assumption that a 2-year-old is too young to have developed a relationship with either parent. ISBN 978-0631158318. (1988). library. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 25 (19–52): 107–27. (1951) p. J. These beliefs were at one time in existence among some legitimate psychologists of psychoanalytic background. I. [3] Bowlby. pp. but with an emotional attachment between mother and child which advocates of these systems believe to develop prenatally. Over the last decade or so. (1951). Guilford press. The Origins of Love and Hate. beliefs in prenatal communication between mothers and infants are largely confined to unconventional thinkers such as William Emerson. P. (1951) pp.

[30] Rank. "Clinical implications of attachment concepts: retrospect and prospect". Vol 1. (1978). org/ journals/ ccp/ 64/ 1/ 42). Sarner. (1951). "Prenatal attachment and bonding". Maternal Deprivation Reassessed: 2nd edition. Child Care. Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 36 (4): 549–71. I. Viking/Allen Lane.E. Geneva: World Health Organization. [34] Bowlby J..tb02314. "Autoerotism". Maternal Care and Mental Health. B.1469-7610. [36] Karen R. (1949). Child Psychology & Mental Health. doi:10. [38] Holmes J. 14. W. ISBN 978-0140227000. blackwell-synergy. Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects. pp. nurture. • Rutter. PMID 14717240. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 3: 85–120. et al. Westport. (1988) pp. PMID 7650083. (1999). J. Public Health Papers. M. (1973). (1998). Maternal Deprivation Reassessed.64. (February 1996). Developmental Psychology 14 (2): 183–184.D. CT: Praeger. No. C. 51 [50] Mercer. (1993). "Beyond insecurity: a reconceptualization of attachment disorders of infancy" (http:/ / content. The Course of Life. ISBN 978-0415077309.x. J. [29] Spitz.1037/0022-006X.1. 255–266. Attachment therapy On Trial: The Torture and Death of Candace Newmaker. [33] Rutter. Oxford: Blackwell. Geneva: World Health Organization. 45–46 [39] Bowlby J. doi:10. Public Health Papers. 236 . Public Health Papers. "A Social Scientist's Approach to Maternal Deprivation". apa. Attachment: Attachment and Loss. [41] Holmes J.1995. Pre. Nadison. pp. G. New York: Oxford University Press.14. (1972). Harmondsworth: Penguin. [32] Schwartz.I. (1981). "Interaction behaviours of primary versus secondary caretaker fathers". J. No. ISBN 1568217579. com/ openurl?genre=article& sid=nlm:pubmed& issn=0009-3920& date=2002& volume=73& issue=1& spage=1). "The Effects of Maternal Deprivation: A Review of Findings and Controversy in the Context of Research Strategy".2. (2006).R. [51] Freud. London: Pimlico. (1949). and development: from evangelism through science toward policy and practice" (http:/ / www. Harmondsworth: Penguin.1111/j. "Nature. ISBN 0140805613.. Geneva: World Health Organization. 14. 67–92 [28] Ainsworth. "Aggression". (1996). ISBN 0-19-511501-5. (1962). [47] Holmes J. [53] Mercer. Rosa. R. p. J. J. W. 65 [37] Rutter M. and Emotional Development. S.H. (2002). [31] Ainsworth. (1962). ISBN 978-0275976750. Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects. References • Bowlby. [45] Schaffer.A. Infancy. • Bowlby. R. John Bowlby & Attachment Theory.G. ISBN 0415006406. In Greenspan. Understanding Attachment: Parenting. M.H. PMID 8907083. [43] Andry R. 124–126 [27] Bowlby J. Cassandra's Daughter: A History of Psychoanalysis.42. • Karen. (1962).. Child Dev 73 (1): 1–21. CT: Praeger. 68 [40] Rutter M. (1962). Maternal Deprivation Reassessed: 2nd edition.Maternal deprivation [26] Bowlby J. [46] Field. No. 14. (1951) pp. M.00388. CT: International Universities Press. L.183. 225. No. London: Routledge. (1951) p. ISBN 978-0275982171. (2003). (1988). pp. Westport. H. . 43–45 [35] Wootton B. doi:10. (1951) pp. M. Geneva: World Health Organisation. Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects. and Pollock.. A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory. (May 1995). [52] Emerson. [44] Bowlby J.and Perinatal Psychology Journal 10 (3): 125–142. .1111/1467-8624. ISBN 978-0712674713. doi:10. ISBN 978-0631185741. T. L.1037/0012-1649. "The vulnerable pre-nate". Geneva: World Health Organization. pp. ISBN 978-0140227000. (1981). London: Routledge. p. [49] Holmes J. "Paternal and Maternal Roles and Delinquency". Harmondsworth: Penguin. Oxford. Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects. J. Social Development: an introduction. (1996). ISBN 0670886238. Public Health Papers. • Holmes. 45–48 [48] Zeanah. (1969. J Consult Clin Psychol 64 (1): 42–52. 49–51 [42] Rutter M. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 3: 43–48. p.R. 14. Vol. 1982).

[5] Therefore. as well as chronic conditions in adulthood such as obesity. and hypertension.[5] "Barker's Hypothesis" is also known as “Fetal Programming Hypothesis”. in reality this is not true. Prenatal nutrition has a strong influence on birth weight and further development of the infant.[6] The main criticism was that confounding variables such as environmental factors could attribute to many of the chronic diseases such that low birth weight alone should not be dictated as an independent risk factor. Babies born lighter in weight appear to have an increased rate of mortality than babies born at a heavier weight. obesity. Compared with the infant. over eating excessively will compromise the baby's health as the infant will have to work extra hard to become healthy in the future. there are persisting changes in the body structure and function that are caused by environmental stimuli.[1] Prenatal nutrition addresses nutrient recommendations before and during pregnancy. and cardiovascular disease (CVD). or Thrifty phenotype. type-2 diabetes. A common saying that 'a woman is eating for two while pregnant' implies that a mother should consume twice as much during pregnancy. states that conditions during pregnancy will have long term effects on adult health.org/details/PsychogenicD) Prenatal nutrition and birth weight Nutrition and weight management before and during pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. rather than going to the infant.Maternal deprivation External links • Rene Spitz's film "Psychogenic Disease in Infancy" (1957) (http://www. excessive calories. diabetes.archive. Death rate would rise as birth weight increases beyond normal birth weight range. Associated risk of lifelong diseases includes cardiovascular disease.[1] Ideally.[6] This relates to the concept of developmental plasticity where 237 . it is important to maintain a healthy gestational weight gain throughout pregnancy for achieving the optimal infant birth weight. When this theory was first proposed. The word “programming” illustrates the idea that during critical periods in early fetal development. Although maternal consumption will directly affect both herself and the growing fetus. the mother possesses the least biological risk. Therefore.[2] On the other hand.[5] Subsequent research studies supporting the theory attempted to adjust these environmental factors and in turn. provided more convincing results with minimal confounding variables. insufficient consumption will result in lower birth weight. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life. the rate of weight gain should be monitored during pregnancy to support the most ideal infant development. often get stored as fat in the mother. However.[3] Background Barker's Hypothesis The "Barker Hypothesis". Maintaining a healthy weight during gestation lowers adverse risks on infants such as birth defects.[4] This does not mean that heavy babies are less of a concern. it was not well accepted and was met with much skepticism. Pregnancy. Birth weight of the newborn at delivery reflects the sufficiency and the quality of maternal nutrient for the fetus during pregnancy.

[4] The Dutch Famine Since small birth weight is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases in later life. 1945.[8] What is unique about Dutch Famine as an experimental study on the effects of maternal malnutrition is that the population was strictly circumscribed in time and place and the sudden onset and relief of the famine was imposed on a previously well-nourished population. The period of maternal starvation is shown to have limited intrauterine growth and has been identified as one of the most important contributor to coronary heart disease as well as other chronic diseases later in life.[5] When the living environment switches from the condition of malnutrition to a society of abundant supply of nutrients.[7] In the early May The tile is a tribute to the Dutch Famine. and poor maternal nutrition during gestation contributes to restricted fetal development.[5] Physiological and metabolic processes in the body undergo long term changes as a result of restricted growth.[8] Even though pregnant and lactating women had extra food during the famine.[7] These findings agree well with Barker’s hypothesis. this exposes the baby to a bountiful environment that goes against what its body is designed for and this places the baby at a higher risk of adult diseases later in adulthood. it supports the theory that maternal under-nutrition leads to a lower birth weight due to restricted intrauterine development and ultimately leads to higher risks of chronic conditions in adult life.[7] The famine was imposed on a previously well-nourished population and the official daily ration for the general adult population gradually decreased from 1800 calories in December 1943 to 1400 calories in October 1944 to below 1000 calories in the late November 1944.[5] Consequently the baby adapts by changing its body size and metabolism to prepare for harsh conditions of food shortages after birth. . The famine was a period (roughly five to six months) of extreme food shortage in the west of Netherlands.Prenatal nutrition and birth weight 238 our genes can express different ranges of physiological or morphological states in response to the environmental conditions during fetal development. The daily ration had increased to more than 2000 calories in June 1945. these extra supplies could no longer be provided at the height of the famine. especially women who conceived during the period of time.[8] December 1944 to April 1945 was the peak of the famine where the official daily ration fell abruptly to about 400~800 calories.[5] By the same token. The Dutch famine of 1944 or the 'Hunger Winter' during World War II serves as an epidemiological study that is used to examine the effects of maternal under-nutrition during different gestational stages. the infant would be less adaptive to the harsh environment than low birth weight babies. if the fetus growing in the womb of a healthy mother is exposed to prolonged famine after birth.[5] If the mother has an inadequate diet then it signals the baby that the living condition in the long term will be impoverished.[7] The Dutch Famine during World War II had a profound effect on the health condition of the general public. maternal malnutrition may be a cause of increased disease susceptibility in adulthood. the liberation of the Netherlands restored the food supply.

It is also in this stage where the blastocyst develops into an embryo.[1] Life size model of a 8-week-old fetus (at the end of embryonic stage).[1] Gestation is about 40 weeks in humans and is divided into three trimesters. each spanning 3 months.[1] Gestational stages. During this period of time.[1] It is also in this period that the mother experiences the bulk of her gestational weight gain but the amount of weight gain varies greatly. In the first trimester (blastogenesis and early embryonic stages).[3] . stages). The amount of weight gain depends strongly on their pre-pregnant weight. the embryo develops rapidly and becomes a fetus. embryonic stage and fetal stage.[1] Additional energy is required during pregnancy due to the expansion of maternal tissues and stores in order to support fetal development.5-2 kilograms). Implantation occurs at this stage where the blastocyst becomes buried in the endometrium.[1] Embryo at 8 weeks after [9] fertilization Fetus at 18 weeks after [10] fertilization Fetus at 38 weeks after [11] fertilization Pre-pregnancy Weight and Moochy Gestational Weight Gain The pattern and amount of weight gain is closely associated with gestational stages.[1] Blastogenesis is the stage from fertilization to about 2 weeks. Pregnancy becomes visible at this stage.Prenatal nutrition and birth weight 239 Recommendations for Pregnant Women Gestation Stages Gestation is the period of embryo development from conception to birth. while the embryo weighs only 6 grams. The fertilized egg or the zygote becomes a blastocyst where the outer layer and the inner cell mass differentiate to form placenta and the fetus respectively. on the other hand. the fetus undergoes rapid weight growth and the weight increases to about 3000~4000 grams. which is approximately the weight 6 raisins. the mother experiences a minimal weight gain (approximately 0. Embryonic stage is approximately from 2 weeks to 8 weeks. where all major features of human are present and operational by the end of this stage.[1] Fetal stage is from 9 weeks to term. which include blastogenesis.[1] In the second trimester and third trimester (late embryonic and fetal BMI chart. are based on physiological fetal development.

[3] Maternal body weight is determined by the Body Mass Index (BMI) which is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters.5~24.5 kilograms to 16. corresponding to approximately 0. and vegetables should be emphasized for pregnant women.0 kilograms overall. walking is encouraged for mothers classified in this category. which is approximately 0.[3] Underweight women usually have inadequate nutrient stores that are not enough to provide for both herself and the fetus. they are encouraged to record activity and intake level.[3] Their babies are least likely to either be low-birth weight or high-birth weight.[3] Vigorous physical activity is not recommended since an excessive loss of calories is induced which is not sufficient to support fetal development.[3] In order to maintain a steady weight gain. defined as having a BMI of 25 or above.9 are classified as having a normal or healthy body weight.4 kilogram per week in the second and third trimesters.0 kilograms throughout gestation.5 kilograms in total. Gestational weight gain should also be progressive and the recommended weight depends on pre-pregnant body weight. A proper diet is also essential to healthy weight gain.5 to 18.9 are in the overweight category and should gain between 7. a normal weight is strongly recommended for mothers when entering gestation. a balance between the two is very important. healthy choices should be emphasized for these extra calories such as whole grain products.5 kilogram each week in the second and third trimesters.0 and 11.[3] Underweight Women Women's are classified as underweight if they have a pre-pregnant BMI of 18.[3] Unfortunately. which equates to roughly 0. underweight mothers should seek individualized advice tailored especially for themselves. or about 0.0 kilograms in total.[3] Normal Weight Women Women having a BMI of 18. body weight should be managed within the recommended gestational weight gain range as it is shown to have a positive effect on pregnancy outcomes.Prenatal nutrition and birth weight 240 Generally.[3] Overweight and Obese Women Women with a high pre-pregnancy weight are classified as overweight or obese.[3] Also. the mother should engage in mild physical activities. Participating in aerobic activities such as walking and swimming 3 to 4 times a week is usually adequate. The common saying “a women is eating for two” often leads to mothers thinking that they should eat twice as much. it is recommended that underweight women should undergo a larger weight gain for healthy pregnancy outcomes. fruits.[12] While pregnant. but the risk can be balanced by an appropriate gestational weight gain from 12.[3] Low pre-pregnancy BMI increases the risk of low birth weight infants.0 and 9. It is advised that women with a normal weight before pregnancy should gain a total of 11.[3] In general. fruits and vegetables as well as low-fat dairy alternatives.5 or below.28 kilogram each week during the second and third trimesters.[1] Since the total weight gain depends on pre-pregnant body weight. This can . In reality.[3] Whereas women with BMI of 30 or above are in the obese category and should gain only between 5. This group have the lowest risk of adverse birth outcomes. Health choices such as low-fat milk and alternatives. estimated energy requirements for them are not available.[3] While exercise and a proper diet are both needed to maintain the recommended weight gain.2 kilogram per week in the second and third trimesters.[3] Women with BMI between 25 and 29. as it promotes overall health of infants. and overweight or obese women should undergo a smaller weight gain. approximately 350 calories more in the second trimester and 450 calories more in the third trimester. only a small increase in caloric intake is needed to provide for the fetus. As such.[3] As such.

0~ 29.0 lb) Healthy weight BMI 18.5 lb) . The first column categorizes the type of body weight based on the Body Mass Index.5 kg (1. For example.[15] The length measured in centimeters should correspond to the number of weeks that the [15] mother has been pregnant.[15] Crown rump length can be used as the best ultrasonographic measurement for correct diagnosis of gestational age during the first trimester. ultrasonography or ultrasound during pregnancy and the date of last menstrual period are needed. the mother would need to visit the doctor for the measurement of fundal height. whereas an underweight woman needs to gain up to 18 kilograms in weight.[14] After the 20th week of pregnancy.9 11. and the third column presents the corresponding weekly weight gain during the period when the fetus undergoes rapid growth (during second and third trimesters).6 lb) Obese BMI > 30 5.5 kg (15~25 lb) 0. further tests using ultrasound would be needed to check the results.[15] .[13] Recommendations for Low and High Birth Weight Diagnosis In order to have a good estimate of birth weight.3 kg (0. The second column summarizes the total recommended weight gain for each type of body weight. which is the length from Ultrasound of fetus (~3 inches in length).[15] Another way to estimate fetal size is to look at the mother’s weight gain. a woman in the obese category is recommended to gain a total of 5~9 kilograms.5~16 kg (25~35 lb) 0.[3] Summary Table The following table summarizes the recommended rate of weight gain and total weight gain according to pre-pregnancy BMI for singleton pregnancies. help from a registered dietitian is recommended. then the measurement of the date of last menstrual period becomes quite important since the crown heel length has become less of a reliable indicator of gestational age.[14] Measured values from ultrasonography are compared with the growth chart to estimate fetal weight.[14] This correlation between crown rump length and gestational age would be most effectively shown when no growth defects are observed in first trimester. the top portion of the uterus to the pubic bone.5 12.[14] If growth defects were observed in the first trimester.0~9.Prenatal nutrition and birth weight 241 be done with the help of tools such as My Food Guide Servings Tracker from Health Canada and EATracker that are available online.0 lb) Overweight BMI 25.0~ 11.0 kg (11~20 lb) 0.[3] In extreme cases where the BMI exceeds 35.2 kg (0. the amount of total and weekly weight gain can vary by a factor of two depending on a woman's pre-pregnant weight.9 7. In extreme cases.5~ 24. Pre-pregnancy BMI Category Recommendated Total Weight Gain Weekly Weight Gain (after 12 weeks) Underweight BMI <18.[15] How much weight the mother gains can be used to indicate fetal size.5~18 kg (28~40 lb) 0. If the measured number is higher or lower than 2 centimetres.4 kg (1.

[14] There are a number of maternal factors. based on data consisting of a reference population. a glucose/water solution can be offered to the infant.[15] It is also more difficult to maintain body temperature since there is less blood flow within the small body.[18] There might be a need for early delivery if the baby gets too big and perhaps Caesarean section would be needed. Birth weight chart. and medical conditions.[15] As such. they are considered large for gestational age or LGA.[18] Since the baby is bigger in size.[14] Other studies classify SGA babies as those with birth weight values below the 10th percentile of the growth chart for babies of the same gestational age.[17] Nutritional counseling. including maternal. nutritional status. regardless of Ultrasound examination.[16] This indicates that these babies are weighing less than 90% of babies of the same gestational age. and consistent monitoring can be helpful to assist women bearing SGA infants. placental. smoking.[18] For diabetic mothers.[17] Complications for the infant include limitations in body growth since the number and size of cells in tissues is smaller. If the baby can’t suck well. is the appearance of macrosomia. gestational age.[18] To increase the blood glucose level in blood. alcohol abuse. contribute to the cause of impaired fetal growth. which include age. and fetal factors. Monitoring fetal growth can help identify the problem during pregnancy well before birth.[18] An indicator for excessive growth.[14] Chromosomal abnormalities and genetic diseases are examples of fetal factors. High Birth Weight Research show that when birth weights of infants are greater than the 90th percentile of the growth chart for babies of the same gestational age.[15] The infant likely did not receive enough oxygen during pregnancy so the oxygen level is low. Many research studies agree that SGA babies are those with birth weight or crown heel length measured at two standard deviations or more below the mean of the infant’s gestational age. there’s a higher chance of injury when coming out of the mother’s body.[15] It would be beneficial to seek professional help and counseling. A longer delivery time may be expected since it is a difficult birth. education.Prenatal nutrition and birth weight 242 Low Birth Weight There are two ways to determine small for gestational age infants. then it may be necessary for tube-feed.[14] Insufficient uteroplacental perfusion is an example of a placental factor.[14] Identification of the causes of SGA for individual cases aids health professionals in finding ways to handle each unique case.[18] The infant would likely suffer hypoglycemia (low glucose level in the blood) after birth.[15] Since the baby cannot maintain body temperature sufficiently.[18] It seems that a common factor for LGA babies is whether or not the mother has diabetes when she is pregnant. a temperature-controlled bed would help to keep their bodies from losing heat. Many factors.[18] This indicates that these babies are weighing more than 90% of babies of the same gestational age.[19] Many complications are observed for LGA babies and their mothers.[15] There are ways to help prevent SGA babies. including genetics and excessive nutrient supply.[18] Many factors account for LGA babies. It is necessary to monitor fetal growth and perform pregnancy examinations to determine health status and detect any possibility of unrecognized diabetes.[18] There are ways to help prevent LGA babies.[18] The infant would also have difficulty breathing. . it is necessary to monitor oxygen level to make sure that it doesn’t go too low.

Course Notes.[3] Also. . Painter. ca/ fn-an/ consult/ _matern-weight-poids2009/ draft-ebauche-eng.[3] Practical Advice for Mothers The following general tips can be helpful to pregnant women.001.5. in turn. Retrieved December 1. FNH 471 Human Nutrition Over the Life Span. Since conditions during pregnancy will have long term effects on adult health. smaller and more frequent meals should be consumed to allow better weight management. 2010. [4] Bateson. such as fruit juices. International Journal of Epidemiology 30 (5): 928–934. especially water. J Clin Pathol 53: 822–828. 2009. "The Developmental Origins of Adult Disease" (http:/ / www. "Fetal origins of adult disease: epidemiology and mechanisms". in addition to the general recommendations.1016/j. the ranges for underweight women carrying twins is unknown. [3] "Draft Prenatal Nutrition Guidelines for Health Professionals . Losing Pregnancy Weight.[3] Estimated energy requirements (EER) for overweight/obese women are unavailable so more research is needed to evaluate on that. and weight issues should be addressed before pregnancy. as these ranges are wide. University of British Columbia.1136/jcp. which can be done by having extra Food Guide Servings daily. it is important to drink enough fluids.1093/ije/30.[22] It is recommended to accompany regular meals with a daily prenatal vitamin supplement that has sufficient folic acid and iron content. doi:10. [5] Barker. to support blood volume increases during pregnancy. Rooij. is also suggested.[3] Recommendations for women carrying twins are given but more research should be done to precisely determine the total weight gain. "The Dutch famine and its long-term consequences for adult health". DI (2000). Early Human Development (Elsevier Ireland) 82: 485–491. Fall. Susanne de. Most importantly.Maternal Weight and Weight Gain in Pregnancy" (http:/ / www.Prenatal nutrition and birth weight careful management of diabetes during pregnancy period would be helpful in terms of lowering some of the risks of LGA. it would be ideal to increase caloric intake. Retrieved 3 March 2011. . doi:10. It would be beneficial to maintain adequate physical activity to meet energy needs from the food consumed.[20] Eating a balanced diet would be optimal for healthy pregnancy results. Susan (2010).[23] Moderate sugar intake. Victoria.[20] If the fetus is predicted to have low birth weight. the total recommended pregnancy weight gain depends on pre-pregnant body weight.822. "Fetal experience and good adult design". Tessa. This. CD. hc-sc.2006. Rebecca (2006). "Weight Problems During Prengnacy And The Effect On Your Baby" (http:/ / www. 243 .[20] If the fetus is predicted to have high birth weight. [6] Byrne. com/ losing-pregnancy-weight-weight-problems-during-pregnancy-and-the-effect-on-your-baby/ ). has a positive effect on the baby’s health.11.[20] References [1] Barr. gc. P (2001).928. and pregnant teens. Health Canada. “moderation” should be taken into account for both dietary and physical activity recommendations. php).53. [2] De Leon. doi:10.[23] It is essential to limit food and beverages with high calories and salt content. Maintaining healthy and steady weight gain during pregnancy promotes overall health and reduces the incidence of prenatal morbidity and mortality.earlhumdev. toloseweightafterpregnancy. jacn. There was not enough information to recommend weight gain cutoffs and guidelines for women carrying three or more babies. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 23/ suppl_6/ 588S). Phillips. . women of short stature (<157 centimetres). Future Direction for Research It is reasonable to expect higher weight gain for multiple gestations. [7] Roseboom.[18] Points to Consider The goal of pregnancy is to have a healthy baby. DJP (2004).[21] To prevent problems like dehydration and constipation. Journal of the American College of Nutrition (American College of Nutrition) 23 (6): 588S-595S.07.

com/ static/ pregnancy-week-20. 2003. Retrieved 2010-11-18. A rotatable 3D version of this photo is available here (http:/ / www. php). (2003). Ricardo. edu/ Reports/ 2009/ Weight-Gain-During-Pregnancy-Reexamining-the-Guidelines. "The Juicy Story on Drinks" (http:/ / www. doi:10. [23] Alberta clinical experts. [13] "Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines" (http:/ / www. . 244 . "Labor complication: Big baby (macrosomia)" (http:/ / www. et al. Retrieved 2010-11-09. PA.6. and a sketch is available here (http:/ / www. bc). Uauy. Retrieved 2010-11-21. html). html?tracking=P_RelatedArticle#). Health Canada. 2006. Chernausek. 3dpregnancy. Retrieved 2010-11-23. aspx). 3dpregnancy. [20] "Prenatal Nutrition Guidelines for Health Professionals . Retrieved 2010-12-13. "Large for Gestational Age" (http:/ / www. ca/ en/ ViewDocument.. "Nutritional Interventions during Pregnancy for the Prevention or Treatment of Impaired Fetal Growth: An Overview of Randomized Controlled Trials" (http:/ / jn. 2010. org/ display/ PPF/ DocID/ 23374/ router. Retrieved 2010-11-05. April 24–October 1. iom.L. html).Prenatal nutrition and birth weight [8] Hornstra. "Prediabetes or Impaired Glucose Intolerance" (http:/ / www. 3dpregnancy. [14] Lee. com/ static/ pregnancy-week-10. Retrieved 2010-12-13. "International Small for Gestational Age Advisory Board Consensus Development Conference Statement: Management of Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age. Xiaoguang (2004). A rotatable 3D version of this photo is available here (http:/ / www. com/ rotatable/ 40-weeks-pregnant. Retrieved 2010-11-09. chw. Children's Hospital and Health System. pdf+ html). Institute of Medicine. Gerard. "Staying Healthy During Pregnancy" (http:/ / kidshealth. The Nemours Foundation. html). Inc. org/ parent/ pregnancy_center/ your_pregnancy/ preg_health. A rotatable 3D version of this photo is available here (http:/ / www. [10] 3D Pregnancy (http:/ / www. [17] Lisa Gourley. com/ pictures/ pregnancy-week-10. [9] 3D Pregnancy (http:/ / www. 2010. 3dpregnancy. com/ pictures/ pregnancy-week-40. [18] Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. 3dpregnancy. html). ca/ fn-an/ pubs/ nutrition/ guide-prenatal-eng. 2009.1542/peds. html). 2001". com/ static/ pregnancy-week-40. [19] BabyCenter Medical Advisory Board. 2010. html) (Image from gestational age of 10 weeks). Retrieved 2010-11-05. M. com/ rotatable/ 10-weeks-pregnant. org/ content/ 133/ 5/ 1626S. Lucile Packard Children's Hospital.Background on Canada's Food Guide" (http:/ / www. [15] "Small for Gestational Age" (http:/ / www. "Prenatal Nutrition" (http:/ / www. babycenter. et al. 3dpregnancy. gc. html) (Image from gestational age of 40 weeks). Yang. 2009. 2010. L. html) (Image from gestational age of 20 weeks).111. SD. htm). The Journal of Nutrition 133 (5): 1626S-1631S. PEDIATRICS 111 (6): 1253–1261. Healthline Networks. html). com/ galecontent/ prenatal-nutrition/ 4). hc-sc. ISBN 380557780X. capitalhealth. 2008. Carroli. org/ DiseaseHealthInfo/ HealthLibrary/ hrnewborn/ sga.1253. lpch. [12] "Canadian Guidelines for Body Weight Classification in Adults" (http:/ / www.. BabyCenter. gc. Retrieved 2010-11-17. New York: Basel. Retrieved 2010-12-13. nutrition. Retrieved November 27. com/ pictures/ pregnancy-week-20. html). 3dpregnancy. Retrieved November 28. [22] Ministry of Health Promotion. [21] Larissa Hirsch. ca/ fn-an/ nutrition/ weights-poids/ guide-ld-adult/ weight_book_tc-livres_des_poids_tm-eng. hc-sc. Queen's Printer for Ontario. com/ 0_labor-complication-big-baby-macrosomia_1152319. HealthLink Alberta. and a sketch is available here (http:/ / www.C. G. 2010. The impact of maternal nutrition on the offspring. [11] 3D Pregnancy (http:/ / www. 2002. . 3dpregnancy. eatrightontario. 2008. 3dpregnancy. aspx?id=72& Topic=5& Cat=162). php). . and a sketch is available here (http:/ / www. full. (2003). healthline. asp). ca/ EspeciallyFor/ WeightWise/ Prediabetes_Impaired_Glucose_Tolerance_Adults. Health Canada. com/ rotatable/ 20-weeks-pregnant. [16] Merialdi.

This portrait "conveys an impression of anxiety and weariness. shortness of breath. (3) specificity of the threat. or headaches. worry. and pupillary dilation. cognitive. As the body prepares to deal with a threat. present dangers which divides anxiety and fear. heart rate. nausea. In a 2011 review of the literature. blood pressure. stomach aches. while immune and digestive functions are inhibited (the fight or flight response). tachycardia. Someone who has anxiety might also experience it subjectively as a sense of dread . and behavioral components. perspiration. which is an appropriate emotional response to a perceived threat. (2) temporal focus. in either presence or absence of psychological stress. it is distinguished from fear. broadly focused towards a diffuse threat. trembling.[5] Description Anxiety is a generalized mood condition that can occur without an identifiable triggering stimulus. future focused. and dread.[8] fear and anxiety were said to be differentiated in four domains: (1) duration of emotional experience. Fear was defined as short lived. it may fall under the classification of an anxiety disorder." MeSH D001007 [2] Anxiety (also called angst or worry) is a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic. and promoting caution while approaching a potential threat.[3] The root meaning of the word anxiety is 'to vex or trouble'. anxiety can create feelings of fear. fear is related to the specific behaviors of escape and avoidance. chest pain. External signs of anxiety may include pallor. as of a [1] man shouldering heavy [state] responsibilities. geared towards a specific threat. and facilitating escape from threat. and (4) motivated direction. while anxiety was defined as long acting. It may help an individual to deal with a demanding situation by prompting them to cope with it. fatigue. muscle weakness and tension. When anxiety becomes excessive. present focused. uneasiness. whereas anxiety is related to situations perceived as uncontrollable or unavoidable. Additionally. blood flow to the major muscle groups are increased.[7] suggesting that it is a distinction between future vs. The physical effects of anxiety may include heart palpitations. As such. emotional.[4] Anxiety is considered to be a normal reaction to a stressor. sweating.Anxiety 245 Anxiety Anxiety A marble bust of the Roman Emperor Decius from the Capitoline Museum.[6] Another view defines anxiety as "a future-oriented mood state in which one is ready or prepared to attempt to cope with upcoming negative events".

irritability.[12] Anxiety can also be experienced in ways which include changes in sleeping patterns. and fearful finds that their nucleus accumbens is more sensitive than that in other people when selecting to make an action that determined whether they received a reward. Research upon adolescents who as infants had been highly apprehensive. watching (and waiting) for signs (and occurrences) of danger. anticipating the worst. the subjective perception of danger is very real.[15] This suggests a link between circuits responsible for fear and also reward in anxious people. Although single genes have little effect on complex traits and interact heavily both between themselves and with the external factors. which he characterized as "a generalized biological vulnerability. PET-scans show increased bloodflow in the amygdala. vigilant. A person experiencing a panic attack will often feel as if he or she is about to die or lose consciousness. This may cause false positive reactions but also avoid real threats."[15] Neural circuitry involving the amygdala and hippocampus is thought to underlie anxiety." and "a specific psychological vulnerability. in a context of uncertainty (probabilistic outcomes) drives the neural system underlying appetitive motivation (i. deja vu. restlessness. such as fear of dying. trouble concentrating. feeling tense or jumpy.e.[16] When people are confronted with unpleasant and potentially harmful stimuli such as foul odors or tastes. As researchers note "a sense of ‘responsibility." "a generalized psychological vulnerability.[12] Causes An evolutionary psychology explanation is that increased anxiety serves the purpose of increased vigilance regarding potential threats in the environment as well as increased tendency to take proactive actions regarding such possible threats. and. this study highlights an additional environmental factor that may result from being raised by parents suffering from chronic anxiety themselves. obsessions about sensations. research is underway to unravel possible molecular mechanisms underlying anxiety and comorbid conditions.. This might indicate that anxiety is a protective mechanism designed to prevent the organism from engaging in potentially harmful behaviors. they are a common symptom. One candidate gene with polymorphisms that influence anxiety is PLXNA2.. This may explain why anxious people are less likely to die due to accidents. and feeling like everything is scary."[11] The behavioral effects of anxiety may include withdrawal from situations which have provoked anxiety in the past. fear that the chest pains are a deadly heart attack or that the shooting pains in your head are the result of a tumor or aneurysm. nervous habits. "You may. nucleus accumbens) more strongly in temperamentally inhibited than noninhibited adolescents.[19] 246 . or can’t get it out of your mind.Anxiety or panic."[10] The cognitive effects of anxiety may include thoughts about suspected dangers. the participants also reported moderate anxiety."[14] While chemical issues in the brain that result in anxiety (especially resulting from genetics) are well documented. You feel an intense fear when you think of dying. a trapped in your mind feeling. Barlow of Boston University conducted a study that showed three common characteristics of people suffering from chronic anxiety. Although panic attacks are not experienced by every person who has anxiety.[13] The psychologist David H. and increased motor tension like foot tapping. Panic attacks usually come without warning and although the fear is generally irrational..’ or self agency. feeling like your mind's gone blank"[9] as well as "nightmares/bad dreams.[17] [18] In these studies. The emotional effects of anxiety may include "feelings of apprehension or dread. or you may think of it more often than normal.

somatic complaints and behavior at the interview. apprehension. Such conditions came under the aegis of psychiatry at the end of the 19th century[21] and current psychiatric diagnostic criteria recognize several specific forms of the disorder. an optimal level of arousal is necessary to best complete a task such as an exam. headaches. Students who have test anxiety may experience any of the following: the association of grades with personal worth. or nervousness felt by students who had a fear of failing an exam. the result is a decline in performance. moral (guilt and condemnation). Test anxiety is the uneasiness. tension. Test and Performance Anxiety According to Yerkes-Dodson law. 247 . The theologian Paul Tillich characterized existential anxiety[25] as "the state in which a being is aware of its possible nonbeing" and he listed three categories for the nonbeing and resulting anxiety: ontic (fate and death). nausea. and Nihilism The philosopher Søren Kierkegaard. including anxious mood. based on 14 parameters. fears. debate exists as to whether test anxiety is itself a unique anxiety disorder or whether it is a specific type of social phobia. Beck Anxiety Inventory. spiritual anxiety may tend to "drive the person toward the creation of certitude in systems of meaning which are supported by tradition and authority" even though such "undoubted certitude is not built on the rock of reality". fear of alienation from parents or friends. heart failure.[20] Abnormal and pathological anxiety or fear may itself be a medical condition falling under the blanket term "anxiety disorder". Recent surveys have found that as many as 18% of Americans may be affected by one or more of them.e. Sweating. performance. or competitive event.[24] Existential Anxiety Further information: Angst. when a person is faced with extreme mortal dangers. In Art and Artist (1932). the author of Man's Search for Meaning. the last of these three types of existential anxiety. insomnia. racing heartbeats.[23] The HAM-A (Hamilton Anxiety Scale) measures the severity of a patient's anxiety. Tillich argues that this anxiety can be accepted as part of the human condition or it can be resisted but with negative consequences. time pressures. However. is predominant in modern times while the others were predominant in earlier periods. dizziness. and spiritual (emptiness and meaninglessness). According to Viktor Frankl. According to Tillich. when the anxiety or level of arousal exceeds that optimum. fidgeting. or heart arrythmia. described anxiety or dread associated with the "dizziness of freedom" and suggested the possibility for positive resolution of anxiety through the self-conscious exercise of responsibility and choosing. spiritual anxiety. Existential crisis. in The Concept of Anxiety. and drumming on a desk are all common. and HAM-A (Hamilton Anxiety Scale) can be used to detect anxiety symptoms and suggest the need for a formal diagnostic assessment of anxiety disorder.[22] Standardized screening tools such as Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. the most basic of all human wishes is to find a meaning of life to combat the "trauma of nonbeing" as death is near. individuation and differentiation. or feeling a loss of control. Because test anxiety hinges on fear of negative evaluation. i. the psychologist Otto Rank wrote that the psychological trauma of birth was the pre-eminent human symbol of existential anxiety and encompasses the creative person's simultaneous fear of – and desire for – separation. fear of embarrassment by a teacher. In its pathological form.Anxiety Varieties In Medicine Anxiety can be a symptom of an underlying health issue such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Anxiety
While the term "test anxiety" refers specifically to students, many workers share the same experience with regard to
their career or profession. The fear of failing at a task and being negatively evaluated for failure can have a similarly
negative effect on the adult.

Stranger and Social Anxiety
Anxiety when meeting or interacting with unknown people is a common stage of development in young people. For
others, it may persist into adulthood and become social anxiety or social phobia. "Stranger anxiety" in small children
is not considered a phobia. In adults, an excessive fear of other people is not a developmentally common stage; it is
called social anxiety. According to Cutting,[26] social phobics do not fear the crowd but the fact that they may be
being judged negatively.
Social anxiety varies in degree and severity. Whilst for some people it is characterized by experiencing discomfort or
awkwardness during physical social contact (Embracing, Shaking Hands, etc.), in other cases it can lead to a fear of
interacting with unfamiliar people altogether. There can be a tendency among those suffering from this condition to
restrict their lifestyles to accommodate the anxiety, minimizing social interaction whenever possible. Social Anxiety
also forms a core aspect of certain personality disorders, including Avoidant Personality Disorder.

Generalized Anxiety
Further information: Generalized anxiety disorder and Cognitive behavioral therapy
Overwhelming anxiety, if not treated early, can consequently become a generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), which
can be identified by symptoms of exaggerated and excessive worry, chronic anxiety, and constant, irrational
thoughts. The anxious thoughts and feelings felt while suffering from GAD are difficult to control and can cause
serious mental anguish that interferes with normal, daily functioning.[27]
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) includes specific criteria for diagnosing
generalized anxiety disorder. The DSM-IV states that a patient must experience chronic anxiety and excessive worry,
almost daily, for at least 6 months due to a number of stressors (such as work or school) and experience three or
more defined symptoms, including, “restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge, being easily fatigued, difficulty
concentrating or mind going blank, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbance (difficulty falling or staying asleep,
or restless unsatisfying sleep).”[28]
If symptoms of chronic anxiety are not addressed and treated in adolescence then the risk of developing an anxiety
disorder in adulthood increases significantly.[29] “Clinical worry is also associated with risk of comorbidity with
other anxiety disorders and depression” which is why immediate treatment is so important.[30]
Generalized anxiety disorder can be treated through specialized therapies aimed at changing thinking patterns and in
turn reducing anxiety-producing behaviors. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and short-term psychodynamic
psychotherapy (STPP) can be used to successfully treat GAD with positive effects lasting 12 months after
treatment.[31] There are also other treatment plans that should be discussed with a knowledgeable health care
practitioner, which can be used in conjunction with behavioral therapy to greatly reduce the disabling symptoms of
generalized anxiety disorder.

248

Anxiety

249

Trait Anxiety
Anxiety can be either a short term 'state' or a long term "trait." Trait anxiety reflects a stable tendency to respond
with state anxiety in the anticipation of threatening situations.[32] It is closely related to the personality trait of
neuroticism. Such anxiety may be conscious or unconscious.[33]

Choice or Decision Anxiety
Anxiety induced by the need to choose between similar options is increasingly being recognized as a problem for
individuals and for organisations:[34] [35]
"Today we’re all faced with greater choice, more competition and less time to consider our options or
seek out the right advice."[36]

Paradoxical Anxiety
Further information: Adverse effects of meditation
Paradoxical anxiety is anxiety arising from use of methods or techniques which are normally used to reduce anxiety.
This includes relaxation or meditation techniques[37] as well as use of certain medications.[38] In some Buddhist
meditation literature, this effect is described as something which arises naturally and should be turned toward and
mindfully explored in order to gain insight into the nature of emotion, and more profoundly, the nature of self.[39]

Positive Psychology
Further information: Mental state
In Positive psychology, anxiety is described as the mental state that results from a difficult challenge for which the
subject has insufficient coping skills.[40]

See Also




Arousal
Catastrophization
Panic attack
Paranoia
Social anxiety

External Links
• Anxiety [41] at the Open Directory Project
• Social Anxiety [42] at the Open Directory Project
• Psychology Tools [43]: Anxiety support forum

References
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[2]
[3]
[4]

Chris Scarre, Chronicle of the Roman Emperors, Thames & Hudson, 1995. pp.168-169.
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Seligman, M.E.P., Walker, E.F. & Rosenhan, D.L..Abnormal psychology, (4th ed.) New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Bouras, n. and Holt, G. (2007). Psychiatric and Behavioural Disorders in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 2nd ed. Cambridge
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[5] National Institute of Mental Health (http:/ / www. nimh. nih. gov/ health/ topics/ anxiety-disorders/ index. shtml) Retrieved September 3,
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[6] Ohman, A. (2000). Fear and anxiety: Evolutionary, cognitive, and clinical perspectives. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.).
Handbook of emotions. (pp.573-593). New York: The Guilford Press.

Anxiety
[7] Barlow, David H. (November 2002). "Unraveling the mysteries of anxiety and its disorders from the perspective of emotion theory" (http:/ /
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[8] Sylvers, Patrick; Jamie Laprarie and Scott Lilienfeld (February 2011). "Differences between trait fear and trait anxiety: Implications for
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[9] Smith, Melinda (2008, June). Anxiety attacks and disorders: Guide to the signs, symptoms, and treatment options. Retrieved March 3, 2009,
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[10] (1987-2008). Anxiety Symptoms, Anxiety Attack Symptoms (Panic Attack Symptoms), Symptoms of Anxiety. Retrieved March 3, 2009,
from Anxiety Centre Web site: http:/ / www. anxietycentre. com/ anxiety-symptoms. shtml
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[12] Barker, P. (2003) Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing: The Craft of Care. Edward Arnold, London.
[13] Andrews, P. W.; Thomson, J. A. (2009). "The bright side of being blue: Depression as an adaptation for analyzing complex problems".
Psychological Review 116 (3): 620–654. doi:10.1037/a0016242. PMC 2734449. PMID 19618990.
[14] Barlow, David H.; Durand, Vincent (2008). Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach. Cengage Learning. p. 125. ISBN 0534581560.
[15] Bar-Haim Y, Fox NA, Benson B, Guyer AE, Williams A, Nelson EE, Perez-Edgar K, Pine DS, Ernst M. (2009). Neural correlates of reward
processing in adolescents with a history of inhibited temperament. Psychol Sci. 20(8):1009-18. PMID 19594857
[16] Rosen JB, Schulkin J (1998). "From normal fear to pathological anxiety". Psychol Rev 105 (2): 325–50. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.105.2.325.
PMID 9577241.
[17] Zald, D.H.; Pardo, JV (1997). "Emotion, olfaction, and the human amygdala: amygdala activation during aversive olfactory stimulation".
Proc Nat'l Acad Sci (USA) 94 (8): 4119–24. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.8.4119. PMC 20578. PMID 9108115.
[18] Zald, D.H.; Hagen, M.C.; & Pardo, J.V (1 February 2002). "Neural correlates of tasting concentrated quinine and sugar solutions" (http:/ /
jn. physiology. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 87/ 2/ 1068). J. Neurophysiol 87 (2): 1068–75. PMID 11826070. .
[19] Wray NR, James MR, Mah SP, Nelson M, Andrews G, Sullivan PF, Montgomery GW, Birley AJ, Braun A, Martin NG (March 2007).
"Anxiety and comorbid measures associated with PLXNA2" (http:/ / archpsyc. ama-assn. org/ cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long&
pmid=17339520). Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 64 (3): 318–26. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.64.3.318. PMID 17339520. .
[20] NPSPractice Review 48: Anxiety disorders (2009) Available at http:/ / www. nps. org. au/ health_professionals/ publications/
prescribing_practice_review/ current/ prescribing_practice_review_48
[21] Berrios GE (1999). "Anxiety Disorders: a conceptual history". J Affect Disord 56 (2–3): 83–94. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00036-1.
PMID 10701465.
[22] Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (June 2005). "Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV
disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication" (http:/ / archpsyc. ama-assn. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 62/ 6/ 617). Arch. Gen.
Psychiatry 62 (6): 617–27. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617. PMC 2847357. PMID 15939839. .
[23] Zung WWK. A rating instrument for anxiety disorders. Psychosomatics. 1971; 12: 371-379 PMID 5172928
[24] Psychiatric Times. Clinically Useful Psychiatric Scales: HAM-A (Hamilton Anxiety Scale) (http:/ / www. psychiatrictimes. com/
clinical-scales/ anxiety/ ). Accessed on March 6, 2009.
[25] Tillich, Paul, (1952). The Courage To Be, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-08471-4
[26] Cutting, P., Hardy, S. and Thomas, B. 1997 Mental Health Nursing: Principles and Practice Mosby, London.
[27] Generalized anxiety disorder: People who worry about everything--and nothing in particular--have several treatment options. (2011).
Harvard Mental Health Letter, 27(12), 1-3. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
[28] Andrews, G., Hobbs, M. J., Borkovec, T. D., Beesdo, K., Craske, M. G., Heimberg, R. G., & ... Stanley, M. A. (2010). Generalized worry
disorder: a review of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder and options for DSM-V. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 27(2), 134-147.
doi:10.1002/da.20658
[29] Ellis D, Hudson J. The Metacognitive Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescents. Clinical Child & Family
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29, 2011.
[30] Ellis D, Hudson J. The Metacognitive Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescents. Clinical Child & Family
Psychology Review [serial online]. June 2010;13(2):151-163. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September
29, 2011.
[31] Salzer, S., Winkelbach, C., Leweke, F., Leibing, E., & Leichsenring, F. (2011). Long-Term Effects of Short-Term Psychodynamic
Psychotherapy and Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: 12-Month Follow-Up. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry,
56(8), 503-508. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
[32] Schwarzer, R. (December 1997). "Anxiety" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070920115547/ http:/ / www. macses. ucsf. edu/ Research/
Psychosocial/ notebook/ anxiety. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. macses. ucsf. edu/ Research/ Psychosocial/ notebook/
anxiety. html) on 2007-09-20. . Retrieved 2008-01-12.
[33] Giddey, M. and Wright, H. Mental Health Nursing: From first principles to professional practice Stanley Thornes Ltd. UK.
[34] Downey, Jonathan (April 27, 2008). "Premium choice anxiety" (http:/ / women. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ life_and_style/ women/
the_way_we_live/ article3778818. ece). The Times (London). . Retrieved April 25, 2010.
[35] http:/ / www. selfgrowth. com/ articles/ Gates26. html
[36] http:/ / www. uk. capgemini. com/ news/ pr/ pr1487/

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[37] Bourne, Edmund J. (2005). The anxiety & phobia workbook (4th ed.). New Harbinger Publications. p. 369. ISBN 1572244135.
[38] Heide, Frederick J.; Borkovec, T. D. (1983). "Relaxation-Induced Anxiety: Paradoxical Anxiety Enhancement Due to Relaxation Training".
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[43] http:/ / psychology-tools. com/ forum/ forumdisplay. php?25-Anxiety

Emotional dysregulation
Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a term used in the mental health community to refer to an emotional response that
is poorly modulated, and does not fall within the conventionally accepted range of emotive response. ED may be
referred to as labile mood[1] or mood swings.
Possible manifestations of emotional dysregulation include angry outbursts or behavior outbursts such as destroying
or throwing objects, aggression towards self or others, and threats to kill oneself. These variations usually occur in
seconds to minutes or hours. Emotional dysregulation can lead to behavioral problems and can interfere with a
person's social interactions and relationships at home, in school, or at place of employment.
Emotional dysregulation can be associated with an experience of early psychological trauma, brain injury, or chronic
maltreatment (such as child abuse, child neglect, or institutional neglect/abuse), and associated disorders such as
reactive attachment disorder.[2] Emotional dysregulation may present in people with psychiatric disorders such as
bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and Complex post-traumatic stress disorder.[3] [4] ED is also found
among those with autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger syndrome.[3]

Etymology
The word dysregulation is a neologism created by combining the prefix "dys" to "regulation" According to
Webster's, dys has various roots. With Latin and Greek roots, it is akin to Old English tō-, te- apart and in Sanskrit
dus- bad, difficult.

References
[1] Beauchaine, T., Gatzke-Kopp, L., Mead, H., (2007). Polyvagal Theory and developmental psychopathology: Emotion dysregulation and
conduct problems from preschool to adolescence. Biological Psychology, 74, 174-184.
[2] Daniel Schechter, Erica Willheim (2009). Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood. Infant and Early
Childhood Mental Health Issue. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinics of North America, 18(3), 665-687.
[3] Pynoos, R., Steinberg, A., & Piacentini, J. (1999), Bipolar Disorder, and Asperger Syndrome. A developmental psychopathology model of
childhood traumatic stress and intersection with anxiety disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 1542-1554.
[4] Schore, A., (2003). Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self. New York: Norton.

251

Posttraumatic stress disorder

252

Posttraumatic stress disorder
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Classification and external resources

No quieren (They do not want to)
#9 from aquatint series Los Desastres de la Guerra (The disasters of war 1810-1820)
Francisco Goya (1746-1828)
[1]

ICD-10

F43.1

ICD-9

309.81

DiseasesDB

33846

MedlinePlus

000925

eMedicine

med/1900

MeSH

D013313

[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

[6]

Posttraumatic[7] stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to any event
that results in psychological trauma.[8] [9] [10] This event may involve the threat of death to oneself or to someone
else, or to one's own or someone else's physical, sexual, or psychological integrity,[8] overwhelming the individual's
ability to cope. As an effect of psychological trauma, PTSD is less frequent and more enduring than the more
commonly seen acute stress response. Diagnostic symptoms for PTSD include re-experiencing the original trauma(s)
through flashbacks or nightmares, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, and increased arousal – such as
difficulty falling or staying asleep, anger, and hypervigilance. Formal diagnostic criteria (both DSM-IV-TR and
ICD-10) require that the symptoms last more than one month and cause significant impairment in social,
occupational, or other important areas of functioning.[8]

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Classification
Posttraumatic stress disorder is classified as an anxiety disorder, characterized by aversive anxiety-related
experiences, behaviors, and physiological responses that develop after exposure to a psychologically traumatic event
(sometimes months after). Its features persist for longer than 30 days, which distinguishes it from the briefer acute
stress disorder. These persisting posttraumatic stress symptoms cause significant disruptions of one or more
important areas of life function.[11] It has three sub-forms: acute, chronic, and delayed-onset.[12]

Causes
Psychological trauma
PTSD is believed to be caused by either physical trauma or psychological trauma, or more frequently a combination
of both.[8] According to Atkinson et al. (2000) PTSD is more likely to be caused by physical or psychological trauma
caused by humans — such as rape, war, or terrorist attack — than by trauma caused by natural disasters. Possible
sources of trauma include experiencing or witnessing childhood or adult physical, emotional or sexual abuse.[8] In
addition, experiencing or witnessing an event perceived as life-threatening such as physical assault, adult
experiences of sexual assault, accidents, drug addiction, illnesses, medical complications, or employment in
occupations exposed to war (such as soldiers) or disaster (such as emergency service workers).[13]
Traumatic events that may cause PTSD symptoms to develop include violent assault, kidnapping, sexual assault,
torture, being a hostage, prisoner of war or concentration camp victim, experiencing a disaster, violent automobile
accidents or getting a diagnosis of a life-threatening illness.[8] Children or adults may develop PTSD symptoms by
experiencing bullying or mobbing.[14] [15] Approximately 25% of children exposed to family violence can experience
PTSD.[16] Preliminary research suggests that child abuse may interact with mutations in a stress-related gene to
increase the risk of PTSD in adults.[17] [18] [19]
Multiple studies show that parental PTSD and other posttraumatic disturbances in parental psychological functioning
can, despite a traumatized parent's best efforts, interfere with their response to their child as well as their child's
response to trauma.[20] [21] Parents with violence-related PTSD may, for example, inadvertently expose their children
to developmentally inappropriate violent media due to their need to manage their own emotional dysregulation.[22]
Clinical findings indicate that a failure to provide adequate treatment to children after they suffer a traumatic
experience, depending on their vulnerability and the severity of the trauma, will ultimately lead to PTSD symptoms
in adulthood.[23]

Evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary psychology views different types of fears and reactions caused by fears as adaptations that may have
been useful in the ancestral environment in order to avoid or cope with various threats. Mammals generally display
several defensive behaviors roughly dependent on how close the threat is: avoidance, vigilant immobility,
withdrawal, aggressive defense, appeasement, and finally complete frozen immobility (the last possibly to confuse a
predator's attack reflex or to simulate a dead and contaminated body). PTSD may correspond to and be caused by
overactivation of such fear circuits. Thus, PTSD avoidance behaviors may correspond to mammal avoidance of and
withdrawal from threats. Heightened memory of past threats may increase avoidance of similar situations in the
future as well as be a prerequisite for analyzing the past threat and develop better defensive behaviors if the threat
should reoccur. PTSD hyperarousal may correspond to vigilant immobility and aggressive defense. Complex
post-traumatic stress disorder (and phenomena such as the Stockholm syndrome) may in part correspond to the
appeasement stage and possibly the frozen immobility stage.[24] [25]
There may be evolutionary explanations for differences in resilience to traumatic events. Thus, PTSD is rare
following traumatic fire which may be explained by events such as forest fires long being part of the evolutionary
history of mammals. On the other hand, PTSD is much more common following modern warfare, which may be

253

Posttraumatic stress disorder

254

explained by modern warfare being a new development and very unlike the quick inter-group raids that are argued to
have characterized the paleolithic.[26]

Neuroendocrinology
PTSD symptoms may result when a traumatic event causes an over-reactive adrenaline response, which creates deep
neurological patterns in the brain. These patterns can persist long after the event that triggered the fear, making an
individual hyper-responsive to future fearful situations.[27]
PTSD displays biochemical changes in the brain and body that differ from other psychiatric disorders such as major
depression. Individuals diagnosed with PTSD respond more strongly to a dexamethasone suppression test than
individuals diagnosed with clinical depression.[28] [29]
In addition, most people with PTSD also show a low secretion of cortisol and high secretion of catecholamines in
urine, with a norepinephrine/cortisol ratio consequently higher than comparable non-diagnosed individuals.[30] This
is in contrast to the normative fight-or-flight response, in which both catecholamine and cortisol levels are elevated
after exposure to a stressor.[31]
Brain catecholamine levels are high,[32] and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) concentrations are high.[33]
Together, these findings suggest abnormality in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.

[34]

Given the strong cortisol suppression to dexamethasone in PTSD, HPA axis abnormalities are likely predicated on
strong negative feedback inhibition of cortisol, itself likely due to an increased sensitivity of glucocorticoid
receptors.[35] Some researchers have associated the response to stress in PTSD with long-term exposure to high
levels of norepinephrine and low levels of cortisol, a pattern associated with improved learning in animals.
Translating this reaction to human conditions gives a pathophysiological explanation for PTSD by a maladaptive
learning pathway to fear response through a hypersensitive, hyperreactive and hyperresponsive HPA axis.[36]
Low cortisol levels may predispose individuals to PTSD: Following war trauma, Swedish soldiers serving in Bosnia
and Herzegovina with low pre-service salivary cortisol levels had a higher risk of reacting with PTSD symptoms,
following war trauma, than soldiers with normal pre-service levels.[37] Because cortisol is normally important in
restoring homeostasis after the stress response, it is thought that trauma survivors with low cortisol experience a
poorly contained—that is, longer and more distressing—response, setting the stage for PTSD.
However, there is considerable controversy within the medical community regarding the neurobiology of PTSD. A
review of existing studies on this subject showed no clear relationship between cortisol levels and PTSD. Only a
slight majority have found a decrease in cortisol levels while others have found no effect or even an increase.[38]

it has been found that several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) interact with childhood trauma to predict severity of adult PTSD. especially fear-related memories. the amygdala has been shown to be strongly involved in the formation of emotional memories. For example. amygdala and hippocampus. This is particularly interesting given that FKBP5 SNPs have previously been associated with peritraumatic dissociation (that is. this SNP is also associated with fear discrimination. Genetics There is evidence that susceptibility to PTSD is hereditary. dissociation at the time of the trauma).[44] This is consistent with an interpretation of PTSD as a syndrome of deficient extinction ability. having a monozygotic (identical) twin with PTSD was associated with an increased risk of the co-twin having PTSD compared to twins that were dizygotic (non-identical twins).[42] [43] In human studies.[51] [52] Furthermore.[53] Another recent study found a single SNP in a putative estrogen response element on ADCYAP1R1 (encodes pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor or PAC1) to predict PTSD diagnosis and symptoms in females.[44] [45] A study at the European Neuroscience Institute-Goettingen (Germany) found that fear extinction-induced IGF2/IGFBP7 signalling promotes the survival of 17–19-day-old newborn hippocampal neurons..[46] Further animal and clinical research into the amygdala and fear conditioning may suggest additional treatments for the condition. The study suggests that perturbations in the PACAP-PAC1 pathway are involved in abnormal stress responses underlying PTSD. For twin pairs exposed to combat in Vietnam.Posttraumatic stress disorder 255 Neuroanatomy Three areas of the brain whose function may be altered in PTSD have been identified: the prefrontal cortex. .[50] which has itself been shown to be predictive of PTSD.[40] In a study by Gurvits et al. Neuroimaging studies in humans have revealed both morphological and functional aspects of PTSD.[54] Incidentally. a prospective study using the Vietnam Head Injury Study showed that damage to the prefrontal cortex may actually be protective against later development of PTSD. Much of this research has utilised PTSD victims from the Vietnam War. FKBP5 may be less expressed in those with current PTSD. Regions of the brain associated with stress and posttraumatic [39] stress disorder The amygdalocentric model of PTSD proposes that it is associated with hyperarousal of the amygdala and insufficient top-down control by the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus particularly during extinction. combat veterans of the Vietnam War with PTSD showed a 20% reduction in the volume of their hippocampus compared with veterans who suffered no such symptoms. This suggests that therapeutic strategies that enhance IGF2 signalling and adult neurogenesis might be suitable to treat diseases linked to excessive fear memory such as PTSD. Germany).[47] Recently.[41] This finding could not be replicated in chronic PTSD patients traumatized at an air show plane crash in 1988 (Ramstein.[48] [49] These findings suggest that individuals with these SNPs who are abused as children are more susceptible to PTSD as adults.

and 42% of those who had been physically abused met the PTSD criteria. such as: • Japanese-American ethnicity. older age at entry to war. Among those are: • Hispanic ethnicity.[65] [66] There may also be an attitudinal component. 256 . high school degree or college education. should either be wounded. and Sengupta[52] identified risk factors for the development of PTSD in Vietnam veterans. and trauma severity. These children may have developed PTSD due to witnessing violence in the home. Lunney. being punished severely during childhood. The recovery rate for foster home alumni was 28. conducted in conjunction with researchers from the Harvard Medical School in Oregon and Washington state. coming from an unstable family. and severity of the trauma also make an impact.[55] Vulnerability to PTSD presumably stems from an interaction of biological diathesis. early childhood developmental experiences.2% as opposed to 47% in the general population. a soldier who believes that they will not sustain injuries may be more likely to develop symptoms of PTSD than one who anticipates the possibility. Up to 25 percent of those in the study meet the diagnostic criteria for PTSD as compared to 12-13 percent of Iraq war veterans and 15 percent of Vietnam War veterans. Predictor models have consistently found that childhood trauma. duration of. childhood asocial behavior and depression as pre-military factors • War-zone exposure. post-Vietnam trauma and depression as post-military factors They also identified certain protective factors.[67] [68] Dubner and Motta (1999)[69] found that 60% of children in foster care who had experienced sexual abuse had PTSD.Posttraumatic stress disorder Risk factors Although most people (50-90%) encounter trauma over a lifetime. peritraumatic dissociation. Likewise. Foster care In the Casey Family Northwest Alumni Study. depression as military factors • Recent stressful life events. which is not well understood. higher socioeconomic status and a more positive paternal relationship as pre-military protective factors • Social support at homecoming and current social support as post-military factors. for example. and a rate of 4 percent in the general population.[57] [58] [59] [60] This effect of childhood trauma. or as a result of real or perceived parental abandonment. the later incidence of suicide among those injured in home fires above those injured in fires in the workplace suggests this possibility.[55] [56] only about 8% develop full PTSD. and interpersonal traumas cause more problems than impersonal ones. chronic adversity. the rate of PTSD in adults who were in foster care for one year between the ages of 14-18 was found to be higher than that of combat veterans. may be a marker for both traumatic experiences and attachment problems. and familial stressors increase risk for PTSD as well as risk for biological markers of risk for PTSD after a traumatic event in adulthood.[63] Military experience Schnurr.[61] [62] Proximity to. PTSD was also found in 18% of the children who w