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Adoption

A guidebook

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Contents
Articles
Adoption

1

Language of adoption

19

Open adoption

23

Closed adoption

27

Domestic adoption

32

Foster care adoption

34

International adoption

35

Interracial adoption

42

Embryo donation

45

Foster care

48

Orphan

64

AIDS orphan

68

Orphanage

69

Third culture kid

85

Cultural variations in adoption

93

Child development stages

95

Ethology

110

Adoption home study

118

Child protection

119

Child abuse

126

Human bonding

137

Affectional bond

144

John Bowlby

145

Mary Ainsworth

151

Michael Rutter

156

Attachment theory

158

Attachment in children

182

Attachment measures

190

Attachment therapy

200

Attachment disorder

216

Maternal deprivation

227

Prenatal nutrition and birth weight

237

Anxiety

245

Emotional dysregulation

251

Posttraumatic stress disorder

252

Reactive attachment disorder

276

Disinhibited attachment disorder

290

Institutional syndrome

291

Fetal alcohol syndrome

293

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

307

Prenatal cocaine exposure

315

Cleft lip and palate

323

Disruption (adoption)

337

Genealogical bewilderment

340

Adoption in the United States

342

Adoption in Italy

346

Adoption in France

347

Adoption in Australia

348

Adoption in Guatemala

354

LGBT adoption

355

Child laundering

369

Trafficking of children

370

Adoption disclosure

372

Adoption reunion registry

374

Adoption tax credit

375

Aging out

376

List of international adoption scandals

378

References
Article Sources and Contributors

382

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

388

Article Licenses
License

391

Adoption

1

Adoption
Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the
parenting for another and, in so doing, permanently
transfers all rights and responsibilities from the original
parent or parents. Unlike guardianship or other systems
designed for the care of the young, adoption is intended
to effect a permanent change in status and as such
requires societal recognition, either through legal or
religious sanction. Historically some societies have
enacted specific laws governing adoption whereas
others have endeavored to achieve adoption through
less formal means, notably via contracts that specified
inheritance rights and parental responsibilities. Modern
systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to
be governed by comprehensive statutes and regulations.
Adoption has a long history in the Western world,
closely tied with the legacy of the Roman Empire and
the Catholic Church. Its use has changed considerably
over the centuries with its focus shifting from adult
adoption and inheritance issues toward children and
family creation and its structure moving from a
recognition of continuity between the adopted and kin
toward allowing relationships of lessened intensity.

History

Sister Irene of New York Foundling Hospital with children. Sister
Irene is among the pioneers of modern adoption, establishing a
system to board out children rather than institutionalize them.

Adoption

2

Antiquity
Adoption for the well-born
While the modern form of adoption emerged in the United States, forms of the
practice appeared throughout history.[1] The Code of Hammurabi, for example,
details the rights of adopters and the responsibilities of adopted individuals at
length and the practice of adoption in ancient Rome is well documented in the
Codex Justinianus.[2] [3]
Markedly different from the modern period, ancient adoption practices put
emphasis on the political and economic interests of the adopter,[4] providing a
legal tool that strengthened political ties between wealthy families and creating
male heirs to manage estates.[5] [6] The use of adoption by the aristocracy is well
documented; many of Rome's emperors were adopted sons.[6]
Infant adoption during Antiquity appears rare.[4] [7] Abandoned children were
often picked up for slavery[8] and composed a significant percentage of the
Empire’s slave supply.[9] [10] Roman legal records indicate that foundlings were
occasionally taken in by families and raised as a son or daughter. Although not
normally adopted under Roman Law, the children, called alumni, were reared in
an arrangement similar to guardianship, being considered the property of the
father who abandoned them.[11]

Trajan became emperor of Rome
through adoption, a customary
practice of the empire that enabled
peaceful transitions of power.

Other ancient civilizations, notably India and China, utilized some form of adoption as well. Evidence suggests their
practices aimed to ensure the continuity of cultural and religious practices, in contrast to the Western idea of
extending family lines. In ancient India, secondary sonship, clearly denounced by the Rigveda,[12] continued, in a
limited and highly ritualistic form, so that an adopter might have the necessary funerary rites performed by a son.[13]
China had a similar conception of adoption with males adopted solely to perform the duties of ancestor worship.[14]

Middle Ages to Modern Period
Adoption and commoners
The nobility of the Germanic, Celtic, and Slavic cultures that
dominated Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire denounced
the practice of adoption.[15] In medieval society, bloodlines were
paramount; a ruling dynasty lacking a natural-born heir apparent was
replaced, a stark contrast to Roman traditions. The evolution of
European law reflects this aversion to adoption. English Common Law,
for instance, did not permit adoption since it contradicted the
customary rules of inheritance. In the same vein, France's Napoleonic
Code made adoption difficult, requiring adopters to be over the age of
50, sterile, older than the adopted person by at least fifteen years, and
At the monastery gate (Am Klostertor) by
to have fostered the adoptee for at least six years.[16] Some adoptions
Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller.
continued to occur, however, but became informal, based on ad hoc
contracts. For example, in the year 737, in a charter from the town of Lucca, three adoptees were made heirs to an
estate. Like other contemporary arrangements, the agreement stressed the responsibility of the adopted rather than
adopter, focusing on the fact that, under the contract, the adoptive father was meant to be cared for in his old age; an
idea that recalls conceptions of adoption under Roman law.[17]
Europe's cultural makeover marked a period of significant innovation for adoption. Without support from the
nobility, the practice gradually shifted toward abandoned children. Abandonment levels rose with the fall of the

Adoption

3

empire and many of the foundlings were left on the doorstep of the Church.[18] Initially, the clergy reacted by
drafting rules to govern the exposing, selling, and rearing of abandoned children. The Church's innovation, however,
was the practice of oblation, whereby children were dedicated to lay life within monastic institutions and reared
within a monastery. This created the first system in European history in which abandoned children were without
legal, social, or moral disadvantage. As a result, many of Europe's abandoned and orphaned became alumni of the
Church, which in turn took the role of adopter. Oblation marks the beginning of a shift toward institutionalization,
eventually bringing about the establishment of the foundling hospital and orphanage.[18]
As the idea of institutional care gained acceptance, formal rules appeared about how to place children into families:
boys could become apprenticed to an artisan and girls might be married off under the institution's authority.[19]
Institutions informally adopted out children as well, a mechanism treated as a way to obtain cheap labor,
demonstrated by the fact that when the adopted died, their bodies were returned by the family to the institution for
burial.[20]
This system of apprenticeship and informal adoption extended into the 19th century, today seen as a transitional
phase for adoption history. Under the direction of social welfare activists, orphan asylums began to promote
adoptions based on sentiment rather than work, and children were placed out under agreements to provide care for
them as family members instead of under contracts for apprenticeship.[21] The growth of this model is believed to
have contributed to the enactment of the first modern adoption law in 1851 by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts,
unique in that it codified the ideal of the "best interests of the child."[22] [23] Despite its intent, though, in practice, the
system operated much the same as earlier incarnations. The experience of the Boston Female Asylum (BFA) is a
good example, which had up to 30% of its charges adopted out by 1888.[24] Officials of the BFA noted that, although
the asylum promoted otherwise, adoptive parents did not distinguish between indenture and adoption; "We believe,"
the asylum officials said, "that often, when children of a younger age are taken to be adopted, the adoption is only
another name for service."[25]

Modern period
Adopting to create a family
The next stage of adoption's evolution fell to the emerging nation of the United States. Rapid immigration and the
aftermath of the American Civil War resulted in unprecedented overcrowding of orphanages and foundling homes in
the mid-nineteenth century. Charles Loring Brace, a Protestant minister became appalled by the legions of homeless
waifs roaming the streets of New York City. Brace considered the abandoned youth, particularly Catholics, to be the
most dangerous element challenging the city's order.[26] [27]
His solution was outlined in The Best Method of Disposing of Our Pauper and
Vagrant Children (1859) which started the Orphan Train movement. The orphan
trains eventually shipped an estimated 200,000 children from the urban centers of
the East to the nation's rural regions.[28] The children were generally indentured,
rather than adopted, to families who took them in.[29] As in times past, some
children were raised as members of the family while others were used as farm
laborers and household servants.[30]

Charles Loring Brace.

Adoption

4
The sheer size of the displacement—the largest migration of children in
history—and the degree of exploitation that occurred, gave rise to new agencies
and a series of laws that promoted adoption arrangements rather than indenture.
The hallmark of the period is Minnesota's adoption law of 1917 which mandated
investigation of all placements and limited record access to those involved in the
adoption.[31] [32]

William and his brother Thomas.
They rode the Orphan Train in 1880
at the ages of 11 and 9, respectively.
William was taken into a good home.
Thomas was exploited for labor and
abused. The brothers eventually
made their way back to New York
and reunited.

During the same period, the Progressive movement swept the United States with
a critical goal of ending the prevailing orphanage system. The culmination of
such efforts came with the First White House Conference on the Care of
Dependent Children called by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1909,[33] where it
was declared that the nuclear family represented "the highest and finest product
of civilization” and was best able to serve as primary caretaker for the abandoned
and orphaned.[34] [35] Anti-institutional forces gathered momentum. As late as
1923, only two percent of children without parental care were in adoptive homes,
with the balance in foster arrangements and orphanages. Less than forty years
later, nearly one-third were in an adoptive home.[36]

Nevertheless, the popularity of eugenic ideas in America put up obstacles to the growth of adoption.[37] [38] There
were grave concerns about the genetic quality of illegitimate and indigent children, perhaps best exemplified by the
influential writings of Henry H. Goddard who protested against adopting children of unknown origin, saying,
Now it happens that some people are interested in the welfare and high development of the human race; but
leaving aside those exceptional people, all fathers and mothers are interested in the welfare of their own
families. The dearest thing to the parental heart is to have the children marry well and rear a noble family.
How short-sighted it is then for such a family to take into its midst a child whose pedigree is absolutely
unknown; or, where, if it were partially known, the probabilities are strong that it would show poor and
diseased stock, and that if a marriage should take place between that individual and any member of the family
the offspring would be degenerates.[39]
It took a war and the disgrace of Nazi eugenic policies to alter attitudes. The period 1945 to 1974, the Baby scoop
era, saw rapid growth and acceptance of adoption as a means to build a family.[40] Illegitimate births rose three-fold
after World War II, as sexual mores changed. Simultaneously, the scientific community began to stress the
dominance of nurture over genetics, chipping away at eugenic stigmas.[41] [42] In this environment, adoption became
the obvious solution for both unwed mothers and infertile couples.[43]
Taken together, these trends resulted in a new American model for adoption. Following its Roman predecessor,
Americans severed the rights of the original parents while making adopters the new parents in the eyes of the law.
Two innovations were added: 1) adoption was meant to ensure the "best interests of the child;" the seeds of this idea
can be traced to the first American adoption law in Massachusetts,[16] [23] and 2) adoption became infused with
secrecy, eventually resulting in the sealing of adoption and original birth records by 1945. The origin of the move
toward secrecy began with Charles Loring Brace who introduced it to prevent children from the Orphan Trains from
returning to or being reclaimed by their parents. Brace feared the impact of the parents' poverty, in general, and their
Catholic religion, in particular, on the youth. This tradition of secrecy was carried on by the later Progressive
reformers when drafting of American laws.[44]
The number of adoptions in the United States peaked in 1970.[45] It is uncertain what caused the subsequent decline.
Likely contributing factors in the 1960s and 1970s include a decline in the fertility rate, associated with the
introduction of the pill, the completion of legalization of artificial birth control methods, the introduction of federal
funding to make family planning services available to the young and low income, and the legalization of abortion. In
addition, the years of the late 1960s and early 1970s saw a dramatic change in society's view of illegitimacy and in

1% 0.[48] Race Before 1973 1973–1981 1982–1988 1989–1995 1996–2002 8. 10 other. [62] 0.0% Black Women 1.725 [68] (2002) ~3 per 100 Live Births The number of adoptions is reported to be constant since 1987. the Asian powers opened their orphanage systems to adoption.7% 4.560 (2007) [60] 61. 174 stepchildren.5% 3.764 (2006) Iceland between 20-35 [57] year Ireland 263 (2003) Italy 3.021. The rest were international adoptions.Adoption 5 the legal rights[46] of those born outside of wedlock. and Adoption/Live Birth Ratios are provided in the table below (alphabetical. 459 international adoptions were also recorded. hovering between 133.010 (2006) [64] 1.g. In response.[52] Country Adoptions Live Births [53] Australia 270 (2007–2008) England & Wales 4. Live Births.545(2006) Table 2: Adoptions.1% 2. Adoption in the United States still occurs at nearly three times those of its peers although the number of children awaiting adoption has held steady in recent years. adoption is far more visible and discussed in society today.[51] Although adoption is today practiced globally.7 per 100 Live Births 0.158 (2006) Norway 657 (2006) Sweden 1044(2002) [55] [59] [61] [63] [65] United States approx 127. stepparent). West Germany enacted its first laws in 1977. Sweden made adoptees full members of the family in 1959. by country) for a number of Western countries .000 (2004) 669. 171 family adoptions (e. yet it is less common.0% 0.8 per 100 Live Births 0.6 per 100 Live Births 560. influenced as they were by Western ideas following colonial rule and military occupation. The table below provides a snapshot of Western adoption rates.2 per 100 Live Births Includes known relative adoptions [56] Includes all adoption orders in England and Wales 254.000 during the period 2002 to 2006.3% All Women Table 1: Percentage of Infants (Born to Never-Married Women) Who Were Relinquished[49] The American model of adoption eventually proliferated globally.5% 0.000 to 129.466(2002) [66] 1. 91.000 [67] (2001) Adoption/Live Birth Ratio Notes [54] 0. family preservation efforts grew[47] so that few children born out of wedlock today are adopted (Refer to Table 1).1 per 100 Live Births Adoptions breakdown: 438 inter-country. The Netherlands passed its law in 1956.4 per 100 Live Births 92 non-family adoptions. 58.9% 1.0% NA White Women 19. the United States remains the leader in its use.2% 1.517 (2003) 0. 4.[50] Additionally.601(2006) [58] 4.1 per 100 Live Births 10-20 of these were national adoptions of infants. 35 foster. England and Wales established their first formal adoption law in 1926.3% 7. Ironically.7% 1.2% 1.

closed adoption is seeing renewed influence. to avoid contributing to perceived overpopulation out of the belief that it is more responsible to care for otherwise parent-less children than to reproduce. compassion motivated by religious or philosophical conviction. anonymously. closed adoption may allow the transmittal of non-identifying information such as medical history and religious and ethnic background. and that the overall rate of ever-married American women who adopt is about 1. where the new partner of a parent may legally adopt a child from the parent's previous relationship. and childless.S.[76] Today. • Open adoption allows identifying information to be communicated between adoptive and biological parents and. but such access is not universal (it is possible in a few jurisdictions . and adoptees' identities. 24 U. exchange of information. states. it is the outgrowth of laws that maintain an adoptee's right to unaltered birth certificates and/or adoption records. the norm for most of modern history. the biological and adoptive parents may enter into a legally-enforceable and binding agreement concerning visitation. perhaps.K. Although there are a range of possible reasons.S. or other interaction regarding the child.g.[73] As of February 2009. infants can be left. charities and for-profit organizations act as intermediaries.Adoption 6 Contemporary adoption Forms of adoption Contemporary adoption practices can be open or closed.[77] How adoptions originate Adoptions can occur either between related family members. at hospitals.including the U. One study shows this accounted for 80% of unrelated infant adoptions and half of adoptions through foster care.[79] Estimates suggest that 11–24% of Americans who cannot conceive or carry to term attempt to build a family through adoption.[75] seals all identifying information. biological kins'. In safe-haven states. Intra-family adoption can also occur through surrender. have impaired fertility.. indicates about half of adoptions are currently between related individuals. or unrelated individuals. and health concerns relating to pregnancy and childbirth. states allowed legally enforceable open adoption contract agreements to be included in the adoption finalization. interaction between kin and the adopted person. Rarely. maintaining it as secret and barring disclosure of the adoptive parents'. the most recent study of experiences of women who adopt suggests they are most likely to be 40–44 years of age. most adoptions occurred within a family.4%. or police stations within a few days of birth.[80] [81] Other reasons people adopt are numerous although not well documented. The New York Foundling Home is among North Infertility is the main reason parents seek to adopt children they are not America's oldest adoption agencies. currently married. as a result of parental death.). all parties being residents . and six States in the U. to ensure that inheritable diseases (e. These may include wanting to cement a new family following divorce or death of one parent. fire departments.S. a practice criticized by some adoptee advocacy organizations as being retrograde and dangerous.[69] [69] [70] [71] [72] Open adoption can be an informal arrangement subject to termination by adoptive parents who have sole authority over the child.[82] Unrelated adoptions may occur through the following mechanisms: • Private domestic adoptions: under this arrangement.S. Tay-Sachs disease) are not passed on. bringing together prospective adoptive parents and families who want to place a child. Nevertheless. In some jurisdictions.[74] • The practice of closed adoption.[78] A common example of this is a "stepparent adoption". or when the child cannot otherwise be cared for and a family member agrees to take over. The most recent data from the U. as a result of safe haven laws passed by some U. Historically. related to.

Its importance as an avenue for adoption varies by country. it is known that older children are more prone to having their adoptions disrupted. the adoption is then considered binding.S. law.500 adoptions that occurred in the U. as witnessed by the public. and in an effort to protect those involved from the corruption and exploitation which sometimes accompanies it. The wide range of values reflects the paucity of information on the subject and demographic factors such as age.[83] More than 60.[84] • International adoption: involves the placing of a child for adoption outside that child’s country of birth. Private domestic adoption accounts for a significant portion of all adoptions. the U. Nevertheless. but where a parent. Americans adopted more than 60. The particular terms of a common-law adoption are defined by each legal jurisdiction.000 Russian children have been adopted in the United States since 1992. in contrast to traditional adoption. leaves his or her children with a friend or relative for an extended period of time. indicates there is wide variation by country since adoptions from abroad account for less than 15% of its cases. however.[83] • Foster care adoption: this is a type of domestic adoption where a child is initially placed in public care.[91] Ad hoc studies. The Disruption process is usually initiated by adoptive parents via a court petition and is analogous to divorce proceedings. the latter cases are referred to as having been dissolved). to facilitate pregnancy and childbirth. It is a legal avenue unique to adoptive parents as disruption/dissolution does not apply to biological kin. these adoptions account for the majority of cases (see above Table). In some countries.000 or 40% were through the foster care system. This includes adoptions that end prior to legal finalization and those that end after that point (in U. the example of the United States is instructive.[83] about 51. Recognizing the difficulties and challenges associated with international adoption. which came into force on 1 May 1995 and has been ratified by 85 countries as of November 2011. the Hague Conference on Private International Law developed the [Hague Adoption Convention]. embryos are given to another individual or couple. drafting contracts through a lawyer (these efforts are illegal in some jurisdictions).Adoption of the same country. state of California recognizes common law relationships after co-habitation of 2 years. This can occur through both public and private agencies. followed by the placement of those embryos into the recipient woman’s uterus. prospective adoptive parents sometimes avoid intermediaries and connect with women directly. performed in the U. Of the 127. in some courts of law.S. embryo adoption is governed by property law rather than by the court systems. even though not initially sanctioned by the court.[86] The laws of different countries vary in their willingness to allow international adoptions. In the United States.S.S.[85] and between 1995 and 2005. in the United States. example. suggest that between 10-25 percent of adoptions disrupt before they are legally finalized and from 1-10 percent are dissolved after legal finalization. • Common law adoption: this is an adoption which has not been recognized beforehand by the courts. without resort to any formal legal process. For example. Alternatively.[87] • Embryo adoption: based on the donation of embryos remaining after one couple’s in vitro fertilization treatments have been completed. however. such as Sweden. The U.S.[90] How adoptions can disrupt Disruption refers to the termination of an adoption. for example. The practice is called "private fostering" in Britain.[88] [89] At the end of a designated term of (voluntary) co-habitation. nearly 45% of adoptions are estimated to have occurred through private arrangements.000 children from China.[91] 7 ..

however. ".[111] Some conclusions about the development of adoptees can be gleaned from newer studies. and appearance. Noting that adoptees seemed to be more likely to experience problems such as drug addiction.[101] [102] Such children are at risk of developing a disorganized attachment. and sexual abuse. and its absence has caused concern throughout the history of adoption. a pioneer in the professionalization of adoption services and herself an adoptive mother. for example. including dissociative symptoms. age. causing the researchers to speculate that. step-children.[96] Beyond the foundational issues. people are less interested in sustaining the genetic lines of others. A study evaluating the level of parental investment indicates strength in adoptive families. by providing further education and financial support. physical abuse. who commented on her contemporaries' view of adoptive parenting. such as physical and psychological neglect.000 adoptive. Earlier literature on the topic supported the conception of such problems. with the fact of "being adopted.[99] Familiar lessons like "draw your family tree" or "trace your eye color back through your parents and grandparents to see where your genes come from" could be hurtful to children who were adopted and do not know this biological information. instinctually.) were significantly less for adoptees. hours worked. Some children from foster care have histories of maltreatment. and acting-out symptoms.[106] [107] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems. etc."[92] The traditional view of adoptive parenting received empirical support from a Princeton University study of 6.g. are at risk of developing psychiatric problems.adoptive parents enrich their children's lives to compensate for the lack of biological ties and the extra challenges of adoption."[95] Another recent study found that adoptive families invested more heavily in their adopted children. both adult adoptees and adoptive parents report being happier with the adoption. but because they are more likely than genetic children to need the help. As a result.g. "No one who is not willfully deluded would maintain that the experiences of adoption can take the place of the actual bearing and rearing of an own child. the unique questions posed for adoptive parents are varied. anxiety. suggesting that parents who adopt invest more time in their children than other parents and concludes. personality. step. researchers often assume that the adoptee population faces heightened risk in terms of psychological development and social relationships. Numerous suggestions have been made to substitute new lessons. e. the study indicated that food expenditures in households with mothers of non-biological children (when controlled for income.[94] Other studies provide evidence that adoptive relationships can form along other lines.[97] One author suggests a common question adoptive parents have is: "Will we love the child even though he/she is not our biological child?"[98] A specific concern for many parents is accommodating an adoptee in the classroom. and how best to maintain connections with biological kin when in an open adoption.Adoption Parenting and development of adoptees Parenting Biological ties are the hallmark of parent-child relationships. They include how to respond to stereotypes. household size."[100] Adopting older children presents other parenting issues. The traditional concern is expressed by Jessie Taft. though.. and foster families in the United States and South Africa from 1968–1985..[108] as well as depressive. focusing on "family orchards..[103] [104] [105] Studies by Cicchetti et al. much of that research has since been deemed flawed due to methodological failures. and it can be said that adoptees.. (1990." creating unique responses to significant life-events. the study speculated that adoptive parents might invest more in adoptees not because they favor them. and foster children. the birth of a child. answering questions about heritage.[109] [110] Development The consensus among researchers is that adoption affects development throughout life. seem to develop differently than the general population while facing greater risks 8 . 1995) found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants in their sample exhibited disorganized attachment styles. in some respect.[93] This theory is supported in another more qualitative study where in adoptive relationships marked by sameness in likes. e.

[117] Suicide risks were also significantly greater than the general population.[116] The adoptee population does.[114] [115] These differences in development appear to play out in the way young adoptees deal with major life events.Adoption during adolescence. who are resilient. Danish and American researchers conducting studies on the genetic contribution to body mass index found correlations between an adoptee's weight class and his biological parents' BMI while finding no relationship with the adoptive family environment. This suggests that there will always be some children who fare well.[119] Moreover. lower school achievement. in one of the earliest studies conducted.[120] There have been many cases of remediation or the reversibility of early trauma. and impaired social competence after parental divorce.[118] Nevertheless. in particular. regardless of their experiences in early childhood. specifically in their school or social abilities.[121] Other researchers also found that prolonged institutionalization does not necessarily lead to emotional problems or character defects in all children.[112] Concerning developmental milestones. substance use. however. While the general population experienced more behavioral problems. while adult adoptees showed more variability than their non-adopted peers on a range of psychosocial measures. Professor Goldfarb in England concluded that some children adjust well socially and emotionally despite their negative experiences of institutional deprivation in early childhood. In the case of parental divorce. the adoptee population appeared to be unaffected in terms of their outside relationships. resembling instead those of their biological parents and to the same extent as peers in non-adoptive families. concluding that cognitive abilities of adoptees reflect those of their adoptive parents in early childhood but show little similarity by adolescence. [122] 9 . Researchers from the University of Minnesota studied adolescents who had been adopted and found that adoptees were twice as likely as non-adopted people to suffer from oppositional defiant disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with an 8% rate in the general population). For example. seem to be more at risk for certain behavioral issues. studies from the Colorado Adoption Project examined genetic influences on adoptee maturation. adoptees have been found to respond differently than children who have not been adopted. about one-half of inter-individual differences were due to individual non-shared influences. Many adopted persons experience difficulty in establishing a sense of identity. adult adoptees exhibited more similarities than differences with adults who had not been adopted. with international adoptees and female international adoptees.[113] Similar mechanisms appear to be at work in the physical development of adoptees. Moreover. Swedish researchers found both international and domestic adoptees undertook suicide at much higher rates than non-adopted peers. Young adult adoptees were shown to be alike with adults from biological families and scored better than adults raised in alternative family types including single parent and step-families. work on adult adoptees has found that the additional risks faced by adoptees are largely confined to adolescence. at highest risk.

Additionally. with nearly 90% describing them as. and predisposed to drug and Canada. Nevertheless. Since its first publication in 1908. still substantial criticism of the media's adoption coverage. Donaldson Adoption Institute. disparaging views of adoptive families exist. criticized Meet the Robinsons for using outdated orphanage imagery[127] [128] as did advocacy non-profit The Evan B. 72% indicated receiving positive impressions. 40-45% thought and how the Cuthberts took her in. most people report the media provides them a favorable view of adoption. the same study indicated adoptive parents were viewed favorably. As a consequence. alcohol problems. along with doubts concerning the strength of their family bonds. and unselfish. the dominant conception of family revolves around a heterosexual couple with biological offspring. "lucky. more prone to Actors at the Anne of Green Gables Museum on Prince Edward Island. research indicates. Some adoption blogs. advantaged. medical issues.[126] There is.[123] [124] The most recent adoption attitudes survey completed by the Evan Donaldson Institute provides further evidence of this stigma."[132] .[129] The stigmas associated with adoption are amplified for children in foster care.[131] A 2004 report from the Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care has shown that the number of children waiting in foster care doubled since the 1980s and now remains steady at about a half-million a year. Japan. later. This idea places alternative family forms outside the norm."[125] The majority of people state that their primary source of information about adoption comes from friends and family and the news media. problems and trouble at school. however. the story of the orphaned Anne. for example. In contrast.[130] Negative perceptions result in the belief that such children are so troubled it would be impossible to adopt them and create "normal" families. has been widely popular in the adoptees were more likely to have behavior English-speaking world and. Nearly one-third of the surveyed population believed adoptees are less-well adjusted.Adoption 10 Public perception of adoption In Western culture.

Adoption Reform and reunion trends Adoption practices have significantly changed over the course of the last century.. "Primal wound" is described as the "devastation which the infant feels because of separation from its birth mother. New sealed records.[133] Beginning in the 1970s efforts to improve adoption became associated with opening records and encouraging family preservation. Martin.. groups that helped overturn sealed records in Alabama. It established three new principles including.[143] [144] Simultaneously." reflecting the belief that children would be better served by staying in their own families and communities.[138] Open records: Movements to unseal adoption records for adopted citizen proliferated along with increased acceptance of illegitimacy. In the United States. Florence Fisher the Adoptees' Liberty Movement Association (ALMA) in 1971. birthparents. Tennessee.[136] and provide little in the way of medical history. and Maine.[140] and Lee Campbell and other birthmothers established CUB Concerned United Birthparents. in some way." [142] Later years saw the evolution of more militant organizations such as Bastard Nation (founded in 1996). Family preservation: As concerns over illegitimacy began to decline in the early 1970s. the International Soundex Reunion Registry (ISRR). Similar ideas were taking hold globally with grass-roots organizations like Parent Finders in Canada and Jigsaw in Australia. as reform. Oregon. New Hampshire. England and Wales opened records on moral grounds..[134] [135] create confusion regarding genealogy.[145] The intellectual tone of these recent reform movements was influenced by the publishing of The Primal Wound by Nancy Verrier. representatives of 32 organizations from 33 states.[141] By 1979. Canada and Mexico gathered in Washington. if possible. artist: D. a striking shift in policy that remains in force today. calling sealed records "an affront to human dignity. social-welfare agencies began to emphasize that.". adoptive parents and adoptee at the adoptee's age of majority or earlier if all members of the triad agree. DC to establish the American Adoption Congress (AAC) passing a unanimous resolution: "Open Records complete with all identifying information for all members of the adoption triad. It is the deep and consequential feeling of abandonment which the baby adoptee feels after the adoption and which may continue for the rest of his life. an Open Records emblem used in adoption-institution that is among the country's oldest and one that had pioneered Adoptee Rights Protest. allowing those separated by adoption to locate one another. mothers and children should be kept together. Emma May Vilardi created the first mutual-consent registry. with each new movement labeled.[137] In America. Jean Paton founded Orphan Voyage in 1954. placements of children. groups such as Origins USA (founded in 1997) started to actively speak about family preservation and the rights of mothers. In 1975. These ideas arose from suggestions that the secrecy inherent in modern adoption may influence the process of forming an identity. 2008. "to prevent Orleans. Delaware. this was clearly illustrated by the shift in policy of the New York Foundling Home."[134] 11 .[139] While in 1975.

reunions can bring a variety of issues for adoptees and parents. 3) they hope to pass on information to their children. 2) they are curious about events leading to their conception. studies show significant variation. stating. suggest that reunion is a way for adoptees to overcome social stigma. what differentiates adoptees who search from those who do not. The externally-focused rationale for reunion suggests adoptees may be well adjusted and happy within their adoptive families. interviews with adoptees. including medical information. The projection is known to underestimate the true search rate. and 4) these adoptees react by searching for a blood tie that reinforces their membership in the community."[151] In sum. and 4) they have a need for a detailed biological background. 2) this understanding is strengthened by experiences where non-adoptees suggest adoptive ties are weaker than blood ties. impairing their ability to present a consistent identity. The UK Office for National Statistics has projected that 33% of all adoptees would eventually request a copy of their original birth records. in some adoptees. "…attempts to draw distinctions between the searcher and non-searcher are no more conclusive or generalizable than attempts to substantiate…differences between adoptees and nonadoptees. Internally-focused theories suggest some adoptees possess ambiguities in their sense of self.[150] Some adoptees reject the idea of reunion. This does not. an adoptee. the theory has four parts: 1) adoptees perceive the absence of biological ties as distinguishing their adoptive family from others. however. however.007 adoptees and relinquishing parents). and relinquishment. the problem stems from the small adoptee population which makes random surveying difficult. Writer Lesley Lathrop (left). however. It is unclear. 90% responded that reunion was a beneficial experience. It is speculated by adoption researchers. that the reasons given are incomplete: although such information could be communicated by a third-party.[149] Externally-focused theories.[146] In part. if not impossible. exceeding original forecasts made in 1975 when it was believed that only a small fraction of the adoptee population would request their records. birth. First proposed by Goffman. imply ongoing relationships were formed between adoptee and parent nor that this was the goal.Adoption 12 Reunion Estimates for the extent of search behavior by adoptees have proven elusive. some indication of the level of search interest by adoptees can be gleaned from the case of England and Wales which opened adoptees' birth records in 1975.[148] It appears the desire for reunion is linked to the adoptee's interaction with and acceptance within the community. a sense of social exclusion. but will search as an attempt to resolve experiences of social stigma. One paper summarizes the research. though. since many adoptees of the era have access to get their information by other means. at reunion Nevertheless. Nevertheless. in contrast. most reunion results appear to be positive.[152] The book "Adoption Detective: Memoir of an Adopted Child" by Judith and Martin Land provides provides insight into the mind of an adoptee from childhood through to adulthood and the emotions invoked when reunification with their birth mothers is desired. In the largest study to date (based on the responses of 1. . who sought reunion.[147] The research literature states adoptees give four reasons for desiring reunion: 1) they wish for a more complete genealogy. these factors engender. Reunion helps resolve the lack of self-knowledge. 3) together. found they expressed a need to actually meet biological relations.

[154] The Stolen Generation of Aboriginal people in Australia were affected by similar policies. Marietta Spencer wrote "The Terminology of Adoption" for The Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). Positive Adoptive Language (PAL) In the 1970s.[158] which was the basis for her later work "Constructive Adoption Terminology". as detailed in The Girls Who Went Away. In 1979. and honest adoption language (HAL). In German occupied Poland. for example. In some cases. with preference being given to adoption within the child's tribe.[159] This influenced Pat Johnston's "Positive Adoption Language" (PAL) and "Respectful Adoption Language" (RAL). The controversy arises over the use of terms which. "placing" (to replace the term "surrender"). and overall lack of choice. parents' rights have been terminated when their ethnic or socio-economic group has been deemed unfit by society. lack of resources. Along with the change in times and social attitudes came additional examination of the language used in adoption. This controversy illustrates the problems in adoption. Honest Adoption Language (HAL) "Honest Adoption Language" refers to a set of terms that proponents say reflect the point of view that: (1) family relationships (social. it is estimated that 200. As books like Adoption Triangle by Sorosky. adoption practices that involved coercion were directed against unwed mothers. but instead describe scenarios of powerlessness.000 Polish children with purportedly Aryan traits were removed from their families and given to German or Austrian couples. Proponents 13 .[155] From the 1950s through the 1970s. as well as the fact that coining new words and phrases to describe ancient social practices will not necessarily alter the feelings and experiences of those affected by them. and that (2) mothers who have "voluntarily surrendered" children to adoption (as opposed to involuntary terminations through court-authorized child-welfare proceedings) seldom view it as a choice that was freely made. These practices have become significant social and political issues in recent years.000 returned to their families after the war. Two of the contrasting sets of terms are commonly referred to as positive adoption language (PAL) (sometimes called respectful adoption language (RAL)). a major shift from natural parent to birthparent [156] [157] occurred. as were Native Americans in the United States and First Nations of Canada. and many cases the policies have changed. while designed to be more appealing or less offensive to some persons affected by adoption. emotional. Social workers and other professionals in the field of adoption began changing terms of use to reflect what was being expressed by the parties involved. a period called the Baby scoop era. may simultaneously cause offense or insult to others.Adoption Controversial adoption practices Reform and family preservation efforts have also been strongly associated with the perceived mis-use of adoption.[161] [162] It also reflects the point of view that the term "birth mother" is derogatory in implying that the woman has ceased being a mother after the physical act of giving birth. psychological or physical) that existed prior to the legal adoption often continue past this point or endure in some form despite long periods of separation. Adoption terminology The language of adoption is changing and evolving. as adoption search and support organizations developed. These kinds of recommendations were an attempt to encourage people to be more aware of their terminology. Forced adoption based on ethnicity occurred during World War II. Pannor and Baran were published. which allows the tribe and family of a Native American child to be involved in adoption decisions.[160] The terms contained in "Positive Adoption Language" include the terms "birth mother" (to replace the terms "natural mother" and "real mother"). The United States. and since the 1970s has been a controversial issue tied closely to adoption reform efforts.[153] and only 25. now has the 1978 Indian Child Welfare Act. and support groups formed like CUB (Concerned United Birthparents). there were challenges to the language in common use at the time.

or furthering division. 3. New York: Basic Books.[168] Further reading • Christine Ward Gailey. Language at its best honors the self-referencing choices of the persons involved. 14 . as acceptable descriptors of themselves. Adoption Nation: How the Adoption Revolution Is Transforming America.[167] and.Adoption of HAL liken this to the mother being treated as a "breeder" or "incubator". opportunities. uplift or embrace." Inclusive Adoption Language There are supporters of various lists. for example. The rights. (2000).[163] Terms included in HAL include terms that were used before PAL. adopted children must keep their original surname to be identified with blood relations. and facilitated by the availability of pejorative labels and terms. A common problem is that terms chosen by an identity group. Stereotyping is mostly implicit. Rendering the labels and terms socially unacceptable. observe hijab (the covering of women in the presence of non-family) in their adoptive households. When labeling is a conscious activity. and freedoms of certain people are restricted because they are reduced to stereotypes. people then must consciously think about how they describe someone unlike themselves. or subvert prevailing ideologies of kinship in the United States. and may even control thought. and is sensitive to the feelings of the primary parties. meaning and use. This compromises the integrity of the language and turns what was intended to be positive into negative or vice-versa. • Pertman.S. utilizes inclusive terms and phrases. In Egypt. Edna Andrews says that using "inclusive" and "neutral" language is based upon the concept that "language represents thought. not all cultures have the concept of adoption. A. unconscious. including "natural mother." and "surrendered for adoption. and Gender in U. accommodate. created to support an agenda." "first mother. 4. 2. developed over many decades. Language evolves with social attitudes and experiences. In addressing the linguistic problem of naming. these cultural distinctions have led to making adoption illegal. Blue-Ribbon Babies and Labors of Love: Race. Class. and there are persons who find them lacking. that is treating unrelated children as equivalent to biological children of the adoptive parents. thus often devaluing acceptability. the described person's individual merits become apparent. 2010). traditionally. Adoption Practice (University of Texas Press. rather than his or her stereotype. Uses interviews with 131 adoptive parents in a study of how adopters' attitudes uphold.[165] [166] Cultural variations Attitudes and laws regarding adoption vary greatly. All terminology can be used to demean or diminish. can be used in negative ways by detractors. 185 pages. Whereas all cultures make arrangements whereby children whose own parents are unavailable to rear them can be brought up by others."[164] Advocates of inclusive language defend it as inoffensive-language usage whose goal is multi-fold: 1. Under Islamic Law.

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[89] The best interests of the child: the least detrimental alternative (book).. 49. J. December 2004 [92] E. Bachrach. The Adopted Child Comes of Age. Cicchetti & V. Psychological Bulletin 114. cfm) [84] http:/ / www. et.1016/j. html William D..T.2009. 1996. e-vision. January/February 1996 [81] http:/ / www. In J. asanet.S.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. uk/ ) [91] U. . Recall of childhood neglect and physical abuse as differential predictors of current psychological functioning. childwelfare.. University of Oregon. familyhelper. Center for Disease Control. htm US Child Welfare Information Gateway: Trends in Foster Care and Adoption [85] " Who Will Adopt the Orphans? (http:/ / www. Finding order in disorganization: Lessons from research on maltreated infants’ attachments to their caregivers. (2000). A prospective longitudinal study of disorganized/disoriented attachment. Adult Adoptees and Their Friends. Lin. ISBN 90-411-1091-7. org/ pubs/ journals/ 2800496. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64. Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory. com/ books?id=xEAmkaqn8lMC& pg=PA95& lpg=PA95).01. Cummings. & George. 2005 [101] Gauthier. In M.J.. Herman.A. & Marvin.. M. doi:10. Adoption Disruption and Dissolution (http:/ / www. Child Development 69. Parenting Your Adopted Child. html Adoption: An American Revolution [100] http:/ / www. Messe. Vol. M. D. com/ books?id=cTLomwSIaHkC& pg=PA16& lpg=PA16). 572-585 [111] L. The Adoption Family Book I: You and Your Child. Ruth. 3-50). 520-554). page 8.) Handbook of Attachment. L. [83] US Child Welfare Information Gateway: How Many Children Were Adopted in 2000 and 2001? (http:/ / www. (1993).. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Child Welfare Information Gateway. acf. pdf). 2010. cdc. 1980 [95] Hamilton. (1993) Long term consequences of childhood physical abuse. August 2008. and Florence Rondell. Borders.S. org/ web/ 20070221194844/ http:/ / www.M. 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“The Meaning of the Search” in Brodzinsky and Schechter. htm) [140] ISRR . edu/ ~jadrian/ docs/ papers/ old/ 20030212%20Miles%20-%20Adoptive%20Identity. htm). mcmaster. Psychiatric Times (http:/ / www. 1997. html) [141] R.International Soundex Reunion Registry Reunion Registry (http:/ / www. com/ talk/ a8739/ meet_the_robinsons) [129] The Evan B. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ illegitimacy. pp 26-34.4 429-437 [117] Kaplan. 37-48 [123] http:/ / www. In P. org/ Default. php) [130] National Adoption Attitudes Survey. Topic Illegtimacy (http:/ / darkwing. Journal of Marriage and the Family 57 August 1995: pg. and cognitive development from 1-16 years: A parent-offspring adoption study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (1997). The proportion of adoptees who have received their birth records in England and Wales. jstor. 4 (Oct. Corley. April 9. 49. pdf) [143] USA Today. pp. R. The New England Journal of Medicine (http:/ / content. 2/13/2008. Adoption. March.. org/ pss/ 353920 K. 1995. An adoption study of human obesity. Zubin (Eds. DiAnne Border.” [131] http:/ / www. Emotional and intellectual consequences of psychologic deprivation in infancy: A Re-evaluation. com/ display/ article/ 10168/ 1367897). htm) [135] Miles.Adoption [112] Beauchesne. Topic History in Brief (http:/ / darkwing. Number 2 / February. McMaster University. March. April 12. 654. J. 2008 [136] http:/ / www.” Dissertation. uoregon. jstor. Adoption Research. Influences of genes and shared family environment on adult body mass index assessed in an adoption study by a comprehensive path model. jstor. (1960). Vol. org/ pss/ 585831 Katrina Wegar. com/ Misc/ AAC 1979 Resolution.wlu." [126] National Adoption Attitudes Survey. page 20 and 38. 407-418 [121] Goldfarb. html) [128] Maya's Mom. bastards. fr/ ?aModele=afficheN& cpsidt=3406929). W. V. D. [151] Schechter and Bertocci. American Psychological Association (http:/ / www. No. The Foundling. L. cs. org/ pss/ 353920 K. 40-45 [116] Thomas O’Conner. com/ 2007/ 04/ usa-today-article-on-meet-robinsons. Verrier (http:/ / primal-page. “The Meaning of the Search” in Brodzinsky and Schechter. jstor.” [124] http:/ / www. blogspot. mayasmom. Journal of Marriage and the Family 57 August 1995: pg. 2009 [118] Annika von Borczyskowski. 2007 (http:/ / www. The proportion of adoptees who have received their birth records in England and Wales. Nature. [122] Pringel.” [142] TRIADOPTION Archives TRIADOPTION Archives (http:/ / www. January 26. 2000). art. Comparisons with Persons Raised in Conventional Families. org/ pss/ 353920 K. page 47” [127] 3 Generations of Adoption. June 2002. April 7. pg. 2001. adoptioninstitute. Family Ideology. htm) [134] Book Review: The Primal Wound by Nancy N.. uoregon. states unsealing records (http:/ / www. 363-370. March. June 2002. Family Relations. M. springerlink. ca/ dissertations/ AAINN60675/ K. 19. 105-106 [139] Adoption History Project Topic Confidentiality (http:/ / darkwing. pages 26-34 [148] http:/ / www. vol. [[Family Relations (journal)|Family Relations (http:/ / www. & Bossio. org/ media/ 20070409_press_disney. [114] AJ Stunkard. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ confidentiality.” 1990. Psychological Science. Early. 2007 (http:/ / adopteesx3. Donaldson Adoption Institute [132] http:/ / pewfostercare.. 49. 1986 [115] Vogler.W. 442-447. psychiatrictimes. apa. 8. Psychology of Adoption. htm) [138] Martin Gottlieb. Arline. BASTARD NATION . isrr. Suicidal behavior in national and international adult adoptees. jstor. Evan Donaldson Institute. prolonged separation and emotional adjustment. org/ policy/ polface.P. com/ content/ y73646n507593n76/ ) Volume 41. 2003: Does Adoption Affect the Adolescent Eriksonian Task of Identity Formation? Available: http:/ / www. Psychology of Adoption. com/ printedition/ news/ 20080213/ 1a_adoptionxx. 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[http://scholars.).W. 2006 [119] William Feigelman. 2007 press release (http:/ / www. triadoption. pdf Retrieved: 30 Jan. htm Why Adoptive Parents Support Open Records for Adult Adoptees [137] Adoption History Project (University of Oregon). [125] National Adoption Attitudes Survey. Lise M..ca/etd/213/ As if born to: The social construction of a deficit identity position for adopted persons (D. php?DocID=41 The Pew Commission of Children in Foster Care [133] Adoption History Project (University of Oregon). Summer 2001. Summer 2001.” 1990. 653-660 [149] http:/ / digitalcommons. UK Office for National Statistics. nurture. 1540-9635. 653-660. aspx?pageId=24588 Accessed: 27th April 2008. Psychopathology of Childhood (pp. Journal of Marriage and the Family 57 August 1995: pg.. Rushbrooke. January 23. Issue 3. 36 No. (1955). Rushbrooke. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology (http:/ / www. G. March. 1990 [150] http:/ / www. inist. 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pdf) TRIADOPTION® Archives [157] Birth Parents (http:/ / darkwing. html) by Brenda Romanchik [160] Speaking Positively: Using Respectful Adoption Language (http:/ / www." (http:/ / foundandlostsupport. com/ articles/ a-few-words-on-words-in-adoption. htm) The Adoption History Project [158] Adoption Terminology (http:/ / darkwing.[3] which was the basis for her later work "Constructive Adoption Terminology". "placing" (to replace the term "surrender"). Buck. 1996). nicwa. com/ 2009/ WORLD/ meast/ 03/ 23/ egypt." CNN (http:/ / www. perspectivespress. [163] "Why Birthmother Means Breeder. “Openness in adoption: retrospective lessons and prospective choices.389-404. No. April 09. 26 Issue 4. edu/ ~adoption/ archive/ CwlaAT. uoregon. Sullivan and E. The term "birth mother" was first used in 1956 by Pearl S. jewishvirtuallibrary. Language evolves with social attitudes and 19 . [168] Tim Lister and Mary Rogers. The controversy arises over the use of terms which. holtinternational. Two of the contrasting sets of terms are commonly referred to as positive adoption language (PAL) (sometimes referred to respectful adoption language (RAL)). while designed to be more appealing or less offensive to some persons affected by adoption. Along with the change in times and social attitudes came additional examination of the language used in adoption. [162] Wells. org/ jsource/ Holocaust/ children. and honest adoption language (HAL). Lathrop. sacredhealing. 71. Social workers and other professionals in the field of adoption began changing terms of use to reflect what was being expressed by the parties involved. org/ Indian_Child_Welfare_Act/ ) [156] Birthparent Legacy Term (http:/ / www. "What do Birtmothers Want?". "Egypt says adoptive moms were human smugglers. [153] " Searching for missing relatives in Poland (http:/ / www. uoregon. and is sensitive to the feelings of the primary parties. shtml) Holt International 1997 [167] Sayyid Muhammad Rivzi. html) by Diane Turski [164] Cultural Sensitivity and Political Correctness: The Linguistic Problem of Naming. trial/ index. org/ adoption/ language. April 2004. "Stolen Children" (http:/ / www. (1993). Adoption and Fostering 17 (4): 22–26. 4 (Winter. rpt. com/ cms/ s/ 2/ edf71f50-c208-11de-be3a-00144feab49a. pdf). com/ triadoption/ Misc. S. html). "Birth Mothers and Their Mental Health: Uncharted Territory". org/ files/ literature/ Adoption in Islam. adoptivefamilies. 2009. [165] PAL 1992 (http:/ / www. adoption. (1996). [155] National Indian Child Welfare Association: the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) (http:/ / www. html)". and since the 1970s has been a controversial issue tied closely to adoption reform efforts. / Origin of the Term Birthparent. adoption. ft. pp. In 1979. cnn. Language of adoption The language of adoption is changing and evolving. com/ pdf/ PositiveLanguage. Marietta Spencer.[5] The terms contained in "Positive Adoption Language" include the terms "birth mother" (to replace the terms "natural mother" and "real mother"). and support groups formed like CUB (Concerned United Birthparents). wrote "The Terminology of Adoption" for The Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). a major shift from natural parent to birthparent [1] [2] occurred. "Adoption in Islam. March 23.Adoption [152] R. J. pdf) OURS 1992 [166] Holt 1997 (http:/ / www. 2009. Pannor and Baran were published. Accessed September 15. utilizes inclusive terms and phrases. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ birthparents. Vol. British Journal of Social Work 26: 609–625. com/ birthmothermeansbreeder." (http:/ / www. Financial Times. there were challenges to the language in common use at the time. as well as the fact that coining new words and phrases to describe ancient social practices will not necessarily alter the feelings and experiences of those affected by them. honors the self-referencing choices of the persons involved. 2010. Language at its best. html). The term "natural mother" had been in common use previously. [154] Gitta Sereny. may simultaneously cause offense or insult to others. by Patricia Irwin Johnston [161] Logan. American Speech. jaffari. 2008. Edna Andrews.[4] This influenced Pat Johnston's "Positive Adoption Language" (PAL) and "Respectful Adoption Language" (RAL).” Children and Youth Services Review Vol. html?eref=rss_world#cnnSTCText). as adoption search and support organizations developed. in Jewish Virtual Library (American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise). htm) Child Welfare League of American 1980s [159] Adoption Language (http:/ / library. As books like Adoption Triangle by Sorosky. Positive Adoption Language In the 1970s. com/ pjpal. October 30. This controversy illustrates the problems in adoption.

Some feel the social work system has negatively compromised the intention of the birth family references and other terms. or the terminology must again change. Honest adoption language "Honest Adoption Language" refers to a set of terms that reflect the point of view that: (1) family relationships (social. biological or genetic mother/father/parent The use of the term "real" implies that the adoptive family is artificial. birth mother. your adopted child your child The use of the adjective "adopted" signals that the relationship is qualitatively different from that of parents to birth children. natural parent birth parent or first parent The use of the term "natural" implies that the adoptive family is unnatural. to combat adoptism. birth father were chosen by those working in adoption reform as terms to replace 'natural' and it took nearly a decade before agencies. adoptive families face adoptism.[8] This can be evident in English speaking cultures when there is prominent use of negative or inaccurate language describing adoption. So. the purpose is to present the adoption of those children in need as natural. but instead describe scenarios of powerlessness. a sales and marketing tool. ("Adopted" becomes a participle rather than an adjective. emotional. The example below is one of the earliest and it should be noted that these lists. courts and laws embraced the change in self-referencing.[9] [10] It also reflects the point of view that the term "birth mother" is derogatory in implying that the woman has ceased being a mother after the physical act of giving birth. social workers. in order to obtain even more infants for adoption. give up for adoption place for adoption or make an adoption plan "Give up" implies a lack of value. The preferred terms are more emotionally neutral. so that either the initial intent needs to be honored. The reasons against its use: Some birth parents see "positive adoption language" as terminology which glosses over painful facts they face as they go into the indefinite post-adoption period of their lives. For others.) Others contend that "is adopted" makes adoption sound like an ongoing disability.[11] Terms . rather than a past event. The term "natural" in its origin means a family by the natural means of conception and birth and its primal bond which exists by itself since the beginning unless it's severed. real mother/father/parent birth. biological child Saying a birth child is your own child or one of your own children implies that an adopted child is not. i. Although it can be seen as unnatural to conceive and relinquish children. and overall lack of choice. and is not as descriptive. many adoptive families choose the use of positive adoption language. lack of resources. They feel PAL has become a way to present adoption in the friendliest light possible.[6] [7] The reasons for its use: Some terms like birth parents..e. In some cultures. and that (2) mothers who have "voluntarily surrendered" children to adoption (as opposed to involuntary terminations through court-authorized child-welfare proceedings) seldom view it as a choice that was freely made. surrender for adoption placed or placed for adoption The use of the adjective "surrendered" implies "giving up. Proponents of HAL liken this to the mother being treated as a "breeder" or "incubator". and so is not a descriptive or accurate term. child is adopted child was adopted Some adoptees believe that their adoption is not their identity. have evolved and changed some over the years. there is no choice as the parent's rights were terminated because the parent was deemed to be unfit. Example of terms used in Positive Adoption Language Non-preferred: PAL term: Reasons stated for preference: your own child birth child.Language of adoption 20 experiences. but is an event that happened to them. Some adoptive parents supported this change as they felt using "natural" indicated they were "unnatural". too. psychological or physical) that existed prior to the legal adoption continue." For many parents placing a child for adoption is an informed completely voluntary choice.

" "foster. HAL does not honor the historical aspects of the early adoption reform movement who requested and worked years to have terminology changed from natural to birth." HAL terms reflect the point of view that there is a continuing mother-child relationship and/or bond that endures despite separation birth child natural child. ignores the emotional and psychological (and often physical) presence of a second set of parents in the child's life. "Realistic Plan". In contrast to RAL. hence [12] the term "surrender." The reasons for its use: In most cultures. including "natural mother". HAL acknowledges that past adoption practice facilitated the taking of children for adoption. limiting a woman's purpose in her child's life to the physical act of reproduction and thus implying that she is a "former mother" or "breeder. mother/father/parent (when referring solely to the parents who had adopted) adoptive mother/father/parent/adopter Referring to the people who have adopted the child as the mother or father (singular). the adoption of a child does not change the identities of its mother and father: they continue to be referred to as such. Some adoptive parents feel disrespected by language like 'natural parent' because it can indicate they are unnatural. It also implies that the mother is a "birth mother" with no connection to her child or interest in her child past this point place for adoption give up for adoption surrender for adoption (have) (are) separated by adoption. The use of the word "child" is accurate up until the end of childhood. HAL reflects the opinion that there are two sets of parents in the adopted person's life: adoptive parents and natural parents. and imply the mother has made a fully informed decision. Some people choose to use "Honest Adoption Language" (HAL) because it reflects the original terminology. . Some of those directly affected by adoption separation believe these terms more accurately reflect important but hidden and/or ignored realities of adoption. adopted child adopted person or person who was adopted The use of the adjective 'adopted' signals that the relationship is qualitatively different from that of parents to other children.Language of adoption 21 included in HAL include the original terms that were used before PAL. "Mother" and "surrendered for adoption." or "adoptive" parents. implying that the adoptee was a "birth product" produced for the adoption market. and having no relationship or connection with his or her natural mother past the event of having been born. They feel this language also reflects continuing connection and does not exclude further contact." "Surrender" is also the legal term for the mother's signing a Termination of Parental Rights. Many women who have gone through the process and who are separated from their children by adoption believe that social work techniques used to prepare single mothers to sign Termination Of Parental Rights papers closely resembles a psychological war against natural motherhood. After that the continued use of "child" is infantilizing. The reasons against its use: The term "Honest" implies that all other language used in adoption is dishonest. Example of Terms used in Honest Adoption Language Non-preferred: HAL Term: Reasons stated for preference: birth mother/father/parent mother or natural mother HAL views term "birth mother" as being derogatory. Those who adopted a child were thereafter termed its "guardians. often against their mother's expressed wishes. "Make a plan" and "place for adoption" are viewed by HAL proponents as being dishonest terms which marginalize or deny the [13] wrenching emotional effect of separation on the mother/child dyad. child of one's own HAL views the term "birth child" as being derogatory.

as well as affirm and liberate. pactadopt. J. pdf) TRIADOPTION® Archives [2] Birth Parents (http:/ / darkwing. by Karen Wilson-Buterbaugh. (http:/ / home. Language that is truly inclusive affirms the humanity of all the people involved. html).389-404. pp. 71. (1993). htm)" by Judy Kelly (1999) [14] Cultural Sensitivity and Political Correctness: The Linguistic Problem of Naming. or furthering division. com/ pjpal. Edna Andrews says that using "inclusive" and "neutral" language is based upon the concept that "language represents thought. 3. by Patricia Irwin Johnston [6] PAL 1992 (http:/ / www. 26. org/ press/ articles/ adoptism. net/ ~judy.Language of adoption Inclusive Adoption Language There are supporters of various lists. unconscious. html). Vol. can be then used in negative ways by detractors. sacredhealing. 609-625. Words have the power to communicate hospitality or hostility. html) [9] Logan. to exploit and exclude. org/ v6n1/ buterbaugh. and facilitated by the availability of pejorative labels and terms. uoregon. 4 (Winter. In addressing the linguistic problem of naming. edu/ ~adoption/ archive/ CwlaAT."[14] Advocates of inclusive language defend it as inoffensive-language usage whose goal is multi-fold: 1. adoptivefamilies. Eclectica. References [1] Birthparent Legacy Term (http:/ / www. 17(4). developed over many decades. No." (http:/ / foundandlostsupport. opportunities. com/ pdf/ PositiveLanguage. This compromises the integrity of the language and turns what was intended to be positive into negative or vice-versa. British Journal of Social Work. [11] "Why Birthmother Means Breeder. Inclusive language honors that each individual has a right to determine for themselves what self-referencing term is comfortable and best reflects their personal identity. eclectica. A common problem is that terms chosen by an identity group. S. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ birthparents. thus often devaluing acceptability. American Speech. the described person's individual merits become apparent. htm) The Adoption History Project [3] Adoption Terminology (http:/ / darkwing. When labeling is a conscious activity. Edna Andrews. Jul/Aug 2001 [13] "The Trauma of Relinquishment. it can focus the fundamental issues and ideals of social justice. html) by Brenda Romanchik [5] Speaking Positively: Using Respectful Adoption Language (http:/ / www. kelly/ thesis. All terminology can be used to demean or diminish. 6(1). uplift or embrace. created to support an agenda. and may even control thought. com/ triadoption/ Misc. Words and phrases must reflect mutual respect and honor the individual choice. 1996). "What do Birthmothers Want?". 2. shtml) Holt International 1997 [8] Adoptism defined (http:/ / www. In this evolving debate about which terms are acceptable in any era. perspectivespress. org/ adoption/ language. Inclusive adoption language is far more than an aesthetic matter of identity imagery that one embraces or rejects. rather than his or her stereotype. 22-26. / Origin of the Term Birthparent. holtinternational. people then must consciously think about how they describe someone unlike themselves. Adoption and Fostering. Stereotyping is mostly implicit. Rendering the labels and terms socially unacceptable. The rights. uoregon. "Birth Mothers and Their Mental Health: Uncharted Territory". and there are persons who find them lacking. 4. att. and freedoms of certain people are restricted because they are reduced to stereotypes. adoption. meaning and use. To be inclusive requires that no group ascribes to others what they must call themselves. com/ articles/ a-few-words-on-words-in-adoption. [10] Wells. pdf) OURS 1992 [7] Holt 1997 (http:/ / www. 22 . there can be disagreements within the group itself. (1996). html) by Diane Turski [12] Not By Choice (http:/ / www. htm) Child Welfare League of American 1980s [4] Adoption Language (http:/ / library. and shows respect for difference. as acceptable descriptors of themselves. com/ birthmothermeansbreeder.

most adoptions start with the birth mother reviewing dozens of photo-resume letters of prospective adoptive parents.[5] Post-birth openness Although pre-birth openness is getting to be routine in newborn adoptions. Most states permit full openness not just regarding identities. with the birth mother living in a different state from the adoptive parents). and lets the birth mother see the adoptive parent's joy and anticipation of soon becoming a parent. Pre-birth openness The days are long past when a birth mother would go to an adoption agency to give up her child. both the birth and adoptive parents want to make sure the other is someone they can count on.[3] Many birth mothers do more than just meet the adoptive parents once before the birth.[4] If they live close enough to each other.[7] Likely the most common arrangement in open adoptions is for the adoptive parents to commit to sending the birth mother photos of the child (and themselves as a family) each year. so they can be the first people to hold their child.[2] Good adoption agencies and attorneys do this in a pressure-free setting where no one is encouraged to make an immediate decision. if that is the birth mother’s wish) to be a labor coach. before she has even done so. now most adoption agencies have some.[1] When the birth mother has narrowed down her prospective adoptive parents to one. as they are in "closed adoptions" and the adoptive parents become the legal parents. This lets the adoptive parent vicariously live through the birth mother regarding the pregnancy. The same is true at the hospital. so does the birth mother want the same information about the people she is considering as the parents for her child.[6] Some birth mothers want to get to know the adoptive parents before the birth. Many birth mothers ask the hospital staff to hand the baby to the adoptive parents first. after the adoption has been completed. as demonstrated below. the first meeting will normally be by phone. would be emotionally difficult for her. or complete. The goal for both birth and adoptive parents at this stage is to make sure they are looking at the adoption in the same way. there are more variations in the years following the birth. Just as the adoptive parents want to learn about the birth mother’s life and health history. these are adoptive families who have retained that agency or attorney to assist them in the adoption process. but also personal information about each other. often only independent adoptions (usually adoptions initiated by an attorney) involved openness. Although practices vary state by state. While it is true that decades ago. or a few. families. and just like marriage. In open adoption.) If they are geographically distant from each other (as some adoptions are interstate. the parental rights of biological parents are terminated. normally they arrange to meet in person. yet the parties elect to remain in contact. but then wish to go “their own way” in life thereafter. and be present for the delivery. until the child reaches the age of 18. Usually. Open adoption has become the norm in most states in the adoption of newborns.Open adoption Open adoption Open adoption is an adoption in which the biological mother or parents and adoptive family know the identity of each other. both short and long term. it is not uncommon for the birth mother to invite the adoptive mother (or adoptive father too if the birth mother wishes) to come to her doctor appointments. or the child. then have that agency take full responsibility in selecting the adoptive family. openness as well. such as the child's birthday 23 . with the birth mother playing no role. where it is not unusual for the adoptive mother (and the adoptive father. and short written updates. then advance to a face-to-face meeting if the meeting by phone went as well as hoped. But “open” can mean different things to different people. The birth mother may feel that future contact with the adoptive parents.[8] Often these photos and updates will be sent more than just once a year. Getting to know the adoptive family gives her confidence in the placement and the knowledge she can feel secure in the child’s future with the mom and dad (or single parent) she selected. Adoption is a lifetime commitment.

the birth mother has no legal right to make parenting decisions. birth mothers should be sensitive to the feelings of the adoptive parents.) Every adoptive parent wants their child to be proud of their adoption heritage and confident in themselves and their place in a family. but she still has love to offer.[14] As a practical matter. It is not unusual for these agreements to be more like "handshake" agreements.[9] A few states permit the birth and adoptive parents to sign a contract of sorts. and feel good about the placement?" Most birth mothers are loving. It could be just a time or two in the first year. and giving up my child. but no post-birth contact: 30% Pre-birth contact. courts will find these agreements enforceable. wanting the best for their baby.[13] A good analysis for adoptive parents to emply in determining what is the right degree of openness is to put themselves in the place of a birth mother and ask. which often only a direct blood relative can provide). photos and updates. not to mention she was the person who created their family for them. What is important is that the birth mother and adoptive parents are honest with each other regarding the type of adoption each truly hopes for. that birth parent will be the first person they search for.Open adoption or other significant events. caring young women. more and more adoptive parents are opening their minds to a more open adoption than they might initially imagined if desired by the birth mother. What is right for one couple will not work for another. so to hide it from the child is nonsensical. or more common recently. friends. kidney tissue.[15] 24 . but which they can't provide. and one person does not just say what they think the other wants to hear. some states seem to have more open adoptions than others.[12] (Even if the adoptive parents were so inclined. Even in those states which do not expressly have laws in this area. In other words. putting in writing any promises regarding contact after the adoption is finalized. the percentages may look more like this: Pre-birth contact. although they offer less protection to a birth parent if the adoptive parent's promises were not honored. Some birth and adoptive parents agree they would like to stay in face-to-face contact. photos and updates. With this thought in mind. It could be once or multiple times annually throughout the child’s life. hiding adoption is really not possible.neighbors. thinking that the birth mother’s role is somewhat like that of a distant relative. and photos and updates only thereafter: 65% Pre-birth contact. The amount of contact can vary greatly. There are countless ways that a marriage can work. and one or two annual face-to-face get-togethers: 5% It is not unheard of for birth mothers to request an open adoption. and put themselves in the role of an adoptive parent. relatives .all know the child joined their family via adoption. This can be via mail. The more progressive states may have a rough percentage accordingly: Pre-birth contact. via email.[10] Which type of open adoption is best? Adoption is like marriage. Normally. what would make me feel confident. asking themselves how they would feel regarding a particular planned role in the new family. "If I were pregnant. if their child ever has a medical emergency requiring a birth parent’s aid (bone marrow. hiding something the child should see as prideful and joyful. and photos and updates only thereafter: 65% Pre-birth contact. but no post-birth contact: 10% Pre-birth contact. and one or two annual face-to-face get-togethers: 25% In more conservative states. Some adoptions are more open than just sending photos and updates. et cetera. then face a conflict later. Adoptions are the same. as long as they serve the best interests of the child. and sometimes it is done directly. as everyone the adoptive parents know . Likewise. And adoptive parents should remember.[11] Adoptive parents will want to talk about adoption to their child from a very early age. nor should she want to. then disappear from the child and adoptive family's life. these "open adoption agreements" can usually be prepared if the parties desire to formalize the agreement. Sometimes an intermediary is selected to receive and forward the updates. The saying "It takes a village to raise a child" comes to mind. Many adoptive parents view her as someone they'd enjoy staying a part of their lives.

et cetera. It's like uprooting a tree. and often there was no long-term relationship with the birth mother. Adoptions became closed when social pressures mandated that families preserve the myth that they were formed biologically. most adoptive parents and biological parents had contact at least during the adoption process. many states have important putative father registries. so adoption is the best option.[21] [22] 25 . although some adoption activists see these as a hindrance rather than a help. There are sometimes problems concerning birth mothers and adoption agencies who neglect to make sure the proper paperwork is done on the birth father's part. however. The fact that 80% of Open Adoptions close early after the birth of a child. as the social stigma slowly decreased with Abortion Laws and ready access to birth control. It is crucial to remember that no child can be relinquished legally without the birth father's consent.[20] In many cases. Until the 1930's. particularly during the BSE (Baby Scoop Era) 1945-1975 rendered "unwed mothers" social outcasts. the potential benefits to a continuing relationship with the birth father can be just as viable as with a birth mother. The reality. For those few birth fathers who volunteer to take a helpful and active role in creating the adoption situation for the adopting parents. biological mothers were told to keep their child a secret. but a problem has arisen. and there are no family members able to take over the parenting role. given the fact the pregnancies were usually unplanned. when a child has bonded to a birth parent (perhaps being raised by her or him for an extended time) then a need for an adoptive placement arises. These adoptions were predominantly closed. adoption was seen as a social support: young children were adopted out not only to help their parents (by reducing the number of children they had to support) but also to help another family by providing an apprentice. and parenting is no longer possible. in fact most adoptions in the United States were open until the twentieth century. He must be given the chance to take full custody. If it is not transplanted in special manner. Generally speaking. it is not uncommon in these adoptions for there to be no contact between the child and adoptive parents. The social experiment of taking the children from "unmarried mothers" and "giving them" to adoptive parents became the norm during the BSE.Open adoption Open adoption and birth fathers No disrespect is intended toward birth fathers in only discussing openness with birth mothers above. In a mother driven society after WWII infertile couples were also seen as deviant due to their inability to bear children. [16] Open adoption and older children What about the placement of older children? These can take two widely divergent paths. The adoption industry needed an incentive to entice mothers to surrender their children for adoption. it is usually critical for that child's emotional welfare to maintain ties with the birth parent. For this purpose. is that few birth fathers elect to take a role in adoption. as 'as if' families. that made every attempt to match the child physically to their adoptive families. domestic adoption decreased dramatically. and the birth parent. serious consequences can follow. The social stigma of unmarried mothers.[18] [19] By the 1980's. is not readily given to mothers of adoption separation before Consents are signed. and "Open Adoption" was created. The records were sealed. [17] Another way older children can be placed for adoption is where the birth parents' rights were terminated by a court due to improper parenting: abuse. One researcher has referred to these families. Closed and secret records reassured adoptive parents from the fear of returning biological parents. Although open adoptions are thought to be a relatively new phenomenon. Sometimes a parent raised a child. History of openness in adoption A closed adoption is an adoption in which the parties involved do not know the identities of each other. Although the child may still foster idealized feelings for that failing parent. and adoptive parents told to treat the child "as if born to".

by Melina and Roszia [11] RAISING ADOPTED CHILDREN. education. adoption records are sealed and withheld from public inspection after the adoption is finalized. Europe and in several provinces in Canada are automatically entitled to their birth certificates and may access their adoption records. org/ 03_homework/ 02_history/ 07_closed. race. by Lois Melina. . "Going 'Home': Adoption. 26 . All states allow an adoptive parents access to nonidentifying information of an adoptee who is still a minor. New Hampshire. html). people adopted in the United Kingdom. Identifying information is any data that may lead to the positive identification of an adoptee. Most states have instituted procedures by which parties to an adoption may obtain non-identifying and identifying information from an adoption record while still protecting the interests of all parties. adoption101. occupation of the biological parents. Department of Health and Human Services.[23] In Alabama.5. access to non-identifying information about their relatives. Perigee Press 2007 [9] ADOPTION: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO ADOPTING QUICKLY AND SAFELY. 1991 [21] Yngvesson. Non-identifying information includes the date and place of the adoptee's birth. Corona Publishing. 1993 [8] ADOPTION: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO ADOPTING QUICKLY AND SAFELY. 2006 [15] ADOPTION: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO ADOPTING QUICKLY AND SAFELY. Many states ask biological parents to specify at the time of consent or surrender whether they are willing to have their identity disclosed to the adoptee when he or she is age 18 or 21. by Hicks [16] THE OPEN ADOPTION EXPERIENCE. com/ open_adoption. and Oregon. html [13] ADOPTION WITHOUT FEAR. . the information may not be released without a court order documenting good cause to release the information. com/ talk_about_adoption. biological parents.[29] campaign for adoptees' automatic access to birth certificates in other US states. such as Bastard Nation. adoption101. Loss of Bearings. adoptionclubhouse. upon reaching adulthood. sharedjourney. Corona Publishing 1991 [5] DEAR BIRTH MOTHER. cfm). Anthropological Quarterly (George Washington University Institute for Ethnographic Research) 80 (2): 561–579. by James Gritter. and the Mythology of Roots". Administration on Children. Harper Paperbacks. doi:10. Delaware. there is no requirement to document good cause in order to access their birth certificates. and the existence of biological siblings. Youth and Families.[24] [25] [26] [27] Some groups. religion. 1993 [2] http:/ / www. com [3] http:/ / www. by Randall Hicks. gov/ systemwide/ laws_policies/ statutes/ infoaccessap. html). by Silber and Speedlin [6] adoption101.2007. by Kathleen Silber and Phylis Speedlin. Harper Paperbacks. reason for placing the child for adoption.com [7] THE OPEN ADOPTION EXPERIENCE.1353/anq. Social Text . National Adoption Center. com/ adoption/ closed.0036 [23] Access to Adoption Records (http:/ / www. retrieved 2008-05-02 [20] Adamec & Pierce. Routledge Press. or other relatives. Alaska. A person seeking a court order must be able to demonstrate by clear and convincing evidence that there is a compelling reason for disclosure that outweighs maintaining the confidentiality of a party to an adoption. Kansas. SharedJourney. by Lois Melina and Sharon Kaplan Roszia. by Duxbury [18] History of Adoption: Closed Adoption (http:/ / www. by Micky Duxbury. Administration for Children and Families. Nearly all states permit the release of identifying information when the person whose information is sought has consented to the release.[28] and Origins USA. adoption101. Barbara (Spring 2003).74 (Duke University Press) 21 (1): 7–27 [22] Yngvesson. html [4] DEAR BIRTH MOTHER. ethnicity.Open adoption Access to birth records In nearly all US states. "Refiguring Kinship in the Space of Adoption". If consent is not on file.[24] References [1] RAISING ADOPTED CHILDREN. Barbara (Spring 2007). age. physical description. One Voice. Nearly all states allow the adoptee. Children’s Bureau. 1989 [14] MAKING ROOM IN OUR HEARTS. Approximately 27 states allow biological parents access to non-identifying information. by Melina [12] http:/ / www. by Hicks [10] THE OPEN ADOPTION EXPERIENCE. Australia.S. many states give such access to adult siblings. childwelfare. medical history. In addition. At age 18. U. by Melina and Roszia [17] MAKING ROOM IN OUR HEARTS. retrieved 2008-05-02 [19] Closed Adoption (http:/ / www.

openadoption. memberlodge. The reason for sealing records and doing a closed adoption is to protect the adoptee and adoptive parents from disruption by the birth parents and in turn.adoption101.com): Adoption Smiles is a free listing service for parents interested in open adoption. External links • adoption101.openadopt.com/canada/open. The agency may be a member of the national Child Welfare League of America (CWLA).) An adoption of an older child who already knows his or her biological parent(s) cannot be made closed or secret.adoptionsmiles. com/ pg/ 07316/ 833100-84.net/) • www. adoptive parent profiles . about. com/ od/ adoptionrights/ a/ openingrecords. org/ Default.e. but with an expanded and somewhat different agenda compared to past decades. In 1917. aspx?pageId=24588 Accessed: 27th April 2008. peaking in the decades of the post-World War II Baby Scoop Era. the emergence of non-profit organizations and private companies to assist individuals with their sealed records has been effective in helping people who want to connect with biological relatives to do so. state licensed adoption agency.AdoptionSmiles. state to pass an adoption confidentiality and sealed records law. No Secrets Available: http:/ / www. or even knowing anything about each other (especially in the days before the Internet). onevoicenosecrets. and to ensure the sex of the child (a family with five girls and no boys. having concern for a child's welfare (i.) 27 . but it exists alongside the practice of open adoption. would not likely be adopted by others). Many adopting parents in non-private adoptions would apply to a local. and the record of the biological parent(s) is kept sealed.openadoptioninsight. for example).html/) • Open Adoption and Family Services: How to Create a Child-Centered Open Adoption (http://www.shtml) Open adoption information and resources in Canada. Closed adoption Closed adoption (also called "confidential" adoption and sometimes "secret" adoption) is the process by where an infant is adopted by another family.com/open_adoption.canadaadopts.openadoption. Background and procedure Historically. It still exists today. shtml Accessed: 2nd March 2008 [27] http:/ / adoption.org/) A web site dedicated to practical advice and cautions in work to achieve an open adoption • (http://www. (Often. Minnesota was the first U. [24] http:/ / www. org/ main/ Accessed: 27th April 2008. This formerly was the most traditional and popular type of adoption. asexuality.com (http://www. [29] Origins USA position papers Available: http:/ / originsusa.com (http://www.org (http://www. org/ html/ articles.org/) • Openadoption.S. unsealedinitiative.Open adoption 2006. birth parent support (http://www. stm Retrieved 29th February 2008 [25] http:/ / www. org/open-adoptees/centered-open-adoption/) • Open Adoption. us/ news/ bill_looks_to_open_adoption_records. the four primary reasons for married couples to obtain a child via closed adoption have been (in no particular order) infertility. The sealed records effectively prevent the adoptee and the biological parents from finding.[2] (The CWLA and many adoption agencies are still in operation today. as the government has largely taken over some of their previous responsibilities. most United States states and Canadian provinces had a similar law. the biological father is not recorded—even on the original birth certificate. • Open Adoption information for those interested in adoption (http://www. to allow birth parents to make a new life.com/) • Open Adoption Resources and Support (http://www. post-gazette. However.[1] Within the next few decades. htm Accessed: 2nd March 2008 [28] One Voice. html Accessed: 2nd March 2008 [26] http:/ / apostille.openadoption.

This would also help ensure that he or she was healthy. the sealed record laws were meant to keep information private from everyone except the 'parties to the action' (adoptee. and 28 . as it prevents immediate bonding between the mother and child. Once the adoption has been approved. Adoption Agencies and Maternity Homes was published in 1981 and contains information about most US and Canadian facilities. this practice is discouraged. Adoption Directory [3] Searches and reunions From the early 1950s when Jean Paton began Orphan Voyage. Often. as the social stigma of having a child out of wedlock in America had decreased. and the information given to them can be quite limited (though this has varied somewhat over the years. adoptive parent. the laws were reinterpreted or rewritten to seal the information even from the involved parties. Though they did not exist until late in the 20th century. or vice versa. Over time. More and more mothers were either raising their child as a single parent (often with the help of the newly created institution of government welfare. the agency transfers the infant from foster care (if used) to the adoptive parents. In these mutual consent registries. (North Carolina. In some states. birthparent and agency). these are persons personally touched by adoption who do not feel anyone should be charged a fee to get information about themselves or their family. the states will not give the adoptee the correct location of their birth. that the birthparent was sure about relinquishment. the biological mother can take back the child months after the placement of the child. there have been Search Angels who help adoptees. all of these hospitals had closed due to high costs and the reduced need for secrecy. a birth mother or female adoptee has both moved to another address. After the infant has spent a few weeks or months with the adoptive parents. much better medical testing is available. Laws are ever changing and in many states of the USA. The biological mother has until the final court hearing. William Booth. In the post WWII era laws were enacted which prevented both the adoptee and adoptive family to access the original. Directory of Hospitals. International Soundex Reunion Registry. Quite often. and dozens of other local search and reunion organizations. This becomes the adopted person's permanent. and named after its founder. legal birth certificate. most provinces in Canada. Also. Triadoption Library. both prenatally and postnatally. then the intermediary conducts a search similar to that of a private investigator. Georgia. Originally. Nowadays. Concerned United Birthparents. Reg Niles. chat rooms. This can be either a search for the birth mother at the request of the adoptee. and from one agency to another). registration and support. Reunion registries were designed so adoptees and their birth parents. Most require the adoptee to be at least 18 years old. there has been a grass roots support system in place for those seeking information and reunion with family. the UK and Australia there are now various forms of open records giving adoptees and birth family members access to information in their files and on each other. many such hospitals were run by the Salvation Army. siblings or other family members can locate one another at little or no cost. the infant would often be placed in temporary and state-mandated foster care for a few weeks to several months until the adoption was approved. and other online resources that offer search information. a local judge formally and legally approves the adoption. today there are many internet sites. especially if it primarily serves unwed mothers. The infant is then issued a second. siblings and birth families locate their relatives for free. Orphanages. and into the 1970s with the creation of ALMA. From the very beginning. This often requires a person to petition the court to view the sealed adoption records. Yesterday's Children. and that nothing was overlooked at the time of birth. In the USA. The hospital may also be omitted on the amended birth certificate.Closed adoption Prior to adoption. Virginia) the city and county of the adoptees birth is changed on the amended birth certificate. Some states have confidential intermediary systems. in the many years which have passed since the adoptee was born. Usually. to where the adoptive parents were living at the time the adoption was finalized. both parties must have registered in order for there to be a match. amended birth certificate that states the adopting parents are the actual parents. By the mid-1970s.

However. should this party indicate that he or she does not want to be contacted. the information would not be given out. In many cases. 2009. In recent years. (See the previous section. Although rare. A few cases have surfaced in which records were thought to have been sealed but were not—either by mishandling or misunderstanding. and the mother might have additional information.[4] Legal matters Only a court order allows closed adoption records to be unsealed. or one additional year if the birth parents initiate the request. and only in the most extreme and unusual circumstances ask for additional funds. can be done afterwards for the father. these laws were not made retroactive.Closed adoption married or remarried resulting in a change of her surname. the reason the infant was put up for adoption in the first place was the birth father's unwillingness to marry or otherwise care for the child. Upon completion of the search in which the birth mother agrees to be contacted. Nevertheless. Oregon voters passed Measure 58 which allowed adoptees to unseal their birth records without any court order. and anyone can request from them how-to request this help. Females have statistically been somewhat more likely than males to search for their birth parents. Very often. a marriage certificate may provide the needed clue as to the person's whereabouts. The adoptive parents' application to an adoption agency remains confidential. but like search organizations and search angels.) 29 . Both parties can protect their privacy by giving notice of how to be either contacted or not. In 1998. only future adoptions subsequent to the laws' passage apply. Canada opened its sealed records to adoptees and their birth parents. and if the latter. the intermediary usually sends the adoptee the official unamended birth certificate obtained from the court. There are also private search companies and investigators who charge fees to do a search for or assist adoptees and birth mothers and fathers locate each other. Ontario. Some other states which formerly kept closed adoption records sealed permanently by default have since changed to allowing release once the adoptee turns 18. with identifying information being released or not. by law. In all adoption searches. there is usually assistance available from the tax-payer supported state department or the non-profit agency. On June 1. All adoptions subsequent to September 1. the intermediary initiates obtaining the court order and is reimbursed for doing so. and are far more likely to search for their adopted children. they may not circumvent the law regarding the confidentiality process. often the same confidential intermediary can be used for an additional fee. and typically provide their own intermediary services. with a minimum age of 18 for the adoptee. In many states. However. Most agencies charge a fixed fee which includes everything. have far greater flexibility in regards to releasing information. These services typically cost much more. If and when the intermediary is able to contact the birth mother (or adoptee). however. 2008 will be "open adoptions"[5] For searches involving a confidential intermediary. she is informed that her adopted child (or birth mother) is inquiring about her. which was quite uncommon prior to the early 1990s. However. If the adoptee is unable to locate (or would prefer to use a third person) to find his or her birth father. as well as to help other types of people searching. but varies by state and agency. it is still confidential information to everyone else until the other party agrees otherwise. a small number of people have been prosecuted over the years for violating the confidentially of sealed adoption records. For persons who can not afford the fees. adoptees are able to do this second search for their birth father by themselves (or they try before paying for assistance). DNA tests designed for genealogists have been used by adult adoptees to identify biological relatives. While this can make the search difficult and time consuming. A separate search. Since males seldom change their surnames. it is usually easier than the initial search for the birth mother. if desired. once the court grants this. The cost for a confidential intermediary and related court fees can be around $500. many birth fathers in this situation have agreed to meet with their grown children decades later. it is uncommon to find both the birth mother and father at the same time.

This applies regardless of whether or not the birth father participated in or agreed to the adoption. prohibit an adoptee from automatically inheriting from his or her birth parents. older adults or even senior citizens felt like they were being treated like children. Criticism of closed adoption Closed adoption has been increasingly criticized in recent years as being unfair to both the adoptee and his or her birth parents. the Dear Abby column Dear Abby [10] and various TV shows and movies. it has been extremely rare for them to communicate directly with the child. Some people believe that making the identities of a child's parents quite literally a state secret is a gross violation of human rights. (Usually. Often. a court order may be required to obtain another one (even if a photocopy is submitted). and blame the child's heredity. 30 . This enables them to blame ordinary problems which all parents face on their child's supposedly "defective" genes. genetically-related "fantasy" child. the decision is up to the adoptive parents regarding how to inform the child that he or she has been adopted. while non-adoptive parents are focused on nurture. The law has since been changed. some adoptive parents are solely focused on nature (i. The probate laws of most states in the U. This results in what could have been an easily resolved problem. going unresolved in families with adopted children. and what is covered by the payment to the intermediary. this was not given at the time of adoption. Adoptive parents may be less likely to consider the possibility that they are doing something wrong. However.Closed adoption Many states. This is a change from previous decades.) Difficulties include the lack of a genetic medical history which could be important in disease prevention. and at what age to do so. heredity) instead. The parents may even unfavorably compare their adopted child with a near-perfect. possibly accompanied by child abuse. and the father's history is usually little known even to the mother. and thus second-class citizens subject to discrimination. the birth mother may have desired the secrecy because of a premarital affair. Had the adoption not have taken place. Should an adoptee subsequently lose his or her unamended birth certificate. adoptees had to obtain the permission of their adoptive parents (unless deceased) to be included in a state-sponsored reunion registry regardless of the age of the adoptee. any son or daughter would be an heir upon his or her father's death—regardless of who his childhood caretakers were. Starting in the mid-1980s. On the other hand. traditionally. In some cases. while "known" adoptees may have the same status as non-family members.S. adoption agencies do not contain the word "adoption" in their name. The International Soundex Reunion Registry (ISRR) is the oldest and largest. if at all. though. still keep this information sealed even after the adoptee and the birth parents agree to know and contact each other. In virtually all cases. and offers other adoption-related support. Thus. In a broader sense. Although a non-profit adoption agency (if one is used) might mail newsletters and solicit funds from the parents.[6] For many years in New York State. There are also independent and state funded reunion registries that facilitate reuniting family members. when nothing was ever released without a rarely given or sought court order. there is some variation in probate laws from one state to another. Should a birth parent include an "unknown" adoptee in his or her will.e. [8] The Salvation Army also provides information in helping those who were born or gave birth in its maternity hospitals or homes (see the external links below). and required to obtain their parents' signature on the form. A second court order would be required to have this information unsealed permanently. the probate court has no obligation to fulfill this type of request. This is well beyond the scope of the initial search. There can be additional complications if the birth father has subsequently moved to another state. they felt it could be inferred that adopted children are always children.[7] Organizations and media Most US states and Canadian provinces have independent non-profit organizations that help adoptees and their birth parents initiate a search. Many in the adoption community first learned of search and support resources through newspaper articles Adoption Articles [9].

Birth Parents. org/ usw/ www_usw. com/ triadoption/ Reg%20Niles%20AAOMH. adoptontario. html [8] http:/ / www. htm) Child Welfare League of America (http:/ / www. many of those being the adoption-related cases. net/ [13] http:/ / www. nacac.Closed adoption many adoptees and their parents first learned about the possibility of reunion on the NBC (later CBS) television program Unsolved Mysteries hosted by Robert Stack. net [9] http:/ / www. ca/ newsdetails. the program returned to Lifetime from 4 to 7 pm ET/PT. org) http:/ / www. com/ triadoption/ articles. isrr. htm/ http:/ / www. net/ articles. Reruns of the program (with a few new segments and updates) were also aired on the Lifetime Television cable network until mid-2006. triadoption. com [5] http:/ / www. htm/ [10] http:/ / www. sacredhealing. In September 2010. This was under their "Lost Loves" category. aspx?id=257 [6] The Adoption Triangle: Sealed or Opened Records: How They Affect Adoptees. isrr. salvationarmy. uoregon. org/ policyarticles/ accessbirthrecords. and Adoptive Parents ISBN 0-931722-59-4 [7] http:/ / www. htm [11] http:/ / www1. External links • Salvation Army (former Booth Hospitals) [11] • ISRR Reunion Registry [12] • Adoption Archives [13] References [1] [2] [3] [4] Adoption History: Adoption History in Brief (http:/ / darkwing. com/ 31 . and very briefly on Spike TV in late 2008. nsf/ vw-text-dynamic-arrays/ 88256D3D006526AD88256BD0007B4A98?openDocument [12] http:/ / www. DNA-Testing-Adviser. sacredhealing. isrr. cwla. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ adoptionhistbrief. More than 100 reunions have occurred as a result of the program. usw. the vast majority of which involved closed adoption.

html 32 . birth parents may play an active role in selecting an adoptive family and receive pictures and letter updates through the agency. or confidential (a/k/a closed) adoption. Communication is often made through an intermediary. Thanks to technology advances. http://www. Open adoption involves a degree of ongoing personal contact between the parties to an adoption (the birth parents. visits. Birth parents may play an active role in the adoption process and may be involved in selecting an adoptive family.org/ adoptionchoices. While all adoption plans are unique. http:/ / www. creating a dedicated website with picture and video uploads of child milestones for birth parent viewing). and may include yearly pictures. adoptive family and the child). or in some states a facilitator).e. birth parents may have the option of choosing an open.g. such as foster care. or e-mails. domestic adoption begins with the decision of the birth parents to place their unborn baby or child with another family. phone calls.g.g. the parties may choose to stay connected through the internet in a non-identifying manner (e. Even after an adoption is finalized.html Open adoption See also: Open adoption Open adoption is where the adopted person has access to their file and/or original records. private or state-run adoption agency. letters.. a person adopted in the United Kingdom becomes entitled to their birth certificate and may access their adoption records. Privately-arranged adoptions through an attorney or facilitator are illegal in some jurisdictions. addresses. a private attorney. but this contact is limited and only non-identifying information is shared. semi-open. The parties will determine the nature and extent of contact and this is often communicated and managed directly -. birth parents may request assistance from their adoption professional in choosing an adoptive family.. In doing so.org/adoptionchoices.allforchildren. For example. the relationship between the parties will continue. In most jurisdictions. In a private adoption. such as through a personal contact or an adoption professional (e. at age 18. allforchildren.html ===Semi-open adoption Semi open adoption in private adoption involves a degree of contact between the birth and adoptive parents.org/adoptionchoices. In the alternative. There are several ways in which birth and adoptive families connect.without the assistance of an intermediary. they become active participants in the adoption process and may experience greater confidence in their adoption plan. such as an adoption agency. and phone numbers). in an open adoption the adopted child may meet his/her birth family and/or a degree of ongoing communication will exist. Birth parents may be given profiles of waiting adoptive families to look at and choose from.http://www. Significantly. Domestic adoption Adoption is a legal process through which a child who will not be raised by his/her birth parents becomes a full and permanent legal member of another family. This may be a right available at certain ages . first names and the state/region in which the parties reside may be disclosed. Open adoption may also be defined as a type of private adoption.Domestic adoption Domestic adoption Domestic adoption is the placing of a child within the same country as the child’s birth. This may be achieved through a private agency or the state. Identifying information is shared between the parties (such as names..allforchildren.

allforchildren. Familyformation. External Links www.org/adoptionchoices. It may also occur because the parties involved do not want any contact. Foster care adoption is a legal process through which children in the public. org [2] http:/ / www. such as when a child is removed form the home by the state because of abuse or neglect. or court order. up to the point of placement. non-identifying information is shared between the parties involved. for children whose welfare and protection requires that they be removed from their own homes (often due to claims of abuse or neglect).allforchildren. such as medical history and social background.html 33 . usually in a home licensed by a public agency.org [1] • familyformation. com/ http://www. allforchildren.com [2] References [1] http:/ / www. Foster Care adoptions Foster care is a form of substitute care.html</ref> In other confidential adoptions no information is shared between the parties involved. foster care system become full and permanent legal members of another family.org/domestic. This may occur because of the law in the jurisdiction concerned. no further information is shared between the adoptive parents and the birth parents.allforchildren.<refhttp://www. After the adoption is legalized.Domestic adoption Confidential (a/k/a closed) adoption See also: Closed adoption In some confidential adoptions.

36% were unsure or confused about the adoption process.45% believed children in foster care have entered the system because of juvenile delinquency. the vast majority of the 129. davethomasfoundation. once the court finalizes the legal termination of parental rights. . childwelfare. . A national survey by Harris Interactive revealed that 48 million Americans considered adoption from foster care in 2007. and there is financial support available for all adoptions. gov/ adoption/ foster/ http:/ / www. org/ Our-Work/ Research External links • A Child is Waiting: A Step-by-Step Guide to Adoption (http://www. including removal from the home by a governmental agency because of maltreatment. davethomasfoundation.Foster care adoption Foster care adoption Foster care adoption is a type of domestic adoption where the child is initially placed into a foster care system and is subsequently placed for adoption. Children may be placed into foster care for a variety of reasons. foster care system waiting for permanent families. .46% mistakenly believed that foster care adoption is prohibitively expensive. founded by Wendy’s founder Dave Thomas. adoptive parents are licensed as and technically considered foster parents while the adoption is being finalized.davethomasfoundation. Supporting Organizations The Dave Thomas Foundation for Adoption.org/wiki/Domestic_adoption 34 . there are more than one hundred thousand of children in the U. abandonment and/or abuse.[3] Child welfare professionals must recruit potential adoptive families for these children who are waiting for adoption. the parents can never return to claim the child. org/ http:/ / www.67% were unnecessarily concerned that biological parents could return to claim the children. as victims of neglect. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.[2] Trends and Research Nationwide. is a not-for-profit organization that supports foster care adoption and provides grants to national and regional adoption organizations for programs to raise awareness and make adoption easier and more affordable.[1] In some jurisdictions. however:[4] . foster care system entered through no fault of their own.S. gov/ http:/ / www. In reality. when in reality there is very little cost to adopt from foster care. hhs.S.wikipedia.org/ Free-Adoption-Resources/Adoption-Guides) http://en.000 children waiting in the U.

Some countries. For example. requires residency except in special cases. Depending on the country. have extended residency requirements for adoptive parents that in effect rule out most international adoptions. citizenship is automatically granted to all 35 .[1] Process overview The requirements necessary to begin the process of international adoption can vary depending on the country of the adoptive parent(s). The parent is usually sent information about the child. In the United States. a background check. and instead the specific laws of the child and adoptive parents must be followed. Even when the Hague does not apply. prospective adoptive parents must meet the legal adoption requirements of their country of residence and those of the country whose nationality the child holds. government if the child's country is also a participant in the Hague Convention. typically the first stage of the process is selecting a licensed adoption agency or agency to work with. requirements will vary widely from country to country. while most countries require prospective adoptive parents to first get approval to adopt. Some countries allow a child to be escorted to the adoptive parents' home country and the adoptive parents are not required to travel to the country of their adopted child. health history. If the child's country is not a participant in the Hague Convention. Some countries. A travel date is typically included. a home study and USCIS (United States Citizen and Immigration Services)(formerly INS (Immigration and Naturalization Service) approval are requirements. The laws of different countries vary in their willingness to allow international adoptions. In the United States. Typically this includes financial information. a home study review by a social worker.International adoption International adoption International adoption (also referred to as intercountry adoption or transnational adoption) is a type of adoption in which an individual or couple becomes the legal and permanent parents of a child that is a national of a different country. it can be obtained from a private adoption agency. such as paperwork to make the child a legal citizen of the adopting parents' country or re-adopt them. report from the adoptive parents' doctor regarding their health. while in others cases. have relatively well-established rules and procedures for international adoptions. In general. such as Kazakhstan. notably many African nations. International Adoption is not the same thing as Transcultural or Interracial adoption.[2] The Hague is discussed below. the dossier is submitted for review to the appropriate authorities in the child's country. Once complete. fingerprints. in some the approval can only be received from a state agency. Pursuant to the rules of the Hague Convention (an international treaty related to adoption issues) the adoption agency or attorney must be accredited by the U. such as China and Korea. then the rules of the Hague do not apply. etc. A dossier is prepared that contains a large amount of information about the prospective adoptive parents required by the child's country. There are usually several requirements after this point. while other countries expressly forbid it. and even region to region in large countries such as Russia. do not allow referrals until the prospective parent travels to the country on their first trip. for instance. Some countries. informing the parents when they may travel to meet the child and sign any additional paperwork required to accept the referral. they are matched to an eligible child (except in some countries such as India. gender. although some only focus on a single country. Each agency or attorney works with a different set of countries. Malawi. and other supporting information.S. one or more follow up (or "post placement") visits from a social worker may be required — either by the placing agency used by the adoptive parents or by the laws of the country from which the child was adopted. which does not allow "matching" of a child to (a) prospective parent(s)). This is generally called a referral. This is called a "blind" referral. Again.[3] After the dossier is reviewed and the prospective parents are approved to adopt. the parents may have to make more than one trip overseas to complete the legal process. In addition. such as age.

number of dependent children in the house. Adoption from Ethiopia has become an increasingly popular option for adoptive families in the US. marital status and history. Each country. Depending on the circumstances of the adoption. fees and expenses. and the amount of travel time required in the child's birth country. Documents that were presented in support of the abandonment of these children in Nepal have been found to be unreliable and circumstances of alleged abandonment cannot be verified because of obstacle in the investigation of individual cases. and often each part of the country.(U. and ancestry are used by different countries to determine what parents are eligible to adopt from that country. Vietnam recently signed a treaty openings its doors for adoption. Russia (2310). Romania.S. and 732 issued in 2006. Items such as the age of the adoptive parents.[4] Policies and requirements Adoption policies for each country vary widely. Department of State maintains a list of all accredited international adoption providers. Ethiopia (1255). This is a switch from the 1980s. South Korea (939). Vietnam (828) Ukraine (606). They are the Council on Accreditation and the Colorado Department of Health and Human Services. Reliability and verifiability of the information is also variable. Each country sets its own rules. Items such as the age of the child. about 95% of Chinese children adopted are girls. educational level. Norway. in accordance with the Child Citizenship Act of 2000. India (416) Liberia (353). when most Korean adoptees (about two-thirds) were girls. Department of State has designated two accrediting entities for organizations providing inter-country adoption services in the United States that work with sending countries that have ratified the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption. [5] The U.[9] there were 441 orphans visas issued to Ethiopian children in 2005. sexual orientation. timelines and requirements surrounding adoption. Colombia (310). and Philippines (265). due to the Chinese culture's son preference in combination with the official planned birth policy implemented in 1979. Belarus and Cambodia were also important until government crackdowns on adoptions to weed out abuse in the system cut off the flow. Canada. Most countries require that a parent travel to bring the child home. Haiti. Guatemala has recently closed its doors. Although India also has a noticeable excess of girls being adopted (68% girls).[10] 36 . as an immigrant or the child's adoption in the parent's home jurisdiction. child's health). According to the U. most other countries are about even.S. the actual grant of citizenship takes place either upon the child's admission to the U. [6] Sources of children and adoptive parents The most common countries for international adoption by parents in the United States for 2007 were China (5453). Kazakhstan (540). some countries allow the child to be escorted to his or her new homeland. citizen. South Korea is the one country that has a relatively large excess of boys being adopted.International adoption foreign-born children when at least one adoptive parent is a U. can also vary widely from one country to another. and there are also rules that vary within the United States for each state. These statistics can vary from year to year as each country alters its rules. a picture of the child. State Department) [7] Other less common countries include Bulgaria.S. also sets its own rules about what type of information will be shared and how it will be shared (e. The U.[8] China is the one major country where girls adopted far outnumber boys.S. the United States government has suspended adoptions from Nepal. however. about 60% are boys. Although Nepal has not closed it doors for adoption. and Poland. Department of State. Kenya.g. Guatemala (4728). weight. Australia. financial status. psychological health.S.S.

of selling natives to foreigners and the shame that most governments feel about not being able to support their own children. Hague Conference on Private International Law See also Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption Recognizing some of the difficulties and challenges associated with international adoption. have relatively well-established rules and procedures for foreign adopters to follow. and instead of helping the children get out of orphanages. or traffic in children each State should take. many countries around the world are completely closed off to international adoption because of accusations of exporting children. While the Hague convention is an exemplary step in the right direction by most governments. with the exception of adoptions by close relatives (such as grandparents). the sale of. The convention causes some governments like India to run incredibly slow. while the Hague Convention is an excellent ideal. or pregnant and begin the vicious cycle all over again. but have not ratified. The main objectives of the Convention are: • to establish safeguards to ensure that intercountry adoptions take place in the best interests of the child and with respect for his or her fundamental rights as recognized in international law. Ireland and the Russian Federation are signatories. such as Romania are closed to international adoption altogether. have extended residency requirements that in effect rule out most international adoptions.[11] which came into force on 1 May 1995. while others. creates a rigorous process that few pass. in implementation it could actuality impede many adoptions. getting older and older until they pass the age of adoption and simply wait until they are legal adults.[13] The following is a quotation from the convention: Intercountry adoptions shall be made in the best interests of the child and with respect for his or her fundamental rights. the Hague Conference j on Private International Law developed the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption.[15] 37 . are now temporarily closed to adoptions after the country's ratification of the Hague Convention. • to establish a system of co-operation amongst Contracting States to ensure that those safeguards are respected and thereby prevent the abduction. notably many African nations. • to establish "formal international and intergovernmental recognition of intercountry adoption. and in an effort to protect those involved from the corruption and exploitation which sometimes accompanies it. the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for example. Others.[14] However. it keeps them inside them. Some countries. A country like Guatemala. working to ensure that adoptions under the Convention will generally be recognized and given effect in other party countries". appropriate measures to enable the child to remain in the care of his or her family of origin. However.[12] • to secure the recognition in Contracting States of adoptions made in accordance with the Convention. which has had a plethora of child trafficking. Some countries. To to prevent the abduction. most become unemployed. or traffic in children. it could sometimes actually hinder many adoptions to families that would normally qualify and causing children to miss opportunities that could have saved and changed their lives. Most children who grow up in orphanages and become legal adults get very little in the way of education. prostitution and many orphans. as a matter of priority. As of October 2008. such as China and Vietnam. the sale of.International adoption International Adoption Laws A country's willingness to allow international adoption will vary to accommodate that country's laws. expressly forbid it. this Convention has been ratified by 76 countries. as of 2009.

selling or illegal transportation of children. One of the debates in international adoption circles has been about the adopted child’s sense of belonging in their new country. the lead federal investigator for the prosecution of Lauryn Galindo for visa fraud and money laundering involved in Cambodian adoptions. and might be expected to have a harder time fitting in than. Article 15 states “Sufficient time and adequate counselling should be given to the child's own parents. wherever possible. 38 . and was investigated for this sort of corruption. not rushing into adoptions in the wake of disasters. require change from the sending country.” In such a situation. Guatemala. the Declaration also advocates time and patience in the adoptive process. where needed.International adoption UN Declaration Relating to the Welfare of Children The UN declaration Relating to the Welfare of Children emphasises the preference for children being raised by family members. These then sell the children using false papers. and is most certainly against rushed international adoption. was one of the top sources of adopted children. babies bought. coerced/induced/recruited relinquishments. the prospective adoptive parents and.[16] Consequences and problems Negative consequences of international adoption See: List of international adoption scandals Child trafficking or child laundering Child trafficking is a broad term that refers to the buying.[17] This trafficking can occur anywhere but is most prominent in poorly regulated countries or where local corruption is a factor." Often the pretence is that the child's parents are dead when in fact the child's parents are still alive. rather than by adoptive families. Up to the end of 2007. some problems do exist. as appropriate. In some cases the children are stolen from the home. For example. a Russian child. Loss of culture. This is explained in Article 15 “If a child cannot be placed in a foster or an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared for in the country of origin. While most international adoptions are not tainted by child trafficking.e. grow up in the care and under the responsibility of his parents and. the child in order to reach a decision on the child's future. intercountry adoption may be considered as an alternative means of providing the child with a family. in other cases the children are left at orphanages for temporary care or schools for education. in any case.. i. the UN Declaration is against the idea of international adoption as a whole. “The child shall.” Clearly. family or identity International adoption is a relatively new phenomenon when compared to domestic adoption.[19] Richard Cross. Child laundering is a more precise term that refers to the stealing of children who are then sold to adoptive parents as legitimate "orphans. The Declaration makes clear that international adoption should only be considered as a last resort. identities of the children switched. estimated that most of the 800 adoptions Galindo facilitated were fraudulent--either based on fraudulent paperwork. Asian children who are adopted by Caucasians are of a recognizably different race than their adoptive parents. In some cases the parents may even sell the children. the United States has suspended adoption from certain countries in order to investigate fraud and. Occasionally.[18] Guatemala changed the country's adoption law after massive international pressure. in an atmosphere of affection and of moral and material security.[20] [21] The Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption (short title for Convention #33) is one measure intended to further shield international adoption against child trafficking. Some believe that this is a particular concern for inter-racial adoptions. ratified the Hague-convention on intercountry adoptions.. etc. and the number of adoptions has fallen dramatically. say. Receiving nations such as the United States have implemented safeguards to ensure that adopted children are in fact legally available for adoption.

Korea holds “cultural training camps” where Korean adoptees are able to explore their birth country for the first time. For example. belonging. for example. an appropriation of valued resources and a constitution of personal ties. It helps if parents allow the child to sleep in their bedroom. and these training camps are the Korean government’s way of changing the view of these “outcasts” to “overseas Koreans. children are neglected in orphanages.International adoption Nowadays. Because of this. with a variety of competing voices ranging from adoptive parents who not only adopt but also dominate published accounts of the practice. and anthropologists alike. All these researchers now have the benefit of drawing on populations of the "first waves" of internationally adopted people who have now reached adulthood. Questions still remain. the price to adopt a child from Russia is very high. Is it detrimental to a child’s well-being to keep them from getting to know their birth origin? Or are more problems caused by encouraging and allowing foreign adoptees to explore their birth culture? Also. Cultural treatment of children and political situations in countries affect children when they are adopted internationally. Cultural backgrounds can affect adjustment as well. Indigo Willing and Tobias Hubinette also suggest that adoption is a contested practice. children from Russia are in high demand the adoption market in the United States. they are likely to act out because of the negative treatment they received in their country of origin.[23] Even being of a different race than the adopted family can cause the adoptee to feel like a misfit. When these children are adopted. higher-degree studies and books by authors such as Toby Volkman. a critical mass of scholars. the children and adoptive parents are encouraged to explore their origins of birth. 39 . When they are adopted and given a room of their own. Korean adoptees were seen as outcasts. adoption professionals and community representatives are only beginning to explore these questions with the growing community groups made up of international adoptees (many who have finally now reached maturity). they show likelihood to develop sleeping problems and ill health can result from their adjustment.[22] and Russian adoption agencies have become more of a business than a method to provide for children in need. however. More serious consultation with a range of internationally adopted people from various professional and community-work based backgrounds needs to be included before the field of adoption study is more truly representative and rigorously informed. paradigms and narratives presented by psychologists. As Pauline Turner Strong said in an article in Relative Values: Reconfiguring Kinship Studies: "Adoption across political and cultural borders may simultaneously be an act of violence and an act of love. The origin of the child also plays a role in whether he will adjust to adoption well.” It has slowly shown positive results. culture. have rarely ever slept in a room by themselves at night. often do not receive proper nutrition. as seen in the rise of Korean and Vietnamese adoptee groups alone. to those who have been internationally adopted and are now beginning to enter research fields focusing on adoption (such as members of the International Adoptee Congress Research Committee). for example. Until recently. and are used as a bartering tool to make money. it is hard to determine any sort of best practice in adoption if only based on conflicting research agendas. or in the bedroom of a sibling. and a closer kinship of adoptees to their birth country. At the same time. have very recently started to study the effects of kinship. and even genes and the roles they play in the upbringing of foreign adoptees. sociologists. For example. Anthropologists. to their birth cultures exploration is almost expected. From their birth parents. nation.” Scholarly accounts in journal articles. an excruciating rupture and a generous incorporation. Sara Dorow. how should the adoptive parents prepare to deal with a bi-racial family in which the adults are of one race while the child is of another? And how do we reconcile differences between adoptive parents' assumptions about adoption with adoptees' experiences of living with a condition that they were too young to decide on for themselves? As of right now. David Eng. Prior to adoption. Children from orphanages.

mentally and physically. and even older adopted children. and wars. and squalor.[25] Significant advances have been made in increasing the regulation of International Adoptions. international adoption results from a child whose birthparents were unable to parent and provide for them within the environment of a family instead of an institution such as an orphanage. [Brodzinsky. In other cases. While adoption may be a way to provide stable. MD. those thought to be the most difficult and more severely and permanently damaged. adopted children are happier and healthier. ISBN 0-7382-0516-8] Further. Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption International Adoption After a Disaster Of special note to international adoption are campaigns for adoptions that occur after disasters such as hurricanes. that displaced and/or orphaned children may be more vulnerable to exploitation and child trafficking. he finds Juffer's work encouraging. who recently did a review of the adoption literature. the study doesn't include any of the most difficult cases and as someone who works with adopted kids. immediately following a disaster. the children are capable of change and development for the better. the children may be saved from a life of desperation. Berry Brazelton.[24] Reform efforts Due to the appeal and otherwise obvious difficult issues presented by international adoption. But Steven Nickman of Harvard Medical School. M. There is often an outpouring of adoption proposals in such cases from foreigners who want to give homes to children left in need. than are orphans who are not adopted. although adoption may have initial adverse effects and negative experiences for childhood. Copyright 2000 by T. Some are incredibly painful. In the long term cultural differences were not as problematic as expected. Still. Providing safety and emotional support may be better in those situations than immediate relocation to a new adoptive family. even in the case of interracial adoptions and international adoptions. Every child needs a family. and Stanley I.[26] Moving children too quickly into new adoptive homes among strangers may be a mistake because with time. [The Irreducible Needs of Children: What Every Child Must Have to Grow. abuse. it may turn out that the parents have survived but were unable to find the children. Nickman says. Juffer compiled data from 80 studies and concluded that adopted children are not at risk for low self esteem. D. M. This can mean the difference between a life and death. Essentially. Differences in race between a child and their adoptive parents did not matter and children from interracial/international-adoption families performed the same as children adopted into families of the same race/culture. and Flourish. says that while Juffer's study is careful and methodologically sound. or there may be a relative or neighbor who can offer shelter and homes.International adoption Positive consequences of international adoption In most cases. loving families for children in need." The Future of Children 3. Learn.[27] There is also an increased risk. 1993] A recent study by Dutch professor Femmi Juffer challenges the notion that adoption hurts a child’s self-esteem in that adopted kids would unconsciously blame themselves for the loss of their birth families and on some level feel that they hadn't been good enough for their families to keep them. Overall. there are some limits to her research. it is also suggested that adoption in the immediate aftermath of trauma or upheaval may not be the best option. "Long-Term Outcomes in Adoption. tsunamis. Nickman knows that not all adoptions turn out well. adjusted over time as well. Greenspan.[28] 40 .D. the reform movement seeks to influence governments to adopt regulations that serve the best interest of the child and meet the interests of both the adoptive and biological family members.

adoptionboard.gov (http:/ / adoption. ISBN 0-02-927055-3. status& cid=69) [14] Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (http:/ / www. Retrieved February 28. at (http:/ / works. nl/ index_en. works (http:/ / works. state. com/ international_adoption. edu/ cumberland_programs. state. 41 . Department of State. org/ [16] http:/ / www.com (http://www. bepress. gov/ hague/ accreditation/ process. npr.com/) • Hague Conference . php) [13] Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (http:/ / www. hcch. adoptioninstitute. Department of State (http:/ / www. com/ david_smolin/ ) [18] Washington Post. google.net/index_en. New York : Maxwell Macmillan International. Perigee Press 2007 [4] "Adoption: Before Your Child Immigrates to the United States" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. gov/ hague_convention/ overview. September 2. html [8] http:/ / eaci. Works at bepress legal repository. gov/ portal/ site/ uscis/ menuitem. Guatemala adoption investigation. html) [21] Full lecture of special agent Richard Cross Richard Cross's full video and audio lecture available here (http:/ / cumberland. External links • adoption101. adoptionboard. 1992. uscis. un. php?act=conventions. and Stealing Children (http://law.Convention of 29 May 1993 on Protection of Children and Co-operation in respect of Intercountry Adoption (http://www. Donaldson Adoption Institute [27] http:/ / www.hcch.. International adoption: global inequalities and the circulation of children.International adoption References [1] The lessons of Idah's long journey from Malawi to Burlington (http:/ / www. Smolin . php?act=conventions. php?act=conventions. com/ [9] U. pdf& cid=69) [15] http:/ / www. state. eb1d4c2a3e5b9ac89243c6a7543f6d1a/ ?vgnextoid=d72e18a1f8b73210VgnVCM100000082ca60aRCRD& vgnextchannel=d72e18a1f8b73210VgnVCM100000082ca60aRCRD). samford. gov/ ) [10] U.S. adoption.com (http:/ / www. php?q=0& q1=& q2=0& q4=0& q5=0& dirfld=01 [7] http:/ / travel. at (http:/ / www. gov/ family/ adoption/ stats/ stats_451. com/ news/ world/ idahs-long-journey-from-malawi-to-burlington/ article1191477/ ) [2] http:/ / www. net/ index_en. com/ ) [26] http:/ / www. theglobeandmail. gov/ hague/ agency4.bepress. com/ page794. html [3] ADOPTION: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO ADOPTING QUICKLY AND SAFELY. orphans visas from Ethiopia (http:/ / travel. International adoption: global inequalities and the circulation of children. [5] http:/ / www. 2011. The Adoption Agency Checklist. com/ david_smolin/ ) [20] Desiree Smolin and David Kruchkow. bepress. Diana and Laura Briggs. ie/ booklets/ Hague_Tsunami_statement. adoptinginternationally. htm [17] David Smolin.Child Laundering: How the Intercountry Adoption System Legitimizes and Incentivizes the Practices of Buying. by Randall Hicks. html [6] http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. 2009.S. html Evan B. .com/expresso/eps/ 749/). net/ index_en. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 01/ 11/ AR2007011102542. html) [19] Smolin. ie/ booklets/ Adoption_Board_Tsunami_statement.adoption101. adoption101. html) [11] Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (http:/ / hcch. e-vision. Diana and Laura Briggs. state. hcch. Kidnapping. hopeadoption. state. adoption. gov/ family/ adoption/ stats/ stats_451. org/ templates/ story/ story. New York : Free Press . Toronto : Maxwell Macmillan Canada .com/books?id=Cu90JIcPIqQC&printsec=frontcover). The Adoption Life Cycle : the children and their families through the years (http://books. United States Citizenship and Immigration Services. text& cid=69) [12] Understanding the Hague Convention-Adoption. adoptionagencychecklist. asp?ID=630) [22] Marre. [23] Marre. state. [24] NPR "Study: Adoption Not Harmful to Child's Self-Esteem" (http:/ / www. Why Bad Stories Must Be Told. doc The Adoption Board [28] http:/ / www. org/ documents/ ga/ res/ 41/ a41r085. Elinor B. org/ publications/ policybriefs. Trafficking. php?storyId=16572430) [25] Adopting Internationally.text&cid=69) • David M. doc The Adoption Board Further reading • Rosenberg.php?act=conventions.

1% are Asian/Pacific Islander. (There are now about 6.[1] The US Census 2000 found that "White (and no other race). Native American.) It was then that the National Association of Black Social Workers condemned interracial adoption citing that adoptees were at risk for developing a poor racial identity due to lack of contact with role models of the same race. Then during the civil rights movement. These provisions forbid agencies from delaying or denying the placement of a child solely on the basis of race and national origin. The purpose of these revisions was to strengthen compliance and enforcement of the procedures. Statistics Based on the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS).Interracial adoption Interracial adoption Interracial adoption (also referred to as transracial adoption) refers to the act of placing a child of one racial or ethnic group with adoptive parents of another racial or ethnic group. In the 1990s the placement of black children into non-black homes virtually came to a complete stop. interracial adoptions in the United States increased dramatically and the numbers more than tripled from 733 cases in 1968 to 2. Then in 1944 the Boys and Girls Aid Society took an interest in the increasing number of minority children waiting to be adopted which focused on children from Asian American. Then. and demand that discrimination would not be tolerated. 1% are American Indian. and 2% of women of other races adopt white children (estimates include foreign-born). Interracial adoption is not the same thing as transcultural or international adoption though in some circumstances an adoption may be interracial. Children of Asian and Native American heritage were most easily placed outside of their racial group while those African Americans heritage proved more difficult. remove any misleading language. 5% of white women adopt children of other races. 42 . and 5% are unknown/unable to determine. not Hispanic children made up the majority of all categories of children of householders under 18: about 58 percent of adopted children. color. 64 percent of biological children" and "Of the 1."[2] History Before World War II it was very rare for white couples to adopt a child of a different race and every effort was made in order to match a child with the skin color and religion of the adoptive family. It prohibits an agency that receives Federal assistance and is involved in foster care and adoptive placements from delaying or denying the placement of a child based on race. in 1996 it was amended with the Interethnic Adoption Provisions. about 308. Metzenbaum Multiethnic Placement Act was passed.000 (18 percent) contained members of different races.574 cases in 1971. and African American heritage.500 cases a year. the fiscal year of 1998 showed that approximately 64% of children waiting in foster care are of minority background. The most recent estimate of interracial adoption was performed in 1987 by the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and it found that 1% of white women adopt black children. Law In 1994 the Howard M. and transcultural. or national origin of the child or adoptive/foster parent. 11% are Hispanic. Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) show that adoption of an unrelated child was most common among childless white women and those with higher levels of income and education. The campaign was called "Operation Brown Baby" and its objective was to find adoptive homes even if from a different race. Out of all foster children waiting for adoption 51% are black. 32% are white. international.7 million households with adopted children.

The purpose of this law is to reduce the time that a child spends in foster care by implementing a two-year limit and therefore hopefully moving a child closer to permanent adoption. did negatively impact adjustment outcomes. Apparently. Interviews discovered that a high degree of involvement by children in Korean cultural activities was positively associated with scores measuring the strength of the children's Korean identity as well as with ease of communication with their parents about their adoptions. The purpose of this act was to reduce the instability and abuse problems in the foster care system. Interracial adoptive parents living in predominantly white communities tended to have adoptees that experienced more discomfort about their appearance than those who lived in integrated settings.Interracial adoption Another important law regarding interracial adoptions was the Adoption and Safe Families Act that was implemented in 1997. 43 . Asian adolescents adopted by white parents had both the highest grades and the highest levels of psychosomatic symptoms. experiences of discrimination generated feelings of appearance discomfort. Critics argue that it also takes the emphasis off of trying to keep children with their biological parents. whereas black adolescents adopted by black parents reported the highest levels of depression. sometimes worse. psychological. The research suggested that black and Asian children. evidence also showed that extra-family forces. familial. These measures investigated indices of academic. Many Children find that they are so adapted to their parents' and family's culture that they start to forget their own. are most likely to encounter such societal discrimination. Parental encouragement of cultural activities & co-participation in them seemed to be critical in the development of ethnic identification. one study focused on Korean and Chinese children adopted by families in the United States. interracial adoptees had significantly higher grades and significantly higher academic expectations but marginally more distant father relationships and higher levels of psychosomatic symptoms than their same-race adopted counterparts. Particularly. who appear unmistakably different from whites. Specifically. many Latino children with European physical features can safely escape such expressions of racism. but overall about the same as their same-race adopted counterparts across the 12 adjustment measures investigated. and health outcomes for 4 groups of interracial and same-race adopted adolescents. black adoptees reported higher levels of self-worth than non-black adoptees. For example. Academic research Adolescent adjustment One study found that interracial adoptees fare sometimes better. Cultural identity Research has focused on the formation of cultural identity by the children adopted. for example societal racism. One of this study's most interesting findings showed that interracial adoptive parents' decisions on where to live had a substantial impact upon their children's adjustments. Also. Yet. On the other hand. Appearance Discomfort Another reported that reported adjustment problems among their children at approximately the same levels as were reported by the parents of intraracially adopted whites.

& Finley. adoption. After aging out of foster care.Interracial adoption Ethnocentric bias Finally." The National Association of Black Social Workers (NABSW) has taken this stance. "You have to live it in order to absorb it. what causes the least disruption in the child's life."[5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] (http:/ / naic." says Donna Matias." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. these studies analyze the presence of an ethnocentric bias in legal and scientific assessments of children’s well-being and adjustment. The humanities and social sciences. "International Adoption: The Relationship between Child and Parent Characteristics and Parent Report of Child Adjustment. (1998). Critics of race matching say there is a darker side involving whites with lingering racist beliefs against mixing races. They argue that children are hurt most by the practice. 64(4). W. 44 . N. 37% had not finished high school. I. "In Struggling in the Adult World. 17(3). suggesting that interracial adoption is a form of "genocide" and that "black children in white homes are cut off from the healthy development of themselves as black people. Specifically. "Transracial." "Same race makes sense because it is what the child is accustomed to. particularly black children. 75-87. 1998. cfm) (http:/ / www. com/ culture-and-ethnicity/ the-colors-of-adoption-black-vs-white/ article/ 1791/ 1. S. com/ culture-and-ethnicity/ the-colors-of-adoption-black-vs-white/ article/ 1791/ 1. J.. These studies address whether past research that claims that interracial adoption positively benefits children of color." Dissertation Abstracts International. html) (http:/ / library. Two points of view Pro interracial adoption A dichotomy exists in reference to the subject of interracial adoption. race suddenly doesn't seem to matter anymore. 33% received public assistance. and the Need for Multiple Measures of Adolescent Adjustment. com/ information/ adoption-statistics-foster-care-1999. July 21.' they seem to overlook the impact race has on our society. • Courtney. some research has examined the empirical studies of interracial adoption themselves. • Huh. 165-183. gov/ prod/ 2003pubs/ censr-6. and Piliavin. acf." Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. They are thrown into a vicious cycle where the chances plummet that they will ever get adopted. census. Transracial Adoption and Ethnic Identity. 577-583. • Feigelman. E. 74(4). "Intercountry. M. Same-Race Adoptions. states that "It's a bad idea to put a black child in a white home. (2000). "Adjustments of transracially and inracially adopted young adults. may have methodological difficulties. pdf) (http:/ / library. html) (http:/ / statistics. A. L. University of Wisconsin–Madison." International Social Work. a lawyer with the Institute of justice. a biracial social worker in New York who was raised by an adoptive white family. 47 percent were receiving some kind of counseling or medication for mental health problems. Study conducted by School of Social Work. a chairman of the organization. adoption.." says Toni Oliver. gov/ pubs/ s_seek. and 19% of females had given birth to children. W. • Grob (2003). adoption."[3] Never getting adopted has been shown to have a negative impact on children. G." The Washington Post.[4] Pro race matching David Watts. Somehow when it's a case of adoption. 43(1). 27% of males and 10% of females were incarcerated within 12 to 18 months. 50% were unemployed. & Reid. "Often when people are looking at 'love is all it takes. (2000). hhs. Before leaving care. "is that it leaves the children in the system to wait. (2004). I think it's impossible for someone of one culture to teach another culture". A. that number dropped to 21% after leaving care.. html) • Burrow. "One of the problems with race-matching policies.

com (http://library. Alternatives to donating remaining embryos are: discarding them (or having them implanted at a time when pregnancy is very unlikely.org/) • AICAN . Some writers use the term "embryo donation" to refer strictly to anonymous embryo donation.[3] The rules for screening are outlined by the U.org/adopted. The resulting child is considered the child of the woman who carries it and gives birth. the embryos are donated after the woman for whom they were originally created has successfully carried one or more pregnancies to term.aican.com/international-adoption/adoption-inquiry. if possible. theoretically. those donating embryos must.Interracial adoption External links • Adoption Services Worldwide (http://www. Although embryos can.S. be screened for a series of infectious diseases. or on an open basis (parties' identities are shared and the families agree to a relationship. the donation of embryos and a clinical assisted reproduction procedure is involved.[2] In the United States.adoption. as a practical reality someone must eventually decide on a permanent disposition for them. A US study concluded that embryo donation is approximately twice as cost-effective as oocyte donation in terms of cost per live birth.php) Interracially/ Bi-Racial Adoptions] • Adoption. 45 . The amount of screening the embryo has already undergone is largely dependent on the genetic parents' own IVF clinic and process. a "semi-open" arrangement is used in which the parties know family and other information about each other. followed by the placement of those embryos into the recipient woman's uterus to facilitate pregnancy and childbirth in the recipient. in order to provide a layer of privacy protection. This is the same principle as is followed in egg donation or sperm donation. but their real names and locating information are withheld.[4] or donating them for use in embryonic stem cell research. and "embryo adoption" to refer to the open process. the embryos must be given a label that indicates that the required screening has not been done. with a cost of $22. If the donors are not available to be screened.com/id/194886) Embryo donation Embryo donation is a form of third party reproduction.000 per live delivery compared to $41.org/) • Asian-Nation (http://www. Occasionally. newsweek. Embryo donation can be handled on an anonymous basis (donor and recipient parties are not known to each other). survive indefinitely in frozen storage.adoptionhistory.asian-nation.shtml) Interracially Adopted Asian Americans] • Raising Katie What adopting a white girl taught a black family about race in the Obama era (http://www. and the recipients must agree to accept the associated risk.Australian Intercountry Adoption Network (http://www. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). or IVF treatments. and the recipient couple is preparing to raise a child not genetically related to them.com/) • Adoption History (http://www. The embryo recipient may elect to have her own embryologist conduct further testing. to another person or couple.[1] Others use the terms synonymously because regardless of whether the arrangement is open or anonymous. and not the child of the donor.000 for oocyte donation .babyasw. Most often. It is defined as the giving—generally without compensation—of embryos remaining after one couple's In vitro fertilisation.

depending on the requirements of both the home study and placement agencies. The process described below is typical of an "adoption-agency-based" national program: Genetic parents entering an embryo adoption program are offered the benefits of selecting the adoptive parents from the agency's pool of prescreened applicants. clinicians reasoned that more couples could be helped toward parenthood by substituting donor sperm for men who have no viable sperm.[14] One advantage some embryo adoption couples in Georgia have derived from this law is that they have become eligible for the federal Adoption Tax Credit. but (importantly) did not require—a confirmatory court order of parentage following embryo adoption. in some cases sparing the woman a second egg harvesting procedure. Prospective adoptive parents entering a program complete an application. Maria Bustillo in Florida. and that no court action is required to establish legal parentage for the recipient. it is similar to other donations such as blood and major organ donations.[13] Process Embryo donation is legally considered a property transfer and not an adoption by state laws. or donor eggs for women who have no viable oocytes – or both. Genetic parents may be updated by the agency when a successful pregnancy is achieved and when a child(ren) is/are born. came into being. reports were published documenting successful pregnancies and births from cryopreserved donor embryos. and the transfers occurred on the same day. The third group sees embryo donation as little different from traditional adoption. these were embryos made from donor gametes specifically for the recipients.[7] [8] No one knows for sure when the first true embryo adoption occurred. clinicians discovered a way to maintain (cryopreserve) embryos in frozen storage and thaw them once again for implantation later. Embryo ownership is transferred directly from the genetic parents to the adoptive parents. Devroey et al. court certification of adoption eligibility.[12] while still others believe that a new human life begins at the time of fertilization. Georgia enacted a statute called the Option of Adoption Act" in 2009 which provided a procedure for. None of these embryos had been cryopreserved.Embryo donation History Not long after IVF came into common clinical practice. adoption education. The menstrual cycles of the donor and recipient women were synchronized using medications. thus. The term was used as early as the mid-1980s. These scientific advances set the stage to allow open and candid discussion of embryo donation and transfer as a solution to infertility. In some ways. others see it as a "gift of a potential life".[11] Dr. Prior to this. and Dr. however. thousands of women who were infertile had regarded adoption as the only available path to parenthood. The genetic parents and adoptive parents may negotiate their own terms for future contact between the families. Thus what was called gamete and embryo donation.[5] [6] At about the same time.. traditional adoption home study. Howard Jones in Virginia have reported embryo transfers occurring between 1986 and 1990 that clearly represented adoption of remaining embryos. A careful reading of the 1983 clinical report often cited as the first instance of embryo donation reveals that the donated embryo was actually created for the recipient at the same time that four embryos were made for the donor couple’s own use. health checks and in some cases. The matter gained another political dimension in the United States when Congress and the Bush administration gave $1 million to promote embryo adoption. Again. Their completed paperwork and fees are submitted to the placement agency.[9] [10] in the legal literature. Some see the embryo as "tissue". which reviews their file and matches them to genetic parents with similar preferences including 46 . Embryo donation can be carried out as a service of an individual infertility clinic (where donor and recipient families typically live in the local area and are both patients of the same clinic) or by any of several national organizations. Soon thereafter.. except that the recipient woman has the experience of pregnancy and childbirth. However.

Van den Abbeel E. including Embryos Alive [18].59(5):1079-1100 [11] Devroey P. handled most cases in which families were matched outside the confines of an individual clinic. van Waesberghe L. Wood C. Nightlight has reported 271 children born through the embryo adoption program. gov/ news/ releases/ 2001/ 08/ 20010809-2. Wade A. org/ main/ embryo-services http:/ / www. miracleswaiting. References [1] Snowflake Program. as described above. and Procreative Liberty: the Legal Structure of the New Reproduction. The process is entered in to willingly by both sets of parents because of the added safeguards. Fertil. 317:113 [9] Robertson JA. Mohr LR. "A cost-effectiveness comparison of embryo donation with oocyte donation". None of the procedures involved with embryo adoption by either the genetic or adopting parents are legal requirements of embryo transfer. Med J Aust 1985 Apr 1. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990 Nov. bethany. Establishment of 22 Pregnancies After Oocyte and Embryo Donation.03.2009. This allows the family to receive all the services in a comprehensive manner at one location under the guidance of a trained coordinator. Southern California Law Review. archives. 2001. 59: 939-1041 [10] Wurmbrand MJ. childrensconnections. Its primary difference from Nightlight and other adoption-agency-based programs is that the clinical services. Families. Human Oocyte and Preembryo Donation: an Evolving Method for the Treatment of Infertility. and Crystal Angels [20]. Pregnancy With a Frozen-thawed Embryo in a Woman With Primary Ovarian Failure. gainesvilletimes. Tennessee. van den Abbeel E.96(8):900-906 [12] National Embryo Donation Center: Questionnaire Study of Prospective Embryo Donors [13] The White House. 93 (2): 379–381. The only exception is the home study. et al. Freeman M. org/ explorembryo. located near Seattle.adoptanembryo. embryosalive.019. van Steirteghem AC. org/ crystal_angels. Located in Knoxville.fertnstert. Daly D (April 2009). Braeckmans P. As of July.net) is the nation's only church-based embryo adoption enterprise. htmhttp:/ / www.1016/j. fda. com/ news/ archive/ 20665/ [15] Embryo Adoption & Donation [16] http:/ / www. Embryos. embryodonation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1989 Aug. rather than being performed at a separate infertility clinic.12(4):825-33 [6] Downing BG. Sommerfelt C. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1985 Dec.[15] The Snowflakes Embryo Adoption Program refers to the uniqueness of each embryo. Office of the Press Secretary. Because Nightlight Christian Adoptions was the first to publicize the option nationally and. 2011. Paulson RJ. Trounson AO. htm 47 . adoptanembryo. Camus M. Several other agencies nationwide offer embryo donation services. are performed at the NEDC facility in Knoxville. Frozen embryos: moral. The use of embryo cryopreservation in human IVF programmes.163(5 Pt 1):1421-1424 [8] Van Steirteghem AC. it operates on principles similar to the Snowflake Program [17].142(7):409-11 [7] Sauer MV. PMID 19406398. Concurrently. knowledge and communication offered to both parties by the system. Founded by an embryo adoption mother. Freemann L. [5] Trounson A. social. for several years. 1986. Steril. Wilson CK.Embryo donation desired level of openness post-adoption. doi:10. Bethany Christian Services [19] . the National Embryo Donation Center [16] (NEDC) reports 280 born through their program since its inception in 2003. Birth After Transfer of Cryopreserved Embryos. com/ http:/ / www. NEJM 1987. Once all parties agree. the embryo is transferred to the adoptive mother's clinic for a frozen embryo transfer. August 9. and legal implications. South Calif Law Rev 1986 Jul. http:/ / georgewbush-whitehouse. org/ [17] [18] [19] [20] http:/ / www. though no longer referring exclusively to Nightlight's Snowflake Embryo Adoption Program. Washington (www. Genetic and prospective parents are then given the chance to approve the match. html [4] Finger R. Nightlight Christian Adoptions [2] National Embryo Donation Center [3] http:/ / www. gov/ BiologicsBloodVaccines/ TissueTissueProducts/ QuestionsaboutTissues/ ucm136397. Freemann LE. html [14] http:/ / www. non-profit. net http:/ / www. President Discusses Stem Cell Research. national embryo donation entity. Wisanto A. The Embryo Donation Services of Cedar Park. the term "Snowflake Babies" has become common vernacular when referring to the embryo-adoption process. NEDC is the nation's only clinic-based.

Title IV-E Foster Care Eligibility Reviews.[2] In 2009. Each state's services are monitored by the federal Department of Health and Human Services through reviews such as Child and Family Services Reviews. Foster care placement 547.[4] African American children represented 41% of children in foster care. most children enter foster care due to neglect.415 children were in publicly supported foster care in the United States in September 2000. This is to maintain continuity in the child's life. a drop of about 20% in a decade. foster home licensing requirements vary from state to state but are generally overseen by each state's Department of Social Services or Human Services. The foster parent is remunerated by the state for their services. state and federal levels including 48 . In the United States. administration. there were about 123. and oversight The policies regarding foster care as well as the criteria to be met in order to become a foster parent vary according to legal jurisdiction. • If neither above option are available. a criminal record check at local. the child may be adopted by someone who is a stranger to the child. Voluntary placement may occur when a biological parent or lawful guardian is unable or unwilling to care for a child. It requires preparation classes as well as an application process. • If no biological family member is willing or able to adopt.[2] Children may enter foster care via voluntary or involuntary means. • Adoption • Preferably by a biological family member such as an aunt or grandparent. with a relative or an Independent Living Center or long term care facility (for children with development disabilities. physical disabilities or mental disabilities).[3] In 2009. Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System and Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System Assessment Reviews. The state via the family court and child protection agency stand in loco parentis to the minor. Involuntary placement occurs when a child is removed from their biological parent or lawful guardian due to the risk or actual occurrence of physical or psychological harm. In some states. • Permanent transfer of guardianship • If none of these options are viable the plan for the minor may enter OPPLA (Other Planned Permanent Living Arrangement).773 children in foster care.[5] Regulation. The application varies but may include: a minimum age.[6] The foster parent licensing process is often similar to the process to become licensed to adopt. In the US. verification that your income allows you to meet your expenses. there were 423. counties have this responsibility. This is generally the first choice.000 children ready for adoptive families in the nations foster care systems. making all legal decisions while the foster parent is responsible for the day to day care of said minor. This option allows the child to stay in custody of the state and the child can stay placed in a foster home.Foster care Foster care Foster care is the term used for a system in which a minor who has been made a ward is placed in the private home of a state certified caregiver referred to as a "foster parent". white children represented 40% and Hispanic children represented 15% in the year 2000. Foster care is intended to be a short term situation until a permanent placement can be made:[1] • Reunification with the biological parent(s) • When it is deemed in the child's best interest. the next preference is for the child to be adopted by the foster parents or by someone else involved in the child's life (such as a teacher or coach).

This may create a "perverse financial incentive" to place and retain children in foster care rather than leave them with their parents. letters of reference from an employer and others who know them. In some cases. sibling groups. In theory. But two major reviews of the scholarly literature have questioned these facilities' effectiveness. the state of Texas paid mental treatment centers as much as $101. The county does not receive as much in federal funds for "front-end" services.. A National Coalition for Child Protection Reform issue paper states "children often are removed from their families `prematurely or unnecessarily' because federal aid formulas give states `a strong financial incentive' to do so rather than provide services to keep families together. or to the birth parents when applicable. facilitating rapid growth."[8] Governments offer a variety of incentives and services to facilitate this class of adoptions.” In this context.e. In some cases. This made aided funding foster care for states and localities. behavioral problems. to an adoptive home. .[7] There are some children in foster care who are difficult to place in permanent homes through the normal adoption process. a reference from a doctor to ensure that all household members are free from diseases that a child could catch and in sufficient health to parent a child and. the focus of treatment in such facilities is to prepare the child for a return to a foster home. as it receives for out-of-home placements or foster care services. financially. from placing children in foster homes." i. the Agency benefits. Children found to be unable to function in a foster home may be placed in Residential Treatment Centers (RTCs) or other such group homes. and not enough money into "front-end" or basic services. which could help solve the problems causing family inadequacies.105 a year per child. and incentives are sometimes set up for maximum intervention."[10] Findings of a grand jury investigation in Santa Clara. California:[11] The Grand Jury heard from staff members of the DFCS and others outside the department that the department puts too much money into "back-end services. and older children qualify as "special needs.[9] Funding and system incentives A law passed by Congress in 1961 allowed AFDC (welfare) payments to pay for foster care which was previously made only to children in their own homes. mental health issues. Observers of the growth trend note that a county will only continue to receive funding while it keeps the child in its care.Foster care 49 finger printing and no prior record of child abuse or neglect. In other words. "special needs" can include situations where children have specific chronic medical problems. and learning disabilities. therapists and attorneys. These children are often said to require “special-needs adoption.

or property. Proponents of ASFA claimed that before the law was passed. Since ASFA did not address this." Title 42 United States Code Section 1983[18] states that citizens can sue in federal courts any person that acting under a color of law to deprive .000 fewer than when ASFA was passed[14] The Foster Care Independence Act of 1999. without due process of law. The legislation also strengthens requirements for states in their treatment of siblings and introduces mechanisms to provide financial incentives for guardianship and adoption. government has also funded the Education and Training Voucher Program in recent years in order to help youth who age out of care to obtain college or vocational training at a free or reduced cost. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 is the most recent piece of major federal legislation addressing the foster care system. liberty. the lack of such legislation was the reason it was common for children to languish in care for years with no permanent living situation identified. COUNTY OF SAN JOAQUIN. 05-16071[17] that a CPS social worker who removed children from their natural parents into foster care without obtaining judicial authorization.S. it would not accomplish its goals. One of the main components of ASFA is the imposition of stricter time limits on reunification efforts. and would only slow a decline in the foster care population that should have occurred anyway because of a decline in reported child abuse. Chafee and ETV money is administered by each state as they see fit. This bill extended various benefits and funding for foster children between the age of 18 and 21 and for Indian children in tribal areas. nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.Foster care 50 United States Foster care legislation since 1990 In 1997. Average length of stay in foster care in the U.[13] Ten years after ASFA became law. the number of children in foster care on any given day has been about 7. The U. the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States" and no state may "deprive any person of life. The new law requires state child welfare agencies to identify cases where "aggravated circumstances" make permanent separation of child from the birth family the best option for the safety and well-being of the child..[15] [16] Constitutional issues In May 2007. opponents said. Opponents of ASFA argued that the real reason children languished in foster care was that too many were taken needlessly from their parents in the first place. No. the Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) was passed. The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution says that a state may not make a law that abridges ".S.[12] This reduced the time children are allowed to remain in foster care before being available for adoption. the United States 9th Circuit Court of Appeals found in ROGERS v.. helps foster youth who are aging out of care to achieve self-sufficiency. was acting without due process and without exigency (emergency conditions) violated the 14th Amendment and Title 42 United State Code Section 1983.

.[22] The $4. In most cases. As with the majority of child protection services.5 million judgment as the County lost each of its successive appeals. which includes foster care.[19] In case of Santosky v.[20] When the third child was only three days old.[24] In the case of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in particular.[21] The previous judgment granting the foster mother's adoption petition was reversed.[24] Current policy There is strong emphasis in current Australian policy and practice to keep children with their families wherever possible.[24] It is also used to provide a break for the parent or primary carer to hopefully decrease the chances of the situation escalating to one which would lead to the removal of the child(ren). The Supreme Court vacated previous judgment and stated: "Before a State may sever completely and irrevocably the rights of parents in their natural child.[20] Also District of Columbia Court of Appeals conclude that the lower trial court erred in rejecting the relative custodial arrangement selected by the natural mother who tried to preserve her relationship with the child. and the case remanded to the trial court to vacate the orders granting adoption and denying custody. <. and to enter an order granting custody to the child's relative. this can include placements with relatives or kin.[22] The case finally ended in 2011 when the United States Supreme Court denied Orange County's request to overturn the verdict. due process requires that the State support its allegations by at least clear and convincing evidence.Foster care the citizens of their civil rights under the pretext of a regulation of a state. every effort is made to reunite children with their families wherever possible. placing the child within the wider family or community is preferred[24] This is consistent with the Aboriginal Child Placement Principle. DSS transferred him to a foster home on the ground that immediate removal was necessary to avoid imminent danger to his life or health. but not exclusively. In the event that children are placed in home-based care.[25] 51 . states and territories are responsible for funding home-based care.[24] In some cases children are placed in home-based care following a child protection substantiation and where they are found to be in need of a safer and more stable environment. Respite care is a type of foster care that is used to provide short-term (and often regular) accommodation for children whose parents are ill or unable to care for them on a temporary basis. In other situations parents may be incapable of providing adequate care for the child. Kramer. Supreme Court reviewed a case when Department of Social Services removed two younger children from their natural parents only because the parents had been previously found negligent toward their oldest daughter.[23] Australia Home-based care.9 million verdict grew to a $9. the child and his parents share a vital interest in preventing erroneous termination of their natural relationship". children in home-based care are also on a care and protection order. As well as foster care. is provided to children who are in need of care and protection. to provide these services. and residential care. Non-government organizations are widely used.[21] In 2007 Deanna Fogarty-Hardwick obtained a jury verdict against Orange County (California) and two of its social workers for violating her Fourteenth Amendment rights to familial association by unlawfully placing her kids in foster care. Children and young people are provided with alternative accommodation while they are unable to live with their parents. however. or accommodation may be needed during times of family conflict or crisis.[24] In the significant number of cases substance abuse is a major contributing factor.> But until the State proves parental unfitness. 455 US 745.

but that the damage can transcend generations.[35] [36] [37] [38] Epigenetic effects of environment Gene expression can be affected by the environment through epigenetic mechanisms. Negative environmental influences.[26] In a study of adults who were in foster care in Oregon and Washington state. child abuse and stress[39] [40] have been shown to have a profound effect on gene expression. apoptosis (death and reabsorption of neurons). Most of the processes involved in healthy neurodevelopment are predicated upon the establishment of close nurturing relationships and environmental stimulation. The human brain doesn't fully develop until approximately the age of twenty.[34] Negative environmental influences during this critical period of brain development can have lifelong consequences. The implications in terms of foster care and the cost to society as a whole is that the stress. parental PTSD was a risk factor for the development of PTSD in adult offspring in comparison to those whose parents went through the Holocaust without developing PTSD. Children in foster care have a higher probability of having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. suggest that foster care placements are more detrimental to children than remaining in a troubled home. the effects of epigentic inheritance were shown to have a direct correlation to the environmental influences faced by the parents and grandparents. a period where the development of mental and psychological processes are at one of their critical peaks. they were found to have double the incidence of depression. and one of the most critical periods of brain development occurs in the first 3–4 years. homelessness. anxiety as well other developmental problems. 20% as compared to 10% and were found to have a higher rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than combat veterans with 25% of those studied having PTSD. poor nutrition.[42] [43] [44] In studies of the adult offspring of Holocaust survivors.[31] [32] [33] Neurodevelopment Foster care has been shown in various studies to have deleterious consequences on the physical health and mental wellbeing of those who were in foster care. deprivation and other negative environmetal factors many foster children are subjected to has a detrimental effect not only their physical.S. In the Överkalix study in Sweden. Recent studies in the U. Elevated cortisol levels can compromise the immune system. synaptogenesis (creation of synapses). and an enlargement of the brain's ventricles. arborization (the growth of dendritic connections. stress response and cognitive skills are formed during this period. emotional and cognitive well-being. synaptic sculpturing (determining the make-up of the synapse). Many children enter foster care at a very young age. Foster children have elevated levels of cortisol. salivary cortisol and enhanced plasma cortisol suppression in response to low dose dexamethasone administration than offspring of 52 .Foster care The negative effects of foster care Individuals who were in foster care experience higher rates of physical and psychiatric morbidity than the general population and suffer from not being able to trust and that can lead to placements breaking down. migration (of neurons to different regions of the brain).[27] [28] [29] [30] These children experience higher degrees of incarceration. and deficits in executive functioning. (Harden BJ. Negative environmental influences have a direct effect on all areas of neurodevelopment: neurogenesis (creation of new neurons). The offspring of survivors with PTSD had lower levels of urinary cortisol excretion. 2004). and suicide. The developing brain is directly influenced by negative environmental factors including lack of stimulation due to emotional neglect. The processes that govern the development of personality traits. such as maternal deprivation. which can cause cortical atrophy.[41] Many physiological and behavioral characteristics ascribed to Mendelian inheritance are due in fact to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. myelinzation (protective covering of neurons). a stress hormone in comparison to children raised by their biological parents. exposure to violence in the home environment and child abuse. including transgenerational epigenetic effects in which physiological and behavioral (intellectual) transfer of information across generations-not-yet-conceived is effected. poverty.

1999)[52] 60% of children in foster care who had experienced sexual abuse had PTSD. The results of the study point to the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms.[48] and through the inhibition of a class of enzymes known as the histone deacetylases (HDACs). This is in contrast to the normal stress response in which cortisol levels are elevated after exposure to a stressor. The recovery rate for foster home alumni was 28. and 42% of those who had been physically abused fulfilled the PTSD criteria.Foster care 53 survivors without PTSD. with 25 percent of those in the study meeting the diagnostic criteria as compared to 12-13 [51] Regions of the brain associated with stress and post traumatic stress disorder percent of Iraq war veterans and 15 percent of Vietnam war veterans.2% as opposed to 47% in the general population. (Neighh GN et al.[53] [54] . and L-methionine an essential amino acid. the effects of abuse may extend beyond the immediate victim into subsequent generations as a consequence of epigenetic effects [47] transmitted directly to offspring and/or behavioral changes in affected individuals. Low cortisol levels are associated with parental."[49] [50] Post traumatic stress disorder Children in foster care have a higher incidence of Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). have been developed for the treatment of a variety of malignancies and neurodegenerative disorders. 2002). the rate of PTSD in adults who were in foster care for one year between the ages of 14-18 was found to be higher than that of combat veterans. In a study conducted in Oregon and Washington state. "More than half the study participants reported clinical levels of mental illness. compared to less than a quarter of the general population".In one study (Dubner and Motta. PTSD. and a rate of 4% in the general population. 2009) It has been suggested in various studies that the deleterious epigentic effects may be somewhat ameliorated through pharmacological manipulations in adulthood via the administration of nerve growth factor-inducible protein A. "TSA can be used to alter gene expression by interfering with the removal of acetyl groups from histones". These children may have developed PTSD due to witnessing violence in the home.[45] [46] Epigenetic Effects of Abuse "In addition. anxiety and depression. (Marsenich. "HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) such as Trichostatin A (TSA). PTSD was also found in 18% of the children who were not abused. particularly maternal. Drug combination approaches have also shown promise for the treatment of mood disorders including bipolar disorder.

[59] Disorganized attachment A study by Dante Cicchetti found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants in his study exhibited symptoms of disorganized attachment. three New York street children. it resembles "the behavioral correlates of Hyperphagic Short Stature". it is not uncommon in children in foster homes or other stressful environments. and physical neglect. people who are homeless had multiple placements as children: some were in foster care. are at risk of developing psychiatric problems. it was prevalent amongst 25 percent of the study group in New Zealand.[28] Bulimia Nervosa is seven times more prevalent among former foster children than in the general population.[62] [63] [64] [65] These children may be described as experiencing trauma as the result of abuse or neglect. which disrupts the normal development of secure attachment. and acting-out symptoms. physical abuse.[72] [73] "One of every 10 foster children stays in foster care longer than seven years.[69] [70] Child abuse Children in foster care experience high rates of child abuse. and sexual abuse. It is "a pattern of excessive eating and food acquisition and maintenance behaviors without concurrent obesity".[68] as well as depressive.Foster care Eating disorders Foster children are at increased risk for a variety of eating disorders. HSS improves upon removal from the stressful environment.[77] Very frequently. It is hypothesised that this syndrome is triggered by the stress and maltreatment foster children are subjected to. an excessive appetite (hyperphagia) and mild learning disabilities. emotional deprivation. anxiety. In one study in the United Kingdom "foster children were 7-8 times.S. 1890 times the national poverty rate. inflicted by a primary caregiver. including dissociative symptoms. in comparison to the general population. and each year about 15.[64] [66] [67] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems. Such children are at risk of developing a disorganized attachment. Obesity children in foster care are more prone to becoming overweight and obese. but others experienced "unofficial" placements in the homes of family or friends.[55] Hyperphagic Short Stature syndrome (HSS) is a condition characterized by short stature due to insufficient growth hormone production. 54 . While it is believed to have genetic component. and in a study done in the United Kingdom.[71] Poverty and homelessness Nearly half of foster kids in the U.[76] According to the results of the Casey Family Study of Foster Care Alumni.[56] [57] [58] Food Maintenance Syndrome is characterized by a set of aberrant eating behaviors of children in foster care. and children in residential care 6 times more likely to be assessed by a pediatrician for abuse than a child in the general population". up to 80 percent are doing poorly—with a quarter to a third of former foster children at or below the poverty line. HSS is triggered by being exposed to an environment of high psychosocial stress. such as physical and psychological neglect.[74] [75] Three out of 10 of the United States homeless are former foster children. become homeless when they turn 18.000 reach the age of majority and leave foster care without a permanent family—many to join the ranks of the homeless or to commit crimes and be imprisoned. 35% of foster children experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (BMI) once in care.[60] [61] Children with histories of maltreatment.

although an additional 29% of former foster children received a G. concluded: Former child welfare clients were in year of birth and sex standardised risk ratios (RRs) four to five times more likely than peers in the general population to have been hospitalised for suicide attempts. and interviewed 479 of them between September 2000 and January [85] 2002. 42. The length of time a person remains homeless is prolonged in indiviuals who were in foster care.[78] Suicide-death rate Children in foster care are at a greater risk of suicide.Individuals who had been in long-term foster care tended to have the most dismal outcome. The deaths due to illness were attributed to an increased incidence of acute and chronic medical conditions and developmental delays among children in foster care. have been abused and neglected. 23 percent had a history of suicide attempts. compared to an additional 5% of the general population. suicide and illness.9% for those over 25.. a sizable difference.Foster care 55 Individuals with a history foster care tend to become homeless at an earlier age than those who were not in foster care and Caucasians who become homeless are more likely to have a history of foster care than Hispanics or African Americans . these children are far more likely to suffer abuse.6% completed any degree or certificate beyond high school 16. the completion rate for the general population in the same age group is 24%. 1.[86] . accidents.[84] Poor academic prospects [85] Educational outcomes of ex-foster children in the Northwest Alumni Study* • • • • • 56% completed high school compared to 82% of the general population.305 former foster children who had been in care prior to their teens.7% completed some education beyond high school. 20.[79] the increased risk of suicide is still prevalent after leaving foster care and occurs at a higher rate than the general population..8% complete a bachelors degree. In a study conducted in Philadelphia by Johns Hopkins University it was found that. or receive out of home placement by the courts.[83] Georgia Senator Nancy Schaefer published a report "The Corrupt Business of Child Protective Services"[84] stating: "The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect in 1998 reported that six times as many children died in foster care than in the general public and that once removed to official “safety”.E.D... Several studies have indicated that foster care children tend to underachieve academically with many never completing high school. 21. the probability of dropping out of school is greater than 75%.7% for over 25. *The study reviewed case records for 659 foster care alumni in Northwest USA. 2.former child welfare/protection clients should be considered a high-risk group for suicide attempts and severe psychiatric morbidity.[80] A Swedish study utilizing the data of almost one million people including 22. among high school students who are in foster care. In a small study of twenty-two Texan youths who aged out of the system..[81] Death rate Children in foster care have an overall higher mortality rate than children in the general population.1% completed a vocational degree. including sexual molestation than in the general population".[82] A study conducted in Finland among current and former foster children up to age 24 found a higher mortality rate due to substance abuse.

experimental HIV drugs were tested on HIV-positive foster children at Incarnation Children’s Center in Harlem. In the case of SSRIs the use of the most expensive medications was noted to be 74%. also was found to be negligent and liable for 75 percent of the abuse that was inflicted on the victim. . in group homes.[93] In 2009. but it does show the very large problem of child-on-child sexual abuse within the system. overdosed on drugs and was arrested for drunken driving.[93] [94] The foster parent. in the general market only 28% are for brand name SSRI's vs generics. this was the largest such settlement in the agency's history. John Jackson. Jackson was convicted in Santa Clara County of nine counts of lewd or lascivious acts on a child by force.135 Texas foster care 0–19 years-old. Federal Court. according to the Santa Clara County District Attorney's Office.9%).9% of these children being prescribed medication. difference. resulting in an annual prevalence of 37. Pediatrics 2008 Psychiatrists prescribed 93% of the psychotropic medication. an ex-foster child was awarded $30 million by jury trial in California (Santa Clara County) for sexual abuse damages that happened to him in his foster home from 1995 to 1999. "Concomitant psychotropic medication treatment is frequent for youth in foster care and lacks substantive evidence as to its effectiveness and safety".2%). and seven counts of lewd or lascivious acts on a child under 14. and 15. the private foster family agency responsible for licensing and monitoring Jackson's foster home and others.[95] According to the civil rights suit filed on request of twins' adoptive mother in December 2007 in U.9% received 4 different classes.189 were prescribed psychotropic medication. as 98 percent of children in foster care in New York City belong to ethnic minorities.. The most frequently used medications were antidepressants (56.[90] [91] An Indiana study found three times more physical abuse and twice the rate of sexual abuse in foster homes than in the general population. the rate of sexual abuse is more than 28 times that of the general population. and it was noted in the review of these cases that the use of expensive.Foster care 56 State abuses in the United States Drug testing Throughout the 1990s.S.42.[89] Sexual abuse and negligence One study by Johns Hopkins University found that the rate of sexual abuse within the foster-care system is more than four times as high as in the general population. a $55. menace and fear. duress. was licensed by the state.[87] Unnecessary/over medication Studies[88] have revealed that youth in foster care covered by Medicaid insurance receive psychotropic medication at a rate that was 3 times higher than that of Medicaid-insured youth who qualify by low family income. There have been several notable lawsits concerning sexual abuse and negligence that caused review of the foster care system in some states: In 2010. Oregon Department of Human Services agreed to pay $2 million into a fund for the future care of twins who were allegedly abused by their foster parents. Later in 2010. despite the fact that he abused his own wife and son. brand name. and antipsychotic agents (53. some comparing the trials to the Tuskegee syphilis experiment. In a review (September 2003 to August 2004) of the medical records of 32. 12. The average out-of-pocket expense per prescription was $34.[88] — Psychotropic medication patterns among youth in foster care. In 2006.17 for branded products. The agency has also been accused of racism.8%). violence.[92] These statistics do not speak to the situation these children are coming from. and Jackson himself was liable for the rest.[91] A study of foster children in Oregon and Washington State found that nearly one third reported being abused by a foster parent or another adult in a foster home. 41. Giarretto Institute.75 for generics and $90. patent protected medication was prevalent.3% received 3 different classes of these drugs during July 2004.[93] The sex acts he forced the children in his foster care to perform sent him to prison for 220 years. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs (55.

The same foster family previously took into their care hundreds of other children over nearly four decades.[95] Several lawsuits were brought in 2008 against the Florida Department of Children & Families (DCF). a foster parent. and 1999. allowing plaintiffs to collect information concerning harm to children in foster care through a case record review. Among these Forgotten Australians were members of the "Stolen Generation". so when police rescued the twins he was nearly comatose. McGreevey[102] was filed in federal court by "Children’s Rights" New York organization on behalf of children in the custody of the New Jersey Division of Youth and Family Services (DYFS).[103] [104] The complaint alleged violations of the childrens' constitutional rights and their rights under Title IV-E of the Social Security Act.[105] In July 2002. 79. 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. who had a shunt put into his head at birth to drain fluid. were shipped to Australia after the war. In 2008 Australian Prime Minister.2 million to settle a lawsuit that alleged DCF ignored complaints that another mentally disabled Immokalee girl was being raped by her foster father. the federal court granted plaintiffs’ experts access to 500 children’s case files. the term given for those who experienced care in foster homes and institutions in the 20th century. until the 15-year-old gave birth to a child.[96] DHS said the foster parents deceived child welfare workers during the checkup visits.[97] [98] The suits claimed that even though there were records of sexual misconduct allegations against Ferrara in 1992. 2004. in 2007 Florida's DCF paid $1. On June 9. the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act.[97] Ferrara was arrested in 2001. In the period after World War II the policy was dubbed the "Child Migrants Programme". 2004. Sometimes the foster children placed into these shelter wings are subjected to strip searches similar to those performed on juvenile offenders. This practice was in effect from the beginning of the nineteenth century until 1967.[97] Officials stated that the lawsuits over Ferrara ended up costing the DCF almost $2. the child welfare panel appointed by the parties approved the NJ State’s Reform Plan. The prime consideration was money as it was cheaper to care for children in commonwealth countries than it was in the United Kingdom.[110] [111] 57 .[108] [109] most to join the ranks of the "Forgotten Australians". foster homes and religious institutions. v. and DYFS failed to take proper action. Some of these shelters are wings of juvenile detention facilities. At least 10.000 "forgotten Australians" and in 2010 British Prime Minister Gordon Brown issued a similar apology to those who were victimised by the Child Migrants Programme. after a 9-year-old girl told detectives he regularly molested her over two years and threatened to hurt her mother if she told anyone. [107] The lost children (Australia) An estimated 150. These children were classified as orphans although most were not. Records show that Ferrara had as many as 400 children go through his home during his 16 years as a licensed foster parent (from 1984 to 2000). water or human touch.[106] Strip Searches Sometimes children who have been taken from their homes due to abuse or neglect are temporarily placed into shelters if a foster home is not immediately available. Kevin Rudd apologised to the approximately 500. The court accepted the plan on June 17. The boy.26 million.[104] The same organization also filed similar lawsuits against several other states in recent years that caused some of the states to start child welfare reforms. forcibly removed from their homes and raised in white institutions.[98] Similary. and the Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA).[99] [100] [101] In a class action lawsuit Charlie and Nadine H. the DCF continued to place foster children with Ferrara and his then-wife until 2000. where they were used as a free source of labour and many were severely abused and neglected. the children of Australian Aborigines. didn't receive medical attention. 1996. Many of these children were sent to orphanages. accusing it of mishandling reports that Thomas Ferrara.[103] These files revealed numerous cases in which foster children were abused. Early Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment. Bonifacio Velazquez. some as young as 3.000 children." The brother and sister often went without food. the Americans with Disabilities Act.Foster care the children were kept in makeshift cages—cribs covered with chicken wire secured by duct tape—in a darkened bedroom known as "the dungeon. was molesting young girls.000 British children were sent to overseas colonies and countries in the commonwealth such as Australia.

Foster care [112] Therapeutic intervention The negative physical. While Hardison had a good experience with his "nana".. • Famous former foster children • Allison Anders. 1866 While having a background in foster homes—especially in instances of sexual abuse—can be the precipitating factor in a wide variety of psychological and cognitive deficits such as ADHD. and provide a uniquely treasured experience for children who were fostered.. technically challenging.[52] [118] it may also serve to obfuscate the true cause of underlying issues.[113] [114] [115] Adult neurogenesis has been shown to be an ongoing process. fostered. A successful reunion with a loving set of benevolent caregiving foster parents also has potential to create positive emotional responses. When orphaned.[116] ". searches to locate former foster parents have potential to be just as captivating. Children in the child welfare system have often experienced significant and repeated traumas. all those experiences are of much significance which show how the judgment of the senses may be modified by experience and by training derived under various circumstances. forensic anthropologist Dr. cognitive and epigenetic effects of foster care have been established in innumerable studies in various countries. The Casey Family Programs Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study was a fairly extensive study into various aspects of the psychosocial effects of foster care noted that 80% of ex-foster children are doing "poorly".. Parker (played by Beth Riesgraf) and Hardison (played by Aldis Hodge) both grew up in foster care.[124] • On TNT's Leverage. or on the other hand. NBA Defensive Player of the Year in 1999 & 2000 and seven-time NBA All-Star 58 . and may be adapted to the new conditions." Hermann von Helmholtz.[119] [120] [121] Foster Parent and Child Reunions Foster parents play an important pivotal role in the lives of infants placed in their care during critical developmental periods. Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy is one of the approaches that has been used to treat the resulting trauma and attachment difficulties caused by chronic early maltreatment within a care-giving relationship. Temperance Brennan (played by Emily Deschanel) grew up in foster care when her parents went missing. [122] Foster care In popular culture • Fictional characters • In the Fox television show.[125] [126] • The main and title character in the book The Great Gilly Hopkins is a foster child who wishes to be reunited with their mother. writer and director • Alonzo Mourning. psychological. stimulate happiness through an increased sense of connectedness and sense of indebtedness.. the symptoms may be exacerbated by having a history of foster care and the attendant abuses. and convoluted as searching for biological parents. Neuroplasticity The human brain however has been shown to have a fair degree of neuroplasticity. Bones.[123] • ABC's Secret Life of the American Teenager's Ricky (played by Dareen Kagasoff) is in foster care. Parker had several bad experiences with several bad foster families. The foster care experience may have nothing to do with the symptoms. or adopted children suffering from genealogical bewilderment are curious to learn about their family background and medial history.[117] and PTSD.

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D. . (2001). (http://ecommons.com/viewarticle/575410_2) • Effects of Enhanced Foster Care on the Long-term Physical and Mental Health of Foster Care Alumni (http:// archpsyc. 275 [123] Bones Season 4 TOP 10 Most Shocking Moments (http:/ / boneswiki.. Lanham. 2010. (2011). doi:10. [119] Becker-Weidman. 2006. com/ page/ Best+ of+ Bones+ Season+ 4) [124] Secret Life Of The American Teenager Margaret (http:/ / abcfamily. . "A prospective longitudinal study of disorganized/disoriented attachment". (1998). [127] "Foster to Famous" (http:/ / www. Tnt.2008. [114] Duffau.edu. 2010 [121] Hughes. tv/ series/ leverage/ characters/ ?contentId=41358). Clinical psychology review 20 (3): 359–78. • Knowlton. & Shell. "Brain plasticity: from pathophysiological mechanisms to therapeutic applications".19(2):187-95. Murdoch. MD. tnt. 259-260. K (2009). Retrieved 2011-11-01. • Carlson.. PMID 17049865. A. . Neuroscience 10 (9): 647–58. Fosterclub. Determinants of initial pharmacological treatment for youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Tnt. Judith and Martin Land. Current biology : CB 17 (4): R141–4. PMID 10779899. Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy: Essential Methods & Practices. Paul E. PMID 9768489. A first person account directed to successfully aging out of foster care. • McCutcheon. Retrieved 2011-11-01.155655. Oklahoma City. Jason Aronson. fosterclub. PMID 18499723.Alec Hardison's Biography" (http:/ / www.tv. Retrieved 2011-11-01. "The Original Foster Care Survival Guide".. KA.nhi.1016/j. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 13 (9): 885–97.co. "Historical Analysis and Contemporary Assessment of Foster Care in Texas: Perceptions of Social Workers in a Private. Applied Research Projects. Norton: NY.12. doi:10. H (2007). [117] Chen CY. tnt. and References p. GL.Parker's Biography" (http:/ / www. murdoch.A. html).tv.Foster care [110] "British Child Migration to Australia: History. Ming.2005. doi:10. PMID 17307051. A. co.1016/S0272-7358(98)00107-X. stm). fox. [113] Johansen-Berg.com.org/online/issues/125/fostercare. D. 2009 Apr. Senate Inquiry and Responsibilities" (http:/ / www. (Eds.uk. [126] "The Leverage Team . BBC News. . [111] "Australia 'sorry' for child abuse" (http:/ / news. au/ elaw/ issues/ v9n4/ buti94. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. Biaggio. Svoboda. uk/ news/ uk-world-news/ 2010/ 02/ 24/ gordon-brown-apologises-for-programme-which-saw-thousands-of-british-children-to-colonies-to-be-abused-86908-22066649/ ).1038/nrn2699. go. D. uk/ 2/ hi/ 8361389.edu/arp/332) External links • The Mental Health of Children in Out-of-Home Care: Scale and Complexity of Mental Health Problems (http:// www. .cub. PMC 2538931.au. E.) Creating Capacity for Attachment. 2005/2009/2011 [120] Becker-Weidman. "Synaptic integration and plasticity of new neurons in the adult hippocampus". S. Gerhard T. Texas State University Paper 332. Epilogue.jocn.medscape. PMID 19364296 [118] Weinstein. bbc. com/ abcfamily/ path/ section_Shows+ Secret-Life-Of-The-American-Teenager/ page_LScott-Caldwell) [125] "The Leverage Team . The Journal of physiology 586 (16): 3759–65. p. [112] "Gordon Brown apologises to British children who were abused after being sent abroad to start better life" (http:/ / www. Dailyrecord. com/ famous). H (2006). "Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: differential diagnosis in childhood sexual abuse". D.022. Sailor. Nature reviews.11. Winterstein AG. "Experience-dependent structural synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain". Retrieved 2011-11-01. OK: Wood N Barnes.txstate. Non-Profit Foster Care Agency". [116] Ge. 20-26. "Structural plasticity: rewiring the brain". Song. Retrieved 2011-11-01. Kendra (2002). Further reading • Hurley.045. . A. James.. 2009 [122] Adoption Detective: Memoir of an Adopted Child. p. co.ama-assn. PMID 19693029. 2009-11-16. edu. Staffelbach. tv/ series/ leverage/ characters/ ?contentId=41356). doi:10.2006. [115] Holtmaat.1016/j. Retrieved 2011-11-01. Attachment Focused Family Therapy.org/cgi/content/full/65/6/625) 63 .1113/jphysiol. doi:10. Child Development 69 (4): 1107–1128. dailyrecord. "Almost Home" (http://www. H (2008).html) Retrieved June 27. Chapter 5—Foster Parents. M (2000).

5 million orphans in Afghanistan. However. the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). However.Orphan 64 Orphan An orphan (from the Greek ὀρφανός[1] ) is a child permanently bereaved of or abandoned by his or her parents. or separation or loss from. Much higher numbers of orphans exist in war-torn nations such as Afghanistan. a maternal orphan is a child whose mother has died.[7] An Afghan girl in a Kabul orphanage.[5] This contrasts with the older use of half-orphan to describe children that had lost only one parent. After years of war.[6] Populations Orphans are relatively rare in developed countries. . the young will be called orphans when the mother dies regardless of the condition of the father. both parents". In certain animal species where the father typically abandons the mother and young at or prior to birth. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS). abandonment or desertion by. a paternal orphan is a child whose father has died. as most children can expect both of their parents to survive their childhood. there are an estimated 1. an orphan does not have any surviving parent to care for him or her.[4] Orphans by Thomas Kennington In the common use. Definitions Various groups use different definitions to identify orphans. and a double orphan has lost both parents. and other groups label any child that has lost one parent as an orphan. only a child (or the young of an animal) who has lost both parents is called an orphan. adults can also be referred to as orphans. In this approach.[2] [3] In common usage. One legal definition used in the United States is a minor bereft through "death or disappearance of. or "adult orphans".

60.000. plus many more in the Soviet Union. Babe Ruth and Aaron North.4% 107. Germany. Marilyn Monroe. Orphans are turned out of the orphanages at the age of 16.such as AIDS.000.000.000 to 13.000 orphaned children in Czechoslovakia. the Muslim prophet Mohammed.000 in the Netherlands 300.504 6.166 7.Orphan 65 Continent Number of orphans (1000s) Orphans as percentage of all children Africa 34.000 orphans below 18 years old. Johann Sebastian Bach. with its massive numbers of deaths and population movements created large numbers of orphans—with estimates for Europe ranging from 1.964 7.[9] • Russia: An estimated 650.[10] Notable orphans Famous orphans include world leaders such as Nelson Mandela and Andrew Jackson.9% Asia 65. and the results are poor for most of them: 40% are homeless. Judt (2006) estimates there were 9. writers such as Edgar Allan Poe. History Wars and great epidemics.000 children are in Russian orphanages.000 in Yugoslavia.[11] . Italy and elsewhere. 20% turn to crime.5% 8. have created many orphans.6% Latin America & Caribbean Total • 2001 figures from 2002 UNICEF/UNAIDS report[8] • China: A survey conducted by the Ministry of Civil Affairs in 2005 showed that China has about 573.000 in Poland and 200. and Leo Tolstoy.294 11. and 10% commit suicide. and innumerable fictional characters in literature and comics. The American orphan Henry Darger portrayed the horrible conditions of his orphanage in his art work. World War Two. Other notable orphans include entertainment greats such as Louis Armstrong.

James 1:27) • "And they feed. perseus. gov/ portal/ site/ uscis/ menuitem." (Hebrew Bible. by freeing them from familial obligations and controls. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. Orphans are common in fairy tales. com/ orphans/ society-half-orphan-asylum. 04. treat not the orphan with harshness. an orphan he is raising. furthermore. for the love of Allah. removing the other parent prevents complicating the necessary relationship. olivetreegenealogy. uscis." (Hebrew Bible. A Greek-English Lexicon. merriam-webster. tufts. Among more recent authors. such as most variants of Cinderella. Jeremiah 49:11) • "Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to look after orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being polluted by the world. Robert Scott. Illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagner's Siegfried A number of well-known authors have written books featuring orphans. Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables books. All these characteristics make orphans attractive characters for authors. or this one (http:/ / query. Exodus 22:22) • "Leave your orphans. Orphans can metaphorically search for self-understanding through attempting to know their roots. as well as some less well-known authors of famous orphans like Little Orphan Annie have used orphans as major characters. and J. R. contain the idea that helping and defending orphans is a very important and God-pleasing matter. shtml) about The Society for the Relief of Half-Orphan and Destitute Children. J. Parents." (The Quran. and removing the parents makes the character's difficulties more severe. One recurring storyline has been the relationship that the orphan can have with an adult from outside his or her immediate family as seen in Lyle Kessler's play Orphans. R. can be irrelevant to the theme a writer is trying to develop. L. nytimes. com/ dictionary/ orphan) [3] Concise Oxford Dictionary. Cronin. 6th edition "a child bereaved of parents" with bereaved meaning (of death etc) deprived of a relation [4] Iii. the indigent. Roald Dahl. org/ pub/ GlobalReport/ 2008/ jc1510_2008_global_report_pp11_28_en. this 19th century news story (http:/ / www. including the Bible and the Quran. 5af9bb95919f35e66f614176543f6d1a/ ?vgnextoid=17f496981298d010VgnVCM10000048f3d6a1RCRD& vgnextchannel=063807b03d92b010VgnVCM10000045f3d6a1RCRD) [5] UNAIDS Global Report 2008 (http:/ / data. and the captive. Eligibility For Immigration Benefits As An Orphan (http:/ / www. Tolkien. unaids. The Morning Hours: 9) References [1] ὀρφανός (http:/ / www. Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer.Orphan 66 In literature Orphaned characters are extremely common as literary protagonists. Rowling's Harry Potter series. on Perseus [2] Merriam-Webster online dictionary (http:/ / www." (The New Testament. com/ gst/ abstract. and orphaning the character frees the writer from the necessity to depict such an irrelevant relationship. . It creates characters that are self-contained and introspective and who strive for affection. Mime offers food to the young Siegfried. A. I will protect their lives. if one parent-child relationship is important. and depriving them of more prosaic lives. Examples from classic literature include Charlotte Brontë. The Human: 8) • "Therefore. K. J. Lemony Snicket.(The Quran. Henry George Liddell.[12] The lack of parents leaves the characters to pursue more interesting and adventurous lives. 0057:entry=o)rfano/ s). pdf) [6] See. Charles Dickens. In religious texts Many religious texts. the orphan. M. especially in children's and fantasy literature." . html?res=9B00E1D9163AE033A25755C1A9649D94669FD7CF) about the Protestant Half-Orphan Asylum. Several citations: • "Do not take advantage of a widow or an orphan. for example. Your widows too can trust in me. Parents can also be allies and sources of aid for children.

com/ 2002/ 07/ 21/ nyregion/ a-summer-of-hope-for-russian-orphans. Widows And Orphans First: The Family Economy And Social Welfare Policy. The Writer's Guide to Fantasy Literature: From Dragon's Lair to Hero's Quest. htm) [10] " A Summer of Hope for Russian Orphans (http:/ / www. usaid. Timothy A. Lunatics. p 16. pdf). Timothy S. Abandoned: Foundlings in Nineteenth-Century New York City (2007) 67 . UNAIDS and UNICEF. 1918-45 (2009) • Miller. Postwar: a history of Europe since 1945 (2006) p. Orphans and Juvenile Criminals in Early Modern Germany (2009) • Keating. "Kinship by Design: A History of Adoption in the Modern United States (2008) ISBN 9780226327600 • Kleinberg.Orphan [7] Virginia Haussegger Mahboba's promise ABC TV 7. au/ 7. pp 463-488 • Terpstra. for lower Tony Judt. May 1985.C. Adoption in America: Historical Perspectives (2003) Hacsi. [9] China to insure orphans as preventitive health measure (http:/ / news. and Historians: Recent Approaches to the History of Child Welfare in Canada.D. A Second Home: Orphan Asylums and Poor Families in America (1997) Herman. ISBN 0-87116-195-8 Bibliography • Bullen. [11] For a high estimate see I. Like Our Very Own: Adoption and the Changing Culture of Motherhood. Wayne. Vol. E. 18 Issue 35. Joel F. "Orphans. Satadru. Janie.30 Report. abc. pp 133–145 • Harrington. com/ english/ 2009-07/ 21/ content_11745889. The Oxford companion to World War II (1995) p 208. Thomas Max. 2009. htm (last accessed 15 July 2009) [8] TvT Associates/The Synergy Project (July 2002). gov/ pop_health/ aids/ Publications/ docs/ childrenbrink. July 21. Julie. "The orphaned colony: Orphanage. "The Unwanted Child: The Fate of Foundlings.B. Nicholas. 2002." Histoire Sociale: Social History. nytimes." Indian Economic and Social History Review. Foot. The Orphans of Byzantium: Child Welfare in the Christian Empire (2009) • Safley. The New York Times. ed. child and authority in British India. Abandoned Children of the Italian Renaissance: Orphan Care in Florence and Bologna (2005) United States • • • • Berebitsky. 44 Issue 4. html?pagewanted=all)". S. J. eds. Children of the Laboring Poor: Expectation and Experience Among the Orphans of Early Modem Augsburg (2006) • Sen. 1880-1939 (2006) • Miller. "Children on the Brink 2002: A Joint Report on Orphan Estimates and Program Strategies" (http:/ / www. xinhuanet. Vol. 30/ content/ 2009/ s2615472. Ellen. A Child for Keeps: The History of Adoption in England. net. . http:/ / www. John. 1851-1950 (2000) Carp. Dear and M.R. Idiots. 21 [12] Philip Martin. Oct-Dec 2007. Julie.

avert.[2] There are 70. childrencount. AIDS-related deaths are often people who are their family's primary wage earners.com/content/art1111. by Tony Karon. time.[6] In 2005 the highest number of AIDS orphans as a percentage of all orphans was in Zimbabwe.128736. Avert. [3] AIDS Orphan's Preventable Death Challenges Those Left Behind (http:/ / www. [6] children count (http:/ / www. htm). regardless of whether the father is still alive. html). ci. com/ article/ 270409). Retrieved 2006-10-08. Adriana (04 April 2009). The resulting AIDS orphans frequently depend on the state for care and financial support. php) [5] "AIDS orphans" (http:/ / www. unaids. June 01. the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).na) (Namibian Wiki on Children) . digitaljournal. org.html) • !Nam Child Wiki (http://www. particularly in Africa. za/ content. . 2001 [4] Project Aids Orphan (http:/ / www. projectaidsorphan. org/ Publications/ IRC-pub05/ orphrept_en. com/ time/ world/ article/ 0. asp?TopLinkID=6& PageID=18) Government of South Africa External links • AIDS Orphan Resources Around the Globe (http://www.AIDS orphan 68 AIDS orphan An AIDS orphan is a child who became an orphan because one or both parents died from AIDS.gov. pdf) PDF [2] Stuijt. it is estimated that over 20 million children will be orphaned by AIDS. org/ aidsorphans. the term is used for a child whose mother has died due to AIDS before the child's 15th birthday.8599. . In statistics from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).000 new AIDS orphans a year. "South Africa's 3.org (http:/ / data.namchild.00.4-million Aids-orphans to get 'adult' rights" (http:/ / www.[4] Because AIDS affects mainly those who are sexually active.thebody.[3] By the year 2010.[1] As a result of this definition. one study estimated that 80% of all AIDS orphans still have one living parent. org/ about.[5] Aids orphans in Malawi The highest number of orphans due to AIDS alive in 2007 was in South Africa[5] (although the definition of AIDS orphan in South African statistics includes children up to the age of 18 who have lost either biological parent).[5] References [1] UNAIDS.

conventional wisdom held that orphanages. orphanages are generally more expensive. and orphanages are one way of providing for their care and housing.[5] [6] In the worst cases. orphanages are slowly being phased out in many countries in favour of direct support to vulnerable children. social or cognitive development.[10] Whereas orphanages are intended to be reasonably permanent placements. especially in developing countries will prey on vulnerable families at risk of breakdown and actively recruit children. but in the absence of these or other relatives willing to care for the children. the biological family can also be dangerous to a child. mental. Comparison to alternatives St. foster care or adoption. They may be residential treatment centers. emotional. and sometimes grandparents. However some orphanages. rehabilitation center or youth treatment center.[1] Other residential institutions for children can be called group home. are legally responsible for supporting children. babies may not receive enough eye contact. were the worst possible care option for children.[7] [8] [9] However. orphanages in developing countries are rarely run by the state[1] [2] Former Berlin Pankow orphanage In some places. Russia During the 20th century.. a group home for children and teens with autism. however they are still commonly founded by smaller charities and religious groups. Nicholas Orphanage in Novosibirsk. and they frequently specialize in a particular population with psychiatric or behavioral problems.Orphanage 69 Orphanage An orphanage is a residential institution devoted to the care of orphans – children whose parents are deceased or otherwise unable or unwilling to care for them. physical contact. In the some cases. Compared to foster care. intellectual.g. This is the name for a long string of short stays with different foster care families. they become a ward of the state. e.[10] One explanation for this is the prevalence of permanent temporary foster care. especially large orphanages. children's home. Parents. group homes may be used for short-term placements.[3] [4] In large institutions. orphanages can be dangerous and unregulated places where children are subject to abuse and neglect. Few large international charities continue to fund them. or substance abuse problems or child soldiers undergoing decommissioning. eating disorders. Placement in the home of a relative maintains and usually improves the child's connection to family members. and stimulation to promote proper physical. researchers from Duke University have shown that institutional care in America in the 20th century produced the same health.[10] Permanent temporary foster care is highly disruptive to the child and prevents the child from developing a sense of security or belonging. and physical outcomes as care by relatives.[10] [11] . and better than care in the homes of strangers.

these can include orphanages created for the day[15] or orphanages as a front to get foreigners to pay school fees of orphanage director's extended families. Orphanages are no longer common in the European community. called "orphanotrophia". the need to operate large orphanages has decreased. for instance. Orphanage Scams Visitors to developing countries can be taken in by orphanage scams. as soon as they were old enough. He should be as careful and as diligent in the management of the orphan's property as of his own or even more careful still. Plato (Laws. If that is not possible domestic adoption or long term fostering are considered. 927) says: "Orphans should be placed under the care of public guardians. prescribed care for the widow and the orphan. In the United States. Major charities are increasingly focusing their efforts on the re-integration of orphans in order to keep them with their parents or extended family and communities. Many orphanages practiced some form of "binding-out" in which children. during the Middle Ages. This lack of social security and failure to develop alternative ways to support vulnerable families is the key reason that orphanages remain in many other countries. Moreover. This would ensure their support and their learning an occupation. The first option for a child is to see if they can be reunited with their biological or extended family.[18] [19] [20] In Cambodia some are bought from their parents for very little and passed on to westerners who pay a large fee so they can adopt them. The deinstitutionalisation programme sped up in the 1950s. were founded in the 1st century amid various alternative means of orphan support. thanks to improved social security such as the Social Security Act which allowed Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) to be passed. Disabled children may need small family type homes where their needs can be catered for. as it is no longer common for birth parents in Western countries to give up their children.[17] The worst even sell children. It is important to understand the reasons for child abandonment then set up targeted alternative services to support vulnerable families at risk of separation[12] such as mother and baby units and day care centres. This involves closing down orphanages and other institutions for children and developing replacement services. founded in 1740 by George Whitefield.[16] Alternatively the children whose upkeep is being funded by foreigners may be sent to work. and as far fewer people die of diseases or violence while their children are still young.[13] History The first orphanages. the exact opposite of what the donor is expecting. the largest remaining orphanage is the Bethesda Orphanage. Often circumstances will have changed since the separation. Jewish law. after a series of scandals involving the coercion of birth parents and abuse of orphans (notably at Georgia Tann's Tennessee Children's Home Society).[21] . the administrators of orphanages are depicted as cruel monsters. the United States and other countries have moved to de-institutionalize the care of vulnerable children—that is. and Athenian law supported all orphans of those killed in military service until the age of eighteen. clothing and an education but often lack the individual love required for full cognitive development."[14] The care of orphans was referred to bishops and. It is true that some orphanages are funded on a per child basis and there can be attempts made to encourage children from poor families to enter the orphanage which will provide food. not to school. This 70 . and Romania in particular has struggled to reduce the visibility of its children's institutions to meet conditions of its entry into the European Union. were given as apprentices to households. A man should love the unfortunate orphan of whom he is guardian as if he were his own child. This marked a change in social attitudes. Such practices are assumed to be quite rare in the modern Western world. close down orphanages in favor of foster care and accelerated adoption. Men should have a fear of the loneliness of orphans and of the souls of their departed parents. In many works of fiction (notably Oliver Twist and Annie). Older children may be supported to independence. to monasteries.Orphanage Deinstitutionalisation Increasingly there is a move to Deinstitutionalise child care systems.

child abandonment was rampant. a special concoction of opium and treacle. Glos 1813 London Asylum for Orphans Hackney. Only 10% of them are orphans. placing them out of reach of poor families. each one having only 12-40 children residing there. Albania There are approximately 10 small orphanages in Albania. Europe The orphanages and institutions remaining in Europe tend to be state funded. correspondingly. Bristol 1800 St Elizabeth's Orphanage of Mercy Eastcombe. or else they were left to fend for themselves on the street. A smaller number of children have also been able to be relocated into foster families". Wolverhampton John Lees . Known orphanages are: Founded in Name Location Founder 1795 Bristol Asylum for Poor Orphan Girls (Blue Maids' Orphanage) nr Stokes Croft turnpike.[31] Many orphaned children were placed in either prisons or the workhouse. to soothe colic in babies. and orphanages were set up to reduce infant mortality. In Nepal orphanages can be used as a way to remove a child from their parents before placing them for adoption overseas which is equally lucrative to the owners who will receive a number or official and unofficial payments and 'donations'[23] [24] . day centers have started up. In November 2007. Bulgaria is working hard to get all institutions closed within the next few years and find alternative ways to take care of the children. with the rest of the children placed in orphanages in temporary periods when the family is in crisis. Support is given to poor families and work during daytime. London Rev Andrew Reed 1822 Female Orphan Asylum Brighton Francois de Rosaz 1827 Infant Orphan Asylum Wanstead Rev Andrew Reed 1829 Sailor Orphan Girls School London 1836 Ashley Down orphanage Bristol George Müller 1844 Asylum for Fatherless Children Purley Rev Andrew Reed 1854 Wolverhampton Orphan Asylum Goldthorn Hill. Such places were often so full of children that "killing nurses" often administered Godfrey's Cordial.Orphanage 71 also happens in China[22] . as there were so few places in orphanages.[27] [28] There are living 7000[29] children in Bulgarian orphanages wrongly classified as orphaned. Bulgaria adopted a national strategic plan for the period 2008–2018 to improve the living standards of the country's children. Such places as were available could only be obtained by procuring votes for admission.[30] United Kingdom During the Victorian Era.[25] Bosnia and Herzegovina SOS Children's Villages giving support to 240 orphaned children.[26] Bulgaria The Bulgarian government has giving interest to strength the children's rights.

Orphanage 72 1856 Wiltshire Reformatory Warminster 1860 Major Street Ragged Schools Liverpool Canon Thomas Major Lester 1861 St. Scotland Rev Charles Jupp . Worcs 1869 Wesleyan Methodist National Children's Homes various 1869 London Orphan Asylum Watford 1870 Fegans Homes London 1870 Manchester and Salford Boys' and Girls' Refuge Manchester 1871 Wigmore West Bromwich and Walsall WJ Gilpin 1872 Middlemore Home Edgbaston Dr John T. Whitechapel. Middlemore 1872 St Theresa Roman Catholic Orphanage for Girls Plymouth 1873 Dr Thomas Barnado Maria Rye Charles Spurgeon Rev Thomas Bowman Stephenson James William Condell Fegan Ryelands Road Leominster 1874 Cottage Homes for Children West Derby Mrs Nassau Senior 1875 Aberlour Orphanage Aberlour. London 1861 Jews' Orphan Asylum Goodmans Fields. London 1862 Swansea Orphan Home for Girls Swansea 1865 The Boys' Home Regent's Park London 1866 Dr Barnado's various 1866 National Industrial Home for Crippled Boys London 1867 Peckham Home for Little Girls London 1868 The Boys' Refuge Bisley 1868 Royal Albert Orphanage Worcester 1868 Worcester Orphan Asylum Worcester 1869 Ely Deaconesses Orphanage Bedford Rev TB Stevenson 1869 Orphanage and Almshouses Erdington Josiah Mason 1869 The Neglected Children of Exeter Exeter 1869 Alexandra Orphanage for Infants Hornsey Rise. London 1861 Merchant Seamen's Orphan Asylum Bromley St Leonard. Philip Neri's orphanage for boys Birmingham Oratorians 1861 Adult Orphan Institution St Andrew's Place. Bow. London 1861 The Sailors' Orphan Girls' School & Home Hampstead. Regent's Park. Hammersmith. London 1861 Orphan Working School Haverstock Hill. London 1861 Female Orphan Asylum Westminster Road. London 1861 Female Orphan Home Charlotte Row. Kentish Town. London 1869 Stockwell Orphanage London 1869 New Orphan Asylum Upper Henwick. London 1861 London Orphan Asylum Hackney. London 1861 Orphanage Eagle House. London 1861 The Orphanage Asylum Christchurch. St Peter Walworth. Marylebone. London 1861 British Orphan Asylum Clapham.

Fordyce 1881 The Waifs and Strays' Society East Dulwich. London Edward de Montjoie Rudolf 1881 Catholic Childrens Protection Society Liverpool 1881 Dorset County Boys Home Milborne St Andrew 1881 Brixton Orphanage Brixton Road. London 1882 St Michael's Home for Friendless Girls Salisbury 1890 St Saviour's Home Shrewsbury 1890 Orphanage of Pity Warminster 1890 Wolverhampton Union Cottage homes Wolverhampton 1892 Calthorpe Home For Girls Handsworth. London 1881 Orphanage Infirmary West Square. there are 35 orphanages.[35] [36] Poland Children's rights enjoys a relatively strong protection in Poland.Orphanage 73 1877 All Saints Boys' Orphanage Lewisham. Violation of children's rights leads to court. (RC Institution for Poor Orphan Children) Brompton. Social Workers' opportunities have increased by get more foster homes established and aggressive family members can now be forced away from home.[34] Lithuania In Lithuania there are 105 institutions. Birmingham 1918 Painswick Orphanage Painswick unknown Clio Boys' Home Liverpool unknown St Philip's Orphanage. Kensington Estonia As of 2009. London 1881 Orphans' Home South Street. Southwark. instead of re-placing the child / children. which houses approximately 1300 orphaned children. London 1880 Birmingham Working Boy's Home (for boys over the age of 13) Birmingham Major Alfred V. Lithuania has the highest number of orphaned children in Northern-Europe. London Road. London Road. Lambeth. London 1881 Jews Hospital & Orphan Asylum Knights Hill Road. Norwood. Orphaned children are now protected by social services.[37] . Child flow to orphanages has been stopped and they are now protected by social services. 41 percent of the institutions have each more than 60 children. Southwark.[32] [33] Hungary A comprehensive national strategy for strengthening the rights of children adopted by Parliament in 2007 and will run until 2032.

227 16. 2008 71047 24. 2010 62000 19. 1998 55641 38. 2002 87867 49.599 14. Number of children in orphanages 1.092 10.597 5. 2009 68858 24.[42] # year Total children in care of the state.833 [43] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] The reason of the large change of children protected by the state in 2000 comparing with 1999 is that many children's hospital and residential schools for small children where redesigned in to orphanages in year 2000.833 orphaned children in 256 large institutions in Romania. 2011 50000 10.965 9. 1999 57087 33.405 2. 1994 52. world class.979 15. All children in need will be protected by social services by 2020. 2001 78000 47. 2004 84445 37.660 11. there are 10. 2000 83907 53.335 7. but by 2020 Romanian institutions should be a thing of the past with family care services will replacing the old system. child health development policy. . but only 3 percent of them are orphans. in some counties Romania now has "a completely new.[38] Romania The Romanian child welfare system is in the process of revising itself and has reduced the flow of infants into orphanages.000 17.Orphanage 74 Republic of Moldova More than 8800 children expected to grow up at any kind of state institution.[40] Romania still has the highest number of orphaned children in Europe. 2006 78766 28." But several Dickensian orphanages remain in Romania. 2005 83059 32. 1990 47.986 3.569 4. 2003 86379 43.356 6.786 13. 1997 51468 39.[39] According to Baroness Emma Nicholson.[41] As of 2011.821 12. 2007 73793 26. state of the art.171 8.

Kenya A 1999 survey of 35. Ethiopia "For example. in the Jerusalem Association Children's Home (JACH).[60] Rwanda Out of 400. None of them are currently living in an orphanage.[58] Sweden In Sweden there are 5. Sub Saharan Africa Whilst some African orphanages are state funded the majority (especially in Sub Saharan Africa) appear to be funded by donors.000 orphans and vulnerable children. often from Western nations. The website www. and the creation of an independent institution for the protection of child rights. 75 . because there is a social service law which requires that the children reside in a family home. The conditions for them are bad because the government doesn't paid rapidly attention to improve the living standards for disabled children in Serbia's orphanages and medical institutions.800 children in institutional care in 148 orphanages. 5.org details these reforms.000 orphans."[63] A world bank document on Tanzania showed it was six times more expensive to institutionalise a child there than to help the family become functional and support the child themselves. there are 52 orphanages in Tanzania caring for about 3. such as proposals for the adoption of a new "national 14" action plan for children for at least the next five years. and deinstitutionalization through family reunification and independent living are being emphasized. at best. There appears to be general recognition by MOLSA and the NGOs with which Pact is working that such care is.Of these at least four have since been closed.000 orphans found the following number in institutional care: 64 in registered institutions and 164 in unregistered institutions.ovcghana."[59] Ghana A 2007 survey sponsored by OrphanAid Africa and carried out by the Department of Social Welfare came up with the figure of 4. only 160 children remain of the 785 who were in JACH's three orphanages." / "Attitudes regarding the institutional care of children have shifted dramatically in recent years in Ethiopia. and that serious problems arise with the social reintegration of children who grow up in institutions. a last resort.000 are living in orphanages.Orphanage Serbia There are many state orphanages "where several thousand children are kept and which are still part of an outdated child care system".000 children in the care of the state.[61] The Government of Rwanda are working with Hope and Homes for Children to close the first institution and develop a model for community based childcare which can be used across the country and ultimately Africa[62] Tanzania "Currently.[57] Slovakia The Committee gave some recommendations.

[66] [66] Ninety-six thousand orphans in Togo attend school. 1999–2005 74.000.[66] Sierra Leone[67] • Children (0–17 years) orphaned by AIDS. or orphanages.000 orphans under 18 years of age in 2005.)[65] Togo In Togo.000[68] • Children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes. 2005. http://www. Out of this total number. 2005.za. but caregivers say their facilities were becoming unmanageably overwhelmed almost on a daily basis. Zambia A 1996 national survey of orphans revealed no evidence of orphanage care.[64] South Africa Since 2000.2 million by 2010. estimate 31.000 of them orphaned by AIDS. (Unfortunately. Statistics on the total number of children in orphanages nationwide are unavailable. in the country. 2005.[73] 76 .000 to 543.thokomala. estimate 340. South Africa does not licence orphanages any more but they continue to be set up unregulated and potentially more harmful. 2005. the number of orphans is expected to increase rapidly in the coming years to 8.000[68] Senegal • Children (0–17 years) orphaned by AIDS. Theoretically the policy supports community based family homes but this is not always the case.org[60] Zimbabwe There are 38 privately run children's charity homes. 88."[71] [72] Many do not require adequate checks of their volunteers leaving children open to abuse. The breakdown of care was as follows: 38% grandparents 55% extended family 1% older orphan 6% non-relative Recently a group of students started a fundraising website for an orphanage in Zambia. estimate 25.000.000[69] • Children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes.000[68] • Orphan school attendance ratio. http://mmorphanage. there is no room for these children. about 1. With the spread of HIV/AIDS. One example is the homes operated by Thokomala. and the government operates eight of its own.000[69] SAARC Countries Nepal There are at least 602 child care homes housing 15. 1999–2005 71.000 more orphans were added during that same year. Between 1994 and 1998. the number is expected to reach 900.8 million are orphaned by HIV/AIDS. estimate 560. a rapid assessment of orphans and vulnerable children conducted in 2004 with UNICEF support revealed that there were about seven millions orphans in 2003 and that 800.000[69] • Orphan school attendance ratio.095 children in Nepal[70] "Orphanages have turned into a Nepalese industry there is rampant abuse and a great need for intervention. the number of orphans in Zimbabwe more than doubled from 200.Orphanage Nigeria In Nigeria.org. there were an estimated 280. and in five years.

400 -Sixty-five Welfare and Rehabilitation Programmes for Children with Disability The private welfare institutions are mostly known as orphanages and madrassahs.Orphanage 77 Afghanistan "At Kabul's two main orphanages. is run by expats based in the capital city of Phnom Penh."[74] The non-governmental organisation Mahboba's promise assists orphans in contemporary Afghanistan. basic education. "World Orphans" constructed 47 orphanages housing over 1500 children in a three year period. but who can't support their children.) 9. but unknown: "There are no accurate figures available on how many orphans there are in Cambodia. not actual numbers of orphans at present.O. Retrieved 6 The Far East Taiwan The number of orphanages and orphans drastically dropped from 15 institutions and 2.[75] Bangladesh "There are no statistics regarding the actual number of children in welfare institutions in Bangladesh. Almost half of these come from families who have at least one parent.216 persons in 1971 to 9 institutions and 638 persons by the end of 2001.000 children in public orphanages throughout the country and untold numbers at private institutions. One example follows: 400 – Approximately – Nawab Sir Salimullah Muslim Orphanage[76] Maldives Orphans. has a major programme named Child Welfare and Child Development in order to provide access to food. The Department of Social Services."[78] Cambodia There are numerous NGOs focusing their efforts on assisting Cambodia's orphans: one group. Children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes. shelter. The authorities of most of these orphanages put more emphasis on religion and religious studies. the number of children enrolled has increased almost 80 percent since last January.500 -State institutions 250 -babies in three available "baby homes" 400 -Destitute Children's Rehabilitation Centre 100 -Vocational Training Centre for Orphans and Destitute Children 1.C. .200 children." (The following numbers mention capacity only.[79] The total number of orphans is much higher. from 700 to over 1. [77] . 2010.I. estimate 51 "Minivan News" April 2007. South Korea "There are now 17.H." One charity named C. under the Ministry of Social Welfare. Alauddin and Tahia Maskan. it helps support orphans and other poor and homeless people. health services and other basic opportunities for hapless children.E.

000 of China's orphans are now in any form of institutional care.000 of these children. and occasional contests are held each year by the organization for the benefit of orphans and widows sponsored by the organization. 100. Orphanage Project in Egypt—www. 30 at Sayeda Zeinab orphanage. orphanage and there are over 120 orphans living in the facility." "We [Dar Al-Iwaa] provide free education and accommodation for over 200 girls and boys. "Ramadan brings charity to Egypt's orphans".S." No Title.org Sudan There is still at least one orphanage in Sudan although efforts have been made to close it[81] Bahrain The "Royal Charity Organization" [82] is a Bahraini governmental charity organization founded in 2001 by King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah to sponsor all helpless Bahraini orphans and widows. By Anneli Dahlbom One of the largest orphanages in Laos is in the town of Phonsavan." Chinese official records fail to account for most of the country's abandoned infants and children. The above information was taken from the following articles: "Other families" by Amany Abdel-Moneim. leaving crucial questions about the country's child welfare system unanswered and suggesting that the real scope of the catastrophe that has befallen China's unwanted children may be far larger than the evidence in this report documents. annual school bags. It is an S. Graduation ceremonies." "Official figures show that fewer than 20.[80] The Middle East and North Africa Egypt "The [Mosques of Charity] orphanage houses about 120 children in Giza.littlestlamb. There are only three orphanages in the whole country providing places for a total of 1." "Dar Al-Mu'assassa Al-Iwaa'iya (Shelter Association). Even if it were accurate. was established in 1992. 78 .000 orphaned children in Laos. "A Child by Any Other Name" by Réhab El-Bakry." There are also 192 children at The Awlady. Al-Ahram Weekly (5/1999). and a number of university scholarships. Since then almost 7. however.Orphanage China "Currently there are 50. and 300 at My Children Orphanage. The most recent figure provided by the government for the country's orphan population. Menoufiya and Qalyubiya. a government association affiliated with the Ministry of Social Affairs.000 children in Chinese orphanages. Laos "It is stated that there are 20. only a small proportion of whom are in any form of acknowledged state care.000 Bahraini families are granted monthly payments. Egypt Today (11/2001). the whereabouts of the great majority of China's orphans would still be a complete mystery.O. seems implausibly low for a country with a total population of 1. various social and educational activities. It houses about 44 children. Note: There are about 185 orphanages in Egypt. while the number of abandoned children shows no sign of slowing.2 billion.000. Shanghai Star (12/13/2001).

all children enroll into internat-schools (Russian: Школа-интернат) (see Boarding school)." Palestinian Territory "In 1999.Orphanage Iraq UNICEF maintains the same number at present. The number dropped from 1.000 orphans live in Russia.714 orphans. such as St Nicholas Orphanage [87] in Siberia or the Alapaevsk orphanage in the Urals. The quality of services has also declined. Family members or neighbors may raise some of these children but the majority live in crowded orphanages until the age of fifteen when they are sent into the community to make a living for themselves." A 1999 study by UNICEF "recommended the rebuilding of national capacity for the rehabilitation of orphans. meaning that The Moscow Orphanage (founded in 1763."[88] Azerbaijan "Many children are abandoned due to extreme poverty and harsh living conditions. increasing at the rate of 113. "Of a total of more than 600. Russia Over 700."[89] Belarus Approximate total – 1. UNICEF estimates that 95% of these children are social orphans." Former Soviet Union In the post-Soviet countries." The new project "will benefit all the 1. both the number of homes and the number of beneficiaries has declined.190 children placed in orphanages. After reaching school age.773 (1993 statistics for "all types of orphanages") Kyrgyzstan Partial information: 85 – Ivanovka Orphanage[90] 79 . This is due to the policy of child re-integration in their household adopted by the Ministry of Social Affairs.000 per year.000 children classified as being 'without parental care' (most of them live with other relatives and fosters). constructed in the 1770s) they have at least one living parent who has given them up to the state. the number of children living in orphanages witnessed a considerable drop as compared to 1998. orphanages are better known as the Children Homes (Russian: Детскиe домa). "While the number of state homes for orphans in the whole of Iraq was 25 in 1990 (serving 1.980 to 1. [83][84] [85] [86] There are many web pages for Russian orphanages. but very few of them are in English. as many as one-third reside in institutions.190 children).

many are vulnerable or originate in vulnerable families that "hoped to increase their children's opportunities by sending them to orphanages. children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes. but Chambre de L'Enfance Necessiteusse Ha_tienne (CENH) indicated that it has received requests for assistance from nearly 200 orphanages from around the country for more than 200. but some of these are repeat requests. Official numbers are hard to find due to the general state of chaos in the country."[91] Ukraine 103. North America & Caribbean Haiti Haitians and expatriate childcare professionals are careful to make it clear that Haitian orphanages and children's homes are not orphanages in the North American sense.000 children." Catholic Relief Services provides assistance to 120 orphanages with 9.000. Neither the number of children or the number of institutions is officially known."[99] In 2007. since the January 2010 earthquake. The number of orphaned and abandoned children is approximately 91.[100] 80 .000[92] Other information: • • • • thousands – Zaporozhzhya region[93] 150 – Kiev State Baby Orphanage[94] 30 – Beregena Orphanage 120 – Dom Invalid Orphanage[95] Uzbekistan Partial Information: 80 – Takhtakupar Orphanage Oceania Indonesia No verifiable information for the number of children actually in orphanages. Retrieved 2007-11-12.000 orphans in Haiti. which has a population of just over 9 million. South. often housing children whose parent(s) are poor as well as those who are abandoned. 2005. but these include only orphanages that meet their criteria. They estimate receiving ten requests per week for assistance from additional orphanages and children's homes. estimate 25. neglected or abused by family guardians.000 "Unicef Fiji Statistics" [98].000 are in internats and in orphanages. Archived from the original [97] on 2007-11-29. Southeast and Grand Anse. the number of orphans has skyrocketed.Orphanage Tajikistan "No one can be sure how many lone children are there in the republic. UNICEF estimated there were 380. according to the CIA World Factbook. and the living conditions for orphans have seriously deteriorated. However.000 children in the West. but instead shelters for vulnerable children. About 9. Fiji Orphans. Although not all are orphans. "Convention on the Rights of the Child" [96] (PDF).

it is older than the country itself and was a site frequently visited by many of the country’s founding fathers.000 children in orphanages. the Charleston Orphan House. About one quarter are placed with relatives. many private charities existed to take care of destitute orphans.. Mexico [103] United States The size of orphanages has declined over time. .[10] Only 3% of former residents feel hostile towards the orphanages they were placed in. Orphanages were relatively common until the end of the 20th century. over time other charities have found other ways to care for children.[105] • Happy Hills Farm in Texas[10] • The Crossnore School.. In fact. in the mountains of Crossnore. North Carolina[10] Central and South America Guatemala ". or other types of institutional care.[10] In the State of New York. now called the Carolina Youth Development Center. a nurse takes care of three children.at least 10. and multiple retrospective studies indicate that the former residents have higher than average educational outcomes and generally positive memories. founded in 1740. • SOS Children's Villages is the world's largest non-governmental. slightly more than half of children in need of care are placed in foster care with strangers. including mental health care.. group homes. SC. • Hope and Homes for Children are working with Governments in many countries to deinstitutionalise their child care systems. Most organizations provide a range of services to families in crisis. with many organizations preferring smaller "group home" sizes.[104] Partial information: • Bethesda Home for Boys.. Benjamin Franklin was an early investor and Bethesda was constituted by a grant from King George with the encouragement of Charles and John Wesley. non-denominational child welfare organization that still believes in building orphanages for children. Georgia. is the oldest child caring institution in the country. Approximately one sixth are placed in orphanages. • Established in 1790.000 Mexican children live in orphanages and more live in unregistered charity homes" • Mexican Orphanages [101] • Mazatlan Mexico Orphanage [102] • Casa Hogar Jeruel: Orphanage in Chihuahua City. foster care. in Savannah.currently there are about 20. located in Charleston. in Huanaco Significant charities that help orphans Prior to the establishment of state care for orphans in First World countries. was the first public orphanage in the United States. and institutional placements. In a Colombian orphanage."[106] Peru Casa Hoger Lamedas Pampa.Orphanage 81 Mexico ".

htm). accessed 3 September 2009 [12] "Inclusion Europe | Committee of Ministers: Recommendation on Deinstitutionalization of Children with Disabilities" (http:/ / www.org. UK.com. . eu/ en/ articles/ 508-committee-of-ministers-recommendation-on-deinstitutionalization-of-children-with-disabilities). gov. "Orphanage scam grows" (http:/ / www. Full & Factual" (http:/ / www. [21] Mydans. se/ dynamaster/ file_archive/ 080325/ 51cacb4e4318d3f2d78c62ef72787efe/ Bulgarien. adoptionworx. uk/ en/ 54_9173.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011. unicef.org. uk/ en/ 54_9678. humanrights. com/ issue/ 2011/ 09/ 30/ Nation/ 18609). gov. se/ php/ rapporter/ documents/ Europa%20och%20Centralasien/ Bulgarien%2C%20MR-rapport%202010. thtml).org. pdf [14] "The Catholic Encyclopedia. 7thspace. The New York Times (Cambodia). [22] http:/ / news. . savethechildren. The Wall Street Journal. "Cashing it big on children" (http:/ / www. Goodintents. Retrieved 17 October 2011. htm). oneheart-bg. . (14 January 2010). . Retrieved 17 October 2011. [20] "News in Nepal: Fast. biz/ articles/ greenspeak/ 2010/ orphanage. Retrieved 17 October 2011. org/ docs/ Family%20or%20the%20institution. humanrights. html). html). doc [17] "Bali’S Orphanage Scam" (http:/ / www. pdf [29] http:/ / www. E-include. html39. uk/ society/ 2008/ oct/ 27/ tirana-orphanage-child-abuse-trial?INTCMP=SRCH). Volume XI" (http:/ / www. "The Best Thing About Orphanages" (http:/ / online. wsj. Retrieved 17 October 2011. sagepub. com/ news/ 2010/ jun/ 150610-Yerwada-Orphanage-Baby-Scam-Pune. • ACTUP! is a student run charity set up in aid of an orphanage in the Vinh province. gov. . Nepali Times. 5 September 2011. [8] Paul Lewis in Tirana (27 October 2008). baliadvertiser. org/ cathen/ 11322b. Savethechildren. 8 October 2011. . soschildrensvillages. com/ article/ SB10001424052748703510304574626080835477074.org. . [19] "Orphanage Scams" (http:/ / thirdworldorphans. Retrieved 17 October 2011. Myrepublica. . . nepalitimes. [9] 7thSpace (10 August 2011). "South Africa: Homes close down for violating human rights" (http:/ / 7thspace. [18] Nawgrahe. pdf [30] "One Heart Bulgaria – Non-profit Humanitarian Aid Organization" (http:/ / www. [6] http:/ / www. 1 January 2006. org. . sky. org/ gpage.biz. Retrieved 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. ca/ Where-we-help/ Europe/ Bosnia-and-Herzegovina/ Pages/ default. mid-day. . "U.Com. php?action=news_details& news_id=32247).org. co. co. org. aspx [27] http:/ / www. bbc. Retrieved 17 October 2011. Mid-day. Baliadvertiser. . spectator. . . [15] "The Case of the Vanishing Orphanage | Good Intentions Are Not Enough" (http:/ / goodintents. org/ orphanages/ vanishing-ophanage). bbc. co. com/ home/ video/ 16088779 [23] Thomas Bell.com. Thomas (28 September 2011). html [26] http:/ / www. [2] Little Princes. Retrieved 17 October 2011. References [1] "How to fix orphanages" (http:/ / www.eu. [24] Bell. pdf [7] "Online library : Save the Children UK" (http:/ / www. savethechildren. com/ photo. [11] (http:/ / news. 12 June 2011. html). . Retrieved 17 October 2011. . "BBC News – Nepal comes to terms with foreign adoptions tragedy" (http:/ / www. . Oneheart-bg. myrepublica. newadvent. Savethechildren. Interrupts Cambodian Adoptions" (http:/ / www. uk/ essays/ all/ 7289558/ how-to-fix-orphanages. Conor Grennan [3] "Online library : Save the Children UK" (http:/ / www. com/ content/ 7/ 1/ 34. htm). se/ php/ rapporter/ documents/ Europa%20och%20Centralasien/ Bulgarien%2C%20MR-rapport%202010. com/ 2001/ 11/ 05/ world/ us-interrupts-cambodian-adoptions. [25] http:/ / www.Orphanage • Dr Barnardo's Homes (now simply Barnardo's) • The Miracle Foundation is concerned with helping orphans in India. Richard B.uk. uk/ 2/ hi/ africa/ 7974232. Seth (5 November 2001). pdf [28] http:/ / www. manskligarattigheter. 82 .uk. abstract). [10] McKenzie.uk. unicef. Savethechildren. html). Tva. [16] http:/ / www. guardian. com/ headlines/ 391272/ south_africa_homes_close_down_for_violating_human_rights. co. Retrieved 17 October 2011. e-include.org. Retrieved 17 October 2011. org/ ). [5] "Young Children in Institutional Care at Risk of Harm" (http:/ / tva. Retrieved 17 October 2011. htm). org. stm). Vietnam. "Three British evangelicals cast blame on each other in trials over child abuse at Albanian orphanage | Society" (http:/ / www. BBC. com/ portal/ index. uk/ en/ 54_9678. Prashant (15 June 2010). Retrieved 17 October 2011. org/ ceecis/ Planning_for_Deinstitutionalization_and_Reordering_Child_care_Services_ENG. crin. The group raises money through theatrical performances and movie screenings. Retrieved 17 October 2011. html). [4] "Online library : Save the Children UK" (http:/ / www. .sagepub. nytimes. The Spectator. uk/ news/ world-south-asia-15066220). bg/ public/ images/ tinybrowser/ upload/ PPT%20BEIP%20Group%20for%20website. Retrieved 17 October 2011. htm). savethechildren. The Guardian (UK).S. . [13] http:/ / www. Thirdworldorphans.

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[89] Azerbaijan (http:/ / www.org/) • Aid to Vietnamese orphans (http://www. asp) New York State Office of Children and Family Services. Hrw. html) [96] http:/ / web. savethechildren. 1913. not web page counter [100] Ian Birrell (4 October 2011). archive. "The parentless don’t need cheap pity. Retrieved 17 October 2011.ua. Ukraine" (http:/ / deti. iorphan. . ru/ english/ [88] "Human Rights Watch" (http:/ / www. html). unicef. rykersdream. 138. Retrieved 17 October 2011. internews.org/) 84 .uk/en/54_9678. Rykersdream. 194. lauram. Cloud Depot Nine Charity. clouddepotnine. . org/ orphanages/ ivanovka. . Retrieved 17 October 2011. 19 May 2008.org) • MyOrphanage.org) • Rescued Orphans – World's Largest Directory Of Orphanages (http://www. rcws. Deti. pdf [97] http:/ / 193. pdf [82] http:/ / www. bbc. . [93] Albert Pavlov (translated from Russian by Anna Large) (21 March 2007). . missionpartners. org [102] http:/ / www. Charleston. dailymail.RescuedOrphans.org) • Orphanage Review Board (http://www. casahogarjeruel. orphans. missionpartners. htm [103] http:/ / www. com/ Statistics.htm) • Closing Orphanages – There is another way to care for the most vulnerable children (http://www. mw. html) [91] (http:/ / www. bigfamilyministry.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011. [106] "The Children of Guatemala | BBC World Service" (http:/ / www. [86] Eke. org/ orphanages/ orphankiev. Retrieved 17 October 2011. stm). unicef. org/ reports98/ russia2/ ). "Health warning over Russian youth" (http:/ / news. [105] A Legacy of Caring: The Charleston Orphan House 1790–1990. "Orphanages in Haiti and Cambodia rent children to fleece gullible Westerners | Mail Online" (http:/ / www. ua/ eng/ show_article. ru/ ASIA-PLUS/ bulletin_23/ children. BBC News.org) •  "Orphans and Orphanages". co. ocfs.org.org. • World orphanages website (http://www. Steven (1 June 2005). hrw. org/ sudan/ UNICEF_Sudan_Technical_Briefing_Paper_1_-_Alternative_family_care. org/ infobycountry/ fiji_statistics. [94] Kiev Children's Work (http:/ / www. com/ documents/ 3549_fhi10. html). html [99] (http:/ / www. ny. uk/ debate/ article-1375330/ Orphanages-Haiti-Cambodia-rent-children-fleece-gullible-Westerners. anewarrival. shtml). . Retrieved 17 October 2011. Wyrick and Company. us/ main/ fostercare/ stats2009. org/ [104] Facts About Children in Foster Care New York State – 2009 (http:/ / www. 190/ html/ menu2/ 6/ crc/ doc/ report/ srf-indonesia-1. html) [92] Photo: Vasiliy Artyushenko. . prijut. hopeandhomes. bh/ eng [83] http:/ / www. 138.org – In Touch With Orphanages (http://www. synergyaids.Orphanage [79] "Statistics" (http:/ / www. state. SC 1991.org. Retrieved 17 October 2011. "A photoreport: “From Heart to Heart – 2”: a trip to the rural orphanages of Zaporozhye region:: Zaporozhzhya orphans. . Retrieved 17 October 2011. Bigfamilyministry. htm). html) [90] Kyrgyzstan Children's Work (http:/ / www.org.parentless. zp. co.ua.org/) • Remembering Children Homes and Orphanages (http://childrenhomes. pdf) page 14 and 15 of actual report. Retrieved 17 October 2011. . pdf [98] http:/ / www. org/ aboutus_statistics. html) [95] Dnepropetrovsk Children's Work (http:/ / www. 28 October 2000. com/ Hogar%202006. org/ russian_orphans/ index. .zp. org/ web/ 20071129174720/ http:/ / 193. [85] "Information about Russian orphans" (http:/ / www. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4600785. [101] http:/ / www. [80] "Phonsavan Orphanage" (http:/ / www. Yekaterina SHCHETKINA | Society |People" (http:/ / www. 9 March 1998. Daily Mail (UK). Mw. asp). uk/ worldservice/ people/ highlights/ 001027_adoption. External links • Keeping Children Out of Harmful Institutions: Why we should be investing in family-based care (http://www. [81] http:/ / www. orphanagefunds. Iorphan. htm [84] "Russian Orphans Facts and Statistics" (http:/ / www.orphanage. php?a_id=5150). bbc. missionpartners.covsa. gov. 190/ html/ menu2/ 6/ crc/ doc/ report/ srf-indonesia-1. org/ orphanages/ moreukr. Catholic Encyclopedia. 194. html#ixzz1JroqmjrL ).myorphanage. Alla KOTLIAR. com/ hand_warmers_charity. [87] http:/ / www. co. com/ Azerbaijan. org/ russia_orphans. ua/ 3000/ 3050/ 60819). New York: Robert Appleton Company. BBC.org/) • History of Beaver County Children's Home (http://bcch15066.

as a child. Around 1985. After World War II. has spent a significant period of time in one or more culture(s) other than [their] own. The TCK frequently builds relationships to all of the cultures. The term "Third Culture Kids" or TCKs was coined to refer to the children who accompany their parents into another society. or sections thereof. 3CK) is a term coined in the early 1950s by American sociologist and anthropologist Ruth Hill Useem "to refer to the children who accompany their parents into another society". Pollock developed the following description for third culture kids[2] : “ A Third Culture Kid (TCK) is a person who has spent a significant part of [their] developmental years outside the parents' culture. Useem coined the term third culture kid after her second year-long visit to India with her fellow sociologist/anthropologist husband and three children. as with any culture. Before World War II. to each other. for all types of cross-cultural childhoods.[3] [4] TCKs are often multilingual and highly accepting of other cultures. business (16%). Pollock's definition recognizes the reality of what Eakin is describing but takes it back to Useem's idea that. after a childhood spent in other cultures. Origins and terminology Dr. Kay Eakin adapted this term and described a TCK as "someone who. the "third culture" is a way of life shared with others. and "other" (14%). —Ruth Hill Useem. military (30%). David C. Sponsors are generally broken down into five categories: missionary (17%). Cross-Cultural Kid (CCK). the composition of international families changed. Norma McCaig used the term Global Nomad essentially to define the same group because (1) she didn't like being called a kid when she was grown up and (2) she wanted to make clear for future research purposes that this experience happened because of a parent's career choice (which was the case with the TCKs in Useem's first study. TCK World: The Official Home of Third Culture Kids [7] She describes the third culture as a shared. thus integrating elements of those cultures and their own birth culture.[5] Some TCK families migrate for work independently of any organization based in their country of origin. American sociologist David C. More recently. we began to use the term "third culture" as a generic term to cover the styles of life created. although Useem didn't mention this). shared. ” General characteristics TCKs tend to have more in common with one another. 66% of TCKs came from missionary families. regardless of nationality.[3] Because culture by definition is something that must be shared with others. than they do with non-TCKs from their passport country. or interstitial way of life lived by those who had gone from one culture (the home or first culture) to a host culture (the second) and had developed their own shared way of life with others also living outside their passport cultures. Although moving between countries may become an easy thing for some TCKs. Ruth Van Reken is now suggesting a more comprehensive term.Third culture kid 85 Third culture kid Third culture kid (TCK. McCaig did not want the nuances particular to each type of experience to be lost. Although elements from each culture may be assimilated into the TCK's life experience. into a third culture".[1] Other terms. while not having full ownership in any. adjusting to their passport country often takes years. and 16% came from business families. such as trans-culture kid. with the increase of international business and the rise of two international superpowers. Others have used different expressions to describe this same population. and learned by persons who are in the process of relating their societies. the sense of belonging is in relationship to others of similar background.[6] In 1993 she wrote: In summarizing that which we had observed in our cross-cultural encounters. government (23%). . are also used by some. For this reason. Currently they include 3CK or trans-culture kid. not refugees or immigrants.

[10] TCKs also tend to come from families that are closer than non-TCK families. a business. or fear of repatriation or family disgrace with colleagues". but a high percentage of military brats have lived off base overseas for years at a time. and the family's interaction with people from the home country.. The sponsor affects many variables such as: how long a family is in a foreign culture. those military brats who only live on base tend to be exposed the least to the local culture compared to other TCKs.S armed forces has sponsored significant research into the U. such as misguided notions about 'respecting privacy'.) decides to send somebody to a foreign country.[9] Families The parents of TCKs are often highly educated. the U. "Because the nuclear family is the only consistent social unit through all moves.[8] Second. While much of the research into TCKs has shown consistent results across geographical boundaries.. and are not likely to divorce..[10] Also. First. due to budgeting priorities of military bases. scientific sampling methods on adults may contain bias due to the difficulty in conducting epidemiological studies across broad-based population samples. Because military bases aim for self-sufficiency. how enmeshed the family becomes with local practices. "The strength of [the] family bond works to the benefit of children when parent-child communication is good and the overall family dynamic is healthy.[10] When a group (whether it is the military.Third culture kid Research Research into third culture kids has come from two fronts. whereas bases tend to house more singles and families with very small children. "Almost all" TCK families are deployed to foreign countries as a result of the father's profession. where Dr.[11] Sponsorship TCK's exposure to foreign countries depends largely on parent's sponsoring organization. some international sociologists are critical of the research that "expects there to be one unified 'true' culture that is shared by all who have experiences of growing up overseas". etc.. Research into TCKs has either studied students currently living in a foreign culture or years later as adults.S. TCKs will thus have a higher probability of coming from a family where at least one parent earned a college degree and often an advanced degree. The group wants to send people who will represent it the best. Physical. While overseas a majority of non-infant and non-toddler military brats live off-base. family members are psychologically thrown back on one another in a way that is not typical in geographically stable families. Approximately 59% of military brats spend more than 5 years in foreign countries. government. They will also have a smaller likelihood of having divorced parents (divorced parents are unlikely to allow their former spouse to take their child to another country). and very few families live in another country primarily due to the mother's occupation."[11] It has been observed that TCKs may be more prone to abuse as the family can become too tight knit. military brat experience. may go unnoticed or unacknowledged by others for a variety of reasons. the family's interaction with the host country nationals. successful in their careers. and provide the most value for the investment. sexual and emotional abuse . Since the only way to identify somebody who grew up in a foreign culture is through self-identification.. because of the 86 .[8] Most TCK research on adults is limited to those people whose time in a different culture occurred during the school age years. it is making a significant investment. It can be devastating when it is not. Useem taught for over 30 years. most of the research into TCKs has been conducted by adult TCKs attempting to validate their own experiences. church. This research has been conducted largely at Michigan State University. Military Military brats are the most mobile of TCKs and spend an average of 7 (seven) years abroad while growing up.

MKs generally have the most interaction with the local populace and the least interaction with people from their passport country. They are also the most likely of the TCKs to integrate themselves into the local culture. 44% will also have spent at least 10 years outside of their passport country. 63% of business TCKs have lived in foreign countries at least 10 years but are more likely than MKs to live in multiple countries. the Commonwealth Secretariat. Of all TCKs. Wally Szczerbiak). Again.[5] Non-military government Nonmilitary government TCKs are the most likely to have extended experiences in foreign countries for extended periods. Singapore. Other TCK families who do not fit one the above categories include those employed by intergovernmental agencies (for example. an Americanized Arab Muslim living in Chinatown. While parents of military brats had the lowest level of education of the five categories. the Nuclear Energy Agency. India.[12] Religious Missionary Kids (MKs) typically spend the most time overseas. particularly in the Arab world and in Latin America. 85% of MKs spend more than 10 years in foreign countries and 72% lived in only one foreign country. international schools). TCK parents in this category are the most likely (89%) to hold an advanced degree.[5] Business Business families also spend a great deal of time in foreign countries. of any TCKs. Their involvement with locals and others from their passport country depends on the role of the parent. even those military brats who never lived abroad can be isolated significantly from the civilian regional cultures of their "home" country. China. as well as the rootless lifestyle of moving constantly while growing up. and local organizations such as hospitals. This is significantly higher than the general population. Japan. and the International Agency of the Francophonie). 44% have lived in at least four countries. Parents who work in the pharmaceutical business typically move to countries such as Switzerland. international non-governmental organizations (for example. or USA.[14] 87 .g. Some may grow up moving from country to country in the diplomatic corps (see Foreign Service Brat) while others may live their lives near military bases. Business TCKs will have a fairly high interaction with their host nationals and with others from their passport country.[12] 83% of missionary kids have at least one parent with an advanced degree. e.[12] TCKs in this category also might live in an area with a certain ethnic majority other than their own. in one country.Third culture kid self-sufficiency of military bases and the distinctiveness of military culture. Other professions include the media and athletics (for example.[13] This group typically has spent the least amount of time in foreign countries (42% are abroad for 1–2 years and 70% for less than 5). their involvement with local people and culture can vary greatly. approximately 36% of USA military brat TCK families have at least one parent with an advanced degree.[12] Many of these "business" families are from oil companies.

[10] Families tend to seek out schools whose principal languages they share.[15] Intercultural experiences Many TCKs take years to readjust to their passport countries. in-depth relationships. Such children usually find it difficult to answer the question.[9] A few sociologists studying TCKs. they are typically referred to both in Japanese and in English as kikokushijo. Denmark. It is hard for TCKs to present themselves as a single cultured person. They do this because of the linguistic and cultural opportunities being immersed in English might provide their children when they are adults. There are. They know bits and pieces of at least two cultures. They often build social networks among themselves and prefer to socialize with other TCKs.Third culture kid Non-American third culture kids Most international TCKs are expected to speak English and some countries require their expatriate families to be proficient with the English language. Recently. This poses the potential for non-English speaking TCKs to have a significantly different experience from U. Public awareness of kikokushijo is much more widespread in Japan than awareness of TCKs in the United States. the use of the term "third culture kids" to refer to children returned from living overseas is not universally accepted. but that TCKs from different countries are really different from one another. but with nothing beyond his passport to define that identification for him. argue that the commonality found in international TCKs is not the result of true commonality. Many countries have American schools. which may make it seem difficult for TCKs to build long-term. TCKs have a globalized culture. Italy. Where their own language is not available. These will be populated by expatriates' children and some children of the local upper middle class. yet most of them have not fully experienced any one culture making them feel incomplete or left out by other children who have not lived overseas. Many third culture kids face an identity crisis: they don't know where they come from. and government reports as early as 1966 recognised the need for the school system to adapt to them. and are often perpetually homesick for their adopted country. but rather the researcher's bias projecting expectations upon the studied subculture. however. They believe that some of the superficial attributes may mirror each other. which makes it hard for others who have not had similar experiences to accept them for who they are.[9] Research on TCKs from Japan.[9] The exteriors may be the same.[10] Kikokushijo In Japan. and because their children are more likely to have prior exposure to English than to other international languages. Many choose to enter careers that allow them to travel frequently or live overseas. "Where are you from?" Compared to their peers who have lived their entire lives in a single culture. in the 1970s. and ideally one which mirrors their own educational system. they were characterised in media reports and even by their own parents as "educational orphans" in need of "rescue" to reduce their foreignness and successfully reintegrate them into Japanese society. views of kikokushijo have not always been positive. Others can have difficulty relating to them. especially. blogs and social networks including 88 . but that the understanding of the world around them differs. However. a growing number of online resources to help TCKs deal with issues as well as stay in contact with each other. Germany. They often suffer a reverse culture shock upon their return. It would be typical for a TCK to say that he is a citizen of a country. a term which has different implications. however. families will often choose English-speaking schools for their children. British schools. They do this in an effort to maintain linguistic stability and to ensure that their children do not fall behind due to linguistic problems.S.[10] This is largely because most international schools use the English language as the norm. the United States and Africa has shown that TCKs from different countries share more in common with other TCKs than they do with their own peer group from their passport country. German Schools and 'International Schools' which often follow one of the three International Baccalaureate programs. literally "returnee children". TCKs. French schools.

[21] 80% believe they can get along with anybody. have become a helpful way for TCKs to interact. and develop a chameleon-like ability to become part of other cultures.[22] [23] More welcoming of others into their community. sometimes excluding native children attending their schools. Career decisions [16] Missionary Military Government Business Other Executive/Admin 17% 40% 35% 10% 24% Semi/Professional 61% 34% 38% 47% 53% Support (Secretarial/Technical) 17% 27% 15% 16% 13% Sales 5% 6% 7% 5% 4% Other 1% 4% 5% 6% 6% Type of Work [17] Missionary Military Government Business Other Business/Financial 22% 32% 27% 20% 17% Education 25% 23% 17% 17% 28% Health/Social Services 24% 7% 13% 23% 13% Self Employed 11% 14% 14% 14% 14% Government 3% 5% 5% 7% 8% Military 2% 10% 6% 1% 2% Non-Medical Professional 3% 6% 12% 11% 10% Arts/Media 0% 3% 5% 4% 7% Religious 10% 0% 0% 2% 1% Work Setting Statistics (U. and Skype are often used so TCKs can keep in touch with each other.[19] • Lack a sense of "where home is". but TCKs marry at an older age (25+). Some ATCKs come to terms with issues such as culture shock and a sense of not belonging while others struggle with these for their entire lives. The unique experiences of TCKs among different cultures and various relationships at the formative stage of their development makes their view of the world different from others.Third culture kid 89 MySpace.[21] Divorce rates among TCKs are lower than the general population. Some TCKs may also isolate themselves within their own sub-culture. Facebook and TCKID. As third culture kids mature they become adult third culture kids (ATCKs). In addition. TCKs) Research has been done on American TCKs to identify various characteristics:[11] [18] [19] Sociopsychology • • • • • 90% feel "out of sync" with their peers. but are often nationalistic.S.[19] [21] . or defining themselves in relation to some "other" ethnic or religious group. They tend to get along with people of any culture.[20] 90% report feeling as if they understand other people and cultural groups better than the average American. and they often do. AIM. due to their sociocultural adaptability. chatting programs including MSN Messenger.

ISBN 978-1857885255. ac.. U. html).[20] • TCKs' sense of identity and well-being is directly and negatively affected by repatriation. [3] Eakin. state. Retrieved 90 . Richard (2002). 'Other' Expatriate Adolescents: A Postmodern Approach to Understanding Expatriate Adolescents among non-U. Article 1. com/ milbrats. com/ milbrats. . 13. In the study. 196. [12] Cotrell (2002) p 231 [13] Jordan (2002) p 227. 168–170. and highly-skilled positions are the most common professions for TCKs. Third culture kids: growing up among worlds. com/ milbrats. Portland: Greenwood. ISBN 9780275972660. au/ books?id=eYK8vsA8K8MC& lpg=PP1& dq=third culture kid& pg=PA13#v=onepage& q=third culture kid& f=false). . ed.. M. I’m coming home" (http:/ / www. and in 18% by the mother. government. ISBN 9780275972660. [7] http:/ / www. Rev. Nor are there many in government . . In 46% of TCK families an advanced degree was held by the father. . Ender.[22] 44% earned undergraduate degree after the age of 22. jp/ bulletin/ 6/ kanou.. (http:/ / www. (http:/ / books.[22] • TCKs are unlikely to work for big business. p. Children. Kay (1998). December 2003. [4] Hymlö. cs. com/ nomads. 201. Gendai Shakai Kenkyū 6: 67–78. Ender. they have not followed in parental footsteps". Ender.[20] • Depression is comparatively prevalent among TCKs. Ruth H. [6] Ruth Useem's obituary in Footnotes. google. pp.S. . Ruth E. Children's International Relocation and the Development Process.[24] • TCKs are highly linguistically adept (not as true for military TCKs). Portland: Greenwood.[22] • A study whose subjects were all "career military brats"—those who had a parent in the military from birth through high school—shows that brats are linguistically adept. in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'. London: Nicholas Brealey. Portland: Greenwood. medicine. p. html). tckworld. pp. pdf).S. html [8] Ender. Ender. business management. . p. in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'.Third culture kid Cognitive and emotional development • Teenage TCKs are more mature than non-TCKs. Annika (2002). (http:/ / www. transition-dynamics. com. [10] Pearce. transition-dynamics. kaiku.)[22] 45% of TCKs attended three universities before attaining a degree. (http:/ / www. Norma (1994). html). Retrieved 2010-01-18. in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'. html). [5] Cottrell. [11] McCaig. "One won't find many TCKs in large corporations. "Growing up with a world view . 157. TCKs may experience stress and even grief from the relocation experience. ISBN 9780275972660. html).[26] [27] Education and career • • • • TCKs are 4 times as likely as non-TCKs to earn a bachelor's degree (81% vs 21%)[28] 40% earn an advanced degree (as compared to 5% of the non-TCK population. Foreign Service Journal: 32–41. org/ footnotes/ dec03/ departments. Ender. html). Children. Ed. . Momo (2004-01-31). transition-dynamics. 201. html). Educational and Occupational Choices of American Adult Third Culture Kids. Morten (2002). . transition-dynamics. pdf) (PDF). com/ milbrats. 196. com/ milbrats.[22] Notes [1] Useem. Other Expatriate Adolescents: A Postmodern Approach to Understanding Expatriate Adolescents Among Non-U. Dept of State. "Crosscultural upbringing: A comparison of the "third culture kids" framework and "Kaigai/Kikokushijo" studies" (http:/ / www. "Third Culture Kids: Focus of Major Study" (http:/ / www. in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'. ed. p 234. Over all. ISBN 9780275972660. ed. Ann (2002). (2009).. M. ed. [14] Cottrell (2002) p 233-234. ISBN 9780275972660. tckworld. self-employment. Beyond Adolescence: The Experiences of Adult Children of Military Parents. David C. M. in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'. kyoto-wu. military dependents were the "most representative of the United States population". asanet. . gov/ documents/ organization/ 2065. com/ useem/ art1. [9] Hylmö. transition-dynamics. TCKWorld. . M. [2] Pollock.[22] • Education. Van Reken. 80% of TCK families had at least one parent with a BA. "According to my passport. Greenwood. p. ed. html). 18. 230. (http:/ / www. com/ useem/ art1. or follow their parents' career choices. the Newsletter of the American Sociological Association (http:/ / www2. (http:/ / www. but in their twenties take longer than their peers to focus their aims. xxv. Annika (2002).S. M.nomad children develop multicultural skills" (http:/ / www. pp. [15] Kano Podolsky. Portland: Greenwood.[25] • Like all children.

U. edu/ pages/ kids. 2000). International Schools Services. Kathleen Finn (2002). Portland. Survival Kit for Overseas Living. com/ useem/ art4. "The Military Culture as an Exemplar of American Qualities" (http://www. tckworld. Retrieved 22 January 2010. 2007.state. • Britten. 1998) “TCK World: A Comparison of Different "Versions" Of TCKs” (http:// www. com/ useem/ art3. Commander in Chief. ME. [22] Cottrell AB. TCKs maintain global dimensions throughout their lives (http:/ / www. Admiral Dennis. Honors Thesis. Useem RH (1994). Lesia (April 2004). ed. . San Diego. [19] Lewis L. Westport. (July 19. iastate. (2002). TCKs Experience Prolonged Adolescence (http://www.amazon. Useem RH (1993). Smith College. [20] Cottrell AB. Alethia Publications: New York.. • Hervey. 91 . Edited Carolyn Smith. OR. [23] Jordan (2002) p. 1996 • Graham. 8(2). Retrieved December 3. Laila (2008). [27] Oesterreich. • Kohls RL (1996).. Michelle (2002). “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads”. Graphic Arts. pdf). Westin Horton Plaza Hotel. com/useem/art3. ed.mil/speeches/sst2000/milchild. Kay (1996). "Identity Formation and the Adult Third Culture Kid " In Morten Ender.html). Edited Carolyn Smith. Intercultural Press. iss. • Eakin. Yarmouth. Yarmouth.pdf) • Jordan. Retrieved December 3.tckworld. • Kelley. org/ Moving. References & Further Reading • Blair. ed. William Steele (2003). International Schools Services. ME. Intercultural Press.html) Third Culture Kid World. Pacific Command. Retrieved December 3. com/ ). Edited Carolyn Smith. tripod. "Moving Can Become Traumatic" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 22 January 2010. International Schools Services. ATCKs have problems relating to their own ethnic groups (http:/ / www. International Schools Services. ME. html).tckworld. Julie and Linda Lankenau (Undated) “Third Culture Kids: Returning to their Passport Country” (http:// www. [25] Ender. edu/ Publications/ PM1529G.223 [24] Plamondon. html).htm) US Department of State. California. html).org/Documents/JPC Article_Emily_Hervey.com/comparisons. Useem RH (1993). p88-90 [26] Sheppard. Iowa State University.Third culture kid 2007-11-08. [16] Cotrell (2002) p237 [17] Cotrell (2002) p238 [18] Useem RH (2001).S. tckworld. 2006 • Cottrell. [21] Cottrell AB. 8(4). [28] Cottrell AB. "Cultural Transitions During Childhood and Adjustment to College" (http:// worldwidefamilies. Third Culture Kids (http:/ / wanjennifer. html). The Whole World Guide to Culture Learning. tlcinst. International Schools Services. Alethia Publications: New York. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads” • Kidd. . Ann and Ruth Hill Useem (1993). Ender. extension. html). tckworld. • Kalb R and Welch P (1992). Nat'l Inst for Trauma and Loss in Children. • Morten G. Intercultural Press.pacom. "Growing up in the Military" in Strangers at Home: Essays on the effects of living overseas and Coming 'home' to a strange land. “The Effects of Deployment on Traditional and Nontraditional Military Families: Navy Mothers and Their Children” in Morten Ender. ISBN 0-275-97266-6 • Pascoe R (1993). 7(5).. Connecticut: Praeger. 2006. tckworld.gov/m/dghr/flo/rsrcs/pubs/4597. Culture Shock: Successful Living Abroad. Trauma and Loss: Research and Interventions. Third Culture Kids: Focus of Major Study (http:/ / www. Yarmouth. Samuel (November 30. 8(1). html). Emily (2009). Cork (2004) "The Bamboo Chest: An Adventure in Healing the Trauma of War" (http://www. Alethia Publications: New York. Morten. com/ useem/ art5. "Understanding children: moving to a new home" (http:/ / www. "You can't go 'Home' Again" in Strangers at Home: Essays on the effects of living overseas and Coming 'home' to a strange land. com/ useem/ art2. Military Brats and Other Global Nomads: Growing Up in Organization Families.htm) Prepared for Supporting the Military Child Annual Conference. TCKs Experience Prolonged Adolescence (http:/ / www. Moving Your Family Overseas. 2006. 8(1) Accessed January 5. Caroline H. 1996. Third Culture Kids: Factors that Predict Psychological Health after Repatriation. com/dp/0970358016) DPP 2004 • Hess DJ (1994). Useem RH (1993). Morten. International Schools Services. 1996 • Ender. "Growing up in the Military" in Strangers at Home: Essays on the effects of living overseas and Coming 'home' to a strange land. TCKs Four Times More Likely to Earn Bachelor’s Degrees (http:/ / www.

• Seelye HN.Third culture kid • Pearce. ISBN 0-9639260-4-7 • Tyler. Religious Culture Shock. Yarmouth. • Shames GW (1997). Ruth et al.htm) Retrieved December 3. ed. 2006. McGraw-Hill Companies.denizenmag.iss.htm) Retrieved December 3.org/ThirdCultureKids. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads”.crossculturalkid. Paulette M. Transcultural Odysseys: The Evolving Global Consciousness. Yarmouth. (undated) “Third Culture Kids: Focus of Major Study”. Intercultural Press. (http://www. Children's International Relocation and the Development Process. • Smith. Online magazine created by and dedicated to TCKs 92 . ME. Third Culture Kids: Factors that Predict Psychological Health after Repatriation.com) Official Home of Dr. ISBN 0-8442-3305-6. 2006. World Citizens and "Rubberband Nationals" in Carolyn Smith Strangers at Home: Essays on the Effects of Living Overseas and Coming 'Home' to a Strange Land. Smith College. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads” • Plamondon. • Pollock DC and Van Reken R (2001). Honors Thesis. Third Culture Kids. ed.com/).. (http://www. Retrieved December 3. (2002).abc. Phoebe. Mary (2002). Brice Royer. (2002). (2002) “Military Brats: Issues and Associations in Adulthood“ in Morten Ender. html) International Schools Services. • Useem. ME.. The Art of Coming Home. Laila. Intercultural Press.crossculturalkid. 2006. • Price. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads External links • TCK World (http://www.htm) An interview with Ruth Van Reken.militarybrat. and Daniela Tudor from TCKID • Worldwide Families | Third Culture Kids (http://worldwidefamilies. Ruth and Bethel.org/cck..net.aspx) Recent research and current resources • Military Brats Registry (http://www. Yarmouth. ISBN 0-517-58400-X • Williams. New York. • Wertsch. Stan (2002) "Hub Culture: The Next Wave of Urban Consumers". ISBN 978-0-470-82072-8 • Storti C (1997). in Morten Ender. Ruth (1996).. in Carolyn Smith "STrangers at Home: Essays on The effects of Living Overseas amd Coming Home/" • Reken. “The Military Teenager in Europe: Perspectives for Health care Providers”. Mary Edwards (1991).tckworld. Carolyn (ed) (1996). Karen and LisaMarie Mariglia. Maine. ed. Third Culture Kids: Prototypes for Understanding Other Cross-Cultural Kids (http://www.edu/pages/kids. New York: Harmony Books. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads”. • Stalnaker. Ruth and Paulette Bethel. Wiley.org/cck. (2008). in Morten Ender. Between Cultures: Developing Self-Identity in a World of Diversity. ed. Military Brats: Legacies of Childhood Inside the Fortress. Nicholas Brealey Publishing/Intercultural Press. “’Third Culture Kids: Prototypes for Understanding Other Cross-Cultural Kids”.au/rn/lifematters/stories/2009/2583257. Wasilewski JH (1996). ISBN 1-85788-295-4. Hill Useem's research. • Van Reken.com/). New York: Aletheia Publications. • Reken. sociologist who coined the term "Third Culture Kid" • Third Culture Kids on ABC News (http://www. in Morten Ender. (Social media site for military brats) • Denizen Magazine (http://www. “Behavior of Civilian and Military High School Students in Movie Theaters”.

marriage regulations. not all cultures use adoption. Muslims. which only introduced legal adoption in 1926. Christians.[2] [3] Korea In traditional Korean culture. adoption almost always occurred when another family member (sibling or cousin) gives a male child to the first-born male heir of the family. Other common rules governing adoption in Islamic culture address inheritance. For example. Like the reciprocal transfer of brides from one family to another.Cultural variations in adoption Cultural variations in adoption Adoption is an arrangement by which a child whose biological parents are unable to care for it is "adopted" and given the same legal and social status as though he/she were the biological child of the adoptive parents. The child’s family name is not changed to that of the adopting parent(s) and his or her “guardians” are publicly known as such. Legally. Jains. children are often given to adoptive families. the child can also inherit the parent's hereditary rank. It is only to point out that adoption is a specific legal arrangement within the many kinds of wardship or guardianship or fostering practiced worldwide. under a system of adoption. Africa On the other hand. this is close to other nations' systems for foster care. cared for.” but rather a ward of the adopting caretaker(s). This does not negate the fact that English families often reared. Islamic countries such as Iraq and Malaysia have prohibitions against a child of Muslim parents being adopted by non-Muslim individuals. in pre-modern Japan. in many African cultures. only a biological child could inherit an aristocratic title. The placing family may receive another child from that family. however. a child could inherit the parent's aristocratic title or samurai rank. loved and provided for parentless children. this statement could be debated. To this day orphanages are still common all over South Korea. This is also true to varying degrees in other Asian societies. Adoptions outside the family were rare. and the fact that adoptive parents are considered trustees of another individual's child rather than the child's new parents. the birth family seeks to create enduring ties with the family that is now rearing the child. Sikhs. Thus. or from another. and Buddhists to adopt.[4] For children adopted outside India. The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act of 1956 allows only Hindus. This has also been the reason why most orphaned Korean children have been exported to countries such as the United States. In adoption systems. While all societies make provision for the rearing of children whose own parents are unavailable to rear them. Guardianship expires once the child attains the age of 18 years. By placing a child in another family's home. India There is no uniform adoption law in India.[1] In addition. guardianship is awarded with the expectation that the child will be quickly adopted by the adopted parents in the country where they legally reside. if a parent dies intestate. Jews and Parsees can become only guardians under the Guardians and Wards Act of 1890. the adopted child stands in exactly the same position regarding inheritance as a biological child. Arab Traditionally in Arab cultures if a child is adopted he or she does not become a “son” or “daughter. whereas in England. these adoptive placements are meant to create enduring connections and social solidarity among families and lineages.[5] 93 . The Indian government regulates domestic and inter-country adoption of children in India. which had a system of true adoption.

gov. for example in Sikaiana.. These transfers of children between different caretakers and households are not exclusive. Raymond. jpn. PMID 970828 [7] Donner. The children.[10] References [1] Adoption in Islam (http:/ / islam. and childless adults would sometimes take the child of another family and bring it up. . htm)) [4] News from India (http:/ / indiaenews. adoptionindia. Malarrive. entry for whāngai (http:/ / www. Many Europeans and Americans associate adoption as a solution to something gone wrong. they can even be asked for and given before birth. php) . [8] Te Whanake Dictionary.[7] New Zealand Māori have a form of traditional adoption practised within extended family called whāngai literally meaning to feed. Its basic functions compare to the ones of other traditional adoption practices. gov. By contrast. Daria Michel. not from the property of the lineage of the guardian. and parents traditionally do not refuse to let others take their children. childsrights. com/ baghdad/ 2006/ 06/ adoption_obstac. Tahitians practice “fa’a’amu” adoption (meaning literally “giving to eat” adoption). (May 1976).MSNBC. in [6] Bourgeois. retained the tribal affiliation of their biological fathers. "We the Tikopia. (1999). Crossing worlds (D’un monde à l’autre) Reflection on customary adoption practices (http:/ / www. J. jpn. William W. about. com/ cs/ parenting/ a/ adoption.Blogging Baghdad: The Untold Story . Annales Medico-Psychologiques 1 (5): 721–37. org/ html/ site_en/ index. questia. Various traditional aspects and current problems of adoption and donation of children in French Polynesia". 1957. and rarely are ties to the biological family severed.Cultural variations in adoption Polynesia “Fluid adoption” [6] is common in Polynesian culture.pp 190-193 94 . com/ googleScholar. 1963. [10] Firth. cfm?dictionaryKeywords=whāngai) [9] Scotti. M. nz/ index. nic.g. co. htm) [2] Adoption obstacles . as traditionally has occurred in Western adoptions. htm) [5] http:/ / www. and inherited land only from the property of the paternal lineage. archive. html) [3] FAQ on Adoption (http:/ / www. some Polynesian cultures. php?subaction=showfull& id=1223651301& archive=& start_from=& ucat=2& ). and they do not permanently separate the children from their biological parents. Beacon Press Edition.[9] Tikopia Traditional Tikopia (Solomon Islands) society did not practice adoption as it is traditionally understood in Western societies. Fosterage is viewed as a way to create and maintain close personal relations. my/ BI/ 4_2_anakangkat. msnbc. "Fa'a'mu and Fanau. my/ FAQ-child+ adopted. org/ web/ 20061202134315/ http:/ / www. 1936. however. ( archived version 2006 (http:/ / web. unwanted pregnancy (by genetic parent) or infertility (by adoptive parent). It was not uncommon for families to rear children left parentless. e. maoridictionary. notably in Africa. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 30. a child can be “given” with the agreement or on the initiative of the family council for a variety of reasons. prefer that children move between different households.[8] Ties to the biological family are not normally severed.National Registration Department of Malaysia. "Sharing and Compassion: Fosterage in a Polynesian Society" (http:/ / www. com/ 2006-06/ 11324-indias-archaic-adoption-needs-overhaul. qst?docId=5001854512).com (http:/ / onthescene.

cognitive. Discriminates smile. Undresses with assistance. nutritional. Goes for objects and gets them. Many children will reach some or most of these milestones at different times from the norm. 3 months Prone:head held up for prolonged periods.Child development stages 95 Child development stages Child development stages describe theoretical milestones of child development. then collapses with a bump Babbles 2 or 3 words repeatedly Drops toys. speech. Speaks in sentences. skips on Questioning at its one foot. Builds tower of 9 cubes Constantly asks questions. Most children with autism are diagnosed at this age. Copies circle. Pulls self up to sit and sits erect with supports. understands simple commands 18 months Can walk alone. Drinks from a cup with both hands. Begins to jump with both feet. physical. Feeds self with a spoon. Imaginary companions 4 years Goes down stairs one foot per step. vision and hearing development Developmental Milestones[1] Age Motor Speech Vision and hearing 4–6 weeks Additional Notes Smiles at parent 6–8 weeks Vocalizes 12–20 weeks Hand regard: following the hand [2] with the eyes. cultural. Picks up toy without 'Jargon'. Overview of motor. Walks up and down stairs 2 feet per step. Also observed in blind [2] children. Objects taken to mouth Enjoys vocal play 6 months Transfers objects from one hand to the other. Palmar grasp of cube Double syllable sounds such as 'mumum' and 'dada' Localises sound 45 cm lateral to either ear May show 'stranger shyness' 9–10 months Wiggles and crawls. Dry by day 3 years Goes up stairs 1-foot per step and downstairs 2 feet per step. Cooperative play. 2 years Able to run. However. Rolls over prone to supine. Serves to practice emerging visual [3] skills. imitates cross and draws man on request. Many infantile cross substitutions in speech Dresses and undresses with assistance. Turns head round to sound Squeals with delight appropriately. Picks up objects with pincer grasp Babbles tunefully Looks for toys dropped Apprehensive about strangers 1 year Stands holding furniture. Gets up/down stairs holding intelligible words onto rail. Many stage models of development have been proposed. and watches where they go Cooperates with dressing. Attends to own toilet needs . This article puts forward a general model based on the most widely accepted developmental stages. and environmental factors. educational. it is important to understand that there is wide variation in terms of what is considered "normal. Sits unsupported. Stands alone for a second or two. Builds tower of 6 cubes Joins 2–3 words in sentences Parallel play. family. Many falling over. No grasp reflex Makes vowel noises 5 months Holds head steady. used as working concepts and in some cases asserted as nativist theories. copies a height. waves goodbye. Imitates gate with cubes. Follows dangling toy from side to side." driven by a wide variety of genetic. Can build a tower of 3 or 4 cubes and throw a ball Demands constant mothering.

8–5.98 in) per month 4–8 kg (8.7–37. • Legs. Draws a man and copies a triangle.1 in) per lb) year Weight gain Respiration rate (per minute) Normal body temperature Heart rate (pulse) (per minute) Visual acuity (Snellen chart) Specifications sorted by reached age 1–4 months Physical • Head and chest circumference are nearly equal to the part of the abdomen. • Gums are red. • Skin remains sensitive and easily irritated.5 times birth length by first birthday body temperature 9. Gives age Fluent speech with few infantile substitutions in speech 6 years Copies a diamond. • Increases are an important indication of continued brain growth. • Anterior fontanelle.5 cm per month until four months. • Continues to breathe using abdominal muscles. • Head circumference increases approximately 2 cm per month until two months. • Eyes begin moving together in unison (binocular vision). • Cries with tears.1 in) per lb) year about 4 times birth weight body temperature heart rate 12–24 months 80–90 cm (31–35 in) 2 years 85–95 cm (33–37 in) Average weight 5–8 cm 9–13 kg (20–29 (2. 1.Child development stages 96 5 years Skips on both feet and hops.3 cm (0.0–3.8–18 lb) 100–200 g per week 30 to 40 35. Knows right from left and number of fingers Fluent speech Dresses and undresses alone Physical specifications Age Average length/height (cm) Length growth 1–4 months 50–70 cm (20–28 in) 2. • Posterior fontanelle. then increases 1.5 °C 4–8 months 70–75 cm (28–30 in) 1.5 cm (0. .6 kg (21 lb) Nearly triple the birth weight by first birthday 500 g per month 20 to 45 body temperature heart rate 20/100 130–250 g per month 22 to 40 body temperature 80 to 110 20/60 7–13 cm 12–15 kg (26–33 1 kg per year 20 to 35 (2.51 in) per month (doubling birth weight) 500 g per month 25 to 50 body temperature heart rate 8–12 months Approx.

rate and patterns vary from infant to infant. Turns head side to side when in a supine (face up) position. Grasps with entire hand. Grasp reflex. with upper and lower incisors coming in first. Landau reflex appears near the middle of this period. • Posterior fontanelle closing or fully closed. shakes. Sits alone without support. indicating healthy. biting.inability to move food to the back of the mouth. upper arms and neck. • Fat rolls ("Baby Fat") appear on thighs. waves arms about. • May accidentally begin scooting backwards when placed on stomach. • Legs may appear bowed. and arms propped forward for support Pulls self into a crawling position by raising up on arms and drawing knees up beneath the body. accompanied by increased drooling. Movements are large and jerky.Child development stages Motor development • • • • • • • • • Rooting and sucking reflexes are well developed. Motor development • • • • • • • • • • • • • Reflexive behaviors are changing: Blinking reflex is well established Sucking reflex becomes voluntary Moro reflex disappears When lowered suddenly. infant throws out arms as a protective measure. Picks up objects using finger and thumb (pincer grip). holding head erect. back straightened. Swallowing reflex appears and allows infant to move solid foods from front of mouth to the back for swallowing. when baby is held in a prone (face down) position. Transfers objects from one hand to the other. strength insufficient to hold items.5 cm per month. reaches for objects. the head is held upright and legs are fully extended. chewing. puts everything in mouth. and mouthing of objects. Handles. • Head circumference increases approximately 1 cm per month until six to seven months. grasps object using entire hand (palmar grasp). respiration rate depending on activity. soon will begin to crawl forward. Raises head and upper body on arms when in a prone position. Reaches for objects with both arms simultaneously. ongoing brain growth. • Teeth may begin to appear. Upper body parts are more active: clasps hands above face. • Lifts head when placed on back. later reaches with one hand or the other. • Can roll over from back or stomach position. • True eye color is established. • Anterior fontanelle. Able to hold bottle. Gums may become red and swollen. • Breathing is abdominal. bowing gradually disappears as infant grows older.can not hold head up and line with the body. head circumference should continue to increase steadily. and pounds objects. rocks back and forth. Swallowing reflex and tongue movements are immature. 4–8 months Physical • Head and chest circumferences are basically equal. then 0. • Looks for fallen objects by 7 months • Plays ‘peek-a-boo’ games 97 . but generally does not move forward. Holds hands in an open or semi-open position.

loses interest quickly and. holding onto adult's hand. Reaches for toys that are out of reach but visible Recognizes objects in reverse Drops thing intentionally and repeats and watches object Imitates activities like playing drum 98 . upper arms and neck. objects. Watches people. Shows awareness of distant objects (4 to 6 m or 13 to 20 ft away) by pointing at them. may begin to walk alone. can shift positions without falling. Arm and hands are more developed than feet and legs (cephalocaudal development). Continues to use abdominal muscles for breathing. • Both eyes work in unison (true binocular coordination). More teeth appear. and finger foods. and activities in the immediate environment. moves around obstacles by side-stepping. Manipulates objects. crawls up and down stairs. Anterior fontanelle begins to close. "Baby Fat" continues to appear on thighs. Uses deliberate pincer grasp to pick up small objects.Child development stages • Cannot understand “no” or “danger” 8–12 Months Physical • • • • • • • • • • Respiration rates vary with activity Environmental conditions. also places objects inside one another. Motor development • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Reaches with one hand leading to grasp an offered object or toy. may be difficult to test formally. activity. therefore. Creeps on hands and knees. hands appear large in proportion to other body parts. Walks with adult support. Beginning to pull self to a standing position. and clothing still affect variations in body temperature. cannot intentionally put an object down. often in the order of two lower incisors then two upper incisors followed by four more incisors and two lower molars but some babies may still be waiting for their first. Follows simple instructions. Head and chest circumference remain equal. Feet appear flat as arch has not yet fully developed. Stacks objects. Has good balance when sitting. Responds to hearing tests (voice localization). • Can see distant objects (4 to 6 m or 13 to 20 ft away) and points at them. transferring them from one hand to the other. Releases objects or toys by dropping or throwing. Beginning to stand alone. toys. Legs may continue to appear bowed. leaning on furniture for support. however. Explores new objects by poking with one finger. weather.

and arms extended for support. has difficulty stopping and usually just drops to the floor.Child development stages Toddlers (12–24 months) Physical • • • • • • • • • Weight is now approximately 3 times the child's birth weight. • Helps turn pages in book. not always accurate in getting utensils into mouth. • Crawls up stairs on all fours. • Demonstrates understanding of functional relationships (objects that belong together): Puts spoon in bowl and then uses spoon as if eating. tries to make doll stand up. frequent spills should be expected. • Repeatedly picks up objects and throws them. • Attempts to run. anterior fontanelle is nearly closed at eighteen months as bones of the skull thicken. not always able to maneuver around obstacles. • Enjoys crayons and markers for scribbling. still appears top-heavy. • Most children walk unassisted near the end of this period. • Manages three to four objects by setting an object aside (on lap or floor) when presented with a new toy. grows approximately 1. • Puts toys in mouth less often. Legs may still appear bowed. enjoys holding spoon (often upside down) and drinking from a glass or cup.3 cm every six months. • Passes toy to other hand when offered a second object (referred to as "crossing the midline"-an important neurological development). Chest circumference is larger than head circumference. abdomen protrudes. Cognitive development • Enjoys object-hiding activities • Early in this period. direction becomes more deliberate. • Sits in a small chair. • Stands alone with feet spread apart. • Uses furniture to lower self to floor. Body shape changes. uses whole-arm movement. Anterior fontanelle closing or fully closed. the child always searches in the same location for a hidden object (if the child has watched the hiding of an object). the child will search in several locations. falls often. such as furniture or toys. collapses backwards into a sitting position or falls forward on hands and then sits. Toddler will begin to lose the "Baby Fat" once he/she begins walking. Rate of growth slows Head size increases slowly. Motor development • Crawls skillfully and quickly. • Carries toys from place to place. Respiration rate varies with emotional state and activity. • Enjoys pushing or pulling toys while walking. • Shows or offers toy to another person to look at. goes down stairs in same position. Later. places teacup on saucer and sips from cup. • Stacks two to six objects per day. back is swayed. • Helps feed self. 99 . usually at the middle of this year. • Gets to feet unaided. takes on more adult-like appearance. legs stiffened. • Enjoys looking at picture books.

" • When asked. likes to know that an adult is near. • Shows increasing understanding of spatial and form discrimination: puts all pegs in a pegboard. but does not play cooperatively. some turn-taking in other kinds of vocal exchanges. 100 . ear)." "Daddy bye-bye. Recognizes self in mirror." • Follows simple directions. such as making and imitating sounds. • Responds with some facial movement. • Places several small items (blocks. • Helps pick up and put away toys. tries to join in. resists getting dressed. clothespins. • Holophrastic speech: uses one word to convey an entire thought. • Plays by themselves • • • • • • Enjoys being held and read to. food. Language • Produces considerable "jargon": puts words and sounds together into speech-like (inflected) patterns. Enjoys adult attention." "cookie". typically these are words that refer to animals. Later. • Enjoys rhymes and songs. such as pointing or pulling. places three geometric shapes in large formboard or puzzle. but cannot truly imitate facial expression. wants to try doing things without help. and toys. produces two-word phrases to express a complete thought (telegraphic speech): "More cookie. • Exceedingly curious about people and surroundings. • Locates familiar objects on request (if child knows location of objects). putting on shoes. and toys. • May have a tantrum when things go wrong or if overly tired or frustrated. verbal request is often accompanied by an insistent gesture. • Responds to simple questions with "yes" or "no" and appropriate head movement. • Identifies three body parts if someone names them: "Show me your nose (toe. Beginning to assert independence. cereal pieces) in a container or bottle and then dumps them out. to direct adult attention. taking a bath. • Speech is 25 to 50 percent intelligible during this period. often refuses to cooperate with daily routines that once were enjoyable. Social • less wary of strangers.Child development stages • Names many everyday objects. eating. • Most children with autism are diagnosed at this age. • Acquires and uses five to fifty words. gives hugs and kisses. Enjoys the companionship of other children. toddlers need to be watched carefully to prevent them from getting into unsafe situations. • Tries to make mechanical objects work after watching someone else do so." • Indicates a few desired objects and activities by name: "Bye-bye. animals. • Seems aware of reciprocal (back and forth) aspects of conversational exchanges. Often imitates adult actions in play. "Give Daddy the cup. • Uses gestures. will point to familiar persons. meaning depends on the inflection ("me" may be used to request more cookies or a desire to feed self).

if not paid start throwing objects. Another important advancement is active social play with adults including mirroring and repeating. 2008) Psychosocial stimulation is vital during the toddler years. rhymes. Begins to use objects for purposes other than intended (may push a block around as a boat). finds a hidden object by looking in last hiding place first. Songs. Want attention. but ironically they enjoy sharing this discovery with others. Toddlers begin to learn and exhibit independence. Scared from dark. Balances on one foot (for a few moments). which usually occurs during the sensorimotor stage of Piaget's childhood theory of cognitive development) • Names familiar objects. take them apart. emotional state. Play begins to become interactive. little teapot. Shame and Doubt (will) (J.Child development stages Psychological Autonomy vs. Grasps large crayon with fist. fit large pegs into pegboard. what caused a particular noise. start crying loudly under the situation. • Recognizes. Climbs up on chair. eensy weensy spider.g. Discovering cause and effect: squeezing the cat makes her scratch. trouble you watching TV. figuring out situations: where the tennis ball rolled. where the dog went. Holds small cup or tumbler in one hand. Seems fascinated by. Two year old Physical • Posture is more erect. • Brain reaches about 80 percent of its adult size. Throws large ball underhand without losing balance. • Knows where familiar persons should be. Stacks four to six objects on top of one another. etc. (This is what Piaget termed object permanence. and locates pain. and sits down. Often achieves toilet training during this year (depending on child's physical and neurological development) although accidents should still be expected. Climbs stairs unassisted (but not with alternating feet). expresses. Cognitive • • • • Eye–hand movements better coordinated. the child will indicate readiness for toilet training. Does simple classification tasks based on single dimension (separates toy dinosaurs from toy cars). and environment. back swayed. Chasse.) are a great way to encourage and stimulate this area of development. Opens doors by turning doorknobs. scribbles. abdomen still large and protruding. and finger plays (e. or engrossed in. because abdominal muscles are not yet fully developed. but may fall. Unbuttons large buttons. notes their absence. can put objects together. 101 . • Respirations are slow and regular • Body temperature continues to fluctuate with activity. jumps up and down. • 16 baby teeth almost finished growing out Motor development • • • • • • • • • • • Can walk around obstacles and walk more erect Squats for long periods while playing. turns. unzips large zippers. • Attends to self-selected activities for longer periods of time. Uses feet to propel wheeled riding toys.

but seldom interacts directly. • Temper tantrums likely to peak during this year. • Tells about objects and events not immediately present (this is both a cognitive and linguistic advance). Has broken the linguistic code. • Often defiant. • Is able to verbalize needs. Some stammering and other dysfluencies are common. still tends to hoard toys. • Enjoys "helping" with household chores. Refers to self as "me" or sometimes "I" rather than by name: "Me go bye-bye". routines carried out exactly as before. wants it both ways. such as believing a toy bear is a real bear. • Impatient. uses conventional word order to form more complete sentences. shouting "no" becomes automatic. wants everything "just so". Social and emotional • Shows signs of empathy and caring: comforts another child if hurt or frightened.Child development stages • Expected to use "magical thinking"." Uses some plurals. • Watches and imitates the play of other children. • Ritualistic.and four-word statements. vocabulary continuously increasing. finds it difficult to wait or take turns. orders them around. plays near others. imitates everyday activities: may try to toilet a stuffed animal. belongings placed "where they belong. feed a doll. Utters three. much of a two-year-old's talk has meaning to him or her. most two-year olds understand significantly more than they can talk about. Uses fifty to three-hundred words. • Expresses more curiosity about the world.[5] • Offers toys to other children. Language • • • • • • • • • • • Enjoys participating while being read to. • Making choices is difficult. makes demands. Realizes language is effective for getting desired responses. has no trouble verbalizing "mine. • "Bossy" with parents and caregivers. extremely difficult to reason with during a tantrum." Expresses negative statements by tacking on a negative word such as "no" or "not": "Not more milk. this is more exaggerated than for others).[4] solitary play is often simple and repetitive. Speech is as much as 65 to 70 percent intelligible. Receptive language is more developed than expressive language. appears to sometimes be overly affectionate in offering hugs and kisses to children • Continues to use physical aggression if frustrated or angry (for some children. expects immediate compliance from adults. often choosing similar toys and activities (parallel play). Physical aggression usually lessens as verbal skills improve. in other words." 102 . but is usually possessive of playthings.

using alternating feet.Child development stages Three year old Physical • Growth is steady though slower than in first two years. Pedals a small tricycle. Throws a ball overhand. pounds. • Manipulates large buttons and zippers on clothing. uses vertical. males are approximately 53% of their adult height and females.300 J (1. Needs minimal assistance eating. Jumps on the spot. • Usually achieves complete bladder control during this time. horizontal and circular strokes. • Adult height can be predicted from measurements of height at three years of age. brushes own teeth. may jump from bottom step. 57%. and squeezes it. not in a fist as earlier. Motor development • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Walks up and down stairs unassisted. • "Baby fat" disappears as neck appears. such as a cup of milk or bowl of water. • Posture is more erect. without much spilling. Can walk on one foot. Can kick big ball-shaped objects. aim and distance are limited. Catches a large bounced ball with both arms extended. Can turn pages of a book one at a time Enjoys building with blocks. Enjoys playing with clay. Carries a container of liquid. • Legs grow faster than arms. landing on both feet. Enjoys swinging on a swing (not too high or too fast). balance momentarily.500 calories) daily. but not thoroughly. Shows improved control of crayons or markers. • Needs to consume approximately 6. Holds crayon or marker between first two fingers and thumb (tripod grasp). head size is in better proportion to the body. rolls. 103 . • Washes and dries hands. Builds a tower of eight or more blocks. abdomen no longer protrudes. pours liquid from pitcher into another container. • Circumference of head and chest is equal. May begin to show hand dominance. • can jump from low step • can stand up and walk around on tiptoes • "baby" teeth stage over. • Slightly knock-kneed.

" Climbs ladders. • Requires approximately 1. starts. • Hearing acuity can be assessed by child's correct usage of sounds and *Language also. distance and aim improving. Paints and draws with purpose. and moves around obstacles with ease." • Answers "What are you doing?". Forms shapes and objects out of clay: cookies. and "Where?" questions dealing with familiar objects and events. especially those that relate to home and family events. Four year old Physical Development • Head circumference is usually not measured after age three. "What is this?". uses "-s" to indicate more than one. snakes. Builds a tower with ten or more blocks. trees." Speech is understandable most of the time. Motor Development • • • • • • • • • • • • Walks a straight line (tape or chalk line on the floor).700 calories daily. Runs. simple animals. • Threads small wooden beads on a string. brown dog. mices. but often has problems implementing it so calls the creation something else. may have an idea in mind. lands with both feet together. • Can run in a circle 104 . often puts "-s" on already pluralized forms: geeses. avoids obstacles and oncoming "traffic. playground equipment. and "suspense. Pedals and steers a wheeled toy with confidence. Produces expanded noun phrases: "big. by the child's appropriate responses to questions and instructions. Reproduces some shapes and letters. Likes to look at books and may pretend to "read" to others or explain pictures. Enjoys stories with riddles. guessing." Produces verbs with "ing" endings. Throws a ball overhand.Child development stages Cognitive development • • • • • • • Listens attentively to age-appropriate stories. stops. Hops on one foot. Holds a crayon or marker using a tripod grasp. Makes relevant comments during stories. turns corners. • Becomes more accurate at hitting nails and pegs with hammer. • Indicates negatives by inserting "no" or "not" before a simple noun or verb phrase: "Not baby. Jumps over objects 12 to 15 cm (5 to 6 in) high.

"Did the baby drink all of his milk?" • States first and last name. may throw tantrum over minor frustrations (a block structure that will not balance)." "baby's." • Rote counts to 20 or more. laughing one minute. • Imaginary playmates or companions are common. can recognize and identify missing puzzle parts (of person. • Counts 1 to 7 objects out loud. cold. • Likes stories about how things grow and how things operate. • Cooperates with others." • When looking at pictures. • Moods change rapidly and unpredictably." "in. "Why?". we get dressed. and "bends" the truth with made-up stories or claims of boldness. holds conversations and shares strong emotions with this invisible friend. gender. Social development • Outgoing. overly enthusiastic at times. • Delights in wordplay. "Milk gone?" To Mother." "biggest. car. or hungry. • Very good storytellers. creating silly Language. Begins to correctly use the past tense of verbs: "Mommy closed the door.Child development stages Cognitive • Can recognize that certain words sound similar • Names eighteen to twenty uppercase letters." and "under. "Who?". and go to school. • Answers appropriately when asked what to do if tired. • Often appears selfish. selects the picture that has the "most houses" or the "biggest dogs. 105 . Changes tone of voice and sentence structure to adapt to listener's level of under-standing: To baby brother. • Insists on trying to do things independently. objects. seeks frequent adult approval. but not always in order • follows two to three step directions given individually or in a group • may put the "ed" on the end of words such as "I goed outside and I played. Recites and sings simple songs and rhymes. brush our teeth. • Boasts. and "How many?" Produces elaborate sentence structures: "The cat ran under the house before I could see what color it was. sulk over being left out. such as alphabet books with only a few words per page and many pictures. tattles on other children. animal). friendly." Language • • • • • • • • Uses the prepositions "on. crying the next. • Understands the concepts of "tallest. tests the limits with "bathroom" talk. • Understands the sequence of daily events: "When we get up in the morning. siblings' names. • A few children are beginning to read simple books. • Enjoys role-playing and make-believe activities. and people that are not present." Refers to activities. • Shows pride in accomplishments. but may get so frustrated as to verge on tantrums when problems arise: paint that drips. events. and sometimes own telephone number." Speech is almost entirely intelligible. Writes several letters and sometimes their name. paper airplane that will not fold right. participates in group activities." Uses possessives consistently: "hers." "theirs." and "more"." "same. have breakfast. exaggerates." Answers "Whose?". not always able to take turns or to understand taking turns under some conditions." "Daddy went to work.

Requires approximately 7. O. last. Walks a balance beam. and early: "I got up early. Five year old Physical • • • • • Head size is approximately that of an adult's. Recognizes numerals from 1 to 10. A. beginning to have "best" friends. may begin to color within the lines. may yell angrily rather than hit to make a point." 106 . alternating feet." • Relates clock time to daily schedule: "Time to turn on TV when the little hand points to 5. C. triangle. Builds steps with set of small blocks. Demonstrates fair control of pencil or marker.500 J (1. light. same size. second. Sorts a variety of objects so that all things in the group have a single common feature (classification skill: all are food items or boats or animals).Child development stages • Relies (most of the time) on verbal rather than Physical aggression. some children learning to ride bicycles. Catches a ball thrown from 1 m (3. May begin to lose "baby" (deciduous) teeth. Motor development • Walks backwards. Jumps or hops forward ten times in a row without falling. Body is adult-like in proportion. usually with training wheels. Cognitive • • • • • • • • • • Forms rectangle from two triangular cuts. Learns to skip using alternative feet. H. Rides a tricycle or wheeled toy with speed and skillful steering.3 ft) away. Hand dominance is fairly well established. such as color and form. places objects in order from shortest to tallest. Builds three-dimensional structures with small cubes by copying from a picture or model. • Walks unassisted up and down stairs. T. Cuts on the line with scissors (not perfectly). Identifies objects with specified serial position: first. Rote counts to 20 and above.800 calories) daily Visual tracking and binocular vision are well developed. toe to heel. Understands the concepts of smallest and shortest. U. • Establishes close relationships with playmates. L. many children count to 100. before anyone else. Understands concept of same shape. I. threatens: "You can't come to my birthday party" • Name-calling and taunting are often used as ways of excluding other children. It was still dark. smallest to largest. Understands the concepts of less than: "Which bowl has less water?" • Understands the terms dark. • • • • • • • • • • • • • May learn to turn somersaults (should be taught the right way in order to avoid injury). Can touch toes without flexing knees. Reproduces many shapes and letters: square. Sorts objects on the basis of two dimensions. Balances on either foot with good control for ten seconds.

Identifies and names four to eight colours. The most common vision problem during middle childhood is myopia. Likes entertaining people and making them laugh. much longer sentences are not unusual. Has better self-control over swings of emotions. calls person to phone or takes a brief message • • • • Speech is almost entirely grammatically correct.700 calories) a day. beginning to count and save money. Produces sentences with five to seven words. is generous. Uses past tense of irregular verbs consistently: "went. birthday. Defines simple words by function: a ball is to bounce." "rained." Uses past-tense inflection (-ed) appropriately to mark regular verbs: "jumped. Plays cooperatively (can lapse). if below 20/40 should see a professional. Many children know the alphabet and names of upper. Uses "would" and "could" appropriately. Uses 6. shares toys. Baby teeth beginning to be replaced by permanent ones. starting with the two lower front teeth 20/20 eyesight. Body may appear lanky as through period of rapid growth. Recognizes and identifies coins. makes up jokes and riddles. and parents' names. can say how many pieces an object has when it's been cut in half.Child development stages • • • • • • • Some children can tell time on the hour: five o'clock. Asks innumerable questions: Why? What? Where? When? Eager to learn new things. 2007). States the name of own city or town. takes turns.and lowercase letters. a bed is to sleep in.600 to 1. or nearsightedness. Shows affection and caring towards others especially those “below” them or in pain Generally subservient to parent or caregiver requests. Answers telephone appropriately. Understands the concept of half. Needs comfort and reassurance from adults but is less open to comfort. 107 . Heart rate and respiratory rates are close to adults.700 J to 7. suggests imaginative and elaborate play ideas." "washed. Knows what a calendar is for. Six year old Physical • • • • • • • Weight gains reflect significant increases in muscle mass. (Berk." Social development • • • • • • • • • Enjoys and often has one or two focus friendships. Recognizes the humor in simple jokes." "caught.100 J (1.500 words plus." "swam. Tells a familiar story while looking at pictures in a book. Participates in group play and shared activities with other children. Boasts about accomplishments. Language development • • • • • • • • Vocabulary of 1. two o'clock.

• Able to trace objects. • Has trouble staying still. vocabulary of 10. reassurance. • functioning which facilitates learning to ride a bicycle. • Can Tie Laces. p/g. Uses appropriate verb tenses. often. puzzles and mazes • Enjoys the challenge of puzzles. jumping. • Span of attention increases. and sentence structure.000–14. • Understands time (today.000. • Can't handle things not going their own way • Does not understand ethical behavior or moral standards especially when doing things that have not been given rules 108 . climbing. g/q. Language • • • • • • • • • • Can identify right and left hands fairly consistently. Holds onto positive beliefs involving the unexplainable (magic or fantasy) Arrives at some understanding about death and dying. word order. and praise. the humor is far from subtle. needs and seeks adult approval. counting and sorting activities. attempts to sound out words • In some cases the child may be reading well. asks many questions. and throwing est. swim. • Reverses or confuse certain letters: b/d. paper-and-pencil mazes. swing a bat. string (like shoes). Able to carry on adult-like conversations. expresses fear that parents may die. • Has fun with problem solving and sorting activities like stacking. tomorrow. works at tasks for longer periods of time. though some clumsiness persists. or kick a ball. Enthusiastic and inquisitive about surroundings and everyday events. Loves telling jokes and riddles. yesterday) and simple motion (things go faster than others). and games that involve matching letters and words with pictures. may complain excessively about minor hurts to gain more attention. • Often can't view the world from another’s point of view • Self-perceived failure can make the child easily disappointed and frustrated. • Enjoys vigorous running. • Folds and cuts paper into simple shapes. • Recognizes seasons and major activities done in the times. Talks a lot. movements are more precise and deliberate." • Talks self through steps required in simple problem-solving situations (though the "logic" may be unclear to adults). • Recognizes some words by sight. Experiments with slang and profanity and finds it funny. • Has mood swings towards primary caregiver depending on the day • Friendship with parent is less depended on but still needs closeness and nurturing. though • Can concentrate effort but not always consistently. t/f. Social and emotional • Uses language rather than tantrums or physical aggression to express displeasure: "That's mine! Give it back. • Anxious to please. you dummy.Child development stages Motor development • Gains greater control over large and fine motor skills. Learns 5 to 10 words a day. • Making things is enjoyed.

NICHCY • YourChild: Developmental Milestones (http://www.html) – Information for parents on early childhood development and developmental disabilities • Developmental Milestones (http://www.). Social participation among preschool children.talkingpoint. 243–269.. Gowers. & Vandenberg.693–744).gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/index. gov/ ERICWebPortal/ custom/ portlets/ recordDetails/ detailmini.uk) – Information for parents and people that work with children. co. (1983). 4.nichcy. K. pp. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 27.. edu/ Education/ infant/ page3. Hetherington (Ed. External links • CDC's "Learn the Signs. ed. Play. Fein. personality. New York: Wiley. G. Royal College of Psychiatrists (2005) ISBN 1-904671-13-6 [2] http:/ / www.org. eric.aspx) National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Socialization. M. Segal. tsbvi. References [1] Seminars in child and adolescent psychiatry (second edition) Ed.umich. noises. Your Child At Play: Three to Five Years (http:/ / www.htm) University of Michigan Health System • Talking Point (http://www. M. Handbook of child psychology: Vol. Act Early. gpnotebook. and animals. G. 292.cdc. uk/ simplepage. ISBN 1-55704-337-X. values are based on others enforced values.. cfm?ID=-919273423 [3] http:/ / www. pp. New York: Newmarket Press. • May be increasingly fearful of the unknown like things in the dark. Simon G. (1932). H.edu/yourchild/topics/devmile. [5] Ruben. including milestones for speech and language development in children 109 . Marilyn (1998).med.Child development stages • Understands when he or she has been thought to be "bad".” campaign (http://www. jsp?_nfpb=true& _& ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED425832& ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no& accno=ED425832). In E. and social development (4th ed.org/Disabilities/Milestones/Pages/Default. B. htm [4] Parten.

Although many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behavior throughout history. the modern discipline of ethology is generally considered to have begun during the 1930s with the work of Dutch biologist Nikolaas Tinbergen and Austrian biologists Konrad Lorenz and Karl von Frisch. is construed as a sub-topic of psychology rather than as one of biology. sometimes. with a strong relation to certain other disciplines such as neuroanatomy. and phylogenetic history. Ethologists are typically interested in a behavioral process rather than in a particular animal group. "the study of") is the scientific study of animal behavior. on the basis of associationistic psychology. have been reexamined. In addition.[1] Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science. ethology researches animal behaviour in the context of what is known about animal anatomy. Ethologists have made much more use of a truly comparative method than comparative psychologists have. whereas early ethologists concentrated on behaviour in natural situations. Furthermore. but they do result in different perspectives and. but. and often study one type of behavior (e. Ethologists were more interested in understanding behaviour in a wide range of species to facilitate principled comparisons across taxonomic groups.[3] An earlier. New fields have developed. A practical difference is that early comparative psychologists concentrated on gaining extensive knowledge of the behaviour of very few species. and new conclusions reached. Despite the historical divergence. meaning character. Other words that derive from ethos" include ethics[2] and ethical.g. "character". for most of the twentieth century. It is a strong belief among scientists that the mechanisms on which behavioural processes are based are the same that cause the evolution of the living species: there is therefore a strong association between these two fields. at least in North America. and even sexual conduct that experts long thought they understood. learning. The desire to understand animals has made ethology a rapidly growing field. The term was first popularized by American myrmecologist William Morton Wheeler in 1902. Relationship with comparative psychology Comparative psychology also studies animal behaviour. "ethology. conflicts of opinion about matters of substance. aggression) in a number of unrelated animals. and a sub-topic of zoology. comparative psychology developed most strongly in North America. and evolution.[4] He recommended the development of a new science. -logia. neurobiology. tending to describe it as instinctive." the purpose of which would be explanation of individual and national differences in character. Etymology The term ethology derives from the Greek word èthos (ήθος). and -λογία. slightly different sense of the term was proposed by John Stuart Mill in his 1843 System of Logic. as opposed to ethology.Ethology Ethology Ethology (from Greek: ἦθος. animal emotions. joint winners of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. This use of the word was never adopted. while ethology was stronger in Europe. ethos. ecology. animal culture. many aspects of animal communication. such as neuroethology. Historically. teach in psychology departments. where comparative psychology researches animal behaviour in the context of what is known about human psychology. The two approaches are complementary rather than competitive. Since the turn of the 21st century. early comparative psychologists concentrated on the study of learning and tended to research behaviour in artificial situations. physiology. most ethologists. 110 .

that did not gain scientific support. whose book. people believed animal species were eternal and immutable. The second statement is that every living organism. humans included. the first modern ethologist was Charles Darwin. ethologists have been concerned particularly with the evolution of behaviour and the understanding of behaviour in terms of the theory of natural selection. When Charles Darwin went to the Galapagos Islands. he was well aware of Lamarck's theories and was influenced by them. According to this theory. Other early ethologists. with complexity increasing progressively toward the top.Ethology 111 Scala naturae and Lamarck's theories Until the 19th century. tends to reach a greater level of perfection.[3] Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744 . In one sense. which subsequent researchers could check and supplement. in that they occur in all members of a species under specified circumstances. influenced many ethologists.1829) was the first biologist to describe a complex theory of evolution. He pursued his Charles Darwin (1809–1882) interest in behaviour by encouraging his protégé George Romanes. the most common theory among scientists was still the concept of scala naturae. anecdotal cognitivism. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. and second. proposed by Aristotle. His theory substantially comprised two statements: first. who investigated animal learning and intelligence using an anthropomorphic method. or natural. as this seemed the only possible explanation for the incredible variety of living beings and their surprising adaptation to their habitats. cumulative base of data about behaviour. created with a specific purpose. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) Theory of evolution by natural selection and the beginnings of ethology Because ethology is considered a topic of biology. living beings were classified on an ideal pyramid that represented the simplest animals on the lower levels. occupied by human beings. Their beginning for studying the behaviour of a new species was to construct an ethogram (a description of the main types of natural behaviour with their frequencies of occurrence).[3] This provided an objective. that those characteristics can transmit from one generation to the next (the example of the giraffe whose neck becomes longer while trying to reach the upper leaves of a tree is well-known). instead concentrated on behaviours that can be called instinctive. . such as Oskar Heinroth and Julian Huxley. that animal organs and behaviour can change according to the way they are used. In the Western world of the time.

Like similar waterfowl. Such objects. If the egg is taken away. the goose rolls a displaced egg near its nest back to the others with its beak. and social instincts. such as a giant plaster egg. the animal continues with the behaviour. Harvard psychologist Deirdre Barrett has done research pointing out how easily humans also respond to supernormal stimuli for sexual. Such schemes are only acted when a precise stimulating signal is present.[8] However. or dummy fish that a territorial male stickleback fish fought more violently than a real invading male if the dummy had a brighter-colored underside. and they were able to prove how important forms of animal communication could be mediated by a few simple FAPs.[10] However. it also attempts to move other egg-shaped objects. reducing the probability of survival and reproduction. When such signals act as communication among members of the same species. An important and much quoted study of the Anatidae (ducks and geese) by Heinroth used this technique. The most sophisticated investigation of this kind was the study by Karl von Frisch of the so-called "dance language" related to bee communication. Oskar Heinroth. as does the ability to change the individual's responses based on its experience. 112 . door knob.[6] For ethologists. so that the goose ignores its own displaced egg in favor of the giant dummy egg. A notable example of a releaser is the beak movements in Kelp Gull chicks peck at red spot on mother's many bird species performed by the newborns. feeding. associated with the name of Konrad Lorenz though probably due more to his teacher. mother's regurgitating process to feed her offspring.Ethology Fixed action patterns and animal communication An important development. These exaggerated releasers for instincts were named supernormal stimuli by Tinbergen. The sight of the displaced egg triggers this mechanism. Ethologists noted that the stimuli that released FAPs were commonly features of the appearance or behaviour of other members of the animal's own species. a behaviour only made of fixed action patterns would be particularly rigid and inefficient.[5] Lorenz developed an interesting theory of the evolution of animal communication based on his observations of the nature of fixed action patterns and the circumstances in which animals emit them. Lorenz popularized FAPs as instinctive responses that would occur reliably in the presence of identifiable stimuli (called sign stimuli or releasing stimuli). the more its behaviour is "intelligent" (in the sense of being guided by experience rather than stereotyped FAPs). or even a volleyball back into the nest. so the learning process has great importance. instinct means a series of predictable behaviors for fixed action patterns. can elicit a stronger version of the behavior than the natural object. These FAPs could then be compared across species. Instinct The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines instinct as a largely inheritable and unalterable tendency of an organism to make a complex and specific response to environmental stimuli without involving reason.[7] Another well-known case is the classic experiments by Tinbergen on the Graylag Goose. and the similarities and differences between behaviour could be easily compared with the similarities and differences in morphology. when they exaggerate the releasers found in natural objects.[9] Tinbergen found he could produce supernormal stimuli for most instincts in animals—such as cardboard butterflies that male butterflies preferred to mate with if they had darker stripes than a real female. nurturing. pulling its head back as if an imaginary egg is still being maneuvered by the underside of its beak. It can be said that the more the brain is complex and the life of the individual long. which stimulates the beak to stimulate regurgitating reflex. was the identification of fixed action patterns (FAPs). they are known as releasers.

This kind of learning is called imprinting. based on the experience.[12] An example of associative behaviour is observed when a common goldfish goes close to the water surface whenever a human is going to feed it. The first studies of associative learning were made by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. The macaques lived in the inland forest until the 1960s.[14] About one year later. putting it into the water with one hand. Japan. Her behaviour was soon imitated by the individuals living in contact with her.[11] This process consists of ignoring persistent or useless stimuli. when a group of researchers started giving them potatoes on the beach: soon. linked to another one that may not have anything to do with the first one. this important type of learning only takes place in a very limited period of time. when they gave birth.Ethology 113 Learning Learning occurs in many ways.[16] . Lorenz observed that the young of birds such as geese and chickens followed their mothers spontaneously from almost the first day after they were hatched. A well-documented example of imitative learning occurred in a group of macaques on Hachijojima Island. where a stimulus is. the other squirrels ignore the signal. they started venturing onto the beach. they taught this practice to their young. However. and he discovered that this response could be imitated by an arbitrary stimulus if the eggs were incubated artificially and the stimulus were presented during a critical period that continued for a few days after hatching. picking the potatoes from the sand. Example of imprinting in a moose Imitation Imitation is often an important type of learning. However.[13] and was a second important finding of Lorenz. and cleaning and eating them. The monkeys not only spent more time with their imitators but also preferred to engage in a simple task with them even when provided with the option of performing the same task with a non-imitator. an individual was observed bringing a potato to the sea. Another common way of learning is by association.[15] The National Institutes of Health reported that capuchin monkeys preferred the company of researchers who imitated them to that of researchers who did not. if the signal comes from an individual that has caused many false alarms. An example of learning by habituation is the one observed in squirrels: When one of them feels threatened. one of the most elementary being habituation. Imprinting Being able to discriminate the members of one's own species is also of fundamental importance for reproductive success. Such discrimination can be based on a number of factors. the others hear its signal and go to the nearest refuge. or the excitement of a dog whenever it sees a collar as a prelude for a walk. and cleaning it with the other.

as opposed to lower level chickens. could be explained through an evolving mechanism that emphasizes the reproductive success of as many individuals as possible. Social life is probably a complex and effective survival strategy. there exist complex mating rituals.Ethology 114 Mating and the fight for supremacy Individual reproduction is the most important phase in the proliferation of individuals or genes within a species: for this reason. . as is cooperative behaviour. fully predicted by it. one chicken dominates the others and can peck without being pecked. A second chicken can peck all the others except the first. Every time a group of poultry cohabitate for a certain time length. animals fight for the right to reproduce.[17] Of course. Living in groups Several animal species. These behaviours may be examples of altruism. frequent and violent fights can happen. Higher level chickens are easily distinguished by their well-cured aspect. such as how the birth of sterile castes. For example. However. It is more difficult to understand the mechanism through which altruistic behaviour initially developed. In these groups. Often in social life. Group size is a major aspect of their social environment. in which case the pecking order re-establishes from scratch. as well as social supremacy. not all behaviours are altruistic. tend to live in groups. some apparently unanswerable questions arose. but once established. A common example of fighting for social and sexual supremacy is the so-called pecking order among poultry. on the contrary. other species have been reported to be vengeful. While the pecking order is establishing. it is broken only when other individuals enter the group. as indicated by the table below.[19] Classification of social behaviours Type of behaviour Effect on the donor Effect on the receiver Egoistic Increases fitness Decreases fitness Cooperative Increases fitness Increases fitness Altruistic Decreases fitness Increases fitness Revengeful Decreases fitness Decreases fitness The existence of egoism through natural selection does not pose any question to evolution theory and is. role assignments and reciprocal dependence. revengeful behaviour was at one point claimed to have been observed exclusively in Homo sapiens. including humans. When biologists interested in evolution theory first started examining social behaviour. and so on. like in bees. It may be regarded as a sort of symbiosis among individuals of the same species: a society is composed of a group of individuals belonging to the same species living within well-defined rules on food management. or why. which can be very complex even if they are often regarded as fixed action patterns (FAPs). an individual would risk its own life to save the rest of the group. they establish a pecking order. amongst animals living in small groups like squirrels. The Stickleback's complex mating ritual was studied by Niko Tinbergen and is regarded as a notable example of a FAP. including reports of vengeful camels[18] and chimpanzees.

[23] Today. peacemaking.[22] Ethology is now a well-recognised scientific discipline. and develop early within an organism's lifespan (development). Robert Hinde. anthropologists. located in the village of Madingley. reconciliation. and how might it have begun through the process of phylogeny? These explanations are complementary rather than mutually exclusive—all instances of behaviour require an explanation at each of these four levels. primatologists. Some research has begun to study atypical or disordered animal behavior. and what early experiences are necessary for the animal to display the behaviour? • Evolutionary history — How does the behaviour compare with similar behaviour in related species. Tinbergen moved to the University of Oxford. the study of animal social groups.Ethology Tinbergen's four questions for ethologists Lorenz's collaborator. Hunger and eating are evolutionarily ancient and are found in many species (evolutionary history). to argue that people eat because they're hungry and not to acquire nutrients—without realizing that the reason people experience hunger is because it causes them to acquire nutrients. Lorenz. and has a number of journals covering developments in the subject. and von Frisch were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973 for their work of developing ethology. and physicians study ethology and other related fields such as animal psychology. war. and animal cognition. and how has it been modified by recent learning? • Development — How does the behaviour change with age.[3] After the war.[20] Growth of the field Due to the work of Lorenz and Tinbergen. veterinarians. Most researchers in the field have some sort of advanced degree and specialty and subspecialty training in the aforementioned fields. In 1972. many biologists. in a paper published in the journal Behaviour. conflict resolution. In 2008. and Patrick Bateson at the Sub-department of Animal Behaviour of the University of Cambridge. ethology developed strongly in continental Europe during the years prior to World War II. the International Society for Human Ethology was founded to promote exchange of knowledge and opinions concerning human behavior gained by applying ethological principles and methods and published their journal. zoologists. The Human Ethology Bulletin. For example. 115 . and ethology became stronger in the UK. ethologist Peter Verbeek introduced the term "Peace Ethology" as a sub-discipline of Human Ethology that is concerned with issues of human conflict.[21] In this period. Tinbergen. argued that ethology always needed to include four kinds of explanation in any instance of behaviour: • Function — How does the behaviour affect the animal's chances of survival and reproduction? Why does the animal respond that way instead of some other way? • Causation — What are the stimuli that elicit the response. but the immediate cause of eating is hunger (causation). too. such as the Ethology Journal. the function of eating is to acquire nutrients (which ultimately aids survival and reproduction). ethology began to develop strongly in North America. and peacekeeping behavior. with the additional influence of William Thorpe. Niko Tinbergen. along with actual ethologists. It is easy to confuse such questions—for example.

Random House of Canada.[24] The book and study investigated animal behaviour and then compared human behaviour to it as a similar phenomenon. Crook published an important paper in which he distinguished comparative ethology from social ethology.MQUP. and William Hamilton. (2009). Also in 1970. and Humankind. . 105. and behavioural ecology. so the modern scientific study of behaviour offers a more or less seamless spectrum of approaches: from animal cognition to more traditional comparative psychology. It has also been driven by the stronger. Sebeok • Richard Dawkins • Julian Huxley • B. Robert Ardrey's book The Social Contract: A Personal Inquiry into the Evolutionary Sources of Order and Disorder was published. Julian (2007). Leif (2008). Fry • Aubrey Manning • William Morton Wheeler • Jane Goodall • Eugene Marais • E. html) for 1973 Medicine Award to Tinbergen. O. [5] Buchmann. but more sophisticated. Janice R. Jones & Bartlett Learning. ethology. ISBN 9780763717865. [6] Hallberg. Wilson • James L. a substantial rapprochement with comparative psychology has occurred. [4] Bourg. the study of behaviour has been much more concerned with social aspects. Community health nursing: caring for the public's health. Letters from the Hive: An Intimate History of Bees. [3] Matthews. ISBN 9780773531994. ISBN 9789048123889. and von Frisch for contributions in ethology [2] Janes. ISBN 9780595479085. ethologists would need to concentrate on the behaviour of social groups of animals and the social structure within them. Sharyn. Springer. 113. Furthermore. 155. List of ethologists People who have made notable contributions to ethology (many are comparative psychologists): • Robert Ardrey • Judith Hand • Desmond Morris • John C Angel • Clarence Ellis Harbison • Martin Moynihan • Adrian Simpson • Heini Hediger • Caitlin O'Connell-Rodwell • Patrick Bateson • Oskar Heinroth • Manny Puig • John Bowlby • Robert Hinde • Irene Pepperberg • Donald Broom • Bernard Hollander • George Romanes • Marian Stamp Dawkins • Sarah Hrdy • Thomas A. F. Sociobiology has more recently developed into evolutionary psychology. Karen Saucier Lundy (2009). Wilson's book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis appeared in 1975. Lorenz. sociobiology. O. 13. p. Skinner • Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt • Lynne Isbell • Barbara Smuts • John Endler • Julian Jaynes • William Homan Thorpe • Jean-Henri Fabre • Erich Klinghammer • Niko Tinbergen • Dian Fossey • John Krebs • Jakob von Uexküll • Karl von Frisch • Konrad Lorenz • Frans de Waal • Douglas P. Honey. Insect Behaviour. p. p.Ethology 116 Social ethology and recent developments In 1970. From revolution to ethics: May 1968 and contemporary French thought. Gould • Patricia McConnell • Amotz Zahavi [26] [25] References [1] Nobel Prize page (http:/ / nobelprize. Walking the Way of the Horse: Exploring the Power of the Horse-Human Relationship. 251. the English ethologist John H. and since that time. ISBN 9780553382662. org/ nobel_prizes/ medicine/ laureates/ 1973/ index. p. Robert Trivers. Stephen (2006). E. iUniverse. and argued that much of the ethology that had existed so far was really comparative ethology—examining animals as individuals—whereas. The related development of behavioural ecology has also helped transform ethology. p. McGill-Queen's Press . in the future. Darwinism associated with Wilson.

p. Robert Andrew Wilson (2001). ISBN 9781855758094. Retrieved 2011-11-08.kli.uibk.htm) Applied Ethology (http://www. (2008) "Peace Ethology.edu/~nesse/fourquestions. [12] Hudmon.org. Collins [9] Tinbergen.edu/21_6/ NEL21062000X001_Klein_. p. . ISBN 9780275982171. ISBN 9780521407090. 2009-08-13.google. Nih. [11] Keil. Infobase Publishing.pdf). 170. blueplanetbiomes. Z.php/) • Center for Avian Cognition (http://digitalcommons.unl. html Further reading • Klein.google. [19] "Beyond Revenge" (http:/ / books. Karnac Books. [21] Bateson.ac. . Norton. com/ books?id=eJFlGdPEBfYC& printsec=frontcover#PPA338. google. Books. ISBN 9780791086384. Cambridge University Press. and emotional development. Peter. (2000). Yearbook of science and the future. [15] "Japanese Macaque . .Ethology [7] Bernstein. 184. 19. gov/ news/ health/ aug2009/ nichd-13.umich.edu/~animal/) Introduction to ethology (http://cas.com. p.ac. ISBN 9780521423670.at/) Center for the Integrative Study of Animal behaviour (http://www. Neuroendocrinology Letters (21): 477–481. ISBN 9780674000896. com/ books?id=daomTGYZuW4C& printsec=frontcover#PPA79. NY NY: W. [13] Mercer. Jean (2006). p. W M (2011). Cambridge University Press.National Institutes of Health (NIH)" (http:/ / www. edu/ becCaitlin/ [26] http:/ / www. Niko 1953 The Herring Gull's World .edu/tietjen/Ethology/introduction_to_ethology. Mice Giggle: Revealing the Secret Lives of Animals. [20] Barrett et al. Harvard University Press. Andrew (2005). p.M1). [23] Verbeek. The Social Contract: A Personal Inquiry into the Evolutionary Sources of Order and Disorder.indiana. . com/ s?url=search-alias=stripbooks& field-keywords=supernormal+ stimuli& sprefix=supernorm). 10 October 2009.behav. 81. Supernormal Stimuli: How Primal Urges Overran Their Evolutionary Purpose. MIT Press. Books. Retrieved 2011-11-08. The MIT encyclopedia of the cognitive sciences. • Karen Shanor and Jagmeet Kanwal: Bats Sing. htm). Sociobiology: the new synthesis. [18] "The Ape and the Sushi Master" (http:/ / books.ac. p.W.M1). . August 13. (2000).edu/biosciaviancog/) University of Nebraska (Alan Kamil. [16] "Imitation Promotes Social Bonding in Primates. New York.. Atheneum. Alan Bond) Diagrams on Tinbergen's four questions • The Four Areas of Biology (http://www-personal. [22] Encyclopaedia Britannica (1975). Blueplanetbiomes. [25] http:/ / www. ucla. [14] Wilson. nih. Altruism and aggression: biological and social origins. anthro. "The ethological approach to the study of human behavior" (http://www.usask. 1497-1524 [24] Ardrey. (2002) Human Evolutionary Psychology. Mark. The Development and integration of behaviour: essays in honour of Robert Hinde. External links • • • • • Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognitive Research (http://www. 2009 News Release . [17] Cummings. p. child care.gov.Macaca fuscata" (http:/ / www. org/ japanese_macaque.at/ishe/) — aims at promoting ethological perspectives in the scientific study of humans worldwide • Abstracts of the XXIX Ethological Conference (http://www.nel. Understanding attachment: parenting.London. htm).com. Retrieved 2011-11-08. Paul Patrick Gordon (1991). 2010" (http:/ / www. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2011-11-08.at/~c720126/humanethologie/ ws/medicus/block1/4BQ_E. Deirdre. 7. [8] Tinbergen. edu/ lynneisbell/ index. anthro. Robert (1970). 35. N. Amazon. Learning and memory. p. 479. amazon. [10] "Barrett. Edward O.pdf) 117 . ucdavis. Retrieved 2011-11-08.com. ISBN 9780262731447.univie." Behaviour 145. Greenwood Publishing Group. 248.ca/wcvm/herdmed/applied-ethology/) The International Society for Human Ethology (http://evolution. 'Accessible to the lay reader and acceptable to the scientific community' (The Daily Telegraph). Princeton University Press.org/IEC/default. A Basic Theory of Neuropsychoanalysis. Icon (2009). Carolyn Zahn-Waxler and Ronald Iannotti (1991). Frank C. google. (1951) The Study of Instinct.anthro.bellarmine.pdf) • The Four Areas of Biology AND levels of inquiry (http://homepage.

the prospective adoptive parents are responsible to cover the cost. but are ruled out due to various issues. adoption. their understanding of the relationship between adoptive parents and children. and an examination of the home. com/ books?id=p7ReHKEYbiMC& pg=PA20& vq=%22home+ study%22& dq=%22home+ study%22adoption& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html& source=gbs_search_s& cad=0 [5] http:/ / books. Therefore. In most cases. com/ [3] http:/ / books. a home study is required by law. and to rule out those who are not fit to be parents. a credit check. different information may be sought during a home study. Factors that may be taken into account include the cleanliness and condition of the home. employment history. google. In some places. not the parents.[1] [2] Even where it is not legally mandated. family background. and in all international adoptions. or who feel that there may be discrimination against certain people who are perfectly capable of parenting.Adoption home study Adoption home study A home study or homestudy is a screening of the home and life of prospective adoptive parents prior to allowing an adoption to take place. Depending on the location and agency. which is usually several hundred to several thousand US dollars. sanitation.[3] The ultimate purpose of a home study is for the benefit of the child. as its name implies. com/ books?id=PGuRz2i5y1sC& pg=PA144& dq=%22home+ study%22adoption& lr=& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html [2] http:/ / home-study. examines the dwelling of the prospective parents. google. References [1] http:/ / books. A home study can be used both to aid the prospective parents in preparing to raise an adoptive child.[5] [6] A home study. medical records. Criticism of home studies Home studies are criticized by many who feel they are intrusive. google. and the well-being of the neighborhood where the home is located. htm 118 . google. Factors pertaining to the people may include their desire to adopt. screeners are instructed to be thorough in their examinations. and their willingness to share with an adopted child the fact that they are adopted. com/ books?id=uJnRIt_XsjsC& pg=PA54& dq=%22home+ study%22adoption& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html [4] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=rIA0BAyVLTgC& pg=PA20& vq=%22home+ study%22& dq=%22home+ study%22adoption& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html& source=gbs_search_s& cad=0 [6] http:/ / adoption. about. it may be required by an adoption agency. a criminal background check of the prospective parents. fire safety. com/ od/ adopting/ a/ homestudy. Information The types of information that may be sought from a home study include the determination if there is abuse in the past.[4] There is typically a cost to a home study.

abuse and exploitation. department of child and family services. to protection from harmful influences."[4] Provincial or state governments child protection legislation which empowers the government department or agency to provide services in the area and to intervene into families where child abuse or other problems are suspected. adoption services. children's aid. department of children's services. 8. in an atmosphere of happiness. though the application of the laws varies across the country. for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality. services aimed at supporting at-risk families so they can remain intact.3 children per 1000 were victims of child abuse and neglect and 10. and to participate fully in family. should grow up in a family environment. e. In 2007.” 119 .Child protection Child protection Child protection is used to describe a set of usually government-run services designed to protect children and young people who are underage and to encourage family stability.760 children died as the result of child abuse and neglect. The agency that manages these services has various names in different provinces and states. There is some consistency in the nature of laws. adding a section specifically to children in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “Recognizing that the child.[3] History The concept of a state sanctioned child welfare system dates back to Plato's Republic. Most children who come to the attention of the child welfare system do so because of any of the following situations..[2] In 2008.2 children per 1000 were in out of home placement.000 children were determined to have been abused or neglected and an estimated 1. To prevent an uprising from dispossessed parents: "We shall have to invent some ingenious kind of lots which the less worthy may draw on each occasion of our bringing them together. 1.g.5 million children were involved in investigations of alleged abuse or neglect in the US. The United Nations has addressed child abuse as a human rights issue. which are often collectively termed child abuse: • Child sexual abuse • Neglect including the failure to take adequate measures to safeguard a child from harm and/or gross negligence in providing for a child's basic needs: • Physical abuse • Psychological abuse The United States government's Administration for Children and Families reported that in 2004 approximately 3. while an estimated 872. to develop to the fullest. cultural and social life. These typically include foster care. Plato theorised that the interests of the child could be served by removing children from the care of their parents and placing them into state custody. and investigation of alleged child abuse.490 children died that year because of abuse or neglect. and then they will accuse their own ill-luck and not the rulers. love and understanding… should be afforded the right to survival.[1] Child abuse impacts the most vulnerable populations with children under age five years accounting for 76% of fatalities.

”[9] At this same time. Domestic Violence and Adoption and Family Services Act [16] .Child protection U. Kempe[10] began to further research this issue.[7] In addition to family preservation services.[7] In 1973. color or national origin of the child or the adoptive parent. but to have a back-up plan so as not to delay permanency for children (Michell. eventually coining the term “battered child syndrome. The 1994 Multi Ethnic Placement Act. et al. also attempted to promote permanency through adoption. there were also changing views about the role of the child in society.[6] [7] In 1874.[9] In 1961. creating regulations that adoptions could not be delayed or denied due to issues of race. fueled in part by the civil rights movement. which required states “to prevent. 2005). which provided funding for intervention for “neglected and dependent children in danger of becoming delinquent. in 1978.[17] This law requires counties to provide “reasonable efforts” (treatment) to preserve or reunify families.[13] In 1980.[15] 1988 Child Abuse and Prevention and Adoption and Family Services Act.”[6] By 1926.” [8] In the 1940s and 1950s. the first case of child abuse was criminally prosecuted in what has come to be known as the “case of Mary Ellen. the focus of federal child welfare policy changed to try to address permanence for the large numbers of foster children care.[13] This led to the introduction of the home visitation models.S.” Outrage over this case started an organized effort against child maltreatment [8] In 1909.[7] Although this legislation addressed some of the complaints from earlier pieces of legislation around ensuring due process for parents. which created a publicly funded volunteer organization to “establish and publicize standards of child care. but also shortened time lines required for permanence. but typically with the intention of helping these families work their farms. the children were placed in the first “foster” homes.” [8] Shortly thereafter.[7] [17] ASFA introduced the idea of “concurrent planning” which demonstrated attempts to reunify families as the first plan. much of which guides current practice.[12] This legislation not only opened the door for consideration of cultural issues while stressing ideas that children should be with their families. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act[11] was passed in 1974. leading to the beginnings of family preservation programs. the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) was passed. the Adoption Assistance Act[14] was introduced as a way to manage the high numbers of children in placement. History In 1853. 120 . Dr. leading to termination of parental rights should these efforts fail. the medical profession began to take notice of what they believed to be intentional injuries.[7] Issues of abuse and neglect were addressed in the Social Security Act in 1930. due to improved technology in diagnostic radiology. 18 states had some version of county child welfare boards whose purpose was to coordinate public and private child related work. which provided funding to private agencies to provide intensive family preservation services. This act was passed in response to concerns that large numbers of Native American Children were being separated from their tribes and placed in foster care. Changes in the Adoptions and Safe Families Act showed a interest in both protecting children’s safety and developing permanency. Rather than allow these children to become institutionalized or continue to live on the streets. President Roosevelt convened the White House Conference on Child Dependency. 1992 Child Abuse.[17] All of these policies led up to the 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act(ASFA). congress took the first steps toward enacting federal legislature to address the issue of child abuse. the Children's Aid Society[5] was founded in response to the problem of orphaned or abandoned children living in New York. identify and treat child abuse and neglect.[13] Several pieces of federal legislation attempted to ease the process of adoption including Adoption Assistance Act. which was revised in 1996 to add the Interethnic Placement Provisions. these changes did not alleviate the high numbers of children in placement or continuing delays in permanence.

The database was aimed at improving information sharing across agencies. a voluntary post. Social Workers. and also the capacity to initiate proceedings for the removal of children from their parents care/care proceedings. 121 .GIRFEC was established in Scotland in 2008.). Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006 (updated in 2010) and the subsequent 'The Protection of Children in England: A Progress Report' (Laming. Local Safeguarding Children Boards (LSCB's) are responsible ensuring agencies and professionals. Nevertheless. A similar programme . whether with parents. The role of Independent Visitor. under which information on children is shared between professionals. The basic legal principle in all public and private proceedings concerning children. LSCB's can initiate a 'Serious Case Review' aimed at identifying agency failings and improving future practice. Wales and Scotland. In England. This covers provision of advice and services. long-term foster parents or adopters. Care proceedings have a time frame of 40 weeks and concurrent planning is required. The statutory guidance Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006 created the role of Local Authority Designated Officer. Critics of the scheme claimed it was evidence of a 'big brother state' and too expensive to introduce. The criteria for the latter is 'significant harm' which covers physical.Getting it Right for Every Child . Youth Workers etc. including the formation of the Every Child Matters programme in 2003. sexual and emotional abuse and neglect. there never has been a statutory obligation to report alleged child abuse to the Police. has been halted by the newly elected coalition government (May 2010). Lack of information sharing had been identified as a failing in numerous high profile child death cases. In appropriate cases the Care Plan before the Court will be for adoption. family members.Church leaders. 'drift' and multiple placements still occur as many older children are difficult to place or maintain in placements. accommodation and care of children who become uncared for. In England the Murder of Victoria Climbié was largely responsible for various changes in child protection in England. This officer is responsible for managing allegations of abuse against adults who work with children (Teachers. However both the Children Act 1989 and 2004 makes clear a statutory obligation on all professionals to report suspected child abuse. The Local Authorities also run adoption services both for children put up for adoption voluntarily and those becoming available for adoption through Court proceedings. In recognition of attachment issues.effectivley safeguard and promote the welfare of children. social work good practice requires a minimal number of moves and the 1989 Children Act enshrines the principle that delay is inimical to a child's welfare. under the Children Act 1989. is that the welfare of the child is paramount. "LADO".[18] A child in suitable cases can be made a ward of court and no decisions about the child or changes in its life can be made without the leave of the High Court. In the event of the death or serious injury of a child.in their area.Child protection Worldwide United Kingdom The United Kingdom has a comprehensive child welfare system under which Local Authorities have duties and responsibilities towards children in need in their area. was created in the United Kingdom under the 1989 Children Act to befriend and assist children and young people in care. The planned ContactPoint database. 2009) continue to promote the sharing of data between those working with vulnerable children. The final Care Plan put forward by the Local Authority is required to provide a plan for permanence.

[19] The societies receive funding from. The family experiences fear. Although child welfare agencies are generally viewed positively. registers. including dissociative symptoms. Hereby. and are under the supervision of the Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services. [21] Effects of early maltreatment on children in child welfare Children with histories of maltreatment. an investigation begins. in the last two decades. The best outcome for the child occurs if the congruence between professional and family perspectives is high. Ideology associated with child protection involve distinct discourses.[30] Criticism Despite the benefits of the services of the CPS.[24] [25] [26] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems.[28] [29] Ideology of Child Protection When a case of child abuse is reported.[22] [23] Such children are at risk of developing a disorganized attachment. Bureaucratic procedures engage all the steps which an organization like Child Protection Service has undertake. Humanistic discourse encompasses sympathy or feelings of pity that the Child Protection worker might have towards people who are responsible for the situation in which the victim is in. The CPS has been accused of prejudging parents before proper investigations were done. they are regarded as a Non-governmental organization (NGO) which allows the CAS a large degree of autonomy from interference or direction in the day to day running of CAS by the Ministry. when there is clear evidence of danger to the physical health & safety of the child. The penal discourse implies the legal actions that follow the act of depravity or abuse punishing the offender.[20] However. These ideological discourses are blame. Gates was uncooperative and his uncooperativeness with us put the children at risk. CPS continues to classify the Gates as child abusers. the CPS has come under intense private and public scrutiny as an institution than can and has caused great harm in the name of protection. etc. medical. quote.g. and acting-out symptoms. The Child and Family Services Review Board exists to investigate complaints against CAS and maintains authority to act against the societies. services are provided by independent Children's Aid Societies. and pathology. humanistic. penal. whereas the professional has to stick to procedures to avoid blame in case something goes wrong.Child protection Canada In Ontario. the purpose is to avoid criticism. The purpose is to treat and cure the parent. anxiety. are at risk of developing psychiatric problems. with the aid of medical expertise and technology. responsible in case something bad happens to the child. bureaucratic. such as physical and psychological neglect. case conferences." Even though the court ordered the children to be returned. This can result in significantly different responses from the affected family and the child protection service workers. The school called the local CPS and requested the Child Protective Services forcibly remove all thirteen of the Gates children and take them to foster homes under a court order which allowed an Emergency Removal. reviews. Here. 122 . and the need to cope with the situation. The local CPS gave the explanation that they felt. like the parent or social worker. A notable recent case is the family of Gary and Melissa Gates in Texas. "Mr. The technocratic discourse involves risk assessment gadgets in order to solve the situation. The blame discourse involves people holding others.[27] as well as depressive. there has been an increase in the amount of cases where critics believe CPS have reacted out of their bounds. From the medical perspective. and sexual abuse. physical abuse. Some have accused the CPS of having too much immediate power leaving the parents feeling lost and aggravated. a mechanical classification and processing of the client is thought to be useful. the offender is viewed as an individual with a medical history. syndromes. the media might be used as a tool for moral crusades. anxiety. and technocratic. e. which are people’s communication practices at an intersubjective level. Here.

Compared to the general population. well-behaved children. The number of foster children in the state's care increased 24 percent to 32. At the core of the problem is the anti-family mindset of CPS. One wrote "I have never seen women and children treated this poorly. Children were taken from their family 7 months ago." Workers believed poor sanitary conditions at the shelter allowed respiratory infections and chicken pox to spread. with the assistance of heavily armed police with an armored personnel carrier. death. the largest child protection action in American history raised questions as the CPS in Texas removed hundreds of minor children. nor to meet with their parents for orthodox Christmas. "Child Protective Services is out of control. FBI started an investigation against the CPS. Texas Comptroller Carole Keeton Strayhorn made a statement in 2006 about the Texas foster care system.[36] CPS problem reports The Texas Department of Family and Protective Services. Removal is the first resort. and the entire mental health support was dismissed the second week due to being "too compassionate. [31] [32] [33] Brenda Scott. several former CPS workers retired from the service. rapes and pregnancies of children under its care since 2004. and that major reforms need to be put in place to assure that children in the conservatorship of the state get as much attention as those at risk in their homes. The state supreme court disagreed. They can meet only mother once a week. though others believe Ms. Trial is set for January 26. respectively 30. infants. CPS performance was questioned by workers from the Hill Country Community Mental Health-Mental Retardation Center. Texas 2008 Raid of YFZ Ranch In April 2008. had itself been an object of reports of unusual numbers of poisonings. while the number of deaths increased 60 percent. in her study of CPS concluded. If children are to be protected in their homes and in the system.474 in Fiscal 2005. Investigators.Child protection An ongoing case about Nastic family living in U. 123 . Furthermore. including supervisor Angie Voss convinced a judge that all of the children were at risk of child abuse because they were all being groomed for under-age marriage. professionalism and caring concern. not to mention their civil rights being disregarded in this manner" after assisting at the emergency shelter.[38] In Fiscal 2003. releasing most children back to their families.[35] However. and disregarding rights of mothers who appeared to be good parents of healthy. In 2004. has received an intervention from the Serbia government. Investigations would result in criminal charges against some men in the community. Children were taken away from their parents after their naked photos were found on the father's computer. 2004 and 2005. not the last. 63 were treated for rape that occurred while under state care including four-year old twin boys. 38 and 48 foster children died in the state's care.children are not permitted to speak Serbian. the system that was designed to protect children has become the greatest perpetrator of harm. due to increasing circumstances and practices carried out by the organization. should be scrapped. The system."[34] Further to that information. as with other states. With insufficient checks and balances. and women incorrectly believed to be children from the YFZ Ranch polygamist community. CPS threatened some MHMR workers with arrest. as it operates today. Psychologists from Serbia stated that few hours of conversation with children are enough to see whether they have been abused. radical new guidelines must be adopted. The Texas Family and Protective Services Crisis Management Team was created by executive order after the critical report Forgotten Children[37] of 2004. Such photos are common in Serbia culture.S. and 142 children gave birth. Strayhorn's report was not scientifically researched. Children have suffered psychological traumas due to their separation from parents. Others who were previously forbidden to discuss conditions working with CPS later produced unsigned written reports expressed anger at the CPS traumatizing the children. a child is four times more likely to die in the Texas foster care system. Gene Grounds of Victim Relief Ministries commended CPS workers in the Texas operation as exhibiting compassion. about 100 children were treated for poisoning from medications. parents claim that their ethnic and religious rights have been violated . Polygraph showed that father did not abuse children.

or property. viewLegis& id=2) [12] Limb. J. the United States 9th Circuit Court of Appeals found in ROGERS v. Journal of Public Child Welfare. childrensaidsociety. mdx. Differing rates of disproportionality are seen at key decision points including the reporting of abuse. Social Work. Disproportionality & Disparity in the Child Welfare System In the United States. ac. Casey Foundation: Balitmore. 05-16071[39] that a CPS social worker acting without due process and without exigency (emergency conditions) violated the 14th Amendment and Title 42 United State Code Section 1983.[45] Because of the overlap in these systems. G. No. L. [9] Antler. liberty. [8] Crosson-Tower. uk/ everychildmatters/ strategy/ deliveringservices1/ informationsharing/ informationsharing/ ) [19] "About Ontario's children's aid societies" (http:/ / www.org (http:/ / www. gov/ systemwide/ laws_policies/ federal/ index. B. T. & Leighninger." Title 42 United States Code Section 1983[40] states that citizens can sue a person that deprives them of their rights under the pretext of a regulation of a state. Berrick. 84(1).org (http:/ / www.[42] Additionally. Y. without due process of law. org/ ) [11] Childwelfare. Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services. and placement into foster care. Child and Family Services Review Board. What happened? An historical perspective of the deprofessionalization of child welfare practice with implications for policy and practice. htm#BK10 [21] "Complaints Against a Children's Aid Society" (http:/ / www. . & Chance.[44] The Juvenile Justice system has also been challenged by disproportionate negative contact of minority children. childwelfare. Biemer.gov (http:/ / www. 4th Ed. 1(1). E. enter the foster care system. once they enter foster care.gov (http:/ / www. (2006).ac... The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution says that a state may not make a law that abridges "abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States" and no state may "deprive any person of life. MD [18] DCSF. Ellett. substantiation of abuse. org/ about-us/ newsroom/ fact-sheets/ fatalities-due-to-child-abuse-neglect. 3-24. Retrieved 17 April 2011. D. ca/ htdocs/ English/ topics/ childrensaid/ childrensaidsocieties/ index. cfm?event=federalLegislation. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Preventchildabuseny. & Webb..Child protection Responsibility for misconduct In May 2007. (1978) Child Abuse: An emerging social priority. (2005). 58-61 [10] Kempe.org (http:/ / www. P. cfm?event=federalLegislation. cfm) [16] http:/ / www. White Plains. J. (2004).. gov/ pubs/ otherpubs/ majorfedlegis. aspx). childwelfare. J. Boston: Allyn& Bacon. org/ ) MDX. Child Welfare. R. 1279-1289 [13] Mitchell. Green. gov. org/ about/ history) Axin. H (1997) Social Welfare.P. gov/ systemwide/ laws_policies/ federal/ index. viewLegis& id=22) [15] 1980 Childwelfare.org (http:/ / preventchildabuseny. particularly African American and Native American children. ca/ html/ statutes/ english/ elaws_statutes_90c11_e.org (http:/ / datacenter. cfsrb. nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. htm) Childrensaidsociety. org/ pdf/ 2007CANFactSheet. NY: Longman. childwelfare. Barth. americanhumane. Child Abuse and Neglect. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect.[41] National data in the United States provides evidence that disproportionality may vary throughout the course of a child's involvement with the child welfare system. 5-24 [14] Childwelfare. kempe. cfm [17] Lincroft. html) Kidscount.. A history of the American Response to Need 4th ed.gov. dcsf. ca/ en/ cfsrb/ about/ history)..gov (http:/ / www. data suggests that a disproportionate number of minority children. R. 124 . gov. it is likely that this phenomenon within multiple systems may be related. uk/ WWW/ STUDY/ xpla5.. .uk (http:/ / www. S.B. children.uk (http:/ / www. (2007).[43] Research has shown that there is no difference in the rate of abuse and neglect among minority populations when compared to Caucasian children that would account for the disparity.. 28(12). Wall. Report to the Annie E. on. A. & Resher. gov/ pubs/ otherpubs/ majorfedlegis.. [20] http:/ / www. (1999). gov. e-laws. childwelfare. 23. M. J & Levin. An empirical examination of the Indian child welfare act and its impact on cultural and familial preservation for American Indian children. pdf) Americanhumane. research suggests that they are likely to remain in care longer. L. Undercounted and underserved: Immigrant and refugee families in the child welfare system. A. Retrieved 19 April 2011. COUNTY OF SAN JOAQUIN. C. on. Child welfare reform in the United States: Findings form a local agency survey. kidscount.

Washington. support.. bad or sad? Ideology. 1107-1128 [28] Lyons-Ruth. Who's Watching Our Child Protection Agencies? p. U. net/ eng/ news/ society-article. Alpern. ca9. C.Child protection [22] Gauthier. (PDF-File. us/ news/ 60623statement. mpl/ headline/ metro/ 5770183. 549-559 [23] Malinosky-Rummell. Child Development 64. NY: Guilford Press [25] Solomon. [42] Hill. • Resist. html [34] Scott.E. Casey-CSSP Alliance for Racial Equity in Child Welfare. (pp. com/ disp/ story. edu/ uscode/ 42/ usc_sec_42_00001983----000-. New Brunswick. window. & Arnoff.php/Child_well-being) (accessed 21/07/11) • A Report Card on Child Protection (http://www. relational violence and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategies. Number 8.B. 57-76). 2009) • HHS. (2004) Institutional racism in child welfare. distorted communication and child abuse prevention. training and resources in all areas of safeguarding children and for those affected by abuse. & Jacobvitz.org (http://www. DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention External links • NCCPR Website (http://nccpr.. Greenberg. • "CCPAS Website" (http://www.co. chron. Cummings (Eds). Chicago: University of Chicago Press [27] Carlson. Haight. & Repacholi. (2006) Entry and Exit Disparities in the Tennessee Foster Care System. 779df065.childwelfare. J. law. Chapin Hall Discussion Paper. D. & George. [31] http:/ / globalvoicesonline. D. html). Child Abuse and Neglect 20. state. E. [37] Window.html) (History of Child Protection in America by Kirsten Anderberg. kvue. (Eds. T. A prospective longitudinal study of disorganized/disoriented attachment. In J.com (http:/ / www..gov (http:/ / www.) Handbook of Attachment. Attachment Disorganization. In M. & Feyerherm. 2008 by Janet St.ca (http://users. A. (1996).hhs. CRB checks. NJ: Rutgers University Press.edu (http:/ / www. L.gov (http://www. Mad. . R. K. 2006 (http:/ / www. Roger (10 May 2008). Graduate History Student. Recall of childhood neglect and physical abuse as differential predictors of current psychological functioning. G. (2005). James / WFAA-TV [36] Crotea. D. Department of Health & Human Services. window. W. K. state.acf. tx. Chipungu & B. 125 . 179 [35] KVUE. (1990) Parents’ Unresolved Traumatic Experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status. cornell. R. [43] Wulczyn. 64-73 [29] Lyons-Ruth. B. 520-554). uscourts. September 2009. (1996).resist.org (http://www.state. Psychological Bulletin 114. (1995) Minorities and the Juvenile Justice System Research Symmary. 227-246. Ciccehetti. E. gov/ ca9/ newopinions. us/ forgottenchildren/ in) [38] Comptroller Strayhorn Statement On Foster Care Abuse June 23. 572-585 [30] Sinclair. 68-69 [24] Lyons-Ruth K. M. & Hansen. Stollak. b92.J.. B.hhs. Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory. 991 KB) — United Nations Children’s Fund: Progress for Children.. NY: Guilford Press [26] Main..gov/programs/cb/stats_research/afcars/tar/report11. html) [41] Hill R. L. & Hesse.gov/) (accessed 10/19/06) • Wikichild. rs/ sr/ vesti/ u_fokusu/ story/ 146886/ Otac+ na+ poligrafu+ dokazao+ da+ nije+ zlostavljao+ decu.us (http:/ / www.) (1999). T. tx. L. (1993) Long term consequences of childhood physical abuse.acf.org/protection/files/Progress_for_Children-No.tx. Richardson group: Polygamists' children are OK April 18. The Australian Sociological Association. Messe.org/index.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm04) (accessed 8/4/06) • HHS. Child Development 69. [44] National Incidence Study (NIS). 8_EN_081309(1). Research. Brenda (1994) Out of Control. "Mental health workers rip CPS over sect" (http:/ / www. and Intervention (pp161-184). F. (1999) Attachment disorganization: unresolved loss. Everett.ca/~kirstena/machallinstitutionhistory. (1988). San Antonio Express-news . org/ 2011/ 01/ 04/ united-states-serbian-couple-struggles-to-get-children-back/ [32] http:/ / www.wikiprogress. php?yyyy=2010& mm=12& dd=21& nav_id=71657 [33] http:/ / www. J. (1996) [45] Pope.ccpas. (1993). S. C. Attachment relationships among children with aggressive behavior problems: The role of disorganized early attachment patterns.htm) (accessed 8/4/06) • Childwelfare.the only independent Christian charity providing professional advice. 41. Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom. B (2006) Synthesis of research on disproportionality in child welfare: An update. com/ news/ state/ stories/ 041808kvuejanetpolygamy-cb. & E. M.pdf). Shaver (Eds.) Child welfare revisited (pp.unicef. html).. pressonline. Administration for Children & Families. Cassidy & P.com (http://www.info/) NCCPR provides reports and information on how (US) child protection systems are performing and how to make them perform better for children. nsf/ 2DA8C6954EA9C8A3882572EA00532815/ $file/ 0516071. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64.uk) The Churches’ Child Protection Advisory Service (CCPAS) . Leashore (Eds. J. pdf?openelement) [40] Cornell.S. Lery. html) [39] UScourts. In J.

[6] Neglect Child neglect is where the responsible adult does not provide adequately for various needs. or hygiene). or in the organizations. stabbing. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department of Children And Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm. There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect. and child sexual abuse. kicking. educational (not providing an adequate education). 2004 Child abuse Child abuse is the physical. serious physical or emotional harm. which leads to patterns such as failure to thrive. people do not agree on what behaviors constitute abuse. Most nations with child-abuse laws consider the infliction of physical injuries or actions that place the child in obvious risk of serious injury or death to be illegal. child abuse is "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death. There are many effects of child neglect. and have undertaken campaigns to redefine such norms. sexual abuse or exploitation. psychological. emotional (not providing nurturing or affection). shoving. seizures. bulging or tense fontanels. vomiting. such as children not being able to interact with other children around them. swelling of the brain. It can involve punching.ipu. Applied Research Projects. The distinction between child discipline and abuse is often poorly defined. According to the Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect. altered breathing.org/PDF/publications/childprotection_en.[4] Types Child abuse can take several forms:[5] The four main types are physical. physical abuse.Child protection Further reading • McCutcheon. Beyond this. Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge. lethargy. striking. burning.[8] Physical abuse Physical abuse is physical aggression directed at a child by an adult. bruising. and neglect. pulling ears or hair. which can lead to intracranial pressure. Shaking a child can cause shaken baby syndrome. an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm". The transmission of toxins to a child through its mother (such as with fetal alcohol syndrome) can also be considered physical abuse in some jurisdictions. emotional mistreatment.txstate. Cultural norms about what constitutes abuse vary widely: among professionals as well as the wider public. including physical (not providing adequate food. or medical (not medicating the child or taking him or her to the doctor).[3] A person who feels the need to abuse or neglect a child may be described as a "pedopath". Texas State University Paper 332. TXstate. clothing. there is considerable variation. psychological/emotional abuse.[1] In the United States. slapping. and dilated pupils.edu (http://ecommons. or threat of harm to a child.edu/arp/332) • Handbook: Child protection (http://www. sexual.[9] Some human-service professionals claim that cultural norms that sanction physical punishment are one of the causes of child abuse. choking. and oxygen deprivation.[7] The continuous refusal of a child's basic needs is considered chronic neglect. James."Historical Analysis and Contemporary Assessment of Foster Care in Texas: Perceptions of Social Workers in a Private. Non-Profit Foster Care Agency".[10] 126 .[2] Child abuse can occur in a child's home. potential for harm. or neglect of a child. schools or communities the child interacts with.pdf) UNICEF. IPU. diffuse axonal injury. belting or shaking a child. 2010. sexual.

emotional maltreatment 4%.[17] anxiety. and routine labeling or humiliation. indecent exposure of the genitals to a child. excessive criticism.[19] propensity to re-victimization in adulthood. viewing of the child's genitalia without physical contact. around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family.[18] other mental illnesses (including borderline personality disorder[19] and dissociative identity disorder.[11] [12] Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome).). It also found that child neglect and child abuse were far more common in single-parent families than in families where both parents are present. places. or fighting back by insulting the abuser. uncles or cousins. mothers. a tendency for victims to blame themselves (self-blame) for the abuse. It could include name-calling.[32] 127 .[29] A UNICEF report on child wellbeing[30] stated that the United States and the United Kingdom ranked lowest among industrial nations with respect to the wellbeing of children. food and access to medical care. neglect is defined as the failure to meet the basic needs of children including housing. most often brothers. etc. inappropriate or excessive demands. ridicule. destruction of personal belongings.[28] Victims of emotional abuse may react by distancing themselves from the abuser.[2] Neglect could also take the form of financial abuse by not buying the child adequate materials for survival. fathers. Emotional abuse can result in abnormal or disrupted attachment development. somatic complaints. or neighbours. self-esteem issues. physical contact with the child's genitals. chronic pain.S.[20] bulimia nervosa. doctor's visits. torture or destruction of a pet.000 cases of neglect in one year (from October 2005 to 30 September 2006) using information from a database of cases verified by protective services agencies. clothing.[31] The U. and overly passive behavior.[11] [13] [14] Selling the sexual services of children may be viewed and treated as child abuse with services offered to the child rather than simple incarceration. addiction. actual sexual contact against a child.[21] physical injury to the child.[15] Effects of child sexual abuse include guilt and self-blame. Department of Health and Human Services reports that for each year between 2000 and 2005. "female parents acting alone" were most likely to be perpetrators of child abuse. insomnia. smells.[23] [24] [25] [26] [27] Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims. displaying pornography to a child. strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases. withholding communication. nightmares. among other problems. babysitters. Researchers found over 91. or using a child to produce child pornography. In the USA. suicidal ideation. learned helplessness. self-injury.Child abuse Child sexual abuse Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation. and other forms of maltreatment 12%. fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects. internalizing the abusive words. flashbacks. sexual abuse 8%. emotional abuse is the hardest to define. approximately 30% are relatives of the child. sexual dysfunction. depression. in 1997 neglect represented 54% of confirmed cases of child abuse.[22] Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children.[23] Psychological/emotional abuse Out of all the possible forms of abuse.[28] Prevalence According to the (American) National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse.[16] post-traumatic stress disorder. degradation. physical abuse 22%.

[38] [39] In addition. 1.[46] See also Infanticide (zoology). this is a rate of 2. most commonly alcohol. or if both the marital strife and the abuse are caused by tendencies in the abuser. Caregivers.Child abuse Fatalities A child abuse fatality: when a child’s death is the result of abuse or neglect. and non-relative caregivers [source needed]. relatives.[41] and lower mother-child relationship quality. study found that parents with documented substance abuse. More generally. cocaine. are killed at similar rates.[43] Unemployment and financial difficulties are associated with increased rates of child abuse. were much more likely to mistreat their children.[37] Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to be abused or neglected. Now that the father was in that role. Family situations which place children at risk include moving. it is estimated that between 60-85% of child fatalities due to maltreatment are not recorded as such on death certificates. and between cocaine and sexual abuse. Girls and boys. Younger children are at a much higher risk for being killed. A number of policies and programs have been put into place to try to better understand and to prevent child abuse fatalities.[44] In 2009 CBS News reported that child abuse in the United States had increased during the economic recession.S.[41] They also result in poorer maternal mental health. unintended pregnancies are more likely than intended pregnancies to be associated with abusive relationships.[34] History Also known as Tardieu's Syndrome in homage to the French medical doctor Auguste Ambroise Tardieu Causes Child abuse is a complex phenomenon with multiple causes. the children began to come in with injuries. training for investigators.000 U. It gave the example of a father who had never been the primary care-taker of the children.[35] Understanding the causes of abuse is crucial to addressing the problem of child abuse. having non-family members living in the household.[33] Child abuse fatalities are widely recognized as being under-counted. or when abuse and/or neglect are contributing factors to a child’s death. including strangers.[42] Another study found that over two thirds of cases of child maltreatment involved parents with substance abuse problems. however. An evolutionary psychology explanation for this is that using resources in order to take care of another person's biological child is likely not a good strategy for increasing reproductive success. unemployment.[37] However. and specifically mothers. are more likely to be the perpetrators of a child abuse fatality.730 children died in 2008 due to factors related to abuse. and child abuse death laws which mandate harsher sentencing for taking the life of a child.[40] and there is an increased risk of physical violence during pregnancy.[36] Parents who physically abuse their spouses are more likely than others to physically abuse their children. 128 . One U. stepchildren have a much higher risk of being abused which is sometimes referred to as the Cinderella effect. as are African Americans.S. shaken baby syndrome prevention programs. children. including: safe-haven laws. it is impossible to know whether marital strife is a cause of child abuse. and were also much more likely to reject court-ordered services and treatments.[45] Studies have found that not biologically related parents (like stepparents) are up to a hundred times more likely to kill a child than biological parents. and heroin. child fatality review teams. than anyone else.33 per 100. This study specifically found relationships between alcohol and physical abuse. In the United States.[41] Substance abuse can be a major contributing factor to child abuse.

or muscular pain with no identifiable reason. also suffer from different types of physical health problems later in life.[47] A recent publication. whether sexual abuse. deregulation of mood. and acting out symptoms. in changing the ways maltreated parents think about their young children. Child abuse can also cause problems with the neurodevelopment of a child. the cause of different health problems in their adult life. and other sequelae of child abuse.[54] as well as anxiety. which may in turn lead to adverse consequences for their child's social-emotional development. It has been identified that childhood sexual abuse is a risk factor for the development of substance-related problems during adolescence and adulthood.[49] [50] or a disorganized attachment style. pelvic. psychosocial intervention can be effective. the majority of studies examining the negative consequences of abuse have been focused on adolescences and young adults. abdominal. or neglect. Child abuse is a major life stressor that has consequences involving the mental health of an adult but. Psychological effects Children with a history of neglect or physical abuse are at risk of developing psychiatric problems.[55] [56] A study by Dante Cicchetti found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants exhibited symptoms of disorganized attachment.[59] [60] Despite these potential difficulties. dissociative symptoms.[62] Even though the majority of childhood abuse victims know or believe that their abuse is. Research shows that abused children often develop deficits with language. at least in some cases. physical abuse. These risks are elevated when child abuse is combined with traumatic events and/or fetal alcohol exposure. for the great majority their abuse was not directly associated . The early experiences of child abuse can trigger the development of an internalizing disorder. behaviour and also social/emotional disturbances. a group of sculptures by Mikhail Chemiakin in Moscow. or can be.[57] [58] When some of these children become parents.[48] makes the case that such exposure represents a serious and costly public-health issue that should be addressed by the healthcare system. Some reportedly suffer from some type of chronic head. high-risk health behaviors and shortened lifespan. Effects There are strong associations between exposure to child abuse in all its forms and higher rates of many chronic conditions. The strongest evidence comes from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE's) series of studies which show correlations between exposure to abuse or neglect and higher rates in adulthood of chronic conditions. have more chances of developing depression then an adult who has never been abused.[51] [52] [53] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems. especially if they suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). depressive. they may encounter difficulty when faced with their infant and young children's needs and normative distress. including dissociative symptoms. adults with a history of some form of child abuse. Hidden Costs in Health Care: The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse.Child abuse 129 Children are the Victims of Adult Vices. For example.[61] Victims of childhood abuse. such as anxiety and depression. it is claimed.

Sheridan. bronchitis. In some cases the physical effects are temporary.[67] Damage results from intracranial hypertension (increased pressure in the skull) after bleeding in the brain. however. arthritis. A 2006 study found that childhood emotional and sexual abuse were strongly related to adult depressive symptoms.[63] According to Georges Menahem. for symptoms of depression. damage to the spinal cord and neck. 2007). particularly rib fractures. some statistically significant correlations were found between repeated illness and family traumas encountered by the child before the age of 18 years. Meanwhile. asthma. indicating that sufferers were most likely diagnosed with other possible causes for their health problems. instead of their childhood abuse. These alterations in brain maturation have long-term consequences for cognitive. the prolonged absence of a parent. or a serious illness affecting either the mother or father) that individuals report having experienced in childhood. Kuo. Shaking a baby is a common form of child abuse that often results in permanent neurological damage (80% of cases) or death (30% of cases). and limbic irritability.[65] Children who experience child abuse & neglect are 59% more likely to be arrested as juveniles. and academic abilities (Watts-English. the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on physical health is just beginning to be explored.[68] .. NSCAW found more than three-quarters of foster children between 1 and 2 years of age to be at medium to high risk for problems with brain development. Gibler. 2006). The long-term effects can be: Rib fractures in an infant secondary to child abuse Shaken baby syndrome.[66] The immediate physical effects of abuse or neglect can be relatively minor (bruises or cuts) or severe (broken bones. Adults who experienced abuse or neglect during childhood are more likely to suffer from physical ailments such as allergies. these relationships show that inequalities in illness and suffering are not only social.[64] and may have a higher risk of developing cancer. and rib or bone fractures (Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Fortson. in the case of 23 of the 27 illnesses listed in the questionnaire of a French INSEE survey. and physical abuse a moderate one. Physical effects Children who are physically abused are likely to receive bone fractures. high blood pressure. Child abuse and neglect have been shown. resulting in impaired development (De Bellis & Thomas. 2004a). For depression. where it is associated with the degrees of lasting affective problems (lack of affection. while exposure to verbal abuse and witnessing of domestic violence had a moderately strong association. 2007).Child abuse 130 with those problems. the pain and suffering they cause a child should not be discounted. & Carnes. 2006. Sexual abuse was particularly deleterious in its intrafamilial form. dissociation. depending on the type of abuse. Felitti. 28% more likely to be arrested as adults. 2003). the French sociologist who found out these correlations by studying health inequalities. & De Bellis. 2002). and 30% more likely to commit violent crime. to cause important regions of the brain to fail to form or grow properly. hemorrhage. or even death). and was second only to emotional abuse in its relationship with dissociative symptoms. as opposed to less than half of children in a control sample (ACF/OPRE. Poor physical health. parental discord. Hooper. anxiety. experiencing more than two kinds of abuse exerted synergetically stronger symptoms. More generally. Health inequality also has its origins in the family. Impaired brain development. Several studies have shown a relationship between various forms of household dysfunction (including childhood abuse) and poor health (Flaherty et al.[62] The effects of child abuse vary. and ulcers (Springer. Childhood verbal abuse had a stronger association with anger-hostility than any other type of abuse studied. language. in some cases.

Being able to discuss and analyze a child's artwork can allow a professional to get a better insight of the child. and anxiety. and large family size increases the risk of child neglect. President Barack Obama continued that tradition by declaring April 2009 Child Abuse Prevention Month. Offending parents are included in the treatment. to improve parenting skills/practices. etc. there are some children who are raised in child abuse.[39] [70] "The starting point for effective child abuse programming is pregnancy planning. Such children have been termed dandelion children.[74] Resources for child-protection services are sometimes limited. sun. Each of these types of treatment can be used to better assist the client. relationships with friends or family. Play therapy and art therapy are ways to get children more comfortable with therapy by working on something that they enjoy (coloring. It is supported by two studies of one sample. The design of a child's artwork can be a symbolic representation of what they are feeling.[72] U. but who manage to do unexpectedly well later in life regarding the preconditions.[78] 131 . painting.).[69] Such children (or currently grown-ups) are of high interest in finding factors that mitigate the effects of child abuse. toddlers. including PTSD."[75] Briere (1992) argues that only when "lower-level violence" of children ceases to be culturally tolerated will there be changes in the victimization and police protection of children. "a considerable number of traumatized abused children do not gain access to protective child-protection strategies. play therapy. defiance.[77] Child-parent psychotherapy was designed to improve the child-parent relationship following the experience of domestic violence. clinical depression and anxiety. It is supported by one randomized study. Everett Koop.[77] Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy.[76] Treatment A number of treatments are available to victims of child abuse." according to an analysis for US Surgeon General C. is now used for victims of any kind of trauma.[77] Other forms of treatment include group therapy.[39] Thus a comprehensive study for the National Academy of Sciences concluded that affordable contraceptive services should form the basis for child abuse prevention. and art therapy. drawing. Prevention Unintended conception increases the risk of subsequent child abuse.Child abuse On the other hand.[77] Abuse-focused cognitive behavioral therapy was designed for children who have experienced physical abuse. Data on the effects of TF-CBT for children who experienced only non-sexual abuse was not available as of 2006. as inspired from the way that dandelions seem to prosper irrespective of soil. Several studies have found that sexually abused children undergoing TF-CBT improved more than children undergoing certain other therapies. aggression. drought. It targets trauma-related symptoms in children including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).S. It targets externalizing behaviors and strengthens prosocial behaviors.[39] [71] April has been designated Child Abuse Prevention Month in the United States since 1983. depending on the form of abuse they have experienced. It also includes a component for non-offending parents. and preschoolers. According to Hosin (2007). or rain. It targets trauma-related symptoms in infants. and more. first developed to treat sexually abused children.[73] One way the Federal government of the United States provides funding for child-abuse prevention is through Community-Based Grants for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CBCAP).

and county levels in the United States that provide community leadership in preventing child abuse and neglect. many jurisdictions and professional bodies have made exceptions to standard requirements for confidentiality and legal privileges in instances of child abuse. as victims may be physically or psychologically unable to report abuse to authorities. Mandated reporter training is a program used to prevent ongoing child abuse.[79] [80] [81] Bioethicists Jacob M. Many investigations into child abuse are handled on the local level by Child Advocacy Centers. which would have prevented a murder charge. and cannot disclose personal information without the consent of the individual concerned. particularly in medical settings. The National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome focuses its efforts on the specific issue of preventing child abuse that is manifested as shaken baby syndrome. The National Alliance of Children's Trust Funds and Prevent Child Abuse America are two national organizations with member organizations at the state level. and other mental health workers typically owe a duty of confidentiality to their patients and clients. that such cases justify the replacement of the accused parent with an alternative decision-maker. the 2008 New Hampshire case of Andrew Bedner drew attention to this legal and moral conundrum.[83] Organizations There are organizations at national. 132 . sued for the right to determine whether or not she remain on life support. Appel and Thaddeus Mason Pope recently argued. Bedner. therapists. Child abuse is also a common exception to Physician–patient privilege: a medical professional may be called upon to testify in court as to otherwise privileged evidence about suspected child abuse despite the wishes of the child and his/her family.[85] [86] These Child Advocacy Centers (known as CACs) have standards set by the National Children's Alliance.[87] Other organizations focus on specific prevention strategies. Accordingly.[79] In the United States.[79] [82] Child abuse also poses ethical concerns related to confidentiality. created a motive for Bedner to act that conflicted with the apparent interests of his child. Started over 25 years ago at what is now known as the National Children's Advocacy Center[84] in Huntsville. accused of severely injuring his infant daughter.Child abuse Ethics One of the most challenging ethical dilemmas arising from child abuse relates to the parental rights of abusive parents or caretakers with regard to their children. Medical professionals. keeping her alive. either by law and/or the standards of professional ethics. state. including doctors. This exception allows professionals to breach confidentiality and make a report even when the child or his/her parent or guardian has specifically instructed to the contrary. ultimately reducing trauma to the child and garnering better convictions. Accordingly. Alabama by District Attorney Robert "Bud" Cramer these multi-disciplinary teams have met to coordinate their efforts so that cases of child abuse can be investigated quickly and efficiently. in separate articles. This duty conflicts with an ethical obligation to protect children from preventable harm. confidentiality is often waived when these professionals have a good faith suspicion that child abuse or neglect has occurred or is likely to occur and make a report to local child protection authorities.

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Government of India (http://wcd.pdf) • Pete . J. W. • Hoyano.com/?id=IOOgAFQdRPwC&printsec=frontcover). (1983). I. Park. (2007). New York: Routledge. A. ISBN 0520050703. OCLC 144570871. Washburn.courthousedogs. Child Abuse._Youth_and_Family/Child_abuse/) at the Open Directory Project • "What is child abuse and neglect?" (http://www. • Prevent Child Abuse America (http://www. OCLC 144570871. (2008-02-19). 319–336. In Haglund.antipedophil. html) [87] Nationalchildrensalliance. CA: University of California Press. org/ professionals/ model/ cac_model. ISBN 019829946X.nic. Hickey.preventchildabuse. D. ISBN 9780195342857.org (http:/ / www.shtml).nic. C.Maryland Lawyer article about using a facility service dog to aid child abuse victims (http:/ /www. Forensic Taphonomy: the Postmortem Fate of Human Remains. Jill E. Child abuse and neglect: cross-cultural perspectives. 161. Berkeley. M. OCLC 79004390. p. L.org) • Study on Child Abuse: India 2007 (http://wcd. • Finkelhor.com/?id=FDGaTSUXpdsC& printsec=frontcover). (2008).org/Society/Issues/Children.org (http:/ / nationalcac.Child abuse [85] Nationalcac. • Turton.fr) 136 .google. M.youtube. ISBN 0205503268. H.gov/DHS/children/abuse/abuse_neglect... Crime. Keenan C.. • Crosson-Tower. nationalchildrensalliance. p. A. Boston.in) • Prevent Child Abuse France (http://www.google. Gender.dmoz. ISBN 0415365058.in/childabuse. A..oregon. Oxford University Press. Boca Raton: CRC Press. & Sorg. D. External links • Cold-nosed Comfort . Child Abuse: Law and Policy Across Boundaries. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. OCLC 162501989. Oxford University Press. Hood. Oregon Department of Human Services. pp. and Abuse in the Lives of Young People (http://books.. and Society (http://books.com/watch?v=u2JXCFWcIeE) • Child abuse (http://www. html) [86] Nationalcac. org/ ) Further reading • Crist.org (http:/ / nationalcac. org/ ncac/ history. Childhood Victimization: Violence. (1997). 244.pdf) Ministry of Women and Child Development. Jackie (2008). MA: Pearson Education. OCLC 150902303. A.com/pdf/KellyBaltimoreCAC.Award-winning short film about child abuse (http://www. • Korbin. "Cranial Bone Displacement as a Taphonomic Process in Potential Child Abuse Cases".. T.

" In 1809 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Early views In the 4th century BC.[1] but can also develop among groups such as sporting teams and whenever people spend time together. which refers to something that binds. Pair bonding The term pair bond originated in 1940 in reference to mated pairs of birds. wrote of the "marriage tie. as well as throughout the universe. Because it is love that guides the relations between these sets of opposites throughout existence. "when a man is prey to his emotions. This bond is characterized by emotions such as affection and trust. It most commonly takes place between family members or friends. are analogous to reactive substances in a chemical equation. Eryximachus. usually of a fairly short duration. But when the sort of Love that is crude and impulsive controls the seasons. or parents and children. Bonding is a mutual. one of the narrators in the dialog. concord with the gods above—all these are among his gifts" (188d). a bondman. in temperance and justice. Male bonding refers to the establishment of relationships between men through shared activities that often exclude females. in every case it is the higher form of love that brings harmony and cleaves toward the good. but refers to the formation of close personal relationships between women. the Greek philosopher Plato argued that love directs the bonds of human society. Some scientists speculate that prolonged bonds developed in humans along with increased sharing of food. It is a generic term signifying a monogamous or relatively monogamous relationship in either humans or animals. towards the good.[4] 137 .Human bonding Human bonding Human bonding is the process of development of a close. the bonds of human society. The term is commonly used in sociobiology and evolutionary psychology. in his Ethics of Human Bondage or the Strength of the Emotions.. that the term bondage relates to the human infirmity in moderating and checking the emotions.[3] Pair bonding. Plato concludes that the highest form of love is the greatest. Eryximachus reasons that when various opposing elements such as wet and dry are "animated by the proper species of Love. Humans in passionate relationships. interactive process. interpersonal relationship.. ties. occurs in a variety of primate species. in his classic novella Elective Affinities. states that love goes far beyond simple attraction to human beauty. In early usage. whether in heaven or on earth: happiness and good fortune. according to Goethe. or bondservant was a feudal serf that was obligated to work for his or her lord without pay (in modern usage. Love directs everything that occurs. he brings death and destruction" (188a). but lies at the mercy of fortune. Bonding typically refers to the process of attachment that develops between romantic partners. he is not his own master. That is. When love "is directed. He states that it occurs throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. according to Spinoza. Middle English word band. In his Symposium. or restrains. Any two people who spend time together may form a bond. close friends. In the 1660s. they are in harmony with one another . and is different from simple liking. in the realm of the gods as well as that of humans (186a–b). bondwoman. the Dutch philosopher Spinoza wrote.[2] Etymology The term comes from the 12th century. a bondsman is a person who provides bonds or surety for someone). The term female bonding is less frequently used. whereas the impulsive vulgar love creates disharmony." and by analogy shows how strong marriage unions are similar in character to that by which the particles of quicksilver find a unity together through the process of chemical affinity.

[5] [6] [7] Bowlby did not describe mutuality in attachment. bonds. Ainsworth attempted to follow this amazing tunnel vision. in ways that may either increase or decrease the intensity of the limerence. Hence. Much of the early research on attachment in humans was done by John Bowlby and his associates. with all human romantic relationships. Parental bonding Attachment In 1958. a certain percentage of couples may go through what is called a limerent reaction. The enduring motivation is the desire to control a pleasantly surprising transformation that is the route of belief in effectiveness by humans. The basis and interesting characteristic of this delineation made by Tennov. He A mother breast feeding—a process that facilitates mother–infant bonding. Limerent–Limerent bond: define relationships in which both partners are limerent. 3. This included the development of the concept of the affectional bond. Attachment theory has some of its origins in the observation of and experiments with animals. stated that attachment by mother was a pathological inversion and described only behaviors of the infant. Limerent–Nonlimerent bond: define relationships in which one partner is limerent. neither Bowlby's proximity seeking (not possible for human infants prior to walking) nor subsequent descriptions of caregiver–infant mutuality with emotional availability and synchrony with emotional modulation include the enduring motivation of attachment into adult life. Many developmental specialists elaborated Bowlby's ethological observations. 2. She was not successful in the use of infant gaze because she did not differentiate frightened hyper-alert states from affectionate interaction. This motivation accounts for curiosity and intellectual growth of language. all of which have an emotional base of security. is that based on her research and interviews with over 500 people.Human bonding Limerent bond According to limerence theory.e. i. to seek closeness to another person and to feel secure when that person is present. in which one or both of the pair may experience a state of passion mixed with continuous intrusive thinking. in relation to the experience or non-experience of limerence: 1. Affectional bond: define relationships in which neither partner is limerent. which is based on the universal tendency for humans to attach. defined over a set duration of time. sometimes referred to as the emotional bond. and hope. one of three varieties of bonds may form. but is also based on observations of children who had missed typical experiences of adult care." in which the precursory concepts of "attachment theory" were developed. because this increases the chances of survival by ensuring that they receive the care they need. mathematics and logic. The constitution of these bonds may vary over the course of the relationship. Bowlby proposed that babies have an inbuilt need from birth to make emotional attachments. i.[8] 138 . fear of rejection. British developmental psychologist John Bowlby published the ground-breaking paper "the Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother. but found she could not avoid eye-to-eye contact with infant and mother. posited in 1979 by psychologist Dorothy Tennov. However. all human bonded relationships can be divided into three varieties being defined by the amount of limerence or non-limerence each partner contributes to the relationship.e.

response. a hormone more usually associated with pregnancy and maternal bonding. Specifically. bolstering the quality of the mother–baby relationship—however. such as the varied reasons families choose different feeding methods.[9] Extensive claims for the effect of breastfeeding were made in the 1930s by Margaret Ribble. and bottle-feeding mothers are generally appropriately concerned with their babies. and mutual gazing. paternal bonding is more dominant later in a child's life after language develops. In fact. may also control the way men react towards their children. Fathers may be more influential in play interactions as opposed to nurturance interactions. many children now grow up in fatherless households and do not experience a paternal bond at all. It is generally understood that maternal oxytocin circulation can predispose some mammals to show caregiving behavior in response to young of their species. a champion of "infant rights. following pregnancy. paternal bonds tend to vary over the span of a child's development in terms of both strength and stability.Human bonding 139 Maternal bonding Of all human bonds. the production of oxytocin during lactation increases parasympathetic activity. the maternal bond (mother–infant relationship) is one of the strongest."[10] but were challenged by others. thus reducing anxiety and theoretically fostering bonding. they found that a lack of progesterone reduced aggressive behavior in male mice and stimulated them to act in a fatherly way towards their offspring. In general. whereas mother–child bonds tend to develop in relation to topics such as religious views or general outlooks on life. a researcher from Northwestern University in Illinois found that progesterone.[13] Father playing with his young daughter—an activity that tends to strengthen the father–child bond. Paternal bonding In contrast to the maternal bond. even though early breastfeeding did not occur.[12] In 2003. such as with premature infants who may lack the necessary sucking strength to successfully breastfeed. It is difficult to determine the extent of causality due to a number of confounding variables. Father–child bonds also tend to develop with respect to topics such as political views or money. many exceptions can be found of highly successful mother–baby bonds. .[11] The claimed effect is not universal. via touch. The maternal bond begins to develop during pregnancy. Many believe that early bonding ideally increases response and sensitivity to the child's needs. Breastfeeding has been reported to foster the early post-partum maternal bond.

their function is primarily bonding. either in or on the bed. part of the family. in York. Germany. for example. heart rate. 1. primarily for bonding purposes. anxiety.2 billion animals are kept as pets. animals were domesticated for functional use. which is associated with activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the release of cortisol. for example. England. respiratory rate. Today.[14] Human–animal bond: human to animal contact is known to reduce the physiological characteristics of stress. In humans. specifically.[14] Historically. social isolation leads to stress. in the past the majority of cats were kept outside (barn cats) whereas today most cats are kept indoors (housecats) and considered Human bonding with an emu in Australia. domestic or wild. The contact with the animals was found to reduce the occurrence of seizures. and cats for killing mice or rats. epileptic patients were given the prescription to spend time each day taking care of cats and dogs. Both chemicals facilitate pair bonding and maternal behavior in experiments on laboratory animals. dogs for herding and tracking. lowered levels of blood pressure. in Bielefeld. a French surgeon had patients with neurological disorders ride horses. In the 1870s in Paris. and that these events are associated with maternal bonding. Currently.[15] In addition. In 1980. in Western societies. In the 19th century.[15] Moreover. According to one model. society officials theorized that the combination of animal contact plus productive work would facilitate the patients' rehabilitation.[14] Neurobiology There is evidence in a variety of species that the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin are involved in the bonding process. there is evidence that oxytocin and vasopressin are released during labor and breastfeeding.Human bonding 140 Human–animal bonding The human–animal bond can be defined as a connection between people and animals. and tension were all found to correlate positively with human–pet bonding. and in other forms of prosocial and reproductive behavior. in the US. By having patients care for the many farm animals on the estate. the Society of Friends established The Retreat to provide humane treatment for the mentally ill. Research into the nature and merit of the human–animal bond began in the late 18th century when. The patients were found to have improved their motor control and balance and were less likely to suffer bouts of depression. as of 1995 there were over 30 research institutions looking into the potential benefits of the human–animal bond. Positive . be it a cat as a pet or birds outside one's window. For example. a team of scientists at the University of Pennsylvania found that human to animal contact was found to reduce the physiological characteristics of stress. current studies show that 60–80% of dogs sleep with their owners at night in the bedroom.

which is also associated with higher levels of oxytocin and vasopressin. the neurotransmitter dopamine may interact with oxytocin and further increase the likelihood of bonding.[17] In the reward centers of the limbic system. This leads to bonding. and that endogenous opiates play the central role. by contrast. One of the few studies that looked at the influence of hormones on human bonding compared participants who had recently fallen in love with a control group. Mark Granovetter became enamored of the concepts underlying the classic chemistry lecture in which "weak" hydrogen bonds hold huge numbers of water molecules together. DHEAS. Because our close friends tend to move in the same circles that we do. progesterone. These differences disappeared after 12–28 months and may reflect the temporary stress and arousal of a new relationship. Weak social bonds are believed to be responsible for the majority of the embeddedness and structure of social networks in society as well as the transmission of information through these networks. Specifically.Human bonding 141 social interaction is associated with increased oxytocin. with higher levels in the group that was in love. the information they receive overlaps considerably with what we already know.[18] A small child bonding with a cat. This model was the stimulus behind his famous 1973 paper The Strength of Weak Ties. estradiol. Because the vast majority of this research has been done on animals—and the majority of that on rodents—these findings must be taken with caution when applied to humans. affiliation is a function of the brain systems underlying reward and memory formation. There were no differences for most of the hormones measured. Acquaintances. and thus receive more novel information. more novel information flows to individuals through weak than through strong ties. One team of researchers has argued that oxytocin only plays a secondary role in affiliation. Testosterone and FSH were lower in men who had recently fallen in love. which is now considered a classic paper in sociology. and reduced stress and stress-related hormones. know people that we do not.[19] Weak ties In 1962. including LH.[20] . which themselves are held together by "strong" covalent bonds. and androstenedione. It has been called the "cuddle chemical" for its role in facilitating trust and attachment. while a freshman history major at Harvard. According to this model. and there was also a difference in blood cortisol for both sexes.[16] Oxytocin is associated with higher levels of trust in laboratory studies on humans.

The significance of infantile sucking for the psychic development of the individual. J. S. [16] Carter. Smith. (2006). [18] Depue. The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. Bowlby. (2005). "Engageance. [8] See R.si. ISBN 0-7923-7478-9 Articles • Ben-Amos. Source: Animal Welfare Society – Southeastern Michigan.A. thefreedictionary. . W. The Free Dictionary (http:/ / www. J. and Psychological Manifestations. (http://www. L. Hormonal changes when falling in love. P. R. 931–936. edu/ spotlight02. (2000). a practical elaboration of attachment in mothers of at-risk infants". there exists a "turning point. uk/ 2/ low/ health/ 2793551. a grief response may occur. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. co. Glenn. BBC News. asp?ContentDetailID=990).umich. S. A critique on the articles by Margaret Ribble. Of Human Bonding: Parent Child Relations Across the Life Course.K. sometimes for a number of years. New York: Springer. R. umn. McLaughlin. Fusion Press. Premium Edition © 1993–2005 Microsoft Corporation. "Human Bonding: Parents and Their Offspring in Early Modern England.M. Routledge. Grief is the process of accepting the loss and adjusting to the changed situation.D. (1990). The Science of Love. php?search=pair-bond& searchmode=none) – Search: "pair bond" Microsoft Encarta 2006. Uncoupling – Turning Points in Intimate Relationships. B. • Brown. 313–395. com) Online Etymology Dictionary (http:/ / www. " Development of the Maternal Bond during Pregnancy (http:/ / www. sociologist Diane Vaughan proposed an "uncoupling theory. A neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding: Implications for conceptualizing a human trait of affiliation. 779–818. ISBN 0-679-73002-8. Oxford University Press. pp. [21] Vaughan. ISBN 0-202-30361-6 [13] "Secret of paternal bond" (http:/ / news. nuff." only noted in hindsight. " The Impact of Social Structures on Economic Development (http:/ / www. [11] Pinneau. [12] Rossi. net/ pethumanbonding. & Rossi. [17] Ackerman. 33–50). Article: "Human Pet Bonding" (http:/ / www. John (1969). etymonline. C.pdf) Discussion Papers in Economic and Social History – Oxford University. Basic Books. animalwelfaresociety.pdf) Psychological Inquiry. [19] Marazziti." (http://www. & Morrone-Strupinsky. 29. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. Chicago: Aldine. & Canale. findarticles. 203–228.M. 23. & Brown." Journal of Economic Perspectives (Vol 19 Number 1. com/ index.R. 139(1): 5–8.H. ISBN 0415043263. A. The grief process varies with culture. The Ontogeny of Human Bonding Systems: Evolutionary Origins. html). References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Webster’s New World College Dictionary © 1996. Neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love. Selective investment theory: Recasting the functional significance of close relationships. Cas Lek. 25 February 2003. Neural Bases. Grief may take longer than the initial development of the bond. ISBN 1-901250-54-7.edu/ICOS/Brown-Stephanie. M.Human bonding Debonding and loss In 1976. com/ Content/ detail. (1998). I. Further reading Books • Miller. [14] Latter. (1939). [20] Granovetter.ox. 90. – a 142 . htm). Bowlby. Diane (1994). Psychoneuroendocrinology. Wilson.B.L. Ostfeld (1983). Psychoneuroendocrinology. D.ac. (1995). [15] Article: "The Changing Status of Human–Animal Bonds" (http:/ / www.V. Child Development.S. A Natural History of Love." where. M. ISBN 0-679-76183-7. (2004). 455–463.. John (1990). (1950). bbc." Jan 19 .[21] When a person to which one has become bonded is lost.uk/economics/history/paper17/17www. Attachment and Loss. 17. (1997).L. Source: University of Minnesota. 28. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3749/ is_200310/ ai_n9302754). 1–29. stm). (2001). but holds on to it for an extended period. censhare. All rights reserved. & Rodgers. 21(4). D.. [10] Ribble. (2004). International Journal of Family Psychiatry 4 (3): 229–245 [9] Cesk. leader-values. Diane (1986). followed by a transition period in which one partner unconsciously knows the relationship is going to end. during the dynamics of relationship breakup. Vintage Books. Chris (2001).

htm?iam=metaresults& terms=shannon+swallow) source: About.adoption.com/qic/bonding.S.rosecreekvillage.asp) – Progressive Steps in the Bonding Process • Feline–Human Bond (http://cats. W. 138–154.com/ep/articles/ep01138154.birthingnaturally.uk/content/view/34/11/) – British Society for Neuroendocrinology Baby bonding • Bonding With Your Baby (http://kidshealth.wellcome.com/BondingMatters.org. 07) • Author (2006). 1. 25 External links Relationships • Chemical Bonding and Love (http://people. (Aug.com/love7. htm) – Research News.org • Bonding Period (http://www." Wellcome Trust.ac.howstuffworks.C.com • Equine Bonding Concepts (http://www.com/entry/bonding-and-attachment/72/1.com/cs/felinehumanbond/a/bonding_bubba. " Falling in Love: Insights into Human Bonding (http://www.com/ebc/) 143 .aican.htm) Adoption bonding • Adoption bonding (http://www.org/parent/pregnancy_newborn/communicating/bonding. Perspectives on Human Attachment (Pair Bonding): Eve's unique legacy of canine analogue (http://human-nature. (2003). (2006).washingtonpost..net/barp/bonding.quakerville.html)" – Condo Dwellers Find Cool Ways to Connect With the Neighbors.Human bonding theoretical proposal that "human social bonds evolved as overarching. Mon.html) – Parent/Infant Bonding • Bonding Matters – the Chemistry of Attachment (http://www.osu. " Of Human Bonding (http://www.html) Evolutionary Psychology. high-cost altruism among individuals who depend on one another for survival and reproduction" (From the abstract) • Immerman.htm) – HowStuffWorks.org/) Human–animal bonding • Parrot–Human Bonding (http://www. Express (Washingtonpost.html) source: kidshealth. & Mackey.adoptivefamilies. Aug.about.babyreference.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/ 04/AR2006080400332.html) – Encyclopedia of Adoption (use cautiously with section on "attachment disorders") • AICAN – Australian Intercountry Adoption Network (http://www.neuroendo.com • Researchers Map the Sexual Network of an Entire High School (http://researchnews. L. Ohio State University • The Neurobiology of Social Bonds (http://www. ISSN 1474-7049 • Thorne. emotion regulating mechanisms designed to promote reliable. R.com/bonding/) – Adoptive Families Magazine • Bonding and Attachment (http://encyclopedia.com).html).uk/ doc_WTX033638.edu/archive/chains.

3. The core of the term affectional bond.[1] The term was coined and subsequently developed over the course of four decades.htm) 144 . 5.D. American Psychologist. is the attraction one individual has for another individual.S. 709716. The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. 2." International Journal of Psychoanalysis 39: 350–373. as described by him and developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth. (1989).pdf) • Attachment Security in Infancy and its Consequences for Development of the Individual (http://www. An attachment bond has an additional criterion: the person seeks security and comfort in the relationship.fu-berlin."[3] Five criteria Bowlby referred to attachment bonds as a specific type of "affectional" bond. according to Bowlby. (1958). M.[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] Bowlby. ISBN 0-415-35481-1. 4. Routledge Classics. An affectional bond involves a relationship that is emotionally significant. (2005). org/ papers/ pendry. J. 44.[1] typically a caregiver for her or his child. J. The individual wishes to maintain proximity or contact with the person with whom he or she has an affectional tie. http:/ / www. An affectional bond involves a particular person who is not interchangeable with anyone else. An affectional bond is persistent. an affectional bond is a type of attachment behavior one individual has for another individual. She established five criteria for affectional bonds between individuals.[2] in which the two partners tend to remain in proximity to one another.de/dahlem/DWR 92_Attachment/Chapter 10. html Bowlby. The central features of the concept of affectional bonding can be traced to Bowlby's 1958 paper. turnertoys. "the Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother. Ainsworth.com/security_and_attachment/default. "The Nature of the Childs Tie to his Mother.Affectional bond Affectional bond In psychology. Attachments beyond infancy. not transitory. by psychologist John Bowlby in his work on attachment theory. and a sixth criterion for attachment bonds: 1. personalityresearch. The individual feels sadness or distress at involuntary separation from the person. from the early 1940s to the late 1970s. Reference for the entire section "Five criteria" External links • Universality of Human Social Attachment as an Adaptive Process (http://web.

Thomas William Bowlby. While still in medical school he enrolled himself in the Institute for Psychoanalysis. herself the daughter of a surgeon. winning prizes for outstanding intellectual performance. . Moreover. (John's grandfather) was killed while serving as a war correspondent in the Opium Wars. it may be useful for him to be away for part of the year from the tensions which produced his difficulties. Following medical school. as was common for boys of his social status. who was actually his primary caretaker in his early years. At the age of twenty-six. Bowlby died at his summer home on the Isle of Skye. "If the child is maladjusted.[1] When Bowlby was almost four years old. In his work Separation: Anxiety and Anger. The boarding school has the advantage of preserving the child's all-important home ties. He later said. Normally."[3] He married Ursula Longstaff. His father. he was to describe this as tragic as the loss of a mother. by relieving the parents of the children for part of the year. he revealed that he regarded it as a terrible time for him. Bowlby was lucky in that the nanny in his family was present throughout his childhood. Sir Anthony's own father. it will be possible for some of them to develop more favorable attitudes toward their children during the remainder. even if in slightly attenuated form. and if the home is bad in other ways the same is true. he trained in adult psychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital. he qualified in medicine. He was the fourth of six children and was brought up by a nanny in the British fashion of his class at that time. psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. Career Bowlby studied psychology and pre-clinical sciences at Trinity College. Cambridge. who succeeded his uncle as third Baronet. Scotland. Bowlby saw his mother only one hour a day after teatime. aged 30. Bowlby did consider boarding schools appropriate for children aged eight and older. was surgeon to the King's Household. with a tragic history: at age five.[2] Because of such experiences as a child. the child who goes to boarding-school will not feel different from other children. he qualified as a psychoanalyst. At the age of seven. first Baronet. left the family.John Bowlby 145 John Bowlby Edward John Mostyn Bowlby Full name Edward John Mostyn Bowlby Born 26 February 1907 Died 2 September 1990 (aged 83) Edward John Mostyn "John" Bowlby (26 February 1907 – 2 September 1990) was a British psychologist. "I wouldn't send a dog away to boarding school at age seven". 1938. on April 16. he was sent off to boarding school. his beloved nanny. notable for his interest in child development and for his pioneering work in attachment theory. since it forms part of the ordinary social pattern of most Western communities today [1951]. he worked with maladjusted and delinquent children. After Cambridge. Family background Bowlby was born in London to an upper-middle-class family. she considered that parental attention and affection would lead to dangerous spoiling of the children. and they had four children. with his characteristic attentiveness to the effects of age differences. Later. and wrote. In 1937. Like many other mothers of her social class. then at the age of twenty-two enrolled at University College Hospital in London. However. and. he displayed a sensitivity to children’s suffering throughout his life. Sir Anthony Alfred Bowlby. though during the summer she was more available. including (Sir) Richard Bowlby.

Bowlby's views—that children were responding to real life events and not unconscious fantasies—were rejected by psychoanalysts. psychoanalysts did not accept that a child would mourn or experience grief on separation but instead saw the child's distress as caused by elements of unconscious fantasies (in the film because the mother was pregnant).[6] Bowlby drew together such limited empirical evidence as existed at the time from across Europe and the USA. but Bowlby emphasized the actual history of the relationship. The 1951 WHO publication was highly influential in causing widespread changes in the practices and prevalence of institutional care for infants and children.[5] The result was Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951. The three most important experiences for Bowlby’s future work and the development of attachment theory were his work with: • Maladapted and delinquent children. that “the infant and young child should experience a warm.[4] Bowlby was interested from the beginning of his career in the problem of separation and the wartime work of Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham on evacuees and Rene Spitz on orphans. he was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Royal Army Medical Corps. Mental Health Consultant to the World Health Organization. which was one of the films about ”young children in brief separation“. Some critics 146 . and from 1950. Because of his previous work with maladapted and delinquent children. and in changing practices relating to the visiting of infants and small children in hospitals by parents. In his development of attachment theory he propounded the idea that attachment behaviour was essentially an evolutionary survival strategy for protecting the infant from predators. Mary Ainsworth. and in fact played the primary role in suggesting that several attachment styles existed. he was Deputy Director of the Tavistock Clinic. • James Robertson (in 1952) in making the documentary film A Two-Year Old Goes to the Hospital.[2] • Melanie Klein during his psychoanalytic training. She was his supervisor.[2] Maternal deprivation In 1949. In 1952 when he and Robertson presented their film A Two Year Old Goes to Hospital to the British Psychoanalytical Society. The documentary illustrated the impact of loss and suffering experienced by young children separated from their primary caretakers. Bowlby's earlier work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospitalised and institutionalised care lead to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organization's report on the mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe. and Bowlby was effectively ostracized by the psychoanalytic community.John Bowlby During World War II. Klein stressed the role of the child's fantasies about his mother. a student of Bowlby’s. and the use of group nurseries to allow mothers of young children to contribute to the war effort. After the war. He later expressed the view that his interest in real-life experiences and situations was "alien to the Kleinian outlook". Specifically and importantly. He broke with psychoanalytic theories which saw infants' internal life as being determined by fantasy rather than real life events. He focused on how attachment difficulties were transmitted from one generation to the next. This interest was probably increased by a variety of wartime events involving separation of young children from familiar people. however they had different views about the role of the mother in the treatment of a three-year-old boy. His main conclusions. were both controversial and influential.[2] Bowlby was interested in finding out the actual patterns of family interaction involved in both healthy and pathological development. the evacuation of children from London to keep them safe from air raids. intimate. By the late 1950s he had accumulated a body of observational and theoretical work to indicate the fundamental importance for human development of attachment from birth. further extended and tested his ideas. The theoretical basis was controversial in many ways. This film was instrumental in a campaign to alter hospital restrictions on visiting by parents. he became interested in the development of children and began work at the Child Guidance Clinic in London. and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment” and that not to do so may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences. these included the rescue of Jewish children by the Kindertransport arrangements.

"accommodated by any theory then current and in the brief time of my employment by the World Health Organization there was no possibility of developing a new one". Van der Veer & Van IJzendoorn. Alternatively. the encounter of ethology and attachment theory led to a genuine cross-fertilization" (Van der Horst."[5] Bowlby expressed himself as having made good the "deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect" in Maternal Care and Mental Health in his later work Attachment and Loss published in 1969. a failure to distinguish between the effects of the lack of a primary attachment figure and the other forms of deprivation and understimulation that may affect children in institutions. Bowlby developed new explanatory hypotheses for what is now known as human attachment behaviour. and especially the rising star of ethology Robert Hinde.[14] [15] 147 .[9] The monograph was also used for political purposes to claim any separation from the mother was deleterious in order to discourage women from working and leaving their children in daycare by governments concerned about maximising employment for returned and returning servicemen. In particular. Using the viewpoints of this emerging science and reading extensively in the ethology literature. Bowlby spurred Hinde to start his ground breaking work on attachment and separation in primates (monkeys and humans). contributed with his approval.[12] "Bowlby realised that he had to develop a new theory of motivation and behaviour control.[8] Others questioned the extent to which his hypothesis was supported by the evidence. Konrad Lorenz. developmental psychology. and in general emphasized the importance of evolutionary thinking about human development that foreshadowed the new interdisciplinary approach of evolutionary psychology. to present the recent research and developments and to address misapprehensions. 2007.[13] Ethology and evolutionary concepts "From the 1950s Bowlby was in personal and scientific contact with leading European scientists in the field of ethology.[7] or that the formation of an ongoing relationship with a child was an important part of parenting. He also introduced the concepts of environmentally stable or labile human behaviour allowing for the revolutionary combination of the idea of a species-specific genetic bias to become attached and the concept of individual differences in attachment security as environmentally labile strategies for adaptation to a specific childrearing niche. cognitive science and control systems theory and drew upon them to formulate the innovative proposition that the mechanisms underlying an infants tie emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure. Bowlby sought new understanding from such fields as evolutionary biology. namely Niko Tinbergen. on the basis of ethological evidence he was able to reject the dominant Cupboard Love theory of attachment prevailing in psychoanalysis and learning theory of the 1940s and 1950s.[9] In 1962 WHO published Deprivation of maternal care: A Reassessment of its Effects to which Mary Ainsworth. and Harry Harlow. built on up-to-date science rather than the outdated psychic energy model espoused by Freud.[11] Because he was dissatisfied with traditional theories.[10] This publication also attempted to address the previous lack of evidence on the effects of paternal deprivation. Bowlby's close colleague. Bowlby’s thinking about the nature and function of the caregiver-child relationship influenced ethological research. Obviously. Hinde. ethology. at the time of the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health.[8] Development of attachment theory Bowlby himself explained in his 1988 work "A Secure Base" that the data were not.John Bowlby profoundly disagreed with the necessity for maternal (or equivalent) love in order to function normally. He then went on to describe the subsequent development of attachment theory. There was criticism of the confusion of the effects of privation (no primary attachment figure) and deprivation (loss of the primary attachment figure) and in particular. 321). and inspired students of animal behaviour such as Tinbergen. According to Rutter the importance of Bowlby's initial writings on 'maternal deprivation' lay in his emphasis that children's experiences of interpersonal relationships were crucial to their psychological development. p.

Her results in this and other studies contributed greatly to the subsequent evidence base of attachment theory as presented in 1969 in Attachment the first volume of the Attachment and Loss trilogy. The attachment process is not gender specific as infants will form attachments to any consistent caregiver who is sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant. is a biography of Charles Darwin. the human infant is considered to have a need for a secure relationship with adult caregivers. Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant. especially in times of distress. other features of attachment behaviour. psychoanalysts rejected his theory. Mary Ainsworth used this feature plus "stranger wariness" and reunion behaviours.[16] Darwin biography Bowlby's last work.[5] In Bowlby's approach. Bowlby's former colleague. and their ability to use the familiar adults as a secure base from which to explore the environment. Separation Anxiety (1959). The formation of emotional attachments contributes to the foundation of later emotional and personality development. As the toddler grows. to develop a research tool called the "Strange Situation Procedure" for developing and classifying different attachment styles. Mary Ainsworth was completing extensive observational studies on the nature of infant attachments in Uganda with Bowlby's ethological theories in mind. attachment theory has been described as the dominant approach to understanding early social development and to have given rise to a great surge of empirical research into the formation of children's close relationships. Separation: Anxiety and Anger and Loss: Sadness and Depression followed in 1972 and 1980 respectively. and expectations in later relationships. attachment in infants is primarily a process of proximity seeking to an identified attachment figure in situations of perceived distress or alarm for the purpose of survival. their tendency to seek proximity to those people. Children between 6 and about 30 months are very likely to form emotional attachments to familiar caregivers. The emotional attachments of young children are shown behaviourally in their preferences for particular familiar people. Attachment was revised in 1982 to incorporate recent research. 2. Bowlby's attachment theory stresses the following important tenets:[19] 1. and the type of behaviour toward familiar adults shown by toddlers has some continuity with the social behaviours they will show later in life. were presented to the British Psychoanalytical Society in London in three now classic papers: The Nature of the Child’s Tie to His Mother (1958). [17] Bowlby's legacy Although not without its critics. According to attachment theory. which discusses Darwin's "mysterious illness" and whether it was psychosomatic. building on concepts from ethology and developmental psychology. especially if the adults are sensitive and responsive to child communications. and who remain as consistent caregivers for some months during the period from about 6 months to two years of age. and Grief and Mourning in Infancy and Early Childhood (1960).[18] As it is presently formulated and used for research purposes. The quality of the social engagement appears to be more influential than amount of time spent. without which normal social and emotional development will not occur.John Bowlby The "Attachment and Loss" trilogy Before the publication of the trilogy in 1969. Bowlby rejected psychoanalyst explanations for attachment. the main tenets of attachment theory.[16] The second and third volumes. At about the same time. thoughts. 3. 148 . and in return. it uses its attachment figure or figures as a "secure base" from which to explore. 1972 and 1980. published posthumously. Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment which in turn lead to 'internal working models' which will guide the individual's feelings.

Westport. LCCN 00266879. edu/ classics1986/ A1986F063100001. J (1951) Maternal Care and Mental Health. Loss: Sadness & Depression. ISBN 0-415-00640-6 (pbk) [12] Cassidy J. • Bowlby J (1988). 2nd edition.109). ISBN 0712666214 (pbk). ISBN 1855753855. "A Social Scientist's Approach to Maternal Deprivation. Attachment and Loss (vol. Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 42 (4): 370. 149 . B. ISBN 1-56821-757-9. 14. . London: Penguin Books. NJ. NLM 8412414. World Health Organization. Van der Veer R (2008). in Handbook of Attachment. A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. ed. The master work series (2nd ed.). J. OCLC 59246032." In Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects. Understanding Attachment. com/ content/ 47012q360531r664/ fulltext. J. Northvale. com/ smpp/ content~content=a773405215). (2006). pp. Attachment and Loss (vol.). pdf) [14] Van der Horst FCP. Cassandra's Daughter: A History of Psychoanalysis. ISBN 0-465-00543-8 (pbk). Van der Veer R.(1962 ) Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects.John Bowlby 4.). "Clinical Implications of Attachment Concepts: Retrospect and Prospect". Van IJzendoorn MH (2007).1080/14616730601149809. ""When strangers meet": John Bowlby and Harry Harlow on attachment behavior" (http:/ / www. New York: Basic Books. Karnac Books.CT:Praeger.' Westport. upenn. PMID 7650083. 17. Pelican books. • Bowlby J (1980). Eds. doi:10. Child Care and the Growth of Love. ISBN 0-465-00543-8 (pbk). ch. Cassidy J and Shaver PR. No. 759-775 [6] Bowlby. informaworld. London: Hogarth Press. OCLC 33105354. Attachment. p. (1991).x. OCLC 154150053. [4] Mercer. (International psycho-analytical library no. (International psycho-analytical library no. "John Bowlby and ethology: An annotated interview with Robert Hinde" (http:/ / www. London. OCLC 11442968. Public Health Papers.) (2nd edn. [3] Bowlby.28.P. Attachment and Loss (vol.. 1953 (above)). [16] Bowlby J [1969] (1999). Tavistock professional book. OCLC 8353942. OCLC 42913724. doi:10.1469-7610. 255-266 [8] Rutter. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved 2008-09-11. [Geneva. LCCN 00266879. NLM 8412414. doi:10.New York: Schocken. • Bowlby J (1973). . Attachment. • Bowlby J (1999) [1969]. responsive or consistent in their interactions. ISBN 0422622303 (pbk). pp. [15] Van der Horst FCP. 3]. New York: Norton. Routledge. [18] Schaffer R. 9781855753853. 14. ISBN 0-465-04238-4 (pbk). Fifty Years of Attachment Theory: Recollections of Donald Winnicott and John Bowlby. Maternal Care and Mental Health. 2). 3). M (1995). Guilford press. • Bowlby J (1976) [1965]. [9] Rutter (1981) Maternal Deprivation Reassessed. ISBN 0670886238. Penguin. World Health Organisation WHO [7] Wootton. 2007. [13] Bowlby J(1986) Citation Classic. [19] Mercer. Notes [1] Bowlby R and King P (2004). Monograph series no. Viking/Allen Lane. • Bowlby J (1991).tb02314. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 36 (4): 549–571. ed (Report. [5] Bretherton I. London: Jason Aronson. (2006). Separation: Anxiety & Anger. OCLC 11442968 [17] Bowlby. springerlink. (1962). [2] Schwartz J (1999).1007/s12124-008-9079-2. PMID 18766423. ISBN 0-14-013458-1. ISBN 9780393309300. Events that interfere with attachment.1995. Selected bibliography • Bowlby J (1995) [1950]. Public Health Papers.95). library. "The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth" (1992) Developmental Psychology vol. Charles Darwin: A New Life. New York: Norton. Maternal Care and Mental Health. Introducing Child Psychology. 'Understanding attachment. pdf) (PDF). garfield. 225. such as abrupt separation of the toddler from familiar people or the significant inability of carers to be sensitive. London: Routledge.89. Blackwell. No. Geneva: World Health Organization. Second edition. PMID 17852051. 1). New York: Basic Books. Charles Darwin: A New Life. LeRoy HA. Harmondsworth. Retrieved 2007-11-30. J. Attachment and Loss (vol. CT: Praeger. Fry M (abridged & ed. have short-term and possible long-term negative impacts on the child's emotional and cognitive life.). London: Hogarth Press. Attachment & Human Development 9 (4): 321–335. (1951).1111/j. Maternal Care and Mental Health (http:/ / www. World Health Organisation. (1999) "The Nature of a Childs Ties". p. [11] Bowlby J (1988) "A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory". Ainsworth MD (2 add. 1) (2nd ed. [10] Ainsworth M et al. J.

• John Bowlby . doi:10. Van der Veer R (2008). LeRoy HA. New York: Routledge. Attachment & Human Development 9 (4): 321–335. ISBN 0-415-07730-3 (pbk). ISBN 9780470683644. doi:10.com/John-Bowlby-Psychoanalysis-Unravelling-Attachment/dp/0470683643).uk/atws/ person/8.1080/14616730601149809.1002/(SICI)1520-6696(199822)34:3<247::AID-JHBS2>3. John Bowlby . doi:10. OCLC 1566542. PMID 18766423.5.0.1177/0952695106069666. "Between love and aggression: The politics of John Bowlby". London. doi:10. "Bowlby before Bowlby: The sources of an intellectual departure in psychoanalysis and psychology" (http://www3. Developmental Psychology 28 (5): 759–775. • Van der Horst FCP.richardatkins.759. Kuipers HJ (Summer 1998). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.1037/0012-1649. ISBN 1853433934 (pbk).2-N. New York: Free Association Books.interscience. Van der Veer R. John Bowlby and Attachment Theory.Rediscovering a systems scientist (http://isss. Retrieved 2007-09-01. Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences 34 (3): 247–269.John Bowlby • Bretherton I (September 1992).html) • John Bowlby: Attachment Theory Across Generations (http://video. History of the Human Sciences 19 (4): 19–35. Van IJzendoorn MH (2007). "John Bowlby and ethology: An annotated interview with Robert Hinde" (http://www.com/ videoplay?docid=-6894776599072526990) 4-minute clip from a documentary film used primarily in higher education. "The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth". Makers of modern psychotherapy. • Van der Horst FCP (2011). • Van Dijken S (1998).pdf) (PDF).28. ""When strangers meet": John Bowlby and Harry Harlow on attachment behavior" (http://www. • Van Dijken S.com/smpp/content~content=a773405215).com/ cgi-bin/abstract/76082/ABSTRACT).amazon. doi:10. Van der Veer R. Retrieved 2007-11-30. London.CO. • Mayhew B (November 2006). OCLC 27266442. John Bowlby: His Early Life: A Biographical Journey into the Roots of Attachment Theory.org/world/the-work-of-john-bowlby) A research report by the International Society for the Systems Sciences authored by Gary Metcalf in 2010 150 . Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 42 (4): 370.co. OCLC 39982501.1007/s12124-008-9079-2. External links • Summaries and links to full-text or articles and books by John Bowlby (http://www.google.From Psychoanalysis to Ethology. PMID 17852051.com/content/47012q360531r664/fulltext.springerlink. Unraveling the Roots of Attachment Theory (http://www.informaworld. Retrieved 2008-09-11.wiley. • Holmes J (1993). • Van der Horst FCP. Van IJzendoorn MH.

D in 1939. in 1936. Life Ainsworth was born in Glendale. She earned her B.A. parents both graduated from Dickinson College. all from the University of Toronto. her M. including the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Child Development in 1985 and the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the APA in 1989.avoidant and ambivalent children Mary Dinsmore Salter Ainsworth (December 1. insecurely attached . Ainsworth received many honors. 1999 (aged 85) Era 20th century philosophy Region Western Philosophy School Psychoanalysis Main interests Attachment theory Notable ideas Finding of securely attached.Mary Ainsworth 151 Mary Ainsworth Mary Ainsworth Full name Mary Ainsworth Born December 1. eldest of three sisters. She stayed to teach for a few years before joining the Canadian Women's Army Corp in 1942 in World War II. After many other academic positions. and her Ph. Ohio in 1913. She married Leonard Ainsworth in 1950 and moved to London with him to allow him to finish his graduate degree at University College. She returned to Toronto to continue teaching personality psychology and conduct research. she eventually settled at the University of Virginia in 1975.A. Her father earned his Master's in History and was transferred to a manufacturing firm in Canada when Ainsworth was five. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1992. Ohio Died March 21. it was William McDougall's book Character and the Conduct of Life that inspired her interest in psychology. in 1935. Ainsworth enrolled in honors program in psychology at the University of Toronto in the fall of 1929.[2] . where she remained the rest of her academic career. reaching the rank of Major in 1945. 1999)[1] was a Canadian developmental psychologist known for her work in early emotional attachment with "The Strange Situation" as well as her work in the development of Attachment Theory. 1913 – March 21. 1913 Glendale. While her parents always put a strong emphasis on education.

The child's reactions to the departure of its caregiver. educates the child in how to cope with the same problem in the future. method of assessing an infant's pattern and style of attachment to a caregiver. (See Attachment theory. Secure attachment A child who is securely attached to its mother will explore freely while the mother is present. Second separation episode: Infant is alone. 152 . According to some psychological researchers. 3.g. 2. Securely attached children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need (also known as "rapprochement. Parent and infant are alone. stranger leaves inconspicuously. Stranger enters. then approaches infant. will engage with strangers. First separation episode: Stranger's behaviour is geared to that of infant." meaning in French "bring together"). will be visibly upset when the mother departs and happy to see the mother return. In this procedure of the strange situation the child is observed playing for 20 minutes while caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room. secure attachment can be seen as the most adaptive attachment style. Therefore. which is a widely used. a child becomes securely attached when the mother is available and able to meet the needs of the child in a responsive and appropriate manner. Parent leaves inconspicuously. the child will not engage with a stranger if their mother is not in the room. Others have pointed out that there are also other determinants of the child's attachment. 8. this bolsters the sense of security and also. 4. the children were categorized into three groups. The child experiences the following situations: 1. Parent does not participate while infant explores. Ainsworth joined the research team at Tavistock Clinic investigating the effects of maternal separation on child development. However. to observe attachment relationships between a caregiver and child. 3." In 1954. Ainsworth devised a procedure. greets infant. Four aspects of the child's behaviour are observed: 1. Parent and infant are introduced to the experimental room. playing with new toys) the child engages in throughout. she left Tavistock Clinic to do research in Africa. The child's reunion behaviour with its caregiver. called A Strange Situation. On the basis of their behaviors. The stranger anxiety (when the baby is alone with the stranger). 6. recreating the flow of the familiar and unfamiliar presence in most children's lives. 4.Mary Ainsworth Early work While in England. Each of these groups reflects a different kind of attachment relationship with the caregiver. where she carried out her longitudinal field study of mother-infant interaction. and picks up infant. and that behavior of the parent may in turn be influenced by the child's behavior. When assistance is given.) Strange Situation In the 1970s. She and her colleagues developed the Strange Situation Procedure. Continuation of second separation episode: Stranger enters and gears behaviour to that of infant. The amount of exploration (e. 7. 2. Comparison of disrupted mother-child bonds to normal mother-child relationship showed that a child's lack of a mother figure leads to "adverse development effects. Second reunion episode: Parent enters. The situation varies in stressfulness and the child's responses are observed. then leaves again. assuming the mother's assistance is helpful. converses with parent. well researched and validated. with a fourth added later. 5. First reunion episode: Parent greets and comforts infant.

The child's needs are frequently not met and the child comes to believe that communication of needs has no influence on the caregiver.[8] To begin with. such as that in Japan (see Miyake et al. Also. The child may run away from the caregiver when s/he approaches and fail to cling to her/him when picked up. This is now more commonly known as amibivalent/resistant attachment as the child can't make up his mind about what he wants. This bad boy of attachment develops from a care-giving style which is more disengaged. Some show stereotyped behaviour.[6] Critique of the Strange Situation Protocol Michael Rutter describes the procedure in the following terms in 'The Clinical Implications of Attachment Concepts' from the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.. despite its manifest strengths. Also. Greenberg et al.Mary Ainsworth Anxious-resistant insecure attachment A child with an anxious-resistant attachment style is anxious of exploration and of strangers. Anxious-avoidant insecure attachment A child with a problem of the mental health attachment style will avoid or ignore the caregiver . Volume 36 No 4. That is. 1990)[10] [11] but it is much more dubious whether the same approach can be used in middle childhood. 56% of mothers who had lost a parent by death before they completed high school subsequently had children with disorganised attachments. then freeze or fall to the floor. this style develops from a mothering style which is engaged but on the mother's own terms.[3] but ambivalent attachment tends to be indicative of more maladaptive parenting and indicates a greater likelihood for attachment problems in the future. the procedure is based on just 20 minutes 153 . rocking to and fro or repeatedly hitting themselves. The child will be ambivalent when she returns . 1994.showing little emotion when the caregiver departs or returns.. and also resistant when the mother initiates attention.[7] "It is by no means free of limitations (see Lamb. According to some psychological researchers. Charnov & Estes.[5] A child may cry during separation but avoid the mother when she returns or may approach the mother. the baby may also hit or push his mother when she approaches and fail to cling to her when she picks him up. pp. When reunited with the mother. 1985). Gardener. the child is extremely distressed. There is not much emotional range regardless of who is in the room or if it is empty. Thompson. because older children have a cognitive capacity to maintain relationships when the older person is not present.seeking to remain close to the mother but resentful. 552–553. This maybe a major constraint when applying the procedure in cultures. Both ambivalent attachments and avoidant attachments are types of insecure attachments which are less desirable than secure attachments. when he is held he wants to be left alone and when he is left he clings to the mother.[9] where infants are rarely separated from their mothers in ordinary circumstances. it is very dependent on brief separations and reunions having the same meaning for all children.. When the mother departs. Strangers will not be treated much differently from the caregiver.[5] In fact. separation may not provide the same stress for them. sometimes the child's needs are ignored until some other activity is completed and that attention is sometimes given to the child more through the needs of the parent than from the child's initiation.. Main and Hesse[6] found that most of the mothers of these children had suffered major losses or other trauma shortly before or after the birth of the infant and had reacted by becoming severely depressed. The child will not explore very much regardless of who is there. Disorganized/disoriented attachment A fourth category was added by Ainsworth's colleague Mary Main[4] and Ainsworth accepted the validity of this modification. even when the mother is present. 1984). Modified procedures based on the Strange Situation have been developed for older preschool children (see Belsky et al.

One study was conducted in North Germany [14] in which more avoidant (A) infants were found than global norms would suggest.000 infant-parent dyads. Cassidy.'s (1978) original attachment classification distributions. a meta-analysis of 2. 1990). Ecological validity and universality of Strange Situation attachment classification distributions With respect to the ecological validity of the Strange Situation. and interviews with the mothers have developed in order to extend the data base (see Vaughn & Waters. These have been used either individually or in conjunction with discrete attachment classifications in many published reports [see Richters et al.[18] Van IJzendoorn et al.[19] ] The original Richter’s et al. 1998. Japan [15] where more resistant (C) infants were found. Not only is this likely to provide boundary problems.. It seems much more likely that infants vary in their degree of security and there is need for a measurement systems that can quantify individual variation". In particular. Of these two studies. controversy has been raised over a few cultural differences in these rates of 'global' attachment classification distributions. 1990). Sroufe. E. Beauchaine. (1978). but also it is not at all obvious that discrete categories best represent the concepts that are inherent in attachment security. two studies diverged from the global distributions of attachment classifications noted above. the Japanese findings have sparked the most controversy as to the meaning of individual differences in attachment behavior as originally identified by Ainsworth et al. In a recent study conducted in Sapporo. it should be noted that continuous measures of attachment security have been developed which have demonstrated adequate psychometric properties.[12] A further constraint is that the coding procedure results in discrete categories rather than continuously distributed dimensions.. 2007. and the other in Sapporo. correctly predicting about 90% of cases. Attachment measurement: discrete or continuous? Regarding the issue of whether the breadth of infant attachment functioning can be captured by a categorical classification scheme.[16] found attachment distributions consistent with global norms using the six-year Main & Cassidy scoring system for attachment classification.Mary Ainsworth of behavior. B (65%). A.[17] In addition to these findings supporting the global distributions of attachment classifications in Sapporo. It can be scarcely expected to tap all the relevant qualities of a child's attachment relationships.[19] Readers further interested in the categorical versus continuous nature of attachment classifications (and the debate surrounding this issue) should consult the paper by Fraley and Spieker [20] and the rejoinders in the same issue by many prominent attachment researchers including J. Cummings. and C (14%) [13] This global distribution was generally consistent with Ainsworth et al. Behrens et al. However. and M.. Q-sort procedures based on much longer naturalistic observations in the home. et al. 154 . Behrens. Waters & T. (1998) scale is strongly related to secure versus insecure classifications. also discuss the Japanese concept of amae and its relevance to questions concerning whether the insecure-resistant (C) style of interaction may be engendered in Japanese infants as a result of the cultural practice of amae. including several from studies with non-Western language and/or cultural bases found the global distribution of attachment categorizations to be A (21%).

Retrieved 6 April 2011. "Parents' unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganised attachment status". & Waters. K. Empirical classification of infant-mother relationships from interactive behavior and crying during reunion. A Handbook For Clinicians (pp. Blehar. p. Developmental Psychology. Retrieved 7 April 2011.. 43. M. M. 4. Serial No 209. Infancy in Uganda.. 549-571. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 39. Cross-cultural consistency of coding the strange situation. J. Hillsdale. H. Rutter & D. M. E. [5] Colin Murray Parkes (2006). theory research and intervention. Child Development. M.T. Cicchetti and E. 36. D. T. • Ainsworth. University of Chicago Press. In I. [17] Main. D. pdf). (1978). (1988). 147-156. University of Chicago Press. & Hesse. University of Chicago Press. A. Developmental Psychology. S. K. 121–160. (1988). Mothers’ Attachment Status as Determined by the Adult Attachment Interview Predicts Their 6-Year-Olds’ Reunion Responses: A Study Conducted in Japan. Bretherton & E Waters (Eds). [16] Behrens. its study and biological interpretations. M. Are Infant Attachment Patterns Continuously or Categorically Distributed? A Taxometric Analysis of Strange Situation Behavior. Growing points of attachment theory and research. R. Security of Infantile attachment as assessed in the 'Strange Situation'. (1990). Waters. (1981). Child Development. & Cassidy. International Journal of Behavioral Development. amacad. 155 . & Spieker.. aspx?recordId=81821039). Cicchetti. Infant temperament and mother's mode of interaction and attachment in Japan. 121–160. & Kroonenberg. Attachment behavior at home and in the laboratory. [11] Greenberg. "Procedures for identifying infants as disorganised/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation". Child Care and the Growth of Love. (1986). Cummings (eds) Attachment in the Preschool Years. Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: A meta-analysis of the strange-situation. E. [7] Rutter. Social Security Death Index. [20] Fraley. & Cummings. J. J (1990). Ainsworth" (http:/ / www. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins. J. & Vaughn. S. 276-297. J. Patterns of Attachment. & Wall. org/ PageDetail. 1780-2010: Chapter A" (http:/ / www. (1994). NJ: Erlbaum. M. E. [6] Main.T. F. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 7.H. M. M. 387-404. M.. Routledge. 1553–1567. (1990). E.... Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period. 13.. Chicago. 415-426. [10] Belsky. K. [13] Van IJzendoorn. Thompson. & Wartner. Waters. P. Chicago. Clinical implications of attachment concepts: Retrospect and Prospect. 373-402). an interim report. B. References [1] "Mary D. Charnov & Estes. org/ publications/ BookofMembers/ ChapterA. & Campos (1985). pp. Chicago. In M.. Cicchetti and E. Greenberg. M. 59. [18] Richters. C. Examining the Strange-Situation procedure with Japanese mothers and 12-month old infants. Cummings (eds) Attachment in the Preschool Years. Gardener. (2003). (1990). London and New York. [15] Takahashi. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Grossmann. German children's behavior toward their mothers at 12 months and their fathers at 18 months in Ainsworth's strange situation. & Kroonenberg. • Ainsworth. M and Hesse. 50. [19] Van IJzendoorn.(1984).M. London: Penguin Books. E. J. (2007). 59. (1965). Greenberg. 24. [3] Rathus... (1995). Main. (1988). & Cassidy. Infant Behavior and Development. M. . (2009) Psych. Mason: Cengage Learning [4] Main. B.. U. 469-485. E. (Eds). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines.E. S. 127-147 [9] Miyake. [2] "Book of Members. E (1990). Oxford. . M. Hay (Eds) Development Through Life. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. (1967). M. Developmental Psychology. Attachment in the preschool years.. 1965-1973.M. P. Attachment Theory and Evidence. Child Development. 512-522. Chen. [12] Vaughn.Mary Ainsworth Major works • Ainsworth.. K. pp. [14] Grossmann. E. [8] Lamb. 13. and Bowlby. americanancestors. 265-270.. D. Huber. 157-184. J. Love and Loss. Developmental Psychology. M and Solomon. Y. M. 22.M. 61.

and has been a Trustee of the Nuffield Foundation since 1992. studies of autism involving a wide range of scientific techniques and disciplines. The British Journal of Psychiatry credits him with a number of "breakthroughs"[2] in these areas.[3] He has published over 400 scientific papers and chapters and some 40 books. Michael Rutter For the motorcycle racer.htm) • Women's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society (http://www. see Michael Rutter (motorcycle racer) Sir Michael L. N. He was the European Editor for Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders from 1974 till 1994. External links • Mary Ainsworth on The Psi Cafe (http://www. & Rusoo. stress. Rutter's work includes: early epidemiologic studies (Isle of Wight and Inner London). Early life Rutter was the oldest child born to Alice (née Rudman) & Frank Rutter. reading disorders.pdx.richardatkins. longitudinal as well as epidemiologic studies. Rutter (born 1934) is the first consultant of child psychiatry in the United Kingdom. biological and social.edu/~woolflm/ ainsworth.uk/atws/ person/1. New York: Columbia University Press. influences of families and schools. including DNA study and neuroimaging. A. King's College London and consultant psychiatrist at the Maudsley Hospital.google. 156 . genetics.Mary Ainsworth Further reading • O'Connell.html) • Articles by Mary Ainsworth including summaries and links to full-text (http://www. links between research and practice. and continuities and discontinuities in normal and pathological development.F. deprivation.com/ videoplay?docid=-3634664472704568591) 4-minute clip from a documentary film used primarily in higher education.. Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre 10 years later. being honorary director of both until October 1998.psy. including childhood and adult experiences and conditions. Career Rutter set up the Medical Research Council (UK) Child Psychiatry Research Unit in 1984 and the Social.[1] Currently he is Professor of Developmental Psychopathology at the Institute of Psychiatry. interactions of biological and social factors. He was Deputy Chairman of the Wellcome Trust from 1999 to 2004.html) • Mary Ainsworth: Attachment and the Growth of Love (http://video. protective and risk factors.edu/PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Ainsworth. a post he has held since 1966. (1983).N.co. Rutter is also recognized as contributing centrally to the establishment of child psychiatry as a medical and biopsychosocial specialty with a solid scientific base.webster. Models of achievement: Reflections of eminent women in psychology. He has been described as the "father of child psychology".

Rutter 1979) comprising the definitive empirical evaluation and update of Bowlby's early work on maternal deprivation. addressed the many different underlying social and psychological mechanisms and showed that Bowlby was only partially right and often for the wrong reasons. L (2003). is named after him. Jan. M (1981) Maternal Deprivation Reassessed. gelenbe/ AEInformatics. World Health Organisation WHO [6] Holmes J.[4] [6] After the end of the Ceasescu regime in Romania in 1989. East Anglia. Rutter highlighted the other forms of deprivation found in institutional care. Cambridge and Yale. British Journal of Psychiatry. Jun. 2005.Michael Rutter In 1972 Rutter published 'Maternal Deprivation Reassessed'. This theory was both influential and controversial. iis. 1111/ j. Harmondsworth. Am J Psychiatry. html [9] http:/ / www. Eric Taylor: The cheerful pessimist.00388. ISSN 0009-3920. uk/ html 157 . M (Jan/Feb 2002). 00115. and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment” and that not to do so may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences. (http:/ / ajp. He is a Founding Fellow of the Academia Europaea [8] and the Academy of Medical Sciences [9] and was knighted in 1992. J (1951) Maternal Care and Mental Health.10(1):40–41. "Nature. University of London.[4] which New Society describes as "a classic in the field of child care".174:471-475. and development: From evangelism through science toward policy and practice". 49-53. The citation for his knighthood reads: Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Minnesota. based at Maudsley Hospital. Review of Green & Yule.[4] in which he evaluated the maternal deprivation hypothesis propounded by Dr John Bowlby in 1951. the complexity of separation distress and suggested that anti-social behaviour was not linked to maternal deprivation as such but to family discord. London. pp. Rutter is an honorary member of the British Academy and is an elected Fellow of the Royal Society. Rutter led the English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team. ac. Institute of Psychiatry.[7] Awards and honors Rutter has honorary degrees from the Universities of Leiden. The importance of these refinements of the maternal deprivation hypothesis was to reposition it as a "vulnerability factor" rather than a causative agent. x) [2] Kolvin. References [1] Pearce. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 160/ 1/ 196) [4] Rutter. Edinburgh. I (1999). with a number of varied influences determining which path a child will take.[5] Bowlby had proposed that “the infant and young child should experience a warm.1111/1467-8624. ISBN 0-415-07729-X [7] Rutter. The results yielded some reason for optimism. nurture. Ghent. Jyväskylä. his 1981 monograph and other papers (Rutter 1972.Feb.160:196-197. Warwick. (http:/ / www. PMID 14717240. Birmingham. (1993) John Bowlby & Attachment Theory. [5] Bowlby. 1475-3588. blackwell-synergy. uk/ ~e. [8] http:/ / www. Second edition. acmedsci. Chicago. Research and Innovation on the Road to Modern Child Psychiatry. ac. ee. ic. Children playing Rutter made a significant contribution. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. He amassed further evidence. Child Development 73 (1): 1–21. intimate. The contribution of Michael Rutter. Routledge. Louvain. [3] Hartman. Penguin. following many of the orphans adopted into Western families into their teens in a series of substantial studies on the effects of early privation and deprivation across multiple domains affecting child development including attachment and the development of new relationships. doi:10. J (2005). psychiatryonline. He has remained in practice until late into his career and the Michael Rutter Centre for Children and Adolescents. com/ doi/ abs/ 10.

Later he went on to formulate attachment theory. was identified later. and ethological theory. introduced the concept of the "secure base"[5] and developed a theory of a number of attachment patterns in infants: secure attachment.[2] Separation anxiety or grief following the loss of an attachment figure is considered to be a normal and adaptive response for an attached infant. these.[8] Attachment theory has formed the basis of new therapies and informed existing ones. For infants and toddlers. attachment theory has since become "the dominant approach to understanding early social development. and the limitations of discrete patterns for classifications. and its .[8] however. Attachment theory has been significantly modified as a result of empirical research.[4] After preliminary papers from 1958 onwards. thoughts and expectations in later relationships. and who remain as consistent caregivers for some months during the period from about six months to two years of age.[7] Other interactions may be construed as including components of attachment behaviour. emotions. academic psychologists criticized Bowlby. in turn. including evolutionary biology. Research by developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth in the 1960s and 70s reinforced the basic concepts. Attachment theory is an interdisciplinary study encompassing the fields of psychological. romantic and sexual attraction and responses to the care needs of infants or the sick and elderly. insecure-avoidant attachment and insecure-ambivalent attachment. evolutionary. Bowlby published a complete study in 3 volumes Attachment and Loss (1969–82). Its most important tenet is that an infant needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for social and emotional development to occur normally. homeless and orphaned children presented many difficulties. These behaviours may have evolved because they increase the probability of survival of the child.Attachment theory 158 Attachment theory Attachment theory describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans. lead to internal working models which will guide the individual's perceptions.[1] and psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby was asked by the UN to write a pamphlet on the matter. When an infant begins to crawl and walk they begin to use attachment figures (familiar people) as a secure base to explore from and return to. usually the parents. To formulate a comprehensive theory of the nature of early attachments. the theory was extended to attachment in adults. In the early days of the theory. and the psychoanalytic community ostracised him for his departure from psychoanalytical tenets.[9] Later criticisms of attachment theory relate to temperament. disorganized attachment. Immediately after WWII. but the concepts have become generally accepted. the "set-goal" of the attachment behavioural system is to maintain or achieve proximity to attachment figures. these include peer relationships at all ages. Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with them. A fourth pattern.[3] Infant behaviour associated with attachment is primarily the seeking of proximity to an attachment figure. and has given rise to a great surge of empirical research into the formation of children's close relationships".[6] In the 1980s. and the fields of ethology and cognitive psychology. Bowlby explored a range of fields. control systems theory. the complexity of social relationships. object relations theory (a branch of psychoanalysis). Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment.

[11] for the purpose of survival and. this means a set of responsive in social interactions with them. physical separation is no longer such a threat to the child's bond with the attachment figure. In child-to-adult relationships.Attachment theory concepts have been used in the formulation of social and childcare policies to support the early attachment relationships of children. the child's tie is called the "attachment" and the caregiver's reciprocal equivalent is referred to as the "care-giving bond".[10] Attachment Within attachment theory. genetic replication. nor is it synonymous with love and affection. behaviours that involves engaging in lively social interaction with the infant and responding readily to signals and approaches. most come to do so during their second year.[17] In infants. If the figure is unavailable or unresponsive. breakdowns in communication. although these may indicate that bonds exist.[14] Some infants direct attachment behaviour (proximity seeking) towards more than one attachment figure almost as soon as they start to show discrimination between caregivers. followed by sadness and despair. infants will form role can be taken by anyone who consistently behaves in a "mothering" attachments to any caregiver who is sensitive and way over a period of time. Threats to security in older children and adults arise from prolonged absence. with the principal attachment figure at the top. The theory proposes that children attach to carers instinctively.[12] Infants form attachments to any consistent caregiver who is sensitive and responsive in social interactions with them.[16] 159 . By age three or four. separation distress occurs. attachment means an affectional bond or tie between an individual and an attachment figure (usually a caregiver). In attachment theory.[15] The set-goal of the attachment behavioural system is to maintain a bond with an accessible and available attachment figure.[13] Nothing in the theory suggests that fathers are not equally likely to become principal attachment figures if they provide most of the child care and related social interaction. Such bonds may be reciprocal between two adults. emotional unavailability or signs of rejection or abandonment. security and protection. physical separation can cause anxiety and anger.[16] "Alarm" is the term used for activation of the attachment behavioural system caused by fear of danger. These figures are arranged hierarchically.[9] Attachment theory is not an exhaustive description of human relationships. but between a child and a caregiver these bonds are based on the child's need for safety. The quality of the social engagement is more influential than the amount of time spent. The biological mother is the usual principal attachment figure. paramount in infancy and childhood. but the Although it is usual for the mother to be the primary attachment figure.[12] The biological aim is survival and the psychological aim is security. ultimately. "Anxiety" is the anticipation or fear of being cut off from the attachment figure.

[17] The attachment system is very robust and young humans form attachments easily. According to Bowlby. Preferences for certain people. During the first phase (the first eight weeks).[22] After the second year. these behaviours are directed at anyone in the vicinity.[23] Children begin to notice others' goals and feelings and plan their actions accordingly. infants smile.[18] Pre-attachment behaviours occur in the first six months of life. the infant increasingly discriminates between familiar and unfamiliar adults. If the caregiver is inaccessible or unresponsive.[25] Infants in their first months have no preference for their biological parents over strangers. Although infants of this age learn to discriminate between caregivers. greeting the caregiver's return. Human evolution has involved selection for social behaviours that make individual or group survival more likely. even in far less than ideal circumstances. For example. babble and cry to attract the attention of caregivers. significant separation from a familiar caregiver—or frequent changes of caregiver that prevent the development of attachment—may result in psychopathology at some point in later life. attachment behaviour is more strongly exhibited. range of attachment behaviours designed to maintain proximity. this indicates that the bond no longer depends on the presence of the caregiver. as the child begins to see the carer as an independent person. clinging when frightened and following when able. A securely attached baby is free secure.Attachment theory Behaviours The attachment behavioural system serves to maintain or achieve closer proximity to the attachment figure. the infant is able to display a to concentrate on her or his environment. becoming more responsive towards the caregiver.[24] There is a survival advantage in the capacity to sense possibly dangerous conditions such as unfamiliarity. illness and fatigue will cause a child to increase attachment behaviours. between the ages of six months and two years. Bowlby saw the environment of early adaptation as similar to current hunter-gatherer societies. The infant's behaviour towards the caregiver becomes organised Insecure attachment patterns can compromise exploration and the achievement of on a goal-directed basis to achieve the conditions that make it feel [19] self-confidence.[25] When an infant is upset by separation from their caregiver. cry louder. By the end of the first year. and if that does not work. whereas babies cry because of pain.[25] In spite of this robustness. and has such advantages today.[19] Infant exploration is greater when the caregiver is present because the infant's attachment system is relaxed and it is free to explore. fear.[9] Tenets Common human attachment behaviours and emotions are adaptive. These manifest as protesting the caregiver's departure. shout or follow.[9] 160 . plus behaviours which solicit their attention and care. The commonly observed attachment behaviour of toddlers staying near familiar people would have had safety advantages in the environment of early adaptation.[20] With the development of locomotion. being alone or rapid approach.[21] Anxiety. Clear-cut attachment develops in the third phase. but is of an enduring nature. two-year-olds cry to summon their caregiver. During the second phase (two to six months). the infant begins to use the caregiver or caregivers as a safe base from which to explore. following and clinging are added to the range of behaviours. a more complex and goal-corrected partnership is formed. are developed over a considerable period of time. proximity-seeking to the attachment figure in the face of threat is the "set-goal" of the attachment behavioural system.

Attachment theory

Early experiences with caregivers gradually give
rise to a system of thoughts, memories, beliefs,
expectations, emotions and behaviours about the
self and others.

161
Bowlby's original sensitivity period of between six months and two to
three years has been modified to a less "all or nothing" approach. There
is a sensitive period during which it is highly desirable that selective
attachments develop, but the time frame is broader and the effect less
fixed and irreversible than first proposed. With further research,
authors discussing attachment theory have come to appreciate that
social development is affected by later as well as earlier
relationships.[8] Early steps in attachment take place most easily if the
infant has one caregiver, or the occasional care of a small number of
other people.[25] According to Bowlby, almost from the first many
children have more than one figure towards whom they direct
attachment behaviour. These figures are not treated alike; there is a
strong bias for a child to direct attachment behaviour mainly towards
one particular person. Bowlby used the term "monotropy" to describe
this bias.[26] Researchers and theorists have abandoned this concept
insofar as it may be taken to mean that the relationship with the special
figure differs qualitatively from that of other figures. Rather, current
thinking postulates definite hierarchies of relationships.[8] [27]

Early experiences with caregivers gradually give rise to a system of
thoughts, memories, beliefs, expectations, emotions, and behaviours about the self and others. This system, called
the "internal working model of social relationships", continues to develop with time and experience.[28] Internal
models regulate, interpret and predict attachment-related behaviour in the self and the attachment figure. As they
develop in line with environmental and developmental changes, they incorporate the capacity to reflect and
communicate about past and future attachment relationships.[2] They enable the child to handle new types of social
interactions; knowing, for example, that an infant should be treated differently from an older child, or that
interactions with teachers and parents share characteristics. This internal working model continues to develop
through adulthood, helping cope with friendships, marriage and parenthood, all of which involve different
behaviours and feelings.[28] [29] The development of attachment is a transactional process. Specific attachment
behaviours begin with predictable, apparently innate, behaviours in infancy. They change with age in ways that are
determined partly by experiences and partly by situational factors.[30] As attachment behaviours change with age,
they do so in ways shaped by relationships. A child's behaviour when reunited with a caregiver is determined not
only by how the caregiver has treated the child before, but on the history of effects the child has had on the
caregiver.[31] [32]

Changes in attachment during childhood and adolescence
Age, cognitive growth and continued social experience advance the development and complexity of the internal
working model. Attachment-related behaviours lose some characteristics typical of the infant-toddler period and take
on age-related tendencies. The preschool period involves the use of negotiation and bargaining.[33] For example,
four-year-olds are not distressed by separation if they and their caregiver have already negotiated a shared plan for
the separation and reunion.[34]

Attachment theory

Ideally, these social skills become incorporated into the internal
working model to be used with other children and later with adult
peers. As children move into the school years at about six years old,
most develop a goal-corrected partnership with parents, in which each
partner is willing to compromise in order to maintain a gratifying
relationship.[33] By middle childhood, the goal of the attachment
behavioural system has changed from proximity to the attachment
figure to availability. Generally, a child is content with longer
separations, provided contact—or the possibility of physically
reuniting, if needed—is available. Attachment behaviours such as
clinging and following decline and self-reliance increases.[35] By
middle childhood (ages 7–11), there may be a shift towards mutual
coregulation of secure-base contact in which caregiver and child
negotiate methods of maintaining communication and supervision as
the child moves towards a greater degree of independence.[33]

162

Peers become important in middle childhood and
have an influence distinct from that of parents.

In early childhood, parental figures remain the centre of a child's social world, even if they spend substantial periods
of time in alternative care. This gradually lessens, particularly during the child's entrance into formal schooling.[35]
The attachment models of young children are typically assessed in relation to particular figures, such as parents or
other caregivers. There appear to be limitations in their thinking that restrict their ability to integrate relationship
experiences into a single general model. Children usually begin to develop a single general model of attachment
relationships during adolescence, although this may occur in middle childhood.[35]
Relationships with peers have an influence on the child that is distinct from that of parent-child relationships, though
the latter can influence the peer relationships children form.[9] Although peers become important in middle
childhood, the evidence suggests peers do not become attachment figures, though children may direct attachment
behaviours at peers if parental figures are unavailable. Attachments to peers tend to emerge in adolescence, although
parents continue to be attachment figures.[35] With adolescents, the role of the parental figures is to be available
when needed while the adolescent makes excursions into the outside world.[36]

Attachment patterns
Much of attachment theory was informed by Mary Ainsworth's innovative methodology and observational studies,
particularly those undertaken in Scotland and Uganda. Ainsworth's work expanded the theory's concepts and enabled
empirical testing of its tenets.[5] Using Bowlby's early formulation, she conducted observational research on
infant-parent pairs (or dyads) during the child's first year, combining extensive home visits with the study of
behaviours in particular situations. This early research was published in 1967 in a book titled Infancy in Uganda.[5]
Ainsworth identified three attachment styles, or patterns, that a child may have with attachment figures: secure,
anxious-avoidant (insecure) and anxious-ambivalent or resistant (insecure). She devised a procedure known as the
Strange Situation Protocol as the laboratory portion of her larger study, to assess separation and reunion
behaviour.[37] This is a standardised research tool used to assess attachment patterns in infants and toddlers. By
creating stresses designed to activate attachment behaviour, the procedure reveals how very young children use their
caregiver as a source of security.[9] Carer and child are placed in an unfamiliar playroom while a researcher records
specific behaviours, observing through a one-way mirror. In eight different episodes, the child experiences
separation from/reunion with the carer and the presence of an unfamiliar stranger.[37]
Ainsworth's work in the United States attracted many scholars into the field, inspiring research and challenging the
dominance of behaviourism.[38] Further research by Mary Main and colleagues at the University of California,
Berkeley identified a fourth attachment pattern, called disorganized/disoriented attachment. The name reflects these

Attachment theory

163

children's lack of a coherent coping strategy.[39]
The type of attachment developed by infants depends on the quality of care they have received.[40] Each of the
attachment patterns is associated with certain characteristic patterns of behaviour, as described in the following table:
[37] [39]

Child and caregiver behaviour patterns before the age of 18 months
Attachment
pattern

Child

Caregiver

Secure

Uses caregiver as a secure base for exploration. Protests
Responds appropriately, promptly
caregiver's departure and seeks proximity and is comforted
and consistently to needs. Caregiver
on return, returning to exploration. May be comforted by the has successfully formed a secure
stranger but shows clear preference for the caregiver.
parental attachment bond to the
child.

Avoidant

Little affective sharing in play. Little or no distress on
departure, little or no visible response to return, ignoring or
turning away with no effort to maintain contact if picked up.
Treats the stranger similarly to the caregiver. The child feels
that there is no attachment; therefore, the child is rebellious
and has a lower self-image and self-esteem.

Little or no response to distressed
child. Discourages crying and
encourages independence.

Ambivalent/Resistant Unable to use caregiver as a secure base, seeking proximity
Inconsistent between appropriate
before separation occurs. Distressed on separation with
and neglectful responses. Generally
ambivalence, anger, reluctance to warm to caregiver and
will only respond after increased
return to play on return. Preoccupied with caregiver's
attachment behavior from the infant.
availability, seeking contact but resisting angrily when it is
achieved. Not easily calmed by stranger. In this relationship,
the child always feels anxious because the caregiver's
availability is never consistent.
Disorganized

Stereotypies on return such as freezing or rocking. Lack of
coherent attachment strategy shown by contradictory,
disoriented behaviours such as approaching but with the
back turned.

Frightened or frightening behaviour,
intrusiveness, withdrawal, negativity,
role confusion, affective
communication errors and
maltreatment. Very often associated
with many forms of abuse towards
the child.

The presence of an attachment is distinct from its quality. Infants form attachments if there is someone to interact
with, even if mistreated. Individual differences in the relationships reflect the history of care, as infants begin to
predict the behaviour of caregivers through repeated interactions.[41] The focus is the organisation (pattern) rather
than quantity of attachment behaviours. Insecure attachment patterns are non-optimal as they can compromise
exploration, self-confidence and mastery of the environment. However, insecure patterns are also adaptive, as they
are suitable responses to caregiver unresponsiveness. For example, in the avoidant pattern, minimising expressions
of attachment even in conditions of mild threat may forestall alienating caregivers who are already rejecting, thus
leaving open the possibility of responsiveness should a more serious threat arise.[41]
Around 65% of children in the general population may be classified as having a secure pattern of attachment, with
the remaining 35% being divided between the insecure classifications.[42] Recent research has sought to ascertain the
extent to which a parent's attachment classification is predictive of their children's classification. Parents' perceptions
of their own childhood attachments were found to predict their children's classifications 75% of the time.[43] [44] [45]
Over the short term, the stability of attachment classifications is high, but becomes less so over the long term.[9] It
appears that stability of classification is linked to stability in caregiving conditions. Social stressors or negative life
events—such as illness, death, abuse or divorce—are associated with instability of attachment patterns from infancy
to early adulthood, particularly from secure to insecure.[46] Conversely, these difficulties sometimes reflect particular

Attachment theory
upheavals in people's lives, which may change. Sometimes, parents' responses change as the child develops,
changing classification from insecure to secure. Fundamental changes can and do take place after the critical early
period.[47] Physically abused and neglected children are less likely to develop secure attachments, and their insecure
classifications tend to persist through the pre-school years. Neglect alone is associated with insecure attachment
organisations, and rates of disorganized attachment are markedly elevated in maltreated infants.[40]
This situation is complicated by difficulties in assessing attachment classification in older age groups. The Strange
Situation procedure is for ages 12 to 18 months only;[9] adapted versions exist for pre-school children.[48]
Techniques have been developed to allow verbal ascertainment of the child's state of mind with respect to
attachment. An example is the "stem story", in which a child is given the beginning of a story that raises attachment
issues and asked to complete it. For older children, adolescents and adults, semi-structured interviews are used in
which the manner of relaying content may be as significant as the content itself.[9] However, there are no
substantially validated measures of attachment for middle childhood or early adolescence (approximately 7 to 13
years of age).[48]
Some authors have questioned the idea that a taxonomy of categories representing a qualitative difference in
attachment relationships can be developed. Examination of data from 1,139 15-month-olds showed that variation in
attachment patterns was continuous rather than grouped.[49] This criticism introduces important questions for
attachment typologies and the mechanisms behind apparent types. However, it has relatively little relevance for
attachment theory itself, which "neither requires nor predicts discrete patterns of attachment".[50]

Significance of attachment patterns
There is an extensive body of research demonstrating a significant association between attachment organisations and
children's functioning across multiple domains.[40] Early insecure attachment does not necessarily predict
difficulties, but it is a liability for the child, particularly if similar parental behaviours continue throughout
childhood.[47] Compared to that of securely attached children, the adjustment of insecure children in many spheres of
life is not as soundly based, putting their future relationships in jeopardy. Although the link is not fully established
by research and there are other influences besides attachment, secure infants are more likely to become socially
competent than their insecure peers. Relationships formed with peers influence the acquisition of social skills,
intellectual development and the formation of social identity. Classification of children's peer status (popular,
neglected or rejected) has been found to predict subsequent adjustment.[9] Insecure children, particularly avoidant
children, are especially vulnerable to family risk. Their social and behavioural problems increase or decline with
deterioration or improvement in parenting. However, an early secure attachment appears to have a lasting protective
function.[51] As with attachment to parental figures, subsequent experiences may alter the course of development.[9]
The most concerning pattern is disorganized attachment. About 80% of maltreated infants are likely to be classified
as disorganized, as opposed to about 12% found in non-maltreated samples. Only about 15% of maltreated infants
are likely to be classified as secure. Children with a disorganized pattern in infancy tend to show markedly disturbed
patterns of relationships. Subsequently their relationships with peers can often be characterised by a "fight or flight"
pattern of alternate aggression and withdrawal. Affected maltreated children are also more likely to become
maltreating parents. A minority of maltreated children do not, instead achieving secure attachments, good
relationships with peers and non-abusive parenting styles.[9] The link between insecure attachment, particularly the
disorganized classification, and the emergence of childhood psychopathology is well-established, although it is a
non-specific risk factor for future problems, not a pathology or a direct cause of pathology in itself.[40] In the
classroom, it appears that ambivalent children are at an elevated risk for internalising disorders, and avoidant and
disorganized children, for externalising disorders.[51]
One explanation for the effects of early attachment classifications may lie in the internal working model mechanism.
Internal models are not just "pictures" but refer to the feelings aroused. They enable a person to anticipate and
interpret another's behaviour and plan a response. If an infant experiences their caregiver as a source of security and

164

Attachment theory

165

support, they are more likely to develop a positive self-image and expect positive reactions from others. Conversely,
a child from an abusive relationship with the caregiver may internalise a negative self-image and generalise negative
expectations into other relationships. The internal working models on which attachment behaviour is based show a
degree of continuity and stability. Children are likely to fall into the same categories as their primary caregivers
indicating that the caregivers' internal working models affect the way they relate to their child. This effect has been
observed to continue across three generations. Bowlby believed that the earliest models formed were the most likely
to persist because they existed in the subconscious. Such models are not, however, impervious to change given
further relationship experiences; a minority of children have different attachment classifications with different
caregivers.[9]
There is some evidence that gender differences in attachment patterns of adaptive significance begin to emerge in
middle childhood. Insecure attachment and early psychosocial stress indicate the presence of environmental risk (for
example poverty, mental illness, instability, minority status, violence). This can tend to favour the development of
strategies for earlier reproduction. However, different patterns have different adaptive values for males and females.
Insecure males tend to adopt avoidant strategies, whereas insecure females tend to adopt anxious/ambivalent
strategies, unless they are in a very high risk environment. Adrenarche is proposed as the endocrine mechanism
underlying the reorganisation of insecure attachment in middle childhood.[46]

Attachment in adults
Attachment theory was extended to adult romantic relationships in the late 1980s by Cindy Hazan and Phillip
Shaver. Four styles of attachment have been identified in adults: secure, anxious-preoccupied, dismissive-avoidant
and fearful-avoidant. These roughly correspond to infant classifications: secure, insecure-ambivalent,
insecure-avoidant and disorganized/disoriented.
Securely attached adults tend to have positive views of themselves, their partners and their relationships. They feel
comfortable with intimacy and independence, balancing the two. Anxious-preoccupied adults seek high levels of
intimacy, approval and responsiveness from partners, becoming overly dependent. They tend to be less trusting, have
less positive views about themselves and their partners, and may exhibit high levels of emotional expressiveness,
worry and impulsiveness in their relationships. Dismissive-avoidant adults desire a high level of independence, often
appearing to avoid attachment altogether. They view themselves as self-sufficient, invulnerable to attachment
feelings and not needing close relationships. They tend to suppress their feelings, dealing with rejection by
distancing themselves from partners of whom they often have a poor opinion. Fearful-avoidant adults have mixed
feelings about close relationships, both desiring and feeling uncomfortable with emotional closeness. They tend to
mistrust their partners and view themselves as unworthy. Like dismissive-avoidant adults, fearful-avoidant adults
tend to seek less intimacy, suppressing their feelings.[7] [52] [53] [54]
Two main aspects of adult attachment have been studied. The
organisation and stability of the mental working models that underlie
the attachment styles is explored by social psychologists interested in
romantic attachment.[55] [56] Developmental psychologists interested in
the individual's state of mind with respect to attachment generally
explore how attachment functions in relationship dynamics and
impacts relationship outcomes. The organisation of mental working
models is more stable while the individual's state of mind with respect
to attachment fluctuates more. Some authors have suggested that adults
do not hold a single set of working models. Instead, on one level they
have a set of rules and assumptions about attachment relationships in

Attachment styles in adult romantic relationships
roughly correspond to attachment styles in infants
but adults can hold different internal working
models for different relationships.

Attachment theory
general. On another level they hold information about specific relationships or relationship events. Information at
different levels need not be consistent. Individuals can therefore hold different internal working models for different
relationships.[56] [57]
There are a number of different measures of adult attachment, the most common being self report questionnaires and
coded interviews based on the Adult Attachment Interview. The various measures were developed primarily as
research tools, for different purposes and addressing different domains, for example romantic relationships, parental
relationships or peer relationships. Some classify an adult's state of mind with respect to attachment and attachment
patterns by reference to childhood experiences, while others assess relationship behaviours and security regarding
parents and peers.[58]

History
Earlier theories
The concept of infants' emotional attachment to caregivers has been known anecdotally for hundreds of years. From
the late 19th century onward, psychologists and psychiatrists suggested theories about the existence or nature of
early relationships.[59] Early Freudian theory had little to say about a child's relationship with the mother, postulating
only that the breast was the love object.[60] Freudians attributed the infant's attempts to stay near the familiar person
to motivation learned through feeding and gratification of libidinal drives. In the 1930s, British developmental
psychologist Ian Suttie suggested that the child's need for affection was a primary one, not based on hunger or other
physical gratifications.[61] William Blatz, a Canadian psychologist and teacher of Mary Ainsworth, also stressed the
importance of social relationships for development. Blatz proposed that the need for security was a normal part of
personality, as was the use of others as a secure base.[62] Observers from the 1940s onward focused on anxiety
displayed by infants and toddlers threatened with separation from a familiar caregiver.[63] [64]
Another theory prevalent at the time of Bowlby's development of attachment theory was "dependency". This
proposed that infants were dependent on adult caregivers but outgrew it in the course of early childhood; attachment
behaviour in older children would thus be seen as regressive. Attachment theory assumes older children and adults
retain attachment behaviour, displaying it in stressful situations. Indeed, a secure attachment is associated with
independent exploratory behaviour rather than dependence.[65] Bowlby developed attachment theory as a
consequence of his dissatisfaction with existing theories of early relationships.[1]

166

Attachment theory

167

Maternal deprivation
The early thinking of the object relations school of psychoanalysis, particularly Melanie Klein, influenced Bowlby.
However, he profoundly disagreed with the prevalent psychoanalytic belief that infants' responses relate to their
internal fantasy life rather than real-life events. As Bowlby formulated his concepts, he was influenced by case
studies on disturbed and delinquent children, such as those of William Goldfarb published in 1943 and 1945.[66] [67]
Bowlby's contemporary René Spitz observed
separated children's grief, proposing that
"psychotoxic" results were brought about by
inappropriate experiences of early care.[68] [69] A
strong influence was the work of social worker
and psychoanalyst James Robertson who filmed
the effects of separation on children in hospital.
He and Bowlby collaborated in making the 1952
documentary film A Two-Year Old Goes to the
Hospital which was instrumental in a campaign
to alter hospital restrictions on visits by
parents.[70]

Prayer time in the Five Points House of Industry residential nursery, 1888.
The maternal deprivation hypothesis published in 1951 caused a revolution in
the use of residential nurseries.

In his 1951 monograph for the World Health
Organisation, Maternal Care and Mental Health,
Bowlby put forward the hypothesis that "the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and
continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and
enjoyment", the lack of which may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences. This was also
published as Child Care and the Growth of Love for public consumption. The central proposition was influential but
highly controversial.[71] At the time there was limited empirical data and no comprehensive theory to account for
such a conclusion.[72] Nevertheless, Bowlby's theory sparked considerable interest in the nature of early
relationships, giving a strong impetus to, (in the words of Mary Ainsworth), a "great body of research" in an
extremely difficult, complex area.[71] Bowlby's work (and Robertson's films) caused a virtual revolution in hospital
visiting by parents, hospital provision for children's play, educational and social needs and the use of residential
nurseries. Over time, orphanages were abandoned in favour of foster care or family-style homes in most developed
countries.[73]

Formulation of the theory
Following the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health, Bowlby sought new understanding from the fields
of evolutionary biology, ethology, developmental psychology, cognitive science and control systems theory. He
formulated the innovative proposition that mechanisms underlying an infant's emotional tie to the
caregiver(s)emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure.[1] He set out to develop a theory of motivation and
behaviour control built on science rather than Freud's psychic energy model.[5] Bowlby argued that with attachment
theory he had made good the "deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect" of
Maternal Care and Mental Health.[74]

and to pursue the rich vein of research which this union suggests".[86] [87] Schur. Ethologists expressed concern about the adequacy of some research on which attachment theory was based. with the caregiver present.[88] Ethologists and others writing in the 1960s and 1970s questioned and expanded the types of behaviour used as indications of attachment. a behaviour characteristic of some birds and mammals which involves rapid learning of recognition by the young. Separation: Anxiety and Anger and Loss: Sadness and Depression followed in 1972 and 1980 respectively. After recognition comes a tendency to follow.Attachment theory 168 The formal origin of the theory began with the publication of two papers in 1958. Opposition to attachment theory coalesced around this issue. He did not apply the imprinting concept in its entirety to human attachment. with Bowlby's ethological theories in mind. Attachment theory came at a time when women were asserting their right to equality and independence.[25] [75] [76] Bowlby followed up his first paper with two more. Attachment was revised in 1982 to incorporate later research. Bowlby's concepts included the idea that attachment involved learning from experience during a limited age period. combined with the effect of experience. The second was Harry Harlow's "The Nature of Love". completing her extensive observational studies on the nature of infant [5] attachments in Uganda. the infant's Childhood" (1960b). Thus lack of proper nurturing of children was blamed on mothers despite societal organisation that left them overburdened.[81] Other important influences were ethologists Nikolaas Tinbergen and Robert Hinde.[82] Bowlby subsequently collaborated with Hinde. discussing Bowlby's use of ethological concepts (pre-1960) commented that concepts used in attachment theory had not kept up with changes in ethology itself. Attachment theory itself is not gender specific but in Western society it was largely mothers who bore responsibility for early child care. influenced by adult behaviour.[84] Konrad Lorenz had examined the phenomenon of "imprinting". However.[8] This bottle-fed young moose has developed an attachment to its carer. particularly the generalisation to humans from animal studies.[89] Observational studies of young children in natural settings provided other . Bowlby's colleague attachment system is relaxed and he is free to Mary Ainsworth. The learning is possible only within a limited age range known as a critical period. the first volume of the Attachment and Loss trilogy. was explore. and "Grief and Mourning in Infancy and Early present. giving mothers new cause for anxiety. in which the precursory concepts of "attachment" were introduced.[79] Feminists had already criticised the assumption that anatomy is destiny which they saw as implicit in the maternal deprivation hypothesis.[83] In 1953 Bowlby stated "the time is ripe for a unification of psychoanalytic concepts with those of ethology. The second and third volumes. of a conspecific or comparable object. stressing the readiness the child brings to social interactions. cloth surrogate mothers that offered no food but not with wire surrogate mothers that provided a food source but were less pleasant to touch. Attachment theory was finally presented in 1969 in Attachment. the first being Bowlby's "The Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother". The latter was based on experiments which showed that infant rhesus monkeys appeared to form an affectional bond with soft.[85] Over time it became apparent there were more differences than similarities between attachment theory and imprinting so the analogy was dropped. "Separation Infant exploration is greater when the caregiver is Anxiety" (1960a).[80] Ethology Bowlby's attention was first drawn to ethology when he read Konrad Lorenz's 1952 publication in draft form (although Lorenz had published earlier work). he considered that attachment behaviour was best explained as instinctive.[77] [78] At the same time.

developing during the 1930s and '40s.[90] Although ethologists tended to be in agreement with Bowlby. the observations by Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham of young children separated from familiar caregivers during World War II. maintenance of the desired distance from the caregiver depending on circumstances.[1] 169 . At about the same time Bowlby was applying Craik's ideas to attachment. (Bowlby compared this process to physiological homeostasis whereby. influenced Bowlby's thinking. Secondly the view of the development of personality via linear "phases" with "regression" to fixed points accounting for psychological distress."[91] Robert Hinde considered "attachment behaviour system" to be an appropriate term which did not offer the same problems "because it refers to postulated control systems that determine the relations between different kinds of behaviour. existing over and above the observable measures. This model allows a person to try out alternatives mentally. the nature of those attachments depends on the environment to which the child is exposed.[100] The young child's need for proximity to the attachment figure was seen as balancing homeostatically with the need for exploration.[8] Internal working model Bowlby adopted the important concept of the internal working model of social relationships from the work of the philosopher Kenneth Craik. The actual distance maintained by the child would vary as the balance of needs changed. staying within a predictable distance of the mother without effort on her part and picking up small objects. for example.[96] [97] [98] Bowlby was effectively ostracized from the psychoanalytic community. Bowlby identified what he World War II from the book Road to Catastrophe saw as fundamental flaws in psychoanalysis. In his view it failed to see attachment as a psychological bond in its own right rather than an instinct derived from feeding or sexuality. In attachment this would mean that although a developing child has a propensity to form attachments.[93] However. would cause the child exploring at a distance to seek proximity.Attachment theory behaviours that might indicate attachment. in particular.[94] Based on ideas of Evacuation of smiling Japanese school children in primary attachment and neo-Darwinism.[95] From early in the development of attachment theory there was criticism of the theory's lack of congruence with various branches of psychoanalysis. bringing them to the mother but not to others. Firstly the overemphasis of internal dangers rather than external threat. Craik had noted the adaptiveness of the ability of thought to predict events. blood pressure is kept within limits). The child's goal is not an object (the caregiver) but a state. for example. According to Craik. or an injury.[99] Cybernetics The theory of visible systems (cybernetics). He stressed the survival value of and natural selection for this ability. Bowlby's decisions left him open to criticism from well-established thinkers working on similar problems. Instead he posited that several lines of development were possible. but the individual's own possible actions. objecting to psychologists writing as if there was an "entity which is 'attachment'. prediction occurs when a "small-scale model" consisting of brain events is used to represent not only the external environment. the outcome of which depended on the interaction between the organism and the environment. the approach of a stranger. For example. Bowlby rejected psychoanalytical explanations for early infant bonds including "drive theory" in which the motivation for attachment derives from gratification of hunger and libidinal drives. using knowledge of the past in responding to the present and future. they pressed for more data. other psychologists were applying these concepts to adult perception and cognition."[92] Psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic concepts influenced Bowlby's view of attachment. He called this the "cupboard-love" theory of relationships.

[113] 170 . Patterson's group has shown that in uncertain environments the lack of contingent relationships can account for problems in attachment and the sensitivity to contingencies. frequent responses would result in more crying.[112] Bowlby's arguments that even very young babies were social creatures and primary actors in creating relationships with parents took some time to be accepted. using micro-analysis of video evidence. Ainsworth's research in Baltimore supported the attachment theorists' view. there was criticism of the empirical support for the theory. Conscientious responses produce security which enhances autonomy and results in less crying.[107] and meta-analytic reviews.[111] In 1984 Skuse based criticism on the work of Anna Freud with children from Theresienstadt who had apparently developed relatively normally despite serious deprivation in their early years.[108] Developments As the formulation of attachment theory progressed. the baby ceases to protest and engages in play behaviour. unless there were biological or genetic risk factors. When a mother is instructed to ignore crying and respond only to play behaviour.[102] Behaviourism In 1969.Attachment theory Cognitive development Bowlby's reliance on Piaget's theory of cognitive development gave rise to questions about object permanence (the ability to remember an object that is temporarily absent) in early attachment behaviours. crying is an inborn attachment behaviour to which the caregiver must respond if the infant is to develop emotional security. Gerwitz discussed how mother and child could provide each other with positive reinforcement experiences through their mutual attention. saw attachment as a remnant of dependency with the quality of attachment being merely a response to the caregiver's cues.[101] More recently. This explanation would make it unnecessary to posit innate human characteristics fostering attachment. He concluded there was an excellent prognosis for children with this background. Such misplaced contingencies may represent the ambivalence on the part of the parent.[105] Behaviourists see attachment more as a systems phenomena then a biological predisposition. they maintain that behaviours like separation protest in infants result mainly from operant learning experiences.[110] In the second volume of the trilogy. An infant's ability to discriminate strangers and react to the mother's absence seemed to occur months earlier than Piaget suggested would be cognitively possible. This added significantly to the understanding of the complexity of infant/caregiver interactions as an integral part of a baby's emotional and social development. behaviour analysts have constructed models of attachment based on the importance of contingent relationships. it has been noted that the understanding of mental representation has advanced so much since Bowlby's day that present views can be more specific than those of Bowlby's time. thereby learning to stay close together. So did Ainsworth's emphasis on the importance and primacy of maternal attunement for psychological development (a point also argued by Donald Winnicott). which is then is played out in the operant interaction.[106] In the last decade. To behaviourists. In the 1970s Daniel Stern undertook research on the concept of attunement between very young infants and caregivers.[103] Learning theory.[109] Some of Bowlby's interpretations of James Robertson's data were rejected by the researcher when he reported data from 13 young children cared for in ideal rather than institutional circumstances on separation from their mothers.[104] Behaviourists generally disagree with this interpretation. Behaviourists saw behaviours like crying as a random activity meaning nothing until reinforced by a caregiver's response. These behaviour analytic models have received some support from research. Possible alternative explanations for results of empirical research were proposed. (behaviorism). resulting from misplaced contingencies. To attachment theorists. Separation. Bowlby acknowledged Robertson's study had caused him to modify his views on the traumatic consequences of separation in which insufficient weight had been given to the influence of skilled care from a familiar substitute. Though they use a different analysis scale. The "separation anxiety" resulting from such interactions is seen as learned behaviour.

[124] Harris and Pinker put forward the notion that the influence of parents had been much exaggerated.[117] Most recently a 2007 study conducted in Sapporo in Japan found attachment distributions consistent with global norms using the six-year Main and Cassidy scoring system for attachment classification. the assumption that attachment is expressed identically in all humans cross-culturally was examined. Rudolph Schaffer concluded that parents and peers had different functions. autobiographical memory and social representation. He argued that heredity was far more important than the transient effects of early environment. Selection of the secure pattern is found in the majority of children across cultures studied. logic. Securely attached Gusii infants anticipate and seek this contact. Kagan rejected almost every assumption on which attachment theory etiology was based. theory of mind.[120] [121] [122] Building on the work on temperament of Stella Chess. The debate spawned considerable research and analysis of data from the growing number of longitudinal studies. there has been a developing rapprochement between attachment theory and psychoanalysis. can be found in every culture in which studies have been undertaken.[127] This connection between theory of mind and the internal working model may open new areas of study. although how this style is expressed may differ with temperament. arguing that socialisation took place primarily in peer groups.[125] Recent developments Whereas Bowlby was inspired by Piaget's insights into children's thinking. leading to alterations in attachment theory. Harris. problems with viewing attachment as a trait (stable characteristic of an individual) rather than as a type of behaviour with organising functions and outcomes. Steven Pinker and Jerome Kagan were generally concerned with the concept of infant determinism (nature versus nurture). led some authors to the conclusion that attachment behaviours were best understood in terms of their functions in the child's life. based on .[117] Research indicates that attachment pattern distributions are consistent across cultures. even where communal sleeping arrangements are the norm. avoidant and ambivalent. This follows logically from the fact that attachment theory provides for infants to adapt to changes in the environment.[114] This way of thinking saw the secure base concept as central to attachment theory's. emotions and intentions lie behind behaviours as subtle as facial expression. For example a child with an inherently difficult temperament would not elicit sensitive behavioural responses from a caregiver. stressing the effects of later experience on personality. although the manner in which attachment is expressed may differ. H. for example Gusii infants are greeted with a handshake rather than a hug.[100] Mentalization. coherence and status as an organizational construct. or theory of mind.[116] The research showed that though there were cultural differences. fulfilling distinctive roles in children's development. broadly demonstrating that it is the caregiver's behaviours that form the child's attachment style. Arguments revolved around the appropriateness of the use of the Strange Situation procedure where amae is practiced. There are also differences in the distribution of insecure patterns based on cultural differences in child-rearing practices. R.[118] [119] Critics in the 1990s such as J. selecting optimal behavioural strategies.[117] How attachment is expressed shows cultural variations which need to be ascertained before studies can be undertaken. secure.[128] Since the late 1980s.[126] Psychoanalyst/psychologists Peter Fonagy and Mary Target have attempted to bring attachment theory and psychoanalysis into a closer relationship through cognitive science as mentalization. Ultimately research tended to confirm the universality hypothesis of attachment theory. is the capacity of human beings to guess with some accuracy what thoughts. current attachment scholars utilise insights from contemporary literature on implicit knowledge.[123] Subsequent research has not borne out Kagan's argument. the three basic patterns. The biggest challenge to the notion of the universality of attachment theory came from studies conducted in Japan where the concept of amae plays a prominent role in describing family relationships.[115] Following this argument.Attachment theory 171 In the 1970s.

Object relations models which emphasise the autonomous need for a relationship have become dominant and are linked to a growing recognition within psychoanalysis of the importance of infant development in the context of relationships and internalised representations.[134] Issues have been raised to the effect that the dyadic model characteristic of attachment theory cannot address the complexity of real-life social experiences. Adoptions and births to same-sex couples have increased in number and gained legal protection.[129] One focus of attachment research has been the difficulties of children whose attachment history was poor. physical problems and medical issues associated with their early lives.[40] Authors considering attachment in non-Western cultures have noted the connection of attachment theory with Western family and child care patterns characteristic of Bowlby's time. including the need for relationship-building by the assignment of a child to a specific carer. particularly disorganized attachment. Concern with the effects of child care was intense during the so-called "day care wars" of the late 20th century.Attachment theory 172 common ground as elaborated by attachment theorists and researchers. training of child care professionals has come to stress attachment issues. Although only high-quality child care settings are likely to provide this. and the risk of later psychopathology. during which some authors stressed the deleterious effects of day care. at least within a family. A psychoanalytically based exploration of the attachment system and an accompanying clinical approach has emerged together with a recognition of the need for measurement of outcomes of interventions. including those with extensive non-parental child care experiences. A natural experiment permitted extensive study of attachment issues as researchers followed thousands of Romanian orphans adopted into Authors considering attachment in non-western Western families after the end of the Nicolae Ceauşescu regime. compared to their status in Bowlby's time. adoption.[131] Another significant area of research and development has been the connection between problematic attachment patterns. There has been an increase in the number of older-child adoptions and adoptions from third-world sources in first-world countries.[126] A third has been the effect on development of children having little or no opportunity to form attachments at all in their early years. as infants often have multiple relationships within the family and in child care settings. For example. theory with Western family and child care followed some of the children into their teens.[133] As children's experience of care changes. the effects of poor attachment. led by Michael Rutter. This social change has made it more difficult for childless people to adopt infants in their own countries. Psychoanalysis has recognised the formative nature of a childs early environment including the issue of childhood trauma. 70% of later-adopted children exhibited no marked or severe attachment disorder behaviours. attempting to unravel patterns characteristic of Bowlby's time.[136] . more infants in child care receive attachment-friendly care than in the past. so may attachment-related experiences. whose initial conditions were shocking.[130] As a result of this controversy. Studies of these adoptees. and a change in what psychoanalysts consider to be central to psychoanalysis.[135] It is suggested these multiple relationships influence one another reciprocally. new relationships. changes in attitudes toward female sexuality have greatly increased the numbers of children living with their never-married mothers or being cared for outside the home while the mothers work. The cultures have noted the connection of attachment English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team. Researchers noted that separation from familiar people is only one of many factors that help to determine the quality of development. yielded reason for optimism as many of the children developed quite well.[132] Although higher rates of atypical insecure attachment patterns were found compared to native-born or early-adopted samples.

[130] Practical applications As a theory of socioemotional development. Zeanah and colleagues stated.[138] Biology of attachment Attachment theory proposes that the quality of caregiving from at least the primary carer is key to attachment security or insecurity. and those in poor quality daycare. group coalitions.[145] and applications by foster parents to adopt foster children. there has been psychophysiological research on the biology of attachment.[124] Some types of temperament may make some individuals susceptible to the stress of unpredictable or hostile relationships with caregivers in the early years.H. but aspects of both contribute to a range of interpersonal and intrapersonal developmental outcomes. It is plain from research that poor quality care carries risks but that those who experience good quality alternative care cope well although it is difficult to provide good quality.[139] Research has begun to include behaviour genetics and temperament concepts. There is some evidence that the quality of caregiving shapes the development of the neurological systems which regulate stress. attachment theory has implications and practical applications in social policy. particularly in North America. thus focusing on the quality and continuity of caregiver relationships 173 .[139] Another issue is the role of inherited genetic factors in shaping attachments: for example one type of polymorphism of the DRD2 dopamine receptor gene has been linked to anxious attachment and another in the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor gene with avoidant attachment.[123] In addition to longitudinal studies. decisions about the care and welfare of children and mental health. has deleterious effects on social development.[143] Attachment theory has implications in residence and contact disputes. the main theoretical framework was psychoanalysis. community based service providers and policy makers . attachment theory had significant policy implications for hospitalised or institutionalised children.[137] Those explanations have been used to design parental care training.[141] In psychophysiological research on attachment. social dominance and hierarchical power structures.[140] In the absence of available and responsive caregivers it appears that some children are particularly vulnerable to developing attachment disorders. One theoretical basis for this is that it makes biological sense for children to vary in their susceptibility to rearing influence.[144] In 2008 C.. In the past. including mating. individualised care in group settings.Attachment theory Principles of attachment theory have been used to explain adult social behaviours. The difficulty lies in applying attachment concepts to policy and practice. Infants' physiological responses have been measured during the Strange Situation procedure looking at individual differences in infant temperament and the extent to which attachment acts as a moderator. "Supporting early child-parent relationships is an increasingly prominent goal of mental health practitioners. particularly in group settings.[10] Historically.[143] This is because the theory emphasises the importance of continuity and sensitivity in caregiving relationships rather than a behavioural approach on stimulation or reinforcement of child behaviours. and the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. such as heart rate or respiration. Increasingly attachment theory has replaced it.[124] Generally temperament and attachment constitute separate developmental domains.. Child care policies Social policies concerning the care of children were the driving force in Bowlby's development of attachment theory. the two main areas studied have been autonomic responses.[145] Controversy remains over whether non-maternal care. Attachment theory and research have generated important findings concerning early child development and spurred the creation of programs to support early child-parent relationships". and have been particularly successful in the design of child abuse prevention programmes.[142] This suggests that the influence of maternal care on attachment security is not the same for all children. and negotiation of reciprocity and justice.

so does An assessment of the attachment status or caregiving responses of age-appropriate stranger wariness.[144] Children tend to have security-providing relationships with both parents and often grandparents or other relatives. Attachment theory has been crucial in highlighting the importance of social relationships in dynamic rather than fixed terms. However. or In the early months of life. placing the child with a different caregiver. Modern prevention and intervention programmes are mostly in the process of being evaluated. parenting behaviours and the parents' relationship with the therapeutic intervenor. His focus for bringing about change was the parents' internal working models. babies will direct if that is not possible. the shift from "closed" to "open" adoptions and the importance of the search for biological parents would be expected on the basis of attachment theory.Attachment theory rather than economic well-being or automatic precedence of any one party. It may also be partly due to the mistaken association of attachment theory with the pseudoscientific interventions misleadingly known as "attachment therapy". the focus is on increasing the responsiveness and sensitivity of the caregiver.[146] Within adoption. Many researchers in the field were strongly influenced by it.[151] 174 . the caregiver is invariably included.[143] Clinical practice in children Although attachment theory has become a major scientific theory of socioemotional development with one of the broadest.[149] attachment behaviours towards anyone in the [150] vicinity.[147] Prevention and treatment In 1988. family courts have shifted considerably to recognize the complications of attachment relationships. since 1980. as attachment is a two-way process involving attachment behaviour and caregiver response. Rutter noted that in the UK.[143] Attachment theory can also inform decisions made in social work and court processes about foster care or other placements. such as the biological mother. Bowlby published a series of lectures indicating how attachment theory and research could be used in understanding and treating child and family disorders. As attachment develops. it has. For infants and younger children. This may be partly due to lack of attention paid to clinical application by Bowlby himself and partly due to broader meanings of the word 'attachment' used amongst practitioners. arguments tend to focus on whether children are "attached" or "bonded" to the disputing adults rather than the quality of attachments. deepest research lines in modern psychology.[148] They range from individual therapy to public health programmes to interventions designed for foster carers. Some programmes are aimed at foster carers because the attachment behaviours of infants or children with attachment difficulties often do not elicit appropriate caregiver responses. Judgements need to take this into account along with the impact of step-families. until recently. Considering the child's attachment needs can help determine the level of risk posed by placement options.[148] Ongoing research has led to a number of individual treatments and prevention and intervention programmes. been less used in clinical practice than theories with far less empirical support.

particularly on the Web and in connection with the pseudo-scientific attachment therapy. multidimensional family therapy and couple and family therapy. Shaver PR. doi:10. Shaver PR. 89–114. "secure base distortion" has been found to be associated with caregiver traumatization. "[Bowlby] begins by noting that organisms at different levels of the phylogenetic scale regulate instinctive behavior in distinct ways. The dynamics of an individual's attachment organization and their capacity for mentalization can play a crucial role in the capacity to be helped by treatment. It may also be used to refer to proposed new classification systems put forward by theorists in the field.5. known as reactive attachment disorder or RAD. which is a recognized psychiatric diagnosis (ICD-10 F94. associated with gross pathological care. Research and Clinical Applications. "true" RAD is thought to be rare.511. ISBN 0-631-21628-6. Salkind: Child Development 2002. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. 745–61. New York: Guilford Press.[153] One of the proposed new classifications. In Cassidy J.52. ranging from primitive reflex-like "fixed action 175 . [3] Prior and Glaser p.J. "The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth".[154] and is used within attachment therapy as a form of unvalidated diagnosis.[153] "Attachment disorder" is an ambiguous term. Shaver PR (March 1987). ISBN 9781606230282. In Cassidy J. In Cassidy J. Oxford: Blackwell. New York: Guilford Press. the other an inhibited pattern. Michael (1995). ISBN 1572300876. it denotes a lack of age-appropriate attachment behaviours that amounts to a clinical disorder. it can enrich a therapist's understanding of patients and the therapeutic relationship rather than dictate a particular form of treatment. The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. key concepts of attachment were incorporated into existing models of behavioural couple therapy. doi:10. New York: Guilford Press. PMID 7650083. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 36 (4): 549–71.x. "Attachment Theory in Modern Evolutionary Perspective". The essential feature of reactive attachment disorder is markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness in most contexts that begins before age five years. ISBN 1572300876. "Clinical Implications of Attachment Concepts: Retrospect and Prospect".1469-7610. instead. [2] Bretherton I. Research and Clinical Applications. pp. pp. "The Nature of a Child's Ties".[156] Some forms of psychoanalysis-based therapy for adults—within relational psychoanalysis and other approaches—also incorporate attachment theory and patterns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52 (3): 511–24.[152] Although the term "reactive attachment disorder" is now popularly applied to perceived behavioural difficulties that fall outside the DSM or ICD criteria. Developmental Psychology 28 (5): 759. one reflecting a disinhibited attachment pattern. RAD is not a description of insecure attachment styles. absence or distortion in psychopathology. Shaver PR. 17. Handbook of Attachment: Theory.28. pp. [4] Simpson JA (1999). far-reaching view of human functioning. [10] Berlin L. 3–20. Introducing Child Psychology. page 34 [7] Hazan C. Lieberman AF (2008). doi:10. [6] N. which may be used to refer to reactive attachment disorder or to the more problematical insecure attachment styles (although none of these are clinical disorders).89). New York and London: Guilford Press.1111/j. "Prevention and Intervention Programs for Supporting Early Attachment Security". Zeanah CH.1037/0022-3514.tb02314. "Internal Working Models in Attachment Relationships: A Construct Revisited". There are two subtypes. Research and Clinical Applications. [8] Rutter. Munholland KA (1999). In Cassidy J. Research and Clinical Applications.1/2 and DSM-IV-TR 313. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. [9] Schaffer R (2007). [5] Bretherton I (1992).1037/0012-1649. ISBN 1572300876. Specifically attachment-centred interventions have been developed. however problematic those styles may be.Attachment theory Reactive attachment disorder and attachment disorder One atypical attachment pattern is considered to be an actual disorder.[156] [157] In the first decade of the 21st century. "Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process".[158] [159] Attachment theory and research laid the foundation for the development of the understanding of "mentalization" or reflective functioning and its presence. 83–121.1995. pp. PMID 3572722. [11] Bretherton I (1992). pp.[155] Clinical practice in adults and families As attachment theory offers a broad. Shaver PR.3.759. such as attachment-based family therapy and emotionally focused therapy. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. 115–40.[156] [160] Notes [1] Cassidy J (1999).

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"The Efe forager infant and toddler's pattern of social relationships: Multiple and simultaneous". Rovine MJ (February 1988). Child Development (Blackwell Publishing) 48 (4): 1184–99. Bost KK. ISBN 9781593858742.243. PMID 14717240. doi:10. [115] Waters E. New York and London: Guilford Press. none showed protest and despair. [116] Tronick EZ. Rainey B. Robertson J (1971). PMID 20333893. Jurist EL. pp. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. In Bretherton I. "Attachment and Temperament". 372–99. [129] Fonagy P. without adducing non-institutional data. [112] Skuse D (Oct 1984). ISBN 9781593858742. [123] Karen pp. New York: Other Press. [135] McHale JP (2007). doi:10. New York and London: Guilford Press. 152–56.415. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. "Acquisition of the Algorithms of Social Life: A Domain-Based Approach". 179 . "Nature. doi:10. Developmental Psychology 24 (3): 415–26. ISBN 978-0-631-21627-8. doi:10. PMID 12238408. [130] Belsky J. Introducing Child Psychology. Three Seductive Ideas. 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In Cassidy J. "Attachment-Based Intervention programs: Implications for Attachment Theory and Research". (page numbers refer to Pelican edition 1971) • Bowlby J (1999) [1982]. Amaya-Jackson L. ISBN 978-0-7657-0284-5. doi:10. [147] Ziv Y (2005). Shaver PR. Infant Behavior and Development 28 (4): 492–502. Fox NA (2005). Fonagy P. [156] Slade A (2008). ISBN 0465005438 (pbk). 252–58. .1177/0146167208321484. Research and Clinical Applications. [153] Chaffin M. [141] Prior and Glaser p. • Bowlby J (1979). ISBN 978-0-14-020271-7. Research and Clinical Applications. [145] Karen pp. 219. [149] Prior and Glaser pp. Saunders BE. pp. [157] Sable P (2000). • Bowlby J (1953).06. New York: Basic Books. 823–44. Dozier M (2000).Attachment theory [140] Marshall PJ. In Cassidy J. ed (2006). "Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood". "Implications of Attachment Theory for Child Care Policies". PMID 18687882. "Separation and Reunification: Using Attachment Theory and Research to Inform Decisions Affecting the Placements of Children in Foster Care" (http:/ / www. "Relationship between behavioral reactivity at 4 months and attachment classification at 14 months in a selected sample". Development and Psychopathology 12 (2): 133–56. A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory. Chichester. "The development of attachment in new relationships: single subject analyses for 10 foster infants". Shaver PR. Wanlass J (2004). pdf?docID=2542). ISBN 9781593858742. PMC 2690512. Juvenile and Family Court Journal Spring: 1–14. NJ: Aaronson. p. Attachment and Loss Vol. Attachment and Loss. I (2nd ed. LCCN 00-266879. [146] Goldsmith DF. London: Routledge. "Prevention and Intervention Programs for Supporting Early Attachment Security". PMID 16382093.03. [159] Johnson S (2002).2009. [160] Allen JP. "The legacy of early attachments". [154] Prior and Glaser pp. doi:10. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. ISBN 1593854706. Shaver PR. org/ site/ DocServer/ AttachmentandFosterCare. Shaver PR. Intervention and Policy. Zeanah CH. Hanson R. Duke series in child development and public policy.001. "Handbook of Mentalization-Based Treatment". Psychological Bulletin 129 (2): 195–215. pp. Attachment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34 (10): 1396–405. ISBN 9781593858742. • Bowlby J (1988). References • Ainsworth MD (1967). PMID 10836568. New York and London: Guilford Press. doi:10.1016/j. Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy with Trauma Survivors. "Genetic correlates of adult attachment style".00128. ISBN 978-0-422-76860-3. ISBN 1572300876. Child Development 71 (1): 145–52. 762–82. van IJzendoorn M. ISBN 9781606230282. Attachment. I. [142] Gillath O. Handbook of Mentalization-Based Treatment. reactive attachment disorder.1037/0033-2909.002. New York and London: Guilford Press. O'Connor TG (1999). doi:10. Research and Clinical Applications. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. Juffer F (2003).195. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. [158] Johnson SM (2008). zerotothree.1017/S0954579400002029. Child Care and the Growth of Love. Greenberg MT. (2006). Research and Clinical Applications. [143] Rutter M (2008). ISBN 9781593858742. et al.1111/1467-8624. doi:10.2005. [148] Berlin LJ. [152] Thompson RA (2000). 180 . Oppenheim D. New York: Guilford Press. [150] Bakermans-Kranenburg M. and attachment problems".2. pp. 958–74. London: Penguin Books. "Report of the APSAC task force on attachment therapy. Enhancing Early Attachments: Theory.infbeh. Shaver PR. UK: John Wiley & Sons. In Berlin LJ. London: Hogarth. Research and Clinical Applications. "Less is more: meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood". "Implications of Attachment Theory and Research for Child Care Policies". Retrieved 2009–06–19. Vol. doi:10. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. 223–25. Northvale. New York: Guilford Press. [155] Schechter DS. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. In Cassidy J. 63. OCLC 11442968. ISBN 0415006406 (pbk).129. ISBN 978-1-59385-165-1. "Attachment Theory and Research: Implications for the theory and practice of individual psychotherapy with adults". 745–61. NLM 8412414. doi:10. Child Maltreatment 11 (1): 76–89.). PMID 12696839. Infancy in Uganda. [151] Stovall KC. New York and London: Guilford Press. [144] Rutter M. Baek JM. ISBN 978-0-8018-0010-8. ISBN 9780470015612.(version of WHO publication Maternal Care and Mental Health published for sale to the general public) • Bowlby J (1969). PMID 10847621. London: Tavistock Publications. Lieberman AF (2008).1177/1077559505283699. Ziv Y. In Cassidy J.1016/j. pp. Willheim E (July 2009). Attachment & Adult Psychotherapy. New York and London: Guilford Press. 231–32. In Cassidy J. The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. pp. "Couple and Family Therapy: An Attachment Perspective". PMID 19486844. Shaver PR. Research. New York and London: Guilford Press. 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• Bell DC (2010). • Goodall J (1971). LCCN 2005-19272.psychology. ISBN 978-1-59385-381-5. External links • Attachment Theory and Research at Stony Brook (http://www. ISBN 13: 978-0-8058-6352-9. The Nature of Explanation. • Mercer J (2006). The Ontogeny of Human Bonding Sysytems: Evolutionary Origins. CT: Praeger Publishers. • Review of Richard Karen.edu/~lerman/etc/BecomingAttached. Attachment and the perils of parenting: A commentary and a critique. and emotional development. ISBN 0-19-511501-5. • Barrett H (2006). ISSN 1469–2988.richardatkins. Understanding Attachment: Parenting. • Attachment & Human Development. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Van IJzendoorn MH (2008). Attachment from infancy to adulthood: The major longitudinal studies.aspx) 181 . London: National Family and Parenting Institute. The Dynamics of Connection: How Evolution and Biology Create Caregiving and Attachment. New York: Guilford Press. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Lanham MD: Lexington. Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. Raising parents: attachment. Further reading • Grossmann KE. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.edu/attachment/index. • Juffer F. • Karen R (1998). ISSN B0007J4QKE. ISBN 978-0-521-09445-0.From Psychoanalysis to Ethology. Houghton Mifflin Co. Glaser D (2006). ISBN 0-415-07729-X.edu/attachment/online/karen. html) • The Attachment Theory Website (http://www. Makers of modern psychotherapy. parenting and child safety. Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love (http://www.isi. In the Shadow of Man. John Bowlby .co. ISBN 978-0-19-857722-5. The study of instinct. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-1-903615-42-3.pdf)'. ISBN 978-0-470-68364-4. • Holmes J (1993). Unraveling the Roots of Attachment Theory. New York/London: Taylor and Francis Group. Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. RCPRTU. London: Routledge.. child care. • Crittenden PM (2008).org/details/PsychogenicD) • The Parental Deficit Website (http://www. Neural Bases.parentaldeficit. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ. Promoting positive parenting: An attachment-based intervention.uk/atws) • Richard Karen: 'Becoming Attached (http://www. • Infant Mental Health Journal. ISBN 0-275-98217-3. Evidence and Practice. • Miller WB. • Tinbergen N (1951). London: Routledge. ISBN 9781843102458 (pbk). John Bowlby & Attachment Theory. WAIMH. Rodgers JL (2001). and Psychological Manifestations.archive.psychology. OCLC 61115448. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 0-7923-7478-9. • Van der Horst FCP (2011). The Atlantic Monthly February 1990. Waters E (2005).it/default. ISBN 978-1-84392-498-2. • Prior V. Westport. Devon and Oregon: Willan Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7391-4352-0. Understanding Attachment and Attachment Disorders: Theory.sunysb.pdf) • Rene Spitz's film "Psychogenic Disease in Infancy" (1957) (http://www. ISBN 978-0-618-05676-7.sunysb.Attachment theory • Craik K (1943). ISSN 1097–0355.

it's an interdisciplinary study that includes developmental psychology and ethology (behavioral biology). and sucking—they also come with many behavioral systems ready to be activated through interaction with another person. Childhood attachment can define characteristics that will shape the child’s sense of self and how they carry out relationships with others. According to Bowlby.[6] . Parents can bond with their baby by touching. By around age five years. long-term relationships will be built. cuddling. Mother and child Attachment theory studies and describes this first relationship. eye contact. The deep bond which babies form with their primary caregiver is called Attachment. Attachment theory and children Attachment theory (Bowlby 1969. 1973. attachment provides a secure base from which the child can explore the environment. rooting.[1] Attachment in childhood can also be described as the considerable closeness a child feels to an authority figure. Four different attachment styles or patterns have been identified in children: secure attachment. the child develops an internal working model (IWM) of the self and others that reflects the response of the caregiver to the child. anxious-ambivalent attachment.[2] Attachment theory has led to a new understanding of child development. and facial expressions. Attachment theory has become the dominant theory used today in the study of infant and toddler behavior and in the fields of infant mental health.[3] [4] [5] Through repeated attempts to seek physical and emotional closeness with a caregiver and the responses the child gets. Children develop different styles of attachment based on experiences and interactions with their caregivers. and this proximity-seeking behavior is naturally selected. and will not thrive without other types of support as well. It also describes the function of availability. which is the degree to which the authoritative figure is responsive to the child's needs and shares communication with them. the foundation on which all other close. anxious-avoidant attachment. and related fields. 1980) is rooted in the ethological notion that a newborn child is biologically programmed to seek proximity with caregivers.Attachment in children 182 Attachment in children Newborn humans infants cannot survive without a caregiver to provide food and protection. this "crystalizes" into one pattern of attachment that is generally exhibited within most relationships. etc. It is primarily an evolutionary and ethological theory postulating that infants seek proximity to a specified attachment figure in situations of distress or alarm for the purpose of survival. and disorganized attachment. While infants have relatively few inborn behaviors—such as crying. a haven of safety to which the child can return when he or she is afraid or fearful. treatment of children. Attachment in children is a theory of attachment between children and their caregivers specifically addressing the behaviors and emotions that children direct toward familiar adults. See discussion page. Attachment is found in all mammals to some degree. especially nonhuman primates. An infant may have different patterns of attachment with different care-givers. In their first year babies brains double in volume and their experiences will be hardwired in as a foundation on which to build their lives. listening.

Stranger (3 mins or less) Episode 4: Stranger. in fact. 1978. Each of these groups reflects a different kind of attachment relationship with the mother. developed by Mary Ainsworth as a result of her careful in-depth observations of infants with their mothers in Uganda(see below). the mother and infant are placed in an unfamiliar playroom equipped with toys while a researcher observes/records the procedure through a one-way mirror. and Anxious/Resistant (Group C). Baby. Experimenter (30 seconds) Episode 2: Mother. but is characteristic of a specific relationship. Attachment style is thus not so much a part of the child's thinking. Baby (3 mins) Episode 6: Baby Alone (3 mins or less) Episode 7: Stranger.' While the procedure may be used to supplement clinical impressions. see below). after about age four the child exhibits one primary consistent pattern of attachment in relationships. Baby (3 mins) On the basis of predominately their reunion behaviours (although other behaviors are taken into account) in the Strange Situation Paradigm (Ainsworth et al. Baby. Baby (3 mins) Episode 5: Mother. A fourth category. Baby (3 mins or less) Episode 8: Mother. termed Disorganized (D). A child may have a different type of attachment to each parent as well as to unrelated caregivers. not accurate and leads to ambiguity when formally discussing attachment theory as it has evolved in the research literature. This is not to suggest that the concept of RAD is without merit.[7] The Strange Situation Protocol is a research.[8] 183 . can also be assigned to an infant assessed in the Strange Situation although a primary 'organized' classification is always given for an infant judged to be disorganized. In the procedure. the resulting classifications should not be confused with the clinically diagnosed 'Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD). The idea that insecure attachments are synonymous with RAD is.Attachment in children Attachment classification in children: The Strange Situation Protocol The most common and empirically supported method for assessing attachment in infants (12months-20months) is the Strange Situation Protocol.. infants can be categorized into three 'organized' attachment categories: Secure (Group B). The procedure consists of eight sequential episodes in which the child experiences both separation from and reunion with the mother as well as the presence of an unfamiliar stranger.' The clinical concept of RAD differs in a number of fundamental ways from the theory and research driven attachment classifications based on the Strange Situation Procedure. not a diagnostic. There are subclassifications for each group (see below). However.[7] The protocol is conducted in the following format unless modifications are otherwise noted by a particular researcher: Episode 1: Mother (or other familiar caregiver). tool and the resulting attachment classifications are not 'clinical diagnoses. Avoidant (Group A). but rather that the clinical and research conceptualizations of insecure attachment and attachment disorder are not synonymous. Baby (3 mins) Episode 3: Mother. The 'Strange Situation' is a laboratory procedure used to assess infant patterns of attachment to their caregiver.

the classification of infants (if subgroups are denoted) is typically simply "B1" or "B2" although more theoretical and review-oriented papers surrounding attachment theory may use the above terminology. The extent of exploration and of distress are affected by the child's temperamental make-up and by situational factors as well as by attachment status. and B4. Anxious-resistant insecure attachment In general. Their exploratory behavior is limited throughout the SS and their interactive behaviors are relatively lacking in active initiation. and is generally happy to see the caregiver return. secure infants are denoted as "Group B" infants and they are further subclassified as B1.' In academic publications however. Others have pointed out that there are also other determinants of the child's attachment. secure attachment can be seen as the most adaptive attachment style. In the traditional Ainsworth et al. is often visibly upset when the caregiver departs. Nevertheless. When assistance is given. even when the parent is present.[7] Although these subgroupings refer to different stylistic responses to the comings and goings of the caregiver. (1978) coding of the Strange Situation. educates the child in how to cope with the same problem in the future. When the mother departs.[7] C1 infants are so judged when: ". (1978) coding of the Strange Situation. Often. In the traditional Ainsworth et al. According to some psychological researchers.showing little overt indications of an emotional response. this bolsters the sense of security and also.Attachment in children Attachment patterns Secure attachment A toddler who is securely attached to its parent (or other familiar caregiver) will explore freely while the caregiver is present. and that behavior of the parent may in turn be influenced by the child's behavior. B2. even though they tend to use signalling rather than active approach. however. Therefore. and protest against being put down rather than actively resisting release. As Ainsworth et al. B2's as 'secure-inhibited'.resistant behavior is particularly conspicuous.. although their descriptive behaviors led others (including students of Ainsworth) to devise a relatively 'loose' terminology for these subgroups."[7] Anxious-avoidant insecure attachment In general. a child with an anxious-avoidant attachment style will avoid or ignore the parent when he or she returns (in the Strange Situation) .In general the C2 baby is not as conspicuously angry as the C1 baby.' and B4's as 'secure-reactive... anxious-avoidant infants are denoted as "Group A" infants and they are further subclassified into A1 and A2 infants."[7] C2 infants are often seen as demonstrating 'passive' resistance. The child is generally ambivalent when she returns. (1978) coding of the Strange Situation.. the stranger will not be treated much differently from the parent. the child is often highly distressed. in the reunion episodes they obviously want proximity to and contact with their mothers. anxious-resistant infants are denoted as "Group C" infants and they are further subclassified into C1 and C2 infants.. Securely attached children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need. assuming the parent's assistance is helpful.. they were not given specific labels by Ainsworth and colleagues.[7] A1 infants are so judged when there is: 184 . B3. In the traditional Ainsworth et al. typically engages with strangers. B3's as 'secure-balanced. The mixture of seeking and yet resisting contact and interaction has an unmistakeablely angry quality and indeed an angry tone may characterize behavior in the preseparation episodes. a child becomes securely attached when the parent is available and able to meet the needs of the child in a responsive and appropriate manner. B1's have been referred to as 'secure-reserved'. (1978) originally noted: "Perhaps the most conspicuous characteristic of C2 infants is their passivity. a child with an anxious-resistant attachment style will typically explore little (in the Strange Situation) and is often wary of strangers.

thus children cannot form a coherent. or they approach in 'abortive' fashions with the baby going past the mother.. As Ainsworth et al.If picked up."[7] A2 infants are often seen as demonstrating a mixture of both some avoidance and resistance. 1990) was subsequently identified and empiricized when a sizeable number of infants defied classification in terms of Ainsworth's original tripartite classification scheme. ambivalent. The degree to which the organized strategy is fragmented however is often different in degree across infants judged to receive a primary 'disorganized' classification.If picked up. This paradox. Evidence from Main et al. to turn the face away when being held and other signs of mixed feelings [i. turning away. the baby may cling momentarily. A frightening caregiver is usually so via aggressive behaviors towards the child (either mild or direct physical/sexual behaviors) and puts the child in a dilemma which Main and colleagues have called 'fear without solution..[13] [14] 185 ...' In other words. or it tends to only occur after much coaxing. Often..e.conspicuous avoidance of the mother in the reunion episodes which is likely to consist of ignoring her altogether... and the comings and goings of the caregiver) of the Strange Situation Procedure. who uses social referencing techniques such as checking the adult's facial expression to ascertain whether a situation is safe. with some tendency to greet and approach. he looks away and he may squirm to get down.. avoidant) classification as well. intermingled with a marked tendency to move or turn away from her. resistance/ambivalence]. the stranger. he or she is given a secondary best-fitting 'organized' (i. though not always..If there is a greeting when the mother enters.. If the child uses the caregiver as a mirror to understand the self. This reflects the fact that attachment disorganization is thought to be a breakdown of an inchoate organized attachment strategy. the caregiver is both the source of the child's alarm as well as the child's haven of safety.. if put down. move past her.. he may protest or resist momentarily.[the A2 infant] shows a mixed response to mother on reunion.e. may be one explanation for some of the 'stilling' and 'freezing' behaviors observed in children judged to be disorganized.[11] [12] The disorganized style is a risk factor for a range of psychological disorders although it is not in itself considered an attachment disorder under the current classification.. avert the gaze from her. but there is also a tendency to squirm to be put down.Attachment in children "."[7] Disorganized attachment A fourth category termed disorganized attachment (Main & Solomon.e. the baby shows little or no contact-maintaining behavior. the strange room. Through parental behaviors that are frightening. Human interactions are experienced as erratic. in fact. A2 infants are judged Disorganized (D).. A frightened caregiver is alarming to the child. disorganized attachment and risks for later psychopathologies.there may be moderate proximity-seeking. or ignore her. (1978) originally noted: ". it tends to be a mere look or a smile.. organized interactive template. the caregiver puts the child in an irresolvable paradox of approach-avoidance. although there may be some pointed looking away..[10] Abuse is associated with disorganized attachment. It is important to note that when a child is judged disorganized. There is a growing body of research on the links between abnormal parenting. has suggested that children with disorganized attachment may experience their caregivers as either frightening or frightened.. combined with strong proximity-avoiding. the disorganized child is looking into a mirror broken into a thousand pieces. It is more severe than learned helplessness as it is the model of the self rather than of a situation.Either the baby does not approach his mother upon reunion. secure. he tends not to cuddle in. or moving away.[9] It can be conceptualized as the lack of a coherent 'organized' behavioral strategy for dealing with the stresses (i.

There is no established direct association between early experience and a comprehensive measure of social functioning in early adulthood but early experience significantly predicts early childhood representations of relationships. Not only is this likely to provide boundary problems. Avoidant children are especially vulnerable to family risk.[20] [21] Also. It seems much more likely that infants vary in their degree of security and there is need for a measurement systems that can quantify individual variation". This maybe a major constraint when applying the procedure in cultures. Q-sort procedures based on much longer naturalistic observations in the home. Insecure-ambivalent children have a tendency to anxiously but unsuccessfully seek positive peer interaction whereas insecure-avoidant children appear aggressive and hostile and may actively repudiate positive peer interaction. Secure children have more positive and fewer negative peer reactions and establish more and better friendships. Modified procedures based on the Strange Situation Father and child have been developed for older preschool children (see Belsky et al. such as that in Japan (see Miyake et al. and from cross-sectional studies. such as the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and the Minnesota Study of Risk and Adaption from Birth to Adulthood.[22] A further constraint is that the coding procedure results in discrete categories rather than continuously distributed dimensions. 1984). 1994. 1985).[19] Also.. However an early secure attachment appears to have a lasting protective function. which in turn predicts later self and relationship representations and social behaviour. Charnov & Estes. it is very dependent on brief separations and reunions having the same meaning for all children. 1990). studies have suggested that infants with a high-risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may express attachment security differently from infants with a low-risk for ASD. 1990) but it is much more dubious whether the same approach can be used in middle childhood. but also it is not at all obvious that discrete categories best represent the concepts that are inherent in attachment security. It can be scarcely expected to tap all the relevant qualities of a child's attachment relationships. and interviews with the mothers have developed in order to extend the data base (see Vaughn & Waters. because older children have a cognitive capacity to maintain relationships when the older person is not present..However.[15] Behavioural problems and social competence in insecure children increase or decline with deterioration or improvement in quality of parenting and the degree of risk in the family environment.Attachment in children Significance of patterns Research based on data from longitudinal studies. consistently shows associations between early attachment classifications and peer relationships as to both quantity and quality. the procedure is based on just 20 minutes of behaviour.[16] Criticism Michael Rutter describes the procedure in the following terms:[17] "It is by no means free of limitations (see Lamb. Insecure children tend to be followers rather than leaders. where infants are rarely separated from their mothers in ordinary circumstances. Greenberg et al. despite its manifest strengths.[18] To begin with. Gardener.. Thompson. separation may not provide the same stress for them. Predictions are stronger for close relationships than for less intimate ones. 186 .

. hierarchical view of social development. The CCC model developed from the writings of Spitz. This follows logically from the fact that attachment theory provides for infants to adapt to changes in the environment.. Bowlby's concept of monotropism is an exemplar of the CCC perspective.. also discuss the Japanese concept of amae and its relevance to questions concerning whether the insecure-resistant (C) style of interaction may be engendered in Japanese infants as a result of the cultural practice of amae.[31] References [1] Tronick. Common to the different conceptual frameworks is the belief that parenting practices and the infant's capacity for social engagement are biologically based and conform to a prototypical form.V 187 ..568.000 infant-parent dyads. Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg conducted a meta-analysis of various countries. the UK and the USA using the Strange Situation.[29] [30] The original Richter’s et al. (2010). Germany. can be found in every culture in which studies have been undertaken. Bangalore:Elsevier B.. p.g. including several from studies with non-Western language and/or cultural bases found the global distribution of attachment categorizations to be A (21%).[28] Attachment measurement: discrete or continuous? Regarding the issue of whether the breadth of infant attachment functioning can be captured by a categorical classification scheme. Supporters of the CCC model generally recognize that the infant and caregiver are able to adjust to a range of conditions. Cummings.. "Until recently.). correctly predicting about 90% of cases. Security of attachment in children and adolescents. 1990). 1998.. 1992. Waters & T. Van IJzendoorn et al. The research showed that though there were cultural differences. China.. However. it should be noted that continuous measures of attachment security have been developed which have demonstrated adequate psychometric properties. 1992.. and M.. B (65%). scientific accounts ...[23] This global distribution was generally consistent with Ainsworth et al. two studies diverged from the global distributions of attachment classifications noted above.. These have been used either individually or in conjunction with discrete attachment classifications in many published reports (see Richters et al. including Japan." (Tronick. [2] Kayastha. and C (14%). Morelli.[26] [27] In addition to these findings supporting the global distributions of attachment classifications in Sapporo. Morelli.[and others]. We have labeled this dominant view the continuous care and contact model (CCC. E... P.'s (1978) original attachment classification distributions. Selection of the secure pattern is found in the majority of children across cultures studied.[30] Readers further interested in the categorical versus continuous nature of attachment classifications (and the debate surrounding this issue) should consult a paper by Fraley and Spieker and the rejoinders in the same issue by many prominent attachment researchers including J. the three basic patterns. p. where more resistant (C) infants were found. (1998) scale is strongly related to secure versus insecure classifications. controversy has been raised over a few cultural differences in these rates of 'global' attachment classification distributions. & Ivey. but they consider the adjustments observed to reflect biological variation. Behrens et al.. In particular..Attachment in children Ecological validity and universality of Strange Situation attachment classification distributions With respect to the ecological validity of the Strange Situation.. avoidant and ambivalent. 568). secure. Behrens et al. and the other in Sapporo. & Ivey.. more extreme views (e. (2007) found attachment distributions consistent with global norms using the six-year Main & Cassidy scoring system for attachment classification.. Bowlby. maternal bonding) consider certain variants as nonadaptive and as compromising the child's psychological development. and Provence and Lipton. even where communal sleeping arrangements are the norm. the Japanese findings have sparked the most controversy as to the meaning of individual differences in attachment behavior as originally identified by Ainsworth et al. of the infant's early social experiences converged on the view that the infant progresses from a primary relationship with one individual. on institutionalized children and is represented in the psychological views of Bowlby. Israel. Beauchaine. One study was conducted in North Germany in which more avoidant (A) infants were found than global norms would suggest.[28] How attachment is expressed shows cultural variations which need to be ascertained before studies can be undertaken. A. selecting optimal behavioural strategies. This is an epigenetic.[24] [25] Of these two studies. Sroufe. (1978)... In a recent study conducted in Sapporo.. However. to relationships with a growing number of people. Cassidy. Japan. a meta-analysis of 2.

[23] Van IJzendoorn. Bakermans Kranenburg M. (1995). Universal and Contextual Dimensions". 276-297. Guilford Press. (1990). M. 1008 (1): 22–30. Attachment Theory and Evidence. PMID 18020832. .6. Grossmann.25. Y. Relational Violence.M.. I: Attachment. [21] Greenberg. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago. Child Development 59: 147–156. M. Vaughn. pp. Wartner.1553. [16] Berlin LJ.3. 89—111. Blehar. Waters. Hesse. New York: Basic Books. Serial No 209. [15] Haltigan. K. Development and Psychopathology. Shaver PR. Handbook of Attachment. (1980). [12] Carlson. Oxford.S.. Ekas NV... Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 36: 549–571. M. Appleyard K.. Keyes A. [17] Rutter.265.. concomitants.2307/1130329.. (1999) Handbook of Attachment. its study and biological interpretations... M. an interim report. & Cassidy. III: Loss. Research and Clinical Applications. C.1037/0012-1649. doi:10. Chen. & Cummings.. Helnick S.. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. M. Settles L (2003). (1978).003. Guilford Press ISBN 1-57230-087-6. Bowlby. E. Kroonenberg.22. doi:10. Research and Clinical Applications". J. "Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: A meta-analysis of the strange-situation". [13] Lyons-Ruth K. Seifer R." (http:/ / web. doi:10. Braunwald.1177/016502548100400202. Cicchetti.43. Y.Attachment in children [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Bowlby. (1990). "The Influence of Early Attachments on Other Relationshipsencyclopedia=Handbook of Attachment: Theory. University of Chicago Press. Cicchetti. Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors.. D.. ebscohost. 880–905. Shaver PR. "Examining the Strange-Situation procedure with Japanese mothers and 12-month old infants". Security of Infantile attachment as assessed in the 'Strange Situation'. (1994). J. Bretherton & E Waters (Eds).E. Gardener. D. M. (Eds. [27] Main. "Attachment relationship experiences and childhood psychopathology". 121-160). Thompson. V. Behavioural and Brain Sciences. Dev Psychopathol 17 (1): 1–23. pp. Cassidy J. Acad. Growing points of attachment theory and research. (Eds). Developmental Psychology 43 (6): 1553–1567. "Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period". [29] Richters. (1973). et al. PMID 3359869. Infant temperament and mother's mode of interaction and attachment in Japan. E. A Handbook For Clinicians (pp. New York and London: Guilford Press. T. 188 . F.). "Attachment security in infants at-risk for autism spectrum disorders. research. "Expanding the concept of unresolved mental states: Hostile/Helpless states of mind on the Adult Attachment Interview are associated with disrupted mother-infant communication and infant disorganization". Huber. J.1017/S0954579405050017. NY.. & Campos (1985). J. M & Solomon. Cassidy. (2007). New York: Basic Books. Attachment security in infants at-risk for autism spectrum disorders 41 (7): 962-967.. JSTOR 1130329. N. Cicchetti. E. Shaver.1196/annals. Jacobvitz C (1999) "Attachment Disorganization: Unresolved Loss. [26] Behrens. et al. T. Ann.24. and Lapses in Behavioral and Attentional Strategies". Schuengel C. & Wall.. II: Separation: Anxiety and anger. In I. (1989). (1986). "Disorganized/disoriented attachment relationships in maltreated infants". [28] van IJzendoorn MH. ISBN 9781593858742. Sagi-Schwartz A (2008). In Cassidy J. Hay (Eds) Development Through Life. (1981). 333–47. (1969).(1984). J. doi:10. In Cassidy J. Cassidy & P. Atwood G (2005). Child Development 59 (2): 512–522. J. E. K. & Cummings.H.2... PMID 2083508. Rutter & D. PMID 14998869. Developmental Psychology 25 (4): 525–531. "Clinical implications of attachment concepts: Retrospect and Prospect". S. JD. [18] Lamb. Yellin C. Attachment in the preschool years: Theory.. M. Waters.4.D. Attachment in the preschool years. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. H. "German children's behavior toward their mothers at 12 months and their fathers at 18 months in Ainsworth's strange situation".415. Blackwell Scientific Publications. New York: Basic Books.. Chicago. E. New York and London: Guilford Press. Charnov & Estes.525.. Child Development 61 (6): 1965–1973. K. PMID 15971757.1037/0012-1649. U. International Journal of Behavioral Development 4: 157–184. (1988). "Empirical classification of infant-mother relationships from interactive behavior and crying during reunion". and sequelae. NY:Guilford [9] Main. "Cross-Cultural Patterns of Attachment. [22] Vaughn. doi:10. [10] Zeanah CH. [11] Van IJzendoorn M. E. NJ: Earlbaum. (1988). 7. doi:10. The Influence of Early Attachments on Other Relationshipsencyclopedia=Handbook of Attachment: Theory.. J.1037/0012-1649. [8] J. Research and Clinical Applications. 11. Developmental Psychology 24 (3): 415–426. PMC 1857275. K. Research and Clinical Applications.1301. M. 50. Attachment and loss: Vol. Ainsworth. doi:10. B. ISBN 9781593858742. Waters. M. [20] Belsky. D.) Handbook of Attachment: Theory. In M. J. edited by Shaver and Cassidy. Bowlby. J. (1990). (1999). M. 2009. In Greenberg. Main.1037/0012-1649. Barnett. Developmental Psychology 22 (2): 265–270. E. theory research and intervention. B. doi:10. com/ ehost/ detail?vid=3& hid=7& sid=4ee26e89-71a6-4d34-930d-cfd04877e6fa@sessionmgr11& bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==#db=cmedm& AN=20859669). Sci. pp. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 127-147 [19] Miyake. D. Attachment and loss: Vol. Retrieved 1 December 2011. P. 373-402). "Attachment behaviour at home and in the laboratory". Hillsdale. In Cassidy J and Shaver PR (Eds. (1988). [24] Grossmann. and intervention (pp. 225-249. [14] Lyons-Ruth K. Attachment and loss: Vol. K. Messinger DS (July 2011).. "Mothers' Attachment Status as Determined by the Adult Attachment Interview Predicts Their 6-Year-Olds' Reunion Responses: A Study Conducted in Japan". [25] Takahashi.

"Are Infant Attachment Patterns Continuously or Categorically Distributed? A Taxometric Analysis of Strange Situation Behavior". The First Years Last Forever (2005) [DVD]. H. : Parents' Action for Children. J. Infant Behavior and Development 13 (4): 469–485. Developmental Psychology 39 (3): 387–404. S. PMID 12760508.. • Zeanah. (1999) Handbook of Attachment: Theory. Madison. C. ISBN 0-19-511501-5. • Mercer. (2003) How Children develop. doi:10. NY. (Eds) (1990) Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory. (1993) Infancy and Early Childhood. and Clinical Applications. M. "Cross-cultural consistency of coding the strange situation".. Oxford University Press. MT. doi:10. D. M. NY. J. DeLoache. [31] Fraley. • Karen R (1998) Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love.3. Guilford Press. • Holmes. Washington.387. N.. • Parkes. ISBN 0-415-07730-3... R.. • Bausch. ISBN 1-58391-152-9. EM. Recommended Reading • Cassidy.C. Research.. • Greenspan. Marris. (Eds. D. (2003).1016/0163-6383(90)90017-3. (1990). (1993) Handbook of Infant Mental Health. ISBN 1-57259-249-4.. & Shaver. • Holmes. 189 . CM. Research and Intervention University of Chicago. C. • Greenberg. Chicago.. London: Brunner-Routledge. Praeger 2005. P. New York: Worth.1037/0012-1649. (2001) The Search for the Secure Base: Attachment Theory and Psychotherapy. (Eds). Cicchetti. P. Kroonenberg. P. J. J. Spieker. S.39. ISBN 0-415-05651-9 • Siegler R. J. Routledge. & Cummings. Understanding Attachment. J. CT: International Universities Press. (1993) John Bowlby and Attachment Theory. Guilford.Attachment in children [30] Van IJzendoorn. 32. & Eisenberg. J. Stevenson-Hinde.. ISBN 0-8236-2633-4. Karl Heinz (2002) Treating Attachment Disorders NY: Guilford Press.) (1991) Attachment Across The Life Cycle Routledge. NY.

the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System. Attachment style is thought to be similar to childhood attachment patterns. and self-report questionnaires. The child experiences the following situations: 1. This episode is curtailed if the infant appears to be distressed. The stranger leaves quietly and the mother waits until the baby settles. Mother (or other familiar caregiver) and baby enter room. These patterns are also referred to as Secure (Group B). anxious-avoidant and anxious-ambivalent. The mother leaves the room. and the other dimension dealing with avoidance in the relationship. or assess disorders of attachment. The most common approach to defining attachment style is a two-dimension approach in defining attachment style. The Strange Situation The Strange Situation procedure was formulated to observe attachment relationships between a caregiver and children between the age of nine and 18 months. anxious-avoidant. Anxious/Resistant (Group C). The disorganized/controlling attachment classification is thought to represent a break-down in the attachment-caregiving partnerhip such that the child does not have an organized behavioral or representational strategy to achieve protection and care from the attachment figure. Avoidant (Group A) and Disorganized/Controlling (Group D). Mother enters and waits to see how the infant greets her. preoccupied. The stranger leaves the infant playing unless he/she is inactive and then tries to interest the infant in toys. anxious-ambivalent. Mother sits quietly on a chair.[2] [3] In this procedure the child is observed playing for 20 minutes while caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room. or describe their relationships. 2. although there is to date no research that links how childhood attachment patterns are related to attachment personality dimensions with romantic partners. Each pattern group is further broken down into several sub-categories. 3. dismissive-avoidant. A stranger enters. If the infant becomes distressed this episode is ended.Attachment measures Attachment measures Attachment measures refer to the various procedures used to assess attachment in children and adults. suitable for older children. Attachment in adults is commonly measured using the Adult Attachment Interview. 5. As research accumulated and atypical patterns of attachment became more apparent it was further developed by Main and Solomon in 1986 and 1990 to include the new category of disorganized/disoriented attachment. Measuring attachment in children Some methods are based on observation of infants and toddlers either in natural or 'arranged' situations. and then she leaves again. 6. The stranger comes back and repeats episode 3. and fearful-avoidant. Other methods. The infant is alone. a developmental psychologist[1] Originally it was devised to enable children to be classified into the attachment styles known as secure. A variety of methods allow children to be classified into four attachment pattern groups: secure. 7. and disorganized/disoriented. Another approach defines four adult attachment style categories: secure. 190 ." draw a picture of their family. It was developed by Mary Ainsworth. Researchers have developed various ways of assessing patterns of attachment in children. talks to the mother then gradually approaches infant with a toy. One dimension deals with anxiety about the relationship. are based on asking children to complete "attachment story stems. The situation varies in stressfulness and the child's responses are observed. 4. recreating the flow of the familiar and unfamiliar presence in most children's lives. Self-report questionnaires assess attachment style. responding if the infant seeks attention. a personality dimension that describes attitudes about relationships with romantic partners. A child classified with the disorganized/controlling attachment will be given a "next best fit" organized classification.

Reunion behaviour is noted and then the situation is ended. They also need to include ways of guarding against "coder drift". It can rate a child along a continuum from secure to insecure but does not classify the type of insecurity. utilises Q-Sort methodology. 1987. analyses the reunion of child and parent after a 1 hour separation. social and emotional reciprocity.. or Type A and coercive or Type C. It is also intended to be able to distinguish the unendangered from the endangered compulsive and obsessive subpatterns that may have implications for emotional and behavioral development. Main & Cassidy attachment classification system This system. devised in 1988. It is aimed at 6 year olds and classifies their attachment status. (1999). as described below. The three basic strategies for negotiating interpersonal relationships are modified to fit preschoolers and the patterns are renamed secure/balanced. vigilance/hypercompliance and role reversal. The mother returns and the stranger goes. Attachment Q-set This method. the tendency of evaluators to change their criteria as they assess more and more children over long periods of time. It consists of nearly 100 items intended to cover the spectrum of attachment related behaviors including secure base and exploratory behaviors.0. not as diagnostic techniques for individual children. As such.'s (1993) suggested new alternative categories of disorders of 191 .[7] Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI) More recent research uses the Disturbances of Attachment Interview or "DAI" developed by Smyke and Zeanah. affective response and social cognition. responding to comfort when offered. checking back after venturing away from the care giver.Crittenden for the purpose of assessing patterns of attachment in 18-month to 5 year old children. Two aspects of the child's behaviour are observed: • The amount of exploration (e. as some items to be assessed require interpretation reliability (e. but has been modified for preschool and elementary-school aged children. these techniques need to be "lean" enough to carry out fairly quickly. emotional regulation. This method is designed to pick up not only reactive attachment disorder but also Zeannah et al.g. playing with new toys) the child engages in throughout. excessive clinging. reticence with unfamiliar adults.[5] The current version is Attachment Q-set Version 3. willingness to go off with relative strangers. Developing methods for older toddlers and children The Strange Situation is not designed for children older than about 18 months. Like the SSP it involves an observation which is then coded.[4] Preschool strange situation A version of the Strange Situation procedure designed for an older age group of between 3 and 4 years by Cassidy. The methods in development are intended as research measures. namely having a discriminated. This is a semi-structured interview designed to be administered by clinicians to caregivers. preferred adult. self endangering behavior.g. and • The child's reactions to the departure and return of its caregiver. Effective training of evaluators is essential.Attachment measures 8. defended. devised by Waters and Deane in 1985.[6] Preschool Assessment of Attachment (PAA) The PAA was devised by P. Marvin and the MacArthur Working group. It is based on a set period of observation of children aged 1 – 5 in a number of environments. It covers 12 items. and there is an ongoing effort to develop assessment methods that are suitable for older toddlers and preschoolers. or Type B. child is "suddenly aggressive toward mother for no reason"). seeking comfort when distressed. The classifications include all the SSP categories plus patterns that develop during the second year of life.

Narrative story stem techniques This method uses dolls and narrative to enact a story. The third involves asking children actual questions about their attachment relationships. the Story Stem Assessment Profile (SSAP) developed in 1990 for children aged 4 – 8. 192 . For example. Methods include the MacArthur Story Stem Battery (MSSB) and the Attachment Story Completion Test. The second method asks children to respond to pictures. the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST) developed in 2000 for children aged 4. questionable measures of attachment in school-age children have been presented. Methods include the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT) developed in 1972 for children aged between 11 and 17. three different techniques to determine their state of mind with respect to attachment are used. The first is the Story Stem in which children are asked to complete and describe stories having been given the 'stem' or beginning. The dolls represent family members. these techniques are designed to access the childs internal working models of attachment relationships. developed in 1990 for children between the age of 3 to 8 years. Direct interview techniques Child Attachment Interview (CAI) This is a semi-structured interview designed by Target et al. preoccupied and unresolved are the same as under the AAI described below. (2003) for children aged 7 to 11.5-11.7 year olds.8. despite the fact that observations have figured prominently.. The classifications of dismissing. Scores are based on both verbal and non-verbal communications. that was itself poorly validated and that is based on a nonconventional view of attachment.[8] Other approaches With older toddlers. no established observational protocol has been established" [10] Also. Picture response techniques Like the stem stories. adapted for children by focussing on representations of relationships with parents and attachment related events. The interviewer enacts the beginning of the story and then hands the dolls over for the child to complete it with varying degrees of prompting and encouragement. and teens. children. The child is shown attachment related pictures and asked to respond. the Randolph Attachment Disorder Questionnaire. secure.5. have been central to the development of the concept. a protocol for establishing attachment status was described by Sheperis and his colleagues [11] . this protocol was validated against another technique..5 . Revised versions have been produced for 4 .[9] Attachment Interview for Childhood and Adolescence (AICA) This again is a version of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) rendered age appropriate for adolescents. the Attachment Doll Play Assessment developed in 1995 for children age 4.... "Behavioral observation is a natural starting point for assessing attachment disorders because behavioral descriptions. These techniques are designed to access the childs internal working models of their attachment relationships. It is based on the Adult Attachment Interview.Attachment measures attachment. Unfortunately.. Criticism Existing measures have not necessarily been developed to a useful level.

[22] In addition to these findings supporting the global distributions of attachment classifications in Sapporo. Not only is this likely to provide boundary problems. This maybe a major constraint when applying the procedure in cultures. Charnov & Estes. et al. but also it is not at all obvious that discrete categories best represent the concepts that are inherent in attachment security. such as that in Japan (see Miyake et al.. 2007. Behrens. However. Modified procedures based on the Strange Situation have been Mother and child developed for older preschool children (see Belsky et al. two studies diverged from the global distributions of attachment classifications noted above. In particular. and interviews with the mothers have developed in order to extend the data base (see Vaughn & Waters. Greenberg et al. the procedure is based on just 20 minutes of behaviour. Gardener. 1994. 1990)[15] [16] but it is much more dubious whether the same approach can be used in middle childhood. 1985)[14] . also discuss the Japanese concept of amae and its relevance to questions concerning whether the insecure-resistant (C) style of interaction may be engendered in Japanese infants as a result of the cultural practice of amae. Behrens et al. where infants are rarely separated from their mothers in ordinary circumstances. despite its manifest strengths. Ecological validity and universality of Strange Situation attachment classification distributions With respect to the ecological validity of the Strange Situation. 1984)[13] .. One study was conducted in North Germany [19] in which more avoidant (A) infants were found than global norms would suggest. including several from studies with non-Western language and/or cultural bases found the global distribution of attachment categorizations to be A (21%). Also. B (65%).[21] found attachment distributions consistent with global norms using the six-year Main & Cassidy scoring system for attachment classification. Thompson.000 infant-parent dyads. a meta-analysis of 2.'s (1978) original attachment classification distributions. and the other in Sapporo... It seems much more likely that infants vary in their degree of security and there is need for a measurement systems that can quantify individual variation". Also.Attachment measures Reception and development of SSP Psychiatrist Michael Rutter describe the limitations of the procedure in the following terms. It can be scarcely expected to tap all the relevant qualities of a child's attachment relationships. A further constraint is that the coding procedure results in discrete categories rather than continuously distributed dimensions. it is very dependent on brief separations and reunions having the same meaning for all children. Of these two studies. (1978). Japan [20] where more resistant (C) infants were found. Q-sort procedures based on much longer naturalistic observations in the home. controversy has been raised over a few cultural differences in these rates of 'global' attachment classification distributions. because older children have a cognitive capacity to maintain relationships when the older person is not present. the Japanese findings have sparked the most controversy as to the meaning of individual differences in attachment behavior as originally identified by Ainsworth et al. 193 .[12] "It is by no means free of limitations (see Lamb.. To begin with. separation may not provide the same stress for them. 1990)[17] . In a recent study conducted in Sapporo. and C (14%) [18] This global distribution was generally consistent with Ainsworth et al.

The AAI. but equally valid. Hesse. It involves about twenty questions and has extensive research validation to support it. One asks about a person's feelings and behaviors in the context of romantic or other close relationships. Cassidy. and Mary Main in 1984. Sroufe. (1998) scale is strongly related to secure versus insecure classifications. These have been used either individually or in conjunction with discrete attachment classifications in many published reports [see Richters et al.[23] Van IJzendoorn et al. this is a quasi-clinical semi-structured interview that takes about one hour to administer. but in fact they seem to be only moderately related--at least as currently assessed. Have angry or ambivalent representations of the past. 1990). Research and Clinical Applications (2nd ed. A good description can be found in Chapter 25 of Attachment Theory.Attachment measures Attachment measurement: discrete or continuous? Regarding the issue of whether the breadth of infant attachment functioning can be captured by a categorical classification scheme. A. AAP. Cassidy and P. Guilford Press. edited by J. 194 . Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) Developed by Carol George. and the self-report questionnaires were created with somewhat different aims in mind.). what is most important for you to know is that self-report measures of romantic attachment and the AAI were initially developed completely independently and for quite different purposes." (Shaver & Fraley. and M. Cummings. Beauchaine. It's therefore worthwhile to become familiar with both approaches. The chapter title is "The Adult Attachment Interview: Historical and Current Perspectives.e. perspectives on adult attachment. Nancy Kaplan.. the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). The discourse is defensive. Correlations of the two kinds of measures with other variables are likely to differ.[24] ] The original Richter’s et al. • Preoccupied: Experience continuing preoccupation with their own parents. R. Measuring attachment in adults The three main ways of measuring attachment in adults include the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). One kind of measure receives its construct validity mostly from studies of romantic relationships. Shaver and Fraley note: "If you are a novice in this research area. correctly predicting about 90% of cases [24] . these might have been substantially associated." and is written by E. internal working models) by assessing general and specific recollections from their childhood. although a few studies have found the AAI to be related to marital relationship quality and a few have found self-report romantic attachment measures to be related to parenting. • Dismissing: They show memory lapses. E. NY. Their discourse is coherent. Shaver. 1998. Readers further interested in the categorical versus continuous nature of attachment classifications (and the debate surrounding this issue) should consult the paper by Fraley and Spieker [25] and the rejoinders in the same issue by many prominent attachment researchers including J. 2008. In principle. describe them in a balanced way and as influential.. Minimize negative aspects and deny personal impact on relationships. Categories are designed to predict parental stances on Berkeley infant data. The interview taps into adult representation of attachment (i. Their positive descriptions are often contradicted or unsupported. Incoherent discourse. internally consistent. Parental AAI Attachment status includes: • Autonomous: They value attachment relationships. The interview is coded based on quality of discourse (especially coherence) and content. the other from prediction of a person's child's behavior in Ainsworth's Strange Situation. and self-report questionnaires. the other is used to make inferences about the defenses associated with an adult's current state of mind regarding childhood relationships with parents. 2004) [26] The AAI and the self-report questionnaires offer distinct. Waters & T. and non-defensive in nature. it should be noted that continuous measures of attachment security have been developed which have demonstrated adequate psychometric properties.

(2000). A. [29] Their model was based on the idea attachment styles reflected people's thoughts about their partners and thought about themselves. Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) Developed by Carol George and Malcolm West in 1999.. The strongest concurrent validation of the measure is the correspondence between AAP and AAI classification agreement. Some of the strongest external validation of the measures involves its demonstrated ability to predict interviewees' children's classifications in the Strange Situation. In addition to providing adult group classifications. P.I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. and this desire sometimes scares people away. Bartholomew and Horowitz presented a model that identified four categories or styles of adult attachment. & Brennan. I am nervous when anyone gets too close. and often. as reported by Shaver. The chosen set of statements indicated their attachment style. K. each set of statements describing an attachment style: • Secure . [28] Their questionnaire was designed to classify adults into the three attachment styles identified by Ainsworth. difficult to allow myself to depend on them. it taps primarily into a person's state of mind regarding their attachment in their family of origin (nuclear family). The AAP is being used to assess attachment in adults and adolescents. Specifically. Belsky. this is a free response task that involved telling stories in response to eight picture stimuli (1 warm-up & 7 attachment scenes). I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. the AAP is also used to code attachment defensive processing patterns. J. I find it difficult to trust them completely. and personal agency. love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. Bartholomew). The questionnaire consisted of three sets of statements. attachment styles depended on whether or not people judge their partners to be generally accessible and responsive to requests for support. A book describing the measure is forthcoming from Guilford Press in spring 2011. The AAP identifies the same adult attachment groups as the AAI.[27] However. I don't often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me. I want to merge completely with another person. People participating in their study were asked to choose which set of statements best described their feelings. 195 . as described above.Attachment measures • Unresolved/Disorganized:Show trauma resulting from unresolved loss or abuse. • Avoidant .. R. there are important differences in what is measured by the AAI—rather than being a measure of romantic attachment. A good description can be found in George and West's 1999 paper in the journal Attachment and Human Development. One important advance in the development of attachment questionnaires was the addition of a fourth style of attachment. They proposed four categories based on positive or negative thoughts about partners and on positive or negative thoughts about self. The AAP is demonstrated to be increasingly useful in clinical and neurobiological settings. Later versions of this questionnaire presented scales so people could rate how well each set of statements described their feelings.I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others. The measure also has been shown to have some overlap with attachment constructs measured by the less time-intensive measures of the peer/romantic attachment tradition (Hazan & Shaver. attachment synchrony. Self-report questionnaires Hazan and Shaver created the first questionnaire to measure attachment in adults. and whether or not people judge themselves to be the kind of individuals towards which others want to respond and lend help.I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. • Anxious/Ambivalent .

David Schmitt. but I find it difficult to trust others completely.I am comfortable without close emotional relationships. Adults indeed appeared to have four styles of attachment instead of three attachment styles. Waller. Investigators have created several questionnaires using this strategy to measure adult attachment. • Dismissive .It is relatively easy for me to become emotionally close to others. 196 . and Brennan in 2000. and Shaver in 1998. and I prefer not to depend on others or have others depend on me. the way these two kinds of thoughts interacted to form attachment styles varied somewhat across cultures. validated the attachment questionnaire created by Bartholomew and Horowitz in 62 cultures. The RQ-CV consisted of four sets of statements. I don't worry about being alone or having others not accept me. [31] The ECR-R was created by Fraley. However. I sometimes worry that I will be hurt if I allow myself to become too close to others. [32] Readers who wish to take the ECR-R and learn their attachment style can find an online version of the questionnaire at http:/ / www. Tests demonstrated the four attachment styles were distinct in how they related to other kinds of psychological variables. I want emotionally close relationships. A second important advance in attachment questionnaires was the use of independent items to assess attachment. The four attachment styles had somewhat different meanings across cultures.Attachment measures Bartholomew and Horowitz used this model to create the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ-CV). I am comfortable depending on others and having others depend on me. Two popular questionnaires of this type are the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) questionnaire and the Experiences in Close Relationships .I want to be completely emotionally intimate with others. The ECR was created by Brennan. together with a large number of colleagues. each describing a category or style of attachment: • Secure . [30] The distinction of thoughts about self and thoughts about partners proved valid in nearly all cultures. • Fearful . It is very important to me to feel independent and self-sufficient. or to depend on them. but I sometimes worry that others don't value me as much as I value them. Clark. I am uncomfortable being without close relationships. The ratings for the individual statements were combined to provide an attachment score.I am somewhat uncomfortable getting close to others. • Preoccupied . Instead of asking people to choose between three or four sets of statements.Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire. people rated how strongly they agreed with dozens of individual statements. but I often find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like.

The anxiety scale in the ECR and ECR-R reflect thoughts about self. These items serve as a scale for anxiety. The remaining items deal with how avoidant a person is in their relationship. Scores on the anxiety and avoidance scales can still be used to classify people into the four adult attachment styles. Analysis of the ECR and ECR-R reveal that the questionnaire items can be grouped into two dimensions of attachment. and the fearful avoidant style of attachment is characterized by high anxiety and high avoidance. One group of questionnaire items deal with how anxious a person is about their relationship. the dismissive avoidant style of attachment is characterized by low anxiety and high avoidance.Attachment measures web-research-design. Combinations of anxiety and avoidance can thus be used to define the four attachment styles. These items serve as a scale for avoidance. Many researchers now use scores from the anxiety and avoidance scales to perform statistical analyses and test hypotheses. 197 . The secure style of attachment is characterized by low anxiety and low avoidance.net/cgi-bin/crq/crq. Attachment avoidance relates to beliefs about taking risks in approaching or avoiding other people.pl. The avoidance scale in the ECR and ECR-R relates to thoughts about partners. the preoccupied style of attachment is characterized by high anxiety and low avoidance. Attachment anxiety relates to beliefs about self-worth and whether or not one will be accepted or rejected by others. [31] [33] [34] The four styles of attachment defined in Bartholomew and Horowitz's model were based on thoughts about self and thoughts about partners.

edu/ ~rcfraley/ measures/ measures. R. & Cassidy. & Spieker. & Wartner.H. C. Huber.. [28] Hazan.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. M. Gardener. (2003).. M. Child Development.P. 5(3):223-244.' Journal of Child Psychotherapy 29. F. C.. S. P. Thompson. Grossmann. E. research and intervention. Blanchard.m. Attachment Theory and Evidence. B. . Romantic love conceptualized as an attachmenpt process. & Kroonenberg. Developmental Psychology 24. R.(1984). patcrittenden. [24] Van IJzendoorn. 373-402). its study and biological interpretations. T.C. M.E. K. (1988). S. 61. C. M.. & Cummings. Cicchetti and E. In M. Available on the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry website at www. psych.Bretherton and E. Chicago. (1990). Child Development.. M. Empirical classification of infant-mother relationships from interactive behavior and crying during reunion. Personal Relationships.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [26] Shaver. and Solomon. International Journal of Behavioral Development. Braxelton and M.A. doi:10. 198 .com [9] Target. & Cassidy. T. Rutter & D. Developmental Psychology. 415-426. 25-43. (1988) "Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period.K (1985) 'Defining and assessing individual differences in attachment relationships: Q-methodology and the organization of behavior in infancy and early childhood. & West.. & Kroonenberg. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. J. 1965-1973. P. [7] Crittenden PM (1992). and Solomon. 24. [8] Smyke. and deane. K. T. 387-404.L. 22.Yogman (eds) Affective development in infancy.J. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period. 43. [20] Takahashi. (2007). & Shaver.' In t. 209 (1-2). R. ISBN 0-89859-461-8. 627-646. and Zeanah. University of Chicago Press. Growing points of attachment theory and research. K. & Brennan. Belsky. (2004). 511-524. an interim report. (1988). from http:/ / www. uiuc. and Schmueli-Goetz..' In I.M. Oxford.. [15] Belsky. The adult attachment interview and self-reports of romantic attachment: Associations across domains and methods. 157-184. E. [23] Richters. Infant Behavior and Development. J. A. 59. [25] Fraley.Y.1017/S0954579400000110. Serial No 209. Infant temperament and mother's mode of interaction and attachment in Japan. & Zeanah. Waters. & Campos (1985). Infant Mental Health Journal. A Handbook For Clinicians (pp. Hoda. NJ: Ablex [3] Main. D. 415-426. Are Infant Attachment Patterns Continuously or Categorically Distributed? A Taxometric Analysis of Strange Situation Behavior.. P. [17] Vaughn. [21] Behrens.A. p. Cicchetti.. Bretherton & E Waters (Eds). Main.Attachment measures References [1] Ainsworth. J.. E. Serial No. (1986) 'Discovery of an insecure disorganized/dioriented attachment pattern:procedures. 1553–1567. [18] Van IJzendoorn. 127-147 [14] Miyake. Blackwell Scientific Publications. & Fraley. 265-270. M.. 147-156. B. E. In I. Waters (eds) Growing pains of attachment theory and research: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 50.. Cross-cultural consistency of coding the strange situation. E. (1978) Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Chen.Doggett. 25(4):291-310 [12] "The Clinical Implications of Attachment Concepts". Cummings (eds) Attachment in the preschool years: Theory. findings and implications for the classification of behavior.J.J... Developmental Psychology. (1981). Online article. [5] Waters Waters. Renfro-Michael. 4. [4] Andreassen. (1994). (2007). R. 171-186 [10] O'Connor. [19] Grossmann. [27] Shaver. (Eds).. Self-report measures of adult attachment. Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: A meta-analysis of the strange-situation. E.A. H. [22] Main. Y. E. Holdiness. Retrieved 2008-01-06. C. & Cassidy. theory research and intervention. Child Development. 59. D. Hay (Eds) Development Through Life. Attachment in the preschool years.jaacap. 52. "The development of an assessment protocol for Reactive Attachment Disorder. [16] Greenberg. (1990).."Attachment disorders: Assessment strategies and treatment approaches. German children's behavior toward their mothers at 12 months and their fathers at 18 months in Ainsworth's strange situation. J. Security of Infantile attachment as assessed in the 'Strange Situation'. "Quality of attachment in the preschool years" (http:/ / www. 469-485. K. 28(6). (2003). (2000).H.H. M. K. 7. Measuring socioemotional functioning in a national birth cohort study. com/ Preschool-assesment. Attachment behaviour at home and in the laboratory. Retrieved June 20. 2. R. [2] Main. J. & Hesse. M. html . U. Developmental Psychology. 2006. (2003). Norwood."Journal of Mental Health Counseling. Development and Psychopathology 4 (02): 209–41.E. 39. Charnov & Estes. 276-297. (1988). J. Fonagy.E. Mothers’ Attachment Status as Determined by the Adult Attachment Interview Predicts Their 6-Year-Olds’ Reunion Responses: A Study Conducted in Japan. 41-65 [6] Main. J. J. 50. P.C. html). 512-522. P. Behavioural and Brain Sciences. & Waters. Mary D. 229 [11] Sheperis. (2003) 'Attachment representations in school-age children: the development of the Child Attachment Interview (CAI).M. C. & Schlagheck. (1986). (1990) 'Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation' In M.M... 13. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 36 (4): 552–553 [13] Lamb. N." Attachment & Human Development. (1987). Examining the Strange-Situation procedure with Japanese mothers and 12-month old infants. (1990).Greenberg. 7. Developmental Psychology.... (1999)'Disturbances of Attachment Interview'. & Vaughn.

and Clinical Applications. richardatkins.. (2004).. K. Attachment theory and close relationships. ISBN 0-415-07730-3.R. 78..).L. (1999) Handbook of Attachment: Theory. NY. An item-response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. K. & Shaver. Self-report measurement of adult romantic attachment: An integrative overview. Research and Intervention University of Chicago.org/) • Relationship Advice: How Understanding Adult Attachment Can Help (http://www. 226-244. K. • Holmes. P. (2000). ISBN 1-57259-249-4. Mashek & A. (1993) John Bowlby and Attachment Theory.R. K. Waller. (1991).. ISBN 0-19-511501-5. London: Brunner-Routledge. Marris. ISBN 1-58391-152-9. Research. 350-365. (Eds). New York: Guilford Press. Patterns and universals of adult romantic attachment across 62 cultural regions. B..G. N.helpguide. 35. MT. J. & Horowitz. J. Routledge. (1993) Infancy and Early Childhood. 25-45.. Cicchetti.pl) • Articles on attachment measures including 11 self-report measures with scoring instructions (http://www. N. R. S. Rholes (Eds. (Eds. CT: International Universities Press. Simpson & W. [33] Bartholomew.J. Oxford University Press. pp.Attachment measures [29] Bartholomew. Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. J. C. (2003) How Children develop.org/mental/ relationship_advice_adult_attachment... Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. (Eds) (1990) Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory. Guilford Press. Methods of assessing adult attachment. 367-402. [31] Brennan. D.C. 46-76). D. S. CM. Stevenson-Hinde. (1998).. NY. & Shaver.A. Handbook of Closeness and Intimacy. L. [34] Collins. J. NY: Guilford Press. New York.). & Eisenberg.. An Attachment Theory Perspective on Closeness and Intimacy. Rholes (Eds.html) 199 . 61. Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. P. [32] Fraley. ISBN 0-8236-2633-4. Mahwah. • Karen R (1998) Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love. [30] Schmitt. New York: Worth. Clark. (1998). & Brennan.C.uk/atws/page/55. (2004). Madison. • Parkes.). In J.net/cgi-bin/crq/crq. In D. • Greenspan.M. P.) (1991) Attachment Across The Life Cycle Routledge.S. Aron (Eds. P. Further reading • Cassidy. J. N. & Freeney.htm) • Attachment Questionnaire (http://www.A. • Greenberg.web-research-design. 163-188. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. et al. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. pp. DeLoache. Chicago.. External links • AICAN . EM. A. • Holmes..Australian Intercountry Adoption Network (http://www. Simpson & W.P. (2001) The Search for the Secure Base: Attachment Theory and Psychotherapy.L.aican. In J. & Cummings.co. & Shaver. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-415-05651-9 • Siegler R.A.

"rebirthing". when the child's resistance is overcome and the rage is released.[1] It is found primarily but not exclusively in the United States and much of it is centered in about a dozen clinics in Evergreen. some advocates of attachment therapy began to alter views and practices to be less potentially dangerous to children. Tinbergen. including diagnosis and accompanying parenting techniques. in which a child is firmly held (or lain upon) by therapists or parents. Attachment therapy is a treatment used primarily with fostered or adopted children who have behavioral difficulties. Two of the most well-known cases are those of Candace Newmaker in 2000 and the Gravelles in 2003. This change may have been hastened by the publication of a Task Force Report on the subject in January 2006. The aim is to promote attachment with the new caregivers.Attachment therapy Attachment therapy Attachment therapy is the most commonly used term for a controversial category of alternative child mental health interventions intended to treat attachment disorders. bottle feeding and enforced eye contact. despite its name. The common form of attachment therapy is holding therapy. promoting instead newer techniques of attunement. commissioned by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) which was largely critical of attachment therapy. Control over the children is usually considered essential and the therapy is often accompanied by parenting techniques which emphasize obedience.[1] The term generally includes accompanying parenting techniques. It has been described as a potentially abusive and pseudoscientific intervention that has resulted in tragic outcomes for children. ATTACh. Other names or particular techniques include "the Evergreen model". Further.[8] Some leading attachement therapists have also specifically moved away from coercive practices. talking psychotherapies such as attachment-based psychotherapy and relational psychoanalysis or the form of attachment parenting advocated by the pediatrician William Sears. is scientifically unvalidated and is not considered to be part of mainstream psychology or. "corrective attachment therapy" and Coercive Restraint Therapy. regression. catharsis. sometimes severe. "rage-reduction". This article describes this particular set of interventions although in clinical literature the term "attachment therapy" is sometimes used loosely to mean any intervention based. the child is reduced to an infantile state in which he or she can be "re-parented" by methods such as cradling. Following the associated publicity. to be based on attachment theory. In theory. one of the founders. Through this process of restraint and confrontation.[6] Since the 1990s there have been a number of prosecutions for deaths or serious maltreatment of children at the hands of "attachment therapists" or parents following their instructions. Martha Welch and other early proponents used it as a treatment for autism. based on the now discredited belief that autism was the result of failures in the attachment relationship with the mother. The children's problems are ascribed to an inability to attach to their new parents because of suppressed rage due to past maltreatment and abandonment. therapists seek to produce in the child a range of responses such as rage and despair with the goal of achieving catharsis.[4] [5] It is primarily based on Robert Zaslow's rage-reduction therapy from the 1960s and '70s and on psychoanalytic theories about suppressed rage. "holding time". established his clinic in the 1970s. Zaslow. Colorado where Foster Cline. the form of rebirthing sometimes used within attachment therapy differs from Rebirthing-Breathwork. but including disobedience and perceived lack of gratitude or affection for their caregivers. formally adopted a White Paper stating its unequivocal opposition to the use of coercive practices in therapy and parenting. sensitivity and regulation.[7] In April 2007. on attachment theory. These accompanying parenting techniques are based on the belief that a properly attached child should comply with parental demands "fast. "compression therapy". This form of treatment differs significantly from evidence-based attachment-based therapies. snappy and right the first time" and should be "fun to be around".[2] These techniques have been implicated in several child deaths and other harmful effects. particularly outside the USA. or claiming to be based. an organization originally set up by attachment therapists. rocking.[3] This form of therapy. including at least six documented child fatalities. breaking down of resistance and defence mechanisms. with which it is considered incompatible. 200 .

with some sessions reportedly lasting longer. reparenting. restraining.e.[11] It is this form of treatment for attachment difficulties or disorders which is popularly known as "attachment therapy". punishments related to food and water intake. They may be known as "rebirthing therapy". give a list of therapies they state are attachment therapy by another name. According to The Center's treatment protocol. Proponents emphasize the child's resistance to attachment and the need to break it down. "rage-reduction therapy"[1] or "prolonged parent-child embrace therapy".Attachment therapy Treatment characteristics The controversy. (3) the therapist takes advantage of the child's capitulation by showing nurturance and warmth. In a workshop handout prepared by two therapists at The Center.[12] They also provide a list of additional therapies used by attachment therapists which they consider to be unvalidated. Variants of these treatments have carried various labels that change frequently. To do this."[2] The APSAC Task Force describes how the conceptual focus of these treatments is the child's individual internal pathology and past caregivers rather than current parent-child relationships or current environment. "holding time". a group that campaigns against attachment therapy. "compression therapy". requiring children to submit totally to adult control over all their needs. "A central feature of many of these therapies is the use of psychological. pinching. rib cage stimulation (e. as outlined in the 2006 American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) Task Force Report. If the child is well-behaved outside the home this is seen as successful manipulation of outsiders.[1] Advocates for Children in Therapy."[14] According to the APSAC Task Force. (4) this new trust allows the child to accept 'control' by the therapist and eventually the parent. Proponents believe that traditional therapies fail to help children with attachment problems because it is impossible to establish a trusting relationship with them. "corrective attachment therapy". ventilation of rage. or their faces may be held so they can be forced to engage in prolonged eye contact. In rebirthing and similar approaches. "the Evergreen model". Similar but less physically coercive approaches may involve holding the child and psychologically encouraging the child to vent anger toward her or his biological parent.' If the child is actually placed in foster care. Sessions may last from 3 to 5 hours. and/or licking. the following sequence of events is described: (1) therapist 'forces control' by holding (which produces child 'rage').g. aversive tickling. tickling. knuckling). refuses to comply). or aggressive means to provoke the child to catharsis. encouraging children to regress to infant status.. as indicated by the child breaking down emotionally ('sobbing'). barring normal social relationships outside the primary caretaker. this is explained to the child as a consequence of not choosing to be a 'family boy or girl. The Center induces rage by physically restraining the child and forcing eye contact with the therapist (the child must lie across the laps of two therapists. These include deep tissue massage. he or she may be threatened with detainment for the day at the clinic or forced placement in a temporary foster home. They believe this is because children with attachment problems actively avoid forming genuine relationships.[7] has broadly centered around "holding therapy"[9] and coercive.. rather than as evidence of a problem in the current home or current parent-child relationship. binding. attachment parenting.[10] Some authors critical of this therapeutic approach have used the term Coercive Restraint Therapy. if the child 'shuts down' (i. a variety of coercive techniques are used. Evergreen) as follows: "Like Welsh (sic)(1984. or aversive procedures. including scheduled holding. or techniques designed to provoke cathartic emotional discharge. protests of distress from the child are considered 201 . the child is then required to 'earn the way back to therapy' and a chance to resume living with the adoptive family. may have several adults lie on top of them.[13] Matthew Speltz of the University of Washington School of Medicine describes a typical treatment taken from The Center's material (apparently a replication of the program at the Attachment Center. enforced eye contact. (2) rage leads to child 'capitulation' to the therapist. physical. Children may be held down.. looking up at one of them). 1989). The APSAC Task Force noted that this perspective has its attractions because it relieves the caregivers of responsibility to change aspects of their own behavior and aspirations.. or other sorts of acute emotional discharge.

because it is believed children with attachment problems resist attachment. the "holding" approach would be viewed as intrusive and therefore non-sensitive and countertherapeutic. Establishing total adult control. to force the children into loving (attaching to) their parents. Restraint of the child by more powerful adult(s) is considered an essential part of the confrontation. From this perspective. using force or coercion on traumatised children simply re-traumatizes them and far from producing love and affection. early 1990s.. Children described as attachment-disordered are expected by attachment therapists[21] to comply with parental commands "fast and snappy and right the first time".[15] Coercive techniques. parenting a child with an attachment disorder is a battle.. and demonstrating that all of the child's needs are met through the adult. there is a hands-on treatment involving physical restraint and discomfort. demonstrating to the child that he or she has no control. the child's character flaws must be broken before attachment can occur. is interpreted as a sign of attachment disorder that must be forcibly eradicated. motionless sitting for prolonged periods of time. fight against it and seek to control others to avoid attaching.. and the use of "therapeutic foster parents" with whom the child stays whilst undergoing therapy. and to always be "fun to be around" for their parents.. usually for hours at a time. and winning the battle by defeating the child is paramount. home schooling.[22] Attachment parenting expert Nancy Thomas states that attachment-disordered children act worse when given information about what is going to occur because they will use the information to manipulate their environment and everyone in it. is deliberately withheld. the child is put in a lap hold with the arms pinned down. such as scheduled or enforced holding.Attachment therapy to be resistance that must be overcome by more coercion. hard labor or meaningless repetitive chores throughout the day."[16] Psychiatrist Bruce Perry cites the use of holding therapy techniques by caseworkers and foster parents investigating a Satanic Ritual Abuse case in the late 1980s. such as not finishing chores or arguing. for example obedience-training techniques such as "strong sitting" (frequent periods of required silence and immobility) and withholding or limiting food. Typically.[18] 202 . and control of all food and water intake and bathroom needs. as in the trauma bond known as Stockholm syndrome.[20] According to the APSAC Task Force. . According to O'Connor and Zeanah.[2] [18] Earlier authors sometimes referred to this as "German Shepherd training". may also serve the intended purpose of demonstrating dominance over the child. in contrast with accepted theories of attachment. In his opinion.[17] Parenting techniques Therapists often instruct parents to follow programs of treatment at home. Similarly.[15] Other features of attachment therapy are the "two week intensive" course of therapy.[4] According to Advocates for Children in Therapy. such as how long a child will be with therapeutic foster parents or what will happen to him or her next.[19] In some programmes children undergoing the two-week intensive stay with "therapeutic foster parents" for the duration or beyond and the adoptive parents are trained in their techniques. . "Attachment Therapy almost always involves extremely confrontational.[2] Deviation from this standard.[2] Proper appreciation of total adult control is also considered vital. many controversial treatments hold that children described as attachment–disordered must be pushed to revisit and relive early trauma. is a central tenet of many controversial attachment therapies.." The purported correction is described as ". Attachment Therapy is the imposition of boundary violations – most often coercive restraint – and verbal abuse on a child. Children may be encouraged to regress to an earlier age where trauma was experienced or be reparented through holding sessions. produces obedience based on fear.. often hostile confrontation of a child by a therapist or parent (sometimes both). Attachment parenting may include keeping the child at home with no social contacts. and information. or alternatively an adult lies on top of a child lying prone on the floor. as instrumental in obtaining lengthy and detailed alleged "disclosures" from children.

[23] Contrasting attachment theory based methods In contrast. the theory of attachment described by attachment therapy proponents is that young children who experience adversity (including maltreatment. attachment problems can be diagnosed even in an asymptomatic child through observation of the child's inability to crawl backward on command. These sessions are carried out at the caregiver's wish and not upon the child's request. frequent changes in child care. and to engage in endless power struggles. especially if she considers abortion. the child again feels distress and rage that will block attachment to a foster or adoptive caregiver. attachment theory's fundamental and evidence-based statement that security is promoted by 203 . creating positive interactions with caregivers. Therapy based on this viewpoint emphasizes providing a stable environment and taking a calm. responsiveness to children's physical and emotional needs and consistency. non-threatening. attachment will again be blocked. criminal. to seek control rather than closeness. as attachment patterns develop within relationships. rocked. the child responds with distress and anger that continue through postnatal life. during which the unborn child is aware of the mother's thoughts and emotions.[30] If the child has had a peaceful gestation.[31] [32] Critics say holding therapies have been promoted as "attachment" therapies. According to attachment therapist Elizabeth Randolph.Attachment therapy In addition to restrictive behavior. adoption. loss.g. If the child reaches the toddler period safely. but is not treated with strict authority during the second year. Suppressed or unconscious rage is theorized to prevent the child from forming bonds with caregivers and leads to behavior problems when the rage erupts into unchecked aggression. sensitive. Such children are said to fail to develop a conscience. patient.[27] [28] Some interventions focus specifically on increasing caregiver sensitivity in foster parents. and fed with a bottle and given sweets. to not trust others.[27] [28] Theoretical principles Like a number of other alternative mental health treatments for children. and nurturing approach toward children. methods to correct problems with attachment focus on improving the stability and positive qualities of the caregiver-child interactions and relationship. e. If the child is separated from the mother after birth.[15] This results in a lack of ability to attach or to be genuinely affectionate to others. traditional attachment theory holds that the provision of a safe and predictable environment and caregiver qualities such as sensitivity. and antisocial behaviors if left untreated. attachment therapy is based on some assumptions that differ strongly from the theoretical foundations of other attachment based therapies. separations. Attachment therapists believe that reenactments of aspects of infant care have the power to rebuild damaged aspects of early development such as emotional attachment. hugged and kissed.[15] In contrast to traditional attachment theory. but after birth suffers pain or ungratified needs during the first year. to resist the authority of caregivers.[6] Indeed they are considered incompatible.[15] The tone in which the attributes of these children are described has been characterized as "demonizing". Failure of attachment results in a lengthy list of mood and behavior problems. non-intrusive. If the mother is distressed by the pregnancy. parents are advised to provide daily sessions in which older children are treated as if they were babies to create attachment. predictable. attachment problems will result. Further. Such children are said to be at risk of becoming psychopaths who will go on to engage in very serious delinquent. colic or even frequent ear infections) become enraged at a very deep and primitive level. or change of caregiver if that is not possible with existing caregivers. no matter how early this occurs. but these may not be revealed until the child is much older.[4] There are many ways in which holding therapy/attachment therapy contradicts Bowlby's attachment theory. They are seen as highly manipulative and as trying to avoid true attachments while simultaneously striving to control those around them through manipulation and superficial sociability.[18] The child is held in the caregiver's lap. support the development of healthy attachment.[29] Advocates of this treatment also believe that emotional attachment of a child to a caregiver begins during the prenatal period.[33] and not based on attachment theory or research.[24] [25] [26] All mainstream interventions with an existing or developing evidential foundation focus on enhancing caregiver sensitivity. according to the so-called "attachment cycle". even though they are more antithetical to than consistent with attachment theory.

[7] [19] [29] According to the Task Force. In particular unfounded claims are made as to efficacy of treatments.[37] However. within attachment therapy. It also purports to diagnose 204 ."[41] Prior and Glaser describe the lists as "wildly inclusive" and state that many of the behaviors in the lists are likely to be the consequences of neglect and abuse rather than located within the attachment paradigm. the diagnoses of attachment disorder and reactive attachment disorder are used in a manner not recognised in mainstream practice."[15] Diagnosis lists and questionnaires Both the APSAC Task Force and Prior and Glaser describe the proliferation of alternative "lists" and diagnoses. persistent nonsense questions or incessant chatter. They list Bowlby.[38] One is science-based. like Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder or are not related to attachment difficulties. They also give an example from the Evergreen Consultants in Human Behavior which offers a 45-symptom checklist including bossiness. Hodges. fascination with fire. that are not in accord with either DSM or ICD classifications and which are partly based on the unsubstantiated views of Zaslow and Menta[40] and Cline. found in academic journals and books with careful reference to theory. which originated at the Institute for Attachment in Evergreen.[34] According to Mary Dozier "holding therapy does not emanate in any logical way from attachment theory or from attachment research".[38] The Internet is considered essential to the popularization of holding therapy as an "attachment" therapy. Ainsworth.[43] It is largely based on the earlier Attachment Disorder Symptom Checklist which itself shows considerable overlap with even earlier checklists for indicators of sexual abuse. Prior and Glaser describe two discourses on attachment disorder. parental feelings are evaluated through responses to such statements as "Parent feels used" and "is wary of the child's motives if affection is expressed". For example. enuresis and language disorders. caseworkers. Descriptions of children are frequently highly pejorative and "demonizing". non-academic literature and on the Internet where claims are made which have no basis in attachment theory and for which there is no empirical evidence. Posting these types of lists on internet sites that also serve as marketing tools may lead many parents or others to conclude inaccurately that their children have attachment disorders.[36] and reactive attachment disorder. The child's behavior is referred to in such statements as "Child has a grandiose sense of self-importance" and "Child 'forgets' parental instructions or directives". many of which either overlap with other disorders. The Attachment Disorder Symptom Checklist includes statements about the parent's feelings toward the child as well as statements about the child's behavior. gore and evil. blood. and parent support groups. proponents and critics of the controversial attachment therapies appear to move in different worlds. "These types of lists are so nonspecific that high rates of false-positive diagnoses are virtually certain.[29] A commonly used diagnostic checklist in attachment therapy is the Randolph Attachment Disorder Questionnaire or "RADQ". cruelty to animals and lack of conscience. O'Connor and Zeanah and colleagues as respected attachment theorists and researchers in the field.Attachment therapy sensitivity. treatment centers.[42] It is presented not as an assessment of reactive attachment disorder but rather attachment disorder. Indeed. "This polarization is compounded by the fact that attachment therapy has largely developed outside the mainstream scientific and professional community and flourishes within its own networks of attachment therapists. particularly on the Internet. The other discourse is found in clinical practice. international classifications and evidence.[39] The APSAC Task Force describes the relationship between the proponents of attachment therapy and mainstream therapies as polarized. stealing. Chisholm. The checklist includes 93 discrete behaviors. food related issues (such as gorging or hoarding). The compiler of the RADQ claims validity by reference to the Attachment Disorder Symptom Checklist. avoiding eye contact except when lying. Tizard. and "Parents feel more angry and frustrated with this child than with other children".[35] Diagnosis and attachment disorder Attachment therapists claim to diagnose attachment disorder. by proponents of attachment therapy. Examples given from lists of attachment disorder symptoms found on the internet include lying.

thus legitimising the family. The Evergreen model pathologizes the childs behaviour by a medical diagnosis.[44] A critic has stated that a major problem of the RADQ is that it has not been validated against any established objective measure of emotional disturbance. the Task Force also noted the extreme claims made by proponents as to both the prevalence and effect of attachment disorders.[2] They are seen as manipulative. the question of whether attachment disorders can be reliably diagnosed in older children and adults has not been resolved.[20] Contrasting mainstream position Within mainstream practice. Both classification systems warn against automatic diagnosis based on abuse or neglect. Some proponents suggest most or a high proportion of adopted children are likely to suffer attachment disorder.[45] Patient recruitment In addition to concerns about the use of non-specific diagnostic checklists on the Internet being used as a marketing tool. and Jeffrey Dahmer. were examples of children who were attachment-disordered who "did not get help in time". As well as the promise of working where traditional therapies fail. Attachment behaviors used for the diagnosis of RAD change markedly with development and defining analogous behaviors in older children is difficult. By the use of confrontation the model offers the means to condition children to comply with parental expectations. dishonest. attachment therapy also offers the idea of attachment as a negotiable social contract that can be enforced in order to convert the unsatisfactory adoptee into the "emotional asset" the family requires. Institutionalized or abused children often do not conform to adopters conceptualizations of family behaviours and roles. "RAD-kids" or "RADishes". or the child's inability to perform as family material. offering renewed hope of "normal" family life. Statistics on the prevalence of maltreatment are wrongly used to estimate the prevalence of RAD. Adolf Hitler. Many symptoms are present in a variety of other more common and more easily treatable disorders.[2] A sense of urgency is created which serves to justify the application of aggressive and unconventional techniques.[2] One site was noted to contain the argument that Saddam Hussein. and Disinhibited attachment disorder. There are no substantially validated measures of attachment in middle childhood or early adolescence.[2] Foster Cline in his seminal work on attachment therapy Hope for high risk and rage filled children uses the example of Ted Bundy. They set out recommendations for the better dissemination of both understanding of attachment theory and knowledge of the more recent evidence-based treatment options available. disorders of attachment are classified in DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 as reactive attachment disorder (generally known as RAD). O'Connor and Nilson cite the use of the Internet to publicize attachment therapy and the lack of knowledgeable mainstream professionals or appropriate mainstream treatments or interventions. There is as yet no other accepted definition of attachment disorders. Where the therapy fails to achieve this the fault is attributed to the child's conscious choice to not be a family member.[2] Problematical or less desirable styles such as insecure or disorganized attachment are conflated with attachment disorder.[19] In answering the question posed as to how a treatment widely regarded by attachment clinicians and researchers as destructive and unethical came to be linked with attachment theory and to be seen as a viable and useful treatment. without conscience and dangerous. because it legitimises and reanimates the same ideas about family and domesticity as does the adoption process itself. Children are labeled as "RADs".Attachment therapy attachment disorder for which there is no classification.[2] Some attachment therapy sites predict that attachment-disordered children will grow up to become violent predators or psychopaths unless they receive the treatment proposed.[28] 205 .[47] According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) practice parameter published in 2005.[46] Rachel Stryker in her anthropological study "The Road to Evergreen" argues that adoptive families of institutionalized children who have difficulties transitioning to a nuclear family are attracted to the Evergreen model despite the controversy.

these therapies are sufficiently prevalent to have prompted position statements or specific prohibitions against using coercion or restraint as a treatment by mainstream professional societies such as: American Psychological Association (Division on Child Maltreatment).[50] [51] Two American states.[15] Others have taken a public stand 206 . The Association for the Treatment and Training in the Attachment of Children.[56] Some practitioners condemn the most dangerous techniques but continue to practice other coercive techniques. an organization for professionals and families associated with attachment therapy. notably Hughes. American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. Proponents argue that their therapies present no physical risk if undertaken properly and that critics' concerns are based on unrepresentative occurrences and misapplications of techniques. or misunderstanding by parents.[53] Attachment therapists from the USA have conducted conferences in the UK. therapists calling themselves "attachment therapists" practicing in the UK tend to be practicing conventional forms of psychotherapy based on attachment theory. Their evidence for this is primarily clinical experience and testimonials.[55] Developments The APSAC Task Force stated that proponents of attachment therapy correctly point out that most critics have never actually observed any of the treatments they criticize or visited any of the centers where the controversial therapies are practiced. of which there were 216. A number of therapies are quite different from those that have led to the abuse and deaths of children in much publicized court cases. caseworkers. (ATTACh). the treatments appear to be continuing among networks of attachment therapists. There has been a move away from coercive and confrontational models towards attunement and emotional regulation amongst some leaders in the field. has also issued statements against coercive practices. Prior and Glaser cite at least one clinic in the UK.[20] The British Association for Adoption and Fostering. and adoptive or foster parents. has issued an extensive position statement on the subject which covers not only physical coercion but also the underlying theoretical principles.Attachment therapy Prevalence Attachment therapy prospered during the 1980s and '90s as a consequence of both the influx of older adopted orphans from Eastern European and third world countries and the inclusion of reactive attachment disorder in the 1980 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders which attachment therapists adopted as an alternative name for their existing unvalidated diagnosis of attachment disorder. (BAAF)."[13] Rachel Stryker in her anthropological study "The Road to Evergreen" states that attachment therapies "of all stripes" are increasingly popular in the USA and that the number of therapists associated with the Evergreen model registering with ATTACh grows each year.[54] However. there are controversies within the attachment therapy community about coercive practices. "Attachment Therapy is a growing. underground movement for the 'treatment' of children who pose disciplinary problems to their parents or caregivers. present themselves as humane.[28] and American Psychiatric Association. therefore caution is advised. however.[20] The practice of holding therapy is not confined to the US. points out that all the therapies. Despite this. She cites the large number of formerly institutionalized domestic and foreign adoptees in the USA and the apparently higher risk of disruption of foreign adoptions. The Task Force. Colorado and North Carolina.[7] American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.[52] There have been professional licensure sanctions against some leading proponents and successful criminal prosecutions and imprisonment of therapists and parents using attachment therapy techniques. respectful and nurturing.000 between 1998 and 2008. cathartic approaches are necessary to help children with attachment disorders. Kelly and Popper. Holding is described as gentle or nurturing and it is maintained that intense.[48] According to the APSAC Task Force. National Association of Social Workers [49] (and its Utah Chapter).[15] According to the APSAC Task Force.[15] The advocacy group ACT states. have outlawed rebirthing. including those using frankly coercive practices. attachment therapy centers.

. among other overtly coercive techniques (and indeed continue to offer for sale books by controversial proponents) but state that the organization has evolved significantly away from earlier positions." They acknowledge ATTACh's historical links with catharsis.[58] Holding therapies derive from these "rage-reduction" techniques applied by Zaslow. and that nurturing touch and treatment aimed at the perceived developmental rather than chronological age are an integral part of the therapy. temperature. reports generally positive effects of the overall therapeutic process and calls for further consideration of the use of this type of intervention. learned defensive responses to profoundly overwhelming experiences of fear and terror. and then made eye contact with the carer who relieved those feelings. away from viewing these children as driven by a conscious need for control toward an understanding that their often controlling and aggressive behaviors are automatic. The authors call for research and a debate on issues of what constitutes "coercion" and the distinctions between the different variants of "holding" in therapy. issued a series of statements in which they progressively changed their stance on coercive practices.[58] Zaslow believed that creating pain and rage and combining them with eye contact would cause attachment to occur.[14] [40] Zaslow attempted to force attachment in those suffering from autism by creating rage while holding them against their will. an organization set up by Foster Cline and associates.[55] History Matthew Speltz of the University of Washington School of Medicine states that the roots of attachment therapy are traceable to psychologist Robert Zaslow and his "Z-process" in the 1970s. They state that their recent evolution is due to a number of factors including tragic events resulting from such techniques. and intense confrontation. the infant would not form an attachment and would not make eye contact with other people.[14] In 1971. The Task Force was of the view that all could benefit from more transparency and specificity as to how the therapy is behaviorally delivered. "unequivocally state(s) our opposition to the use of coercive practices in therapy and parenting. The intervention also used a degree of intrusiveness. which critics state has been misapplied.[14] Zaslow and his "Z-process". ATTACh. the White Paper promotes the techniques of attunement."[57] A White Paper. a physically rough version of holding therapy. circulation.Attachment therapy against coercion. based on interviews with the deliverers and recipients of a therapeutic intervention incorporating non-coercive holding at one centre in the UK. an influx of members practicing other techniques such as attunement and a "fundamental shift . fear and rage. long after the normal age for such developments. The child's release typically depends upon his or her compliance with the therapist's clinical agenda or goals. If an infant did not experience this cycle of events by having his fear and rage relieved. formally accepted in April 2007. Although recipients were generally positive about the therapy received. The intervention was not described as "holding therapy" but as using a degree of holding in the course of therapy. 2003 and 2006. Zaslow surrendered his California psychology license following an injury to a patient during rage-reduction therapy.[8] A modest social work study and "invitation to a debate". provocation of rage. He believed this would lead to a breakdown in their defense mechanisms. influenced Foster Cline (known as the "father of attachment therapy") and associates at his clinic in Evergreen[61] A key tenet of Zaslow's approach was the notion of "breaking through" a child's defenses—based on the model of ego defenses borrowed from psychoanalytic theory. The "breaking through" metaphor was then applied to children whose 207 . the holding aspect was the least liked.[14] Zaslow thought attachment arose when an infant experienced feelings of pain.. etc. sensitivity and regulation and deprecates coercive practices such as enforced holding or enforced eye contact. after the death of Candace Newmaker they stated "The child will never be restrained or have pressure put on them in such a manner that would interfere with their basic life functions such as breathing. making them more receptive to others."[8] [51] While being of the view that authoritative practices are necessary. In 2001.[60] Zaslow's ideas on the use of the Z-process and holding for autism have been dispelled by research on the genetic/biologic causes of autism. based on the idea that the recipients need this as they have no basis on which to build a reciprocal relationship.[59] The holding is not used for safety purposes but is initiated for the purpose of provoking strong negative emotions such as fear and anger.[56] In 2001.

[9] Like Tinbergen. ethologist Nikolas Tinbergen published a book recommending the use of holding therapy by parents as a treatment or "cure" for autistic children. According to Cline. Tinbergen based his ideas on his methods of observational study of birds. The child did increase in compliance.[66] Foster Cline gave up his license and moved to another state following an investigation of a separate attachment therapy related incident. 2) the child's expression of rage. holding therapy as a treatment for autism is still practiced in some parts of the world.[67] According to Prior and Glaser "there is no empirical evidence to support Zaslow's theory. nevertheless. was subsequently renamed the Attachment Center at Evergreen. that in his opinion all bonds were trauma bonds. other metaphors were adopted by practitioners relating to the supposed effects of early deprivation. cradling. Parents were advised to hold their autistic children despite resistance and to endeavor to maintain eye contact and share emotions. originally called the Youth Behavior Program.[9] Foster Cline and associates at the Attachment Center at Evergreen. at which point a bonding process was believed to begin.[63] Tinbergen believed that autism related to a failure in the bond between mother and child caused by "traumatic influences" and that enforced holding and eye contact could establish such a relationship and rescue the child from autism. set up by those involved in or trained at the Attachment Center at Evergreen (renamed the Institute for Attachment and Development in about 2002). The concept of suppressed rage has.[59] The clinic. Colorado."[53] Cline's privately-published work Hope for high risk and rage filled children also cites family therapist and hypnotherapist Milton Erickson as a source. with apparent approval. continued to be a central focus explaining the children's behavior. Language from attachment theory is used but descriptions of the practices contain ideas and techniques based on misapplied metaphors deriving from Zaslow and psychoanalysis. Welch recommended holding therapy as a treatment for autism. until such time as the child ceased to resist. 3) relaxation and the development of bonding.[64] Speltz cites child psychiatrist Martha Welch and her 1988 book.[59] Practitioners of holding therapy also added some components of Bowlby's attachment theory and the therapy came to be known as attachment therapy. with respect to this and other cases. provoking anger and rage. Erickson advised the mother to sit on the child for hours at a time and to feed him only on cold oatmeal while she and a daughter ate appetizing food. Cline commented. attachment therapists have used rebirthing 208 . maltreated children who were said to have an "attachment disorder".[19] In addition. Watkins was one of the therapists convicted in the Candace Newmaker case in 2001 in which a child was asphyxiated during a rebirthing process in the course of a two-week attachment therapy "intensive". notably Europe.[63] Tinbergen's interpretations of autism were without scientific rigor and were contrary to the then growing acceptance that autism had a genetic cause. Holding Time.[65] Mothers were instructed to hold their defiant child.[62] These included one set up by Connell Watkins. thus making the child receptive to forming attachment by the application of early parenting behaviors such as bottle feeding.[59] Regression is key to the holding therapy approach.[69] Some. breaking down the child's resistance by confrontational techniques is thought to reduce the child to an infantile state. enabling a child to make up for physical affection missed earlier in life. that he trembled when his mother looked at him. formerly an associate of Foster Cline at the Attachment Center and its clinical director. proponents believed that holding induced age regression.[19] [68] The report describes the case of a divorced mother with a non-compliant son. and. Welch believed autism was caused by the failure of the attachment relationship between mother and child.Attachment therapy attachments were thought to be impaired. not attachment theory. These included the idea of the child's development being "frozen" and treatment being required to "unfreeze" development.[14] A number of other clinics arose in Evergreen.[34] In attachment therapy. it illustrates the three essential components of 1) taking control. Like Zaslow and Tinbergen.[62] In 1983. but by no means all. and reprints parts of a case of Erickson's published in 1961. Despite the lack of a sound theoretical or scientific base. rocking and eye contact. This was replicated elsewhere such as at "The Center" in the Pacific Northwest.[9] as the next significant development. and Erickson noted. Colorado began to promote the use of the same or similar holding techniques with adopted.[62] In addition to the notion of "breaking through" defence mechanisms. abuse or neglect on the child's ability to form relationships.

the theoretical basis for the treatment is in fact Zaslow. and attachment problems and laid down guidelines for the future diagnosis and treatment of attachment disorders. repeated by the APSAC Task Force from an earlier website. They also considered the lack of available and suitable interventions from mainstream professionals as essential to the popularization of holding therapy as an attachment therapy. Scott Lilienfeld included holding therapy as one of the potentially harmful therapies (PHT's) at level 1 in his Psychological Science review. beliefs. diagnoses. practices. that has resulted in tragic outcomes for children including at least six documented child fatalities. claims to an evidence base. Both the APSAC Task Force and Prior and Glaser cite and criticize the one published study on holding therapy undertaken by Myeroff et al. although other aspects of treatment are applied. which "purports to be an evaluation of holding therapy".[34] Dyadic developmental psychotherapy was developed by psychologist Daniel Hughes. or the only evidence-based therapy. claims that traditional treatments do not work and dire predictions for the future of children who do not receive attachment therapy. and to the patient recruitment and advertising practices used by their proponents. diagnostic practices. the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) Task Force reported on the subjects of attachment therapy.. reactive attachment disorder.[71] Attachment researchers and authors condemned it as empirically unfounded.Attachment therapy techniques to aid regression.[56] Two approaches on which published studies have been undertaken are holding therapy[75] and dyadic developmental psychotherapy. not based on attachment theory or research.[5] Claims According to the APSAC Task Force.[72] Describing it as "unfortunately" referred to as "attachment therapy".[4] It has also been described as potentially abusive and a pseudoscientific intervention.[80] [81] Two studies on 209 . another therapy based on beliefs in very early trauma and the transformational nature of age regression. which he stated do not or should not form part of dyadic developmental psychotherapy. Mary Dozier and Michael Rutter consider it critical to differentiate it from treatments derived from attachment theory. non-specific symptoms lists published on the internet. The roots of the form of rebirthing used within attachment therapy lie in primal therapy (sometimes known as primal scream therapy). proponents of attachment therapy commonly assert that their therapies alone are effective for attachment-disordered children and that traditional treatments are ineffective or harmful. the controversy also extends to the theories.[75] [77] [78] This study covers the "across the lap" approach.[15] The APSAC Task Force expressed concern over claims by therapies to be "evidence-based".[6] In 2006. which the Task Force took as a description of attachment therapy techniques."[53] [70] According to O'Connor and Nilsen.[48] Bowlby explicitly rejected the notion of regression stating "present knowledge of infant and child development requires that a theory of developmental pathways should replace theories that invoke specific phases of development in which it is held a person may become fixated and/or to which he may regress.[33] In 2003. when the Task Force found no credible evidence base for any such therapy so advertised.[73] A mistaken association between attachment therapy and attachment theory may have resulted in a relatively unenthusiastic view towards the latter among some practitioners despite its relatively profound lines of research in the field of socioemotional development. Hughes' website gave a list of attachment therapy techniques."[3] In 2007.[1] The APSAC Task Force was largely critical of Attachment Therapy's theoretical base. and social group norms supporting these techniques.[76] Each of these non-randomized studies concluded that the treatment method studied was effective. an issue of Attachment & Human Development was devoted to the subject of attachment therapy with articles by well-known experts in the field of attachment."[79] Prior and Glaser state that although the Myeroff study claims it is based on attachment theory.[74] Nor did it accept more recent claims to evidence base in its November 2006 Reply. described as "not restraint" by Howe and Fearnley but "being held whilst unable to gain release. the holding component has attracted most attention because proponents believe it is an essential ingredient. theoretically flawed and clinically unethical. "Although focused primarily on specific attachment therapy techniques. described by the Task Force as a "leading attachment therapist".

The adoptive mother was convicted as the abuser and the adoptive father of being aware but doing nothing to prevent it or seek help.[89] Both Myeroff et al. beaten. attachment therapy was placed on a list of treatments that have the potential to cause harm to clients in the APS journal. supported by attachment therapists practising the Evergreen model. 1995. A nonrandomized. on Welch's "prolonged parent-child embrace therapy" was conducted on children with a range of diagnoses for behavioral disorders and claimed to show significant improvement. Saunders.[76] Prior and Glaser state Hughes' therapy reads as good therapy for abused and neglected children. This categorization by Craven and Lee has been criticized as unduly favorable. She was placed with "therapeutic foster parents". and been told she would die. Perspectives on Psychological Science. Nevertheless the foster parents went bowling.[84] [85] In their first analysis. The suit was settled out of court. Berliner and Hanson developed a system of categories for social work interventions which has proved somewhat controversial. Berliner & Hanson system. the second being a four-year follow up of the first. claimed he had beaten himself to death as a consequence of his attachment disorder.[72] Cases There have been a number of cases of serious harm to children in which controversial attachment therapy techniques. Becker-Weidman's study was described by the Task Force as "an important first step toward learning the facts about DDP outcomes" but falling far short of the criteria necessary to constitute an evidence base.[86] They considered both dyadic developmental psychotherapy and holding therapy.[75] [87] They placed both in Category 3 as "Supported and acceptable". Foster Cline gave evidence for the mother claiming David suffered from reactive attachment disorder. holding therapy was placed in Category 6 as a "Concerning treatment".[56] Some studies are still being undertaken on coercive therapies. controlled experiments showing the effectiveness of the treatment.[10] In March 2007. An estimated six children have died as a consequence of the more coercive forms of such treatments or the application of the accompanying parenting techniques. and the lack of randomized. a 13-year-old adopted girl undergoing attachment therapy at The Attachment Center. leaving her alone.[93] [94] • David Polreis. Becker-Weidman. Concern was expressed about methods that involve holding and restraint.[56] [82] [83] In 2004. breathing heavily and still vomiting in the morning. having asked her foster parents what would happen if she took an overdose of drugs or slit her wrist. before-and-after 2006 pilot study by Welch (the progenitor of "holding time") et al. She was violently ill during the night and was incoherent. At the post-mortem he was found to have 200 bruises and five old broken ribs.[91] [92] • Lucas Ciambrone.[4] [90] • Andrea Swenson. The adoptive mother. the adoptive parents were asked to allow the foster parents to adopt Andrea so that a fresh claim could be made. A visitor found her dead in the hallway.[88] a point to which Craven and Lee responded by arguments in support of holding therapy. though with "little application of attachment theory". Foster Cline gave evidence for both parents claiming Lucas suffered from reactive attachment disorder and that living with such a child was like living "in a situation with the same psychic pressures as those experienced in a concentration camp or cult" and that the parents were in no way responsible for the genesis of Lucas' alleged difficult behaviors. 1996. 1990. In 2006 Craven and Lee classified 18 studies in a literature review under the Saunders. Andrea. a two-year-old adopted boy who was beaten to death by his adoptive mother.Attachment therapy dyadic developmental psychotherapy have been published by Dr. a seven-year-old adopted boy who was starved. When the insurance company refused to continue to pay for her treatment.[20] (She subsequently claimed he had attacked her and she had acted in self defense). Evergreen.'s study and Becker-Weidman's first study (published after the main Report) were examined in the Task Force's November 2006 Reply to Letters and were criticized as to their methodology. David had been diagnosed with attachment disorder by an attachment therapist and was undergoing 210 . bitten and forced to sleep in a stripped bathroom. but the advocacy group ACT and the Task Force place Hughes within the attachment therapy paradigm. took an overdose of aspirin. theories or belief systems have been implicated. No violent or angry behaviors were reported at school.

in Berlin LJ. 1997. Theory.[95] [96] [97] • Krystal Tibbets. The adoptive mother received a prison sentence of less than a year and her parental rights were terminated in 2007. Intervention and Policy. three of whom were kept in cages. a ten-year-old adopted girl who was killed by asphyxiation during a rebirthing session used as part of a two week attachment therapy "intensive". Zeanah CH (2003). Duke series in child development and public policy. Chaffin et al. Her inability to struggle out was interpreted as "resistance". and pushed his fist into her abdomen to release "visceral rage" and to enforce bonding.1080/14616730310001593974. Guilford Press. When she stopped screaming and struggling he believed she had "shut down" as a form of "resistance".[98] [99] • Candace Newmaker. "Preface". This was denied by the therapist and the adoptive mother. Chaffin et al. the screaming girl was buckled into a highchair. Guilford Press. Chaffin et al. Research. Duke series in child development and public policy.[102] [103] • Cassandra Killpack. 83 Task Force Report. p. The case also involved allegations of extreme control over food and toileting and severe punishments for disobedience. Greenberg MT. Greenberg MT. 11 special needs children adopted by Michael and Sharon Gravelle. After his release from a five-year prison sentence the adoptive father campaigned to have attachment therapy banned. Her adoptive mother and the "therapeutic foster parents" with whom she had been placed received lesser penalties. Some of the children underwent holding therapy from their attachment therapist and the adoptive parents used accompanying attachment therapy parenting techniques at home. Amaya-Jackson L. 79 Task Force Report. [5] Ziv Y (2005).Attachment therapy treatment and accompanying attachment parenting techniques. a technique known as "compression therapy". p. Evergreen) and Julie Ponder were each sentenced to 16 years imprisonment for their part in the therapy during which Candace was wrapped in blankets and required to struggle to be reborn. While having a tantrum. against the weight of several adults. p.[66] [100] Watkins was released on parole in August 2008 after serving approximately 7 years of her sentence. 1080/ 14616730310001593974& magic=pubmed). Intervention and Policy. a three-year-old adopted child who was killed by her adoptive father using holding therapy techniques he claimed had been taught to him by an attachment therapy center.[104] [105] [106] [107] • Gravelles. fed limited diets. 2001. 211 . Ziv Y. He lay on top of Krystal. ISBN 1-59385-470-6 [6] Berlin LJ et al. wrapped with duct tape. pp.[108] [109] [110] [111] • Vasquez.[112] [113] Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] Task Force Report. and permitted only primitive sanitary facilities. Enhancing Early Attachments: Theory. Many of the 11 children slept in cages. 77 O'Connor TG. a four-year-old adopted child who died from complications of hyponatremia secondary to water intoxication.[101] • Logan Marr. 2003. 63. pp. There was no therapist in this case but the adoptive mother claimed that three of her four adopted children had reactive attachment disorder. Ziv Y. It appears this was a punishment for having drunk some of her sister's drink. the favorite. informaworld. Research. The adoptive parents and therapist were prosecuted and convicted in 2003. was given medication to delay puberty. including over her mouth. 2002. "Attachment-Based Intervention programs: Implications for Attachment Theory and Research". (2005). a five-year-old child who had been fostered by a caseworker. PMID 12944216. Connell Watkins (formerly of The Attachment Center. Attach Hum Dev 5 (3): 223–44. Amaya-Jackson L. The fourth child. The children were home-schooled. com/ openurl?genre=article& doi=10. This apparently occurred when she was restrained in a chair and forced to drink excessive amounts of water by her adoptive parents as part of an "attachment-based" treatment using techniques they claimed had been taught to them at the attachment therapy center where Cassandra was undergoing treatment. in Berlin LJ. Enhancing Early Attachments. doi:10. "Attachment disorders: assessment strategies and treatment approaches" (http:/ / www. Chaffin et al. 2000. and left in a basement where she suffocated. xvii. The two attachment therapists. ISBN 1-59385-470-6 [7] Task Force Report. The foster mother claimed to have used some attachment therapy ideas and techniques she had picked up when working as a caseworker. 2007: four adopted children. Mourners at the funeral were asked to contribute to The Attachment Center.

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These types of lists are so nonspecific that high rates of false-positive diagnoses are virtually certain. Zeanah CH (eds) (September 2003). Institute for Attachment. retrieved 2008-10-19 [61] Mercer et al. ISBN 0422622303 [71] O'Connor TG. The conclusion is that the RADQ has limited usefulness due to its lack of specificity with implications for treatment of children in foster care" [44] Mercer J (Fall ~ Winter 2002). cfm?articleID=000490DD-702D-10A9-A47783414B7F0000). doi:10. org.1962. PMID 12944214. retrieved 2008-02-12 [70] Bowlby J (1998). poor impulse control. "Psychological treatments that cause harm". com/ cgi/ reprint/ 11/ 4/ 381). .. skepticreport. kidscomefirst. "prefers dad to mom" or "wants to hold the bottle as soon as possible" are indicative of attachment problems (Buenning.1111/j.1745-6916. pdf). 263 [54] BAAF Position Statement 4 (PDF). 1966-2006". com/ gi/ dynamic/ offsite. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (1): 16–26. pdf). ed. Evergreen CO [43] Cappelletty G. attach. 317 [60] The Executive Secretary of the Board of Medical Examiners of the State of California (1971) (PDF). com/ viewarticle/ 508956). these lists of nonspecific problems extend far beyond the diagnostic criteria for RAD and beyond attachment relationship problems in general. stealing. "Disturbance and disorders of attachment in infancy: An overview". com/ pseudoscience/ attachmenttherapy. Accusation against Zaslow (http:/ / www. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 22 (1): 71–84. org/ proponents/ cline. doi:10. Shumate S (February 2005). org/ WhitePaper. retrieved 2008-04-18 [67] O'Connor and Nilsen p.1093/bjsw/bcp078 [56] Chaffin M. 2003.

doi:10. F. "Disorders of attachment in adopted and fostered children: Recognition and treatment". Lee R (2006). "Category 1: Well-supported. 4. doi:10. Category 2: Supported and probably efficacious. al. doi:10. Research and Clinical Applications (2nd ed. "Reply to Letters" (http:/ / cmx. "1. Center4familyDevelop. aggression and holding: a cautionary tale". Having to live in his/her bedroom until s/he complies. Being sent away to live until s/he complies. Sarcasm.p. 15. 18. informaworld.Attachment therapy [73] Dozier M and Rutter M (2008). 5. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 29 (4): 303–13. doi:10. C. Child Maltreat 11 (4): 381. and Category 6: Concerning treatment" [85] Gambrill E (2006). 17. Wrapping a child in a blanket and lying on top of him/her. 7. Hitting a child. doi:10. n. Research on Social Work Practice 16 (3): 287–304. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. archive. doi:10. musc. retrieved 2005–05–10 [88] Pignotti M. html). Karen (2000). doi:10. "Firing" a child from treatment because s/he is not compliant.-b). 264 [79] Howe D. Mertlich G. "Challenges to the Development of Attachment Relationships Faced by Young Children in Foster and Adoptive Care". Craven P (2007). D. Any actions that utilize shame and fear to elicit compliance. htm) on 2001-03-09. Poking a child on any part of his/her body to get a response. Research on Social Work Practice 17 (4): 520–521. Saunders BE (2006)." (http:/ / www. Holding a child until s/he complies with a demand. PMID 10422354 [76] Becker-Weidman A (April 2006). denverpost. Fearnley S (2003). Attach Hum Dev 6 (3): 263–78.com. . "Comparative effectiveness of holding therapy with aggressive children". (Hughes. org/ proponents/ hughes. Blaming the child for one's own rage at the child. denverpost. 10. PMID 12944217 [91] Auge. "Attachment. childrenintherapy. op.1080/14616730310001593947. such as saying “sad for you”. Chaffin et al. 12. Holding a child to provoke a negative emotional response. 8. when the adult actually feels no empathy. Having to sit motionless until s/he complies. 16. or that their methods are evidence based. doi:10. doi:10. let alone claims that these treatments are the only effective available approaches. childrenintherapy. pdf). Covering a child's mouth/nose with one's hand to get a response. 6. com/ news/ news0617d." Task Force Report. for example. "German shepherd training. cit p.1177/1049731506297043 [90] Boris NW (2003). "Reply to Pignotti and Mercer: Holding Therapy and Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy are not supported and acceptable social work interventions". Victim of Attachment Therapy (http:/ / www. "Therapeutic Interventions for Foster Children: A Systematic Research Synthesis". "Alternative therapies not new in Evergreen" (http:/ / web. 13. 11. Having to eat in the basement/on the floor until s/he complies. 2. DenverPost. Attach Hum Dev 5 (3): 245–7. yet these proponents provide no citations to credible scientific research sufficient to support these claims (Becker-Weidman. Center for Family Development. Berliner L. Laughing at a child over the consequences which are being given for his behavior. SC: National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center. com).1177/1077559506292636. Pressing against "pressure points" to get a response. Research on Social Work Practice 17 (4): 513–519 [89] Lee RE. "Holding Therapy and Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy are not supported and acceptable social work interventions: A systematic research synthesis revisited". efficacious treatment. Holding a child and confronting him/her with anger. . com/ news/ news0617d. in Cassidy J and Shaver PR.1080/14616730412331281539. Hanson RF (April 26.1177/1359104503008003007 [80] Chaffin M. Being put in a tent in the yard until s/he complies. Category 3: Supported and acceptable. [82] Prior and Glaser p. "An attachment-based treatment of maltreated children and young people. 9.). food or sleep. "Treatment for Children with Trauma-Attachment Disorders: Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy". ISBN 978-1-60623-028-2 [74] "Some proponents have claimed that research exists that supports their methods. B. Chaffin et. Revised Report (http:/ / academicdepartments. Category 4: Promising and acceptable.85 [78] Prior and Glaser p. Gross J (1999). . Hanson R. retrieved 2008-09-17 214 . com/ cgi/ reprint/ 11/ 4/ 381). Making a child repeatedly kick with his/her legs until s/he responds. Any actions based on power/submission. edu/ ncvc/ resources_prof/ ovc_guidelines04-26-04. sagepub. Charleston.)" [81] Hughes D (2004). Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 8 (3): 369–387. Research on Social Work Practice 16 (3): 338–357. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse: Guidelines for Treatment. or are even the sole evidence-based approach in existence.d. html). which then elicits consequences such as: A.1023/A:1021349116429. 78 [75] Myeroff R. 2002. 2004) (PDF). org/ web/ 20010309205804/ http:/ / www. PMID 15513268. until the child complies. 261 [83] Advocates for Children in Therapy. This Task Force was unable to locate any methodologically adequate clinical trials in the published peer-reviewed scientific literature to support any of these claims for effectiveness. Interpreting the child's behaviors as meaning that "s/he does not want to be part of the family". retrieved 2008-06-25 [92] Advocates for Children in Therapy. E. p. done repeatedly. 14. Dyadic developmental psychotherapy: An effective treatment for children with trauma-attachment disorders (http:/ / www. .1177/1049731505284863 [87] Becker-Weidman A (2004). 3. . 19. Labeling the child as a "boarder" rather than as one's child. com/ openurl?genre=article& doi=10. n. Hughes (http:/ / www. New York: London: Guilford Press.1177/1049731505284205 [86] Craven P." which bases the relationship on total obedience. Daniel A. org/ victims/ swenson. "Evidence-based practice and policy: Choices ahead". Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 23 (2): 147–171. archived from the original (http:/ / www. retrieved 2008-10-19. retrieved 2008-09-17 [84] Saunders BE. Punishing a child at home for being "fired" from treatment. 1080/ 14616730412331281539& magic=pubmed). Category 5: Novel and experimental. Having "peanut butter" meals until s/he complies. Depriving a child of any of the basic necessities. . Mercer J (2007).1007/s10560-005-0039-0 [77] Task Force Report. 20. htm).

Mass. retrieved 2008-04-17 [110] Associated Press. Hanson R.com.509588. org/ victims/ gravelle. Miriam (14 July 1997). a troubling defense" (http:/ / web. com/ articles/ 2007/ 02/ 21/ front/ 181339. com/ gravelle/ ). The Santa Barbara Independent. html). . harmed himself. com/ usnews/ issue/ 970714/ 14atta. html).5143. Logan Lyn Marr (http:/ / www.".S. com/ news/ 2007/ may/ 11/ judge-brings-hammer-down-caged-kids-case/ ). Understanding Attachment and Attachment Disorders: Theory. Sandusky Register online. pdf) (PDF).1177/1077559505283699.00. The Salt Lake Tribune [105] Hyde. "Therapist In 'Rebirthing' Death In Halfway House" (http:/ / cbs4denver. PMID 16382093 • Mercer J. "Families struggle to bond with kids". org/ victims/ marr.595108152. OCLC 70663735 215 . Greenberg MT. (2006). usnews. Sarner L. com/ dn/ view/ 0. Duke series in child development and public policy. retrieved 2008-04-18 [97] Canellos. Attachment Therapy on Trial: The Torture and Death of Candace Newmaker. "Special Report: Gravelle trial" (http:/ / www. 2. . Peter S (17 April 1997). uproar Mother's murder defense: Son. retrieved 2008-06-20 [111] Harper. retrieved 2008-06-18 [94] Advocates for Children in therapy. State of Utah . html). Evidence and Practice. com/ 2000-07-27/ news/ suffer-the-children/ ). The Plain Dealer. "Report of the APSAC Task Force on attachment therapy. cleveland. org/ web/ 19970731005244/ http:/ / www. Audrey (20 June 2001). . . watkins. htm). com/ news/ 2007/ may/ 03/ caged-kids-case-nears-end-vasquezs-fate-judges-han/ ). 27 November 2004. retrieved 2008-04-18 [113] Welsh. heraldtribune. Houston Press: 3–4. ISBN 1-84310-245-5. html). html). 786701. retrieved 2008-04-18 [96] Bowers. Guardian. gets life" (http:/ / www. Jesse (26 September 2005). archive. "Holding On" (http:/ / www. .595108087.1249. "Therapy or abuse? Controversial treatments may sink Cascade" (http:/ / deseretnews. Jennete Killpack (http:/ / www. "Ciambrone convicted of murder. Deseret Morning News. . childrenintherapy. com/ usnews/ issue/ 970714/ 14atta. . Child and Adolescent Mental Health Series. dll/ article?AID=/ 20070517/ NEWS/ 705170460). retrieved 2008-04-18 [101] The Associated Press (3 August 2008). "Judge Brings Hammer Down in 'Caged Kids' Case" (http:/ / www. co. doi:10. org/ wgbh/ pages/ frontline/ shows/ fostercare/ marr/ ). ISBN 0670491926.Attachment therapy [93] Scarcella. Michael A (17 May 2007). The Plain Dealer. "A dead child. rebirthing. retrieved 2008-04-18 [103] Advocates for Children in Therapy.615153274. retrieved 2008-07-24 [108] Associated Press. retrieved 2008-06-18 References • (APSAC Task Force report). independent. Ziv Y. Nick (3 May 2007). . Boston Globe (Boston. . . Jesse (14 June 2005).00. pbs. retrieved 2008-09-17 [104] Adams B (29 September 2002). . "Adoption ends in death. Deseret Morning news. Guilford Press. reactive attachment disorder. independent. and attachment problems. Deseret Morning News. Advocates for Children in Therapy. "Models versus Metaphors in Translating Attachment Theory to the Clinic and Community". Enhancing Early Attachments: Theory. London: Jessica Kingsley. FRONTLINE report. uk/ g2/ story/ 0. guardian. Research. Karen (27 July 2000). Intervention and Policy. 2.v. html). Chaffin M. retrieved 2008-04-18 [106] Hyde. ISBN 0275976750 • O'Connor TG. Vasquez's Fate in Judge's Hands" (http:/ / www. retrieved 2008-08-08 [102] "The Taking of Logan Marr" (http:/ / www. in Berlin LJ. westword. retrieved 2008-06-24 [112] Welsh. Nick (11 May 2007). Amaya-Jackson L.): A. . . Wendy (19 September 2003). Nilsen WJ (2005).1 [98] "Timeline: Techniques blamed for several deaths" (http:/ / deseretnews. cbs4denver. . "Suffer-the-children" (http:/ / www. . Parental Murder Victim (http:/ / www. com/ apps/ pbcs. com/ dn/ view/ 0. childrenintherapy. "'Caged Kids' Case Nears End. com/ 2002-09-19/ news/ holding-on/ ). retrieved 2008-04-18 [109] "Gravelle Siblings" (http:/ / www. htm) on 1997-07-31. "Court Hears Taped Killpack Interview" (http:/ / deseretnews. usnews. .00. pdf). retrieved 2008-10-25 [100] Gillan. et al. archived from the original (http:/ / www. Saunders BE. childrenintherapy. com/ local/ denver. U. The Santa Barbara Independent. News online. "Plea deal for Gravelle kids' therapist" (http:/ / www.". Carol (21 February 2007).. sanduskyregister. html). . cleveland.00. Child Maltreat 11 (1): 76–89. html). . retrieved 2008-04-18 [99] Grossman. Denver Westword News. retrieved 2008-04-18 [107] Supreme Court of the State of Utah (2008) (PDF). "The Therapy That Killed" (http:/ / www. gov/ opinions/ supopin/ Killpack071608. txt). com/ news/ pdf/ gravelleletter. com/ article/ 1.1249. ISBN 1-59385-470-6 • Prior V and Glaser D (2006). Herald Tribune. utcourts. Praeger. houstonpress. "Gravelle Daughter's Letter" (http:/ / www. Rosa L (2003). retrieved 2008-09-17 [95] Horn. org/ victims/ ciambrone. .

The specific difficulties implied depend on the age of the individual being assessed. is found in academic journals and books and pays close attention to attachment theory.com/?cat=67) .html) – Child advocacy group opposing attachment therapy • "Be Wary of Attachment Therapy" (http://www. The first main area is based on scientific enquiry.caica. attachment-disordered behavior could include a failure to stay near familiar adults in a strange environment or to be comforted by contact with a familiar person.com/news/nation/ 2006-01-18-swapping-children_x. and disinhibited attachment disorder. In DSM-IV-TR both comparable inhibited and disinhibited types are called reactive attachment disorder or "RAD".[1] No list of symptoms can legitimately be presented but generally the term attachment disorder refers to the absence or distortion of age appropriate social behaviors with adults.org) – Self-described as "an international coalition of professionals and families dedicated to helping those with attachment difficulties by sharing our knowledge. or "DAD" for the disinhibited form.kidscomefirst. Such a failure would result from unusual early experiences of neglect.childrenintherapy.info/) anti-attachment therapy source site • Attachment therapy page from Coalition Against Institutionalized Child Abuse (CAICA) (http://www.usatoday. A problematic history of social relationships occurring after about age three may be distressing to a child. frequent change of caregivers or excessive numbers of caregivers. behavior. in a toddler. and a child's attachment-related behaviors may be very different with one familiar adult than with another. or lack of caregiver responsiveness to child communicative efforts.[2] [3] 216 . but has little or no evidence base.[2] The second area is controversial and considered pseudoscientific. • ebm-first. For example. abuse. The term attachment disorder is most often used to describe emotional and behavioral problems of young children. but does not result in attachment disorder. USAtoday article. whereas in a six-year-old attachment-disordered behavior might involve excessive friendliness and inappropriate approaches to strangers. and considerable discussion about a broader definition altogether.attach. suggesting that the disorder is within the relationship and interactions of the two people rather than an aspect of one or the other personality.com (http://www. talents and resources" • (http://www. There are currently two main areas of theory and practice relating to the definition and diagnosis of attachment disorder.[4] The use of these controversial diagnoses of attachment disorder is linked to the use of pseudoscientific attachment therapies to treat them.us/fhs/brs/reports/ CP140201012_SIR_2008C0105024. or "RAD" for the inhibited form. and social relationships arising from a failure to form normal attachments to primary care giving figures in early childhood.ebm-first.quackwatch.html) from Quackwatch – medical watchdog website • "Underground network moves children from home to home" (http://www.state. • kidscomefirst (http://www.Attachment therapy External links • Association for Treatment and Training in the Attachment of Children (ATTACh) (http://www.[3] It is found in clinical practice.evidence-based medicine campaign group. resulting in problematic social expectations and behaviors.htm) Koch W.org/index.dleg. but is sometimes applied to school-age children or even to adults.htm) • 2008 investigation into death of a foster child (http://www. It makes controversial claims relating to a basis in attachment theory. org/Attachment Disorder Main. on websites and in books and publications.org/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/at. It is described in ICD-10 as reactive attachment disorder.pdf) Attachment disorder Attachment disorder is a broad term intended to describe disorders of mood. abrupt separation from caregivers after about six months but before about three years.mi.

for the purpose of survival. or mood. Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant. or with repeated changes of caregiver. Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment which in turn lead to 'internal working models' which will guide the individual's feelings. or other problematic styles. a disorder is a condition requiring treatment as opposed to risk factors for subsequent disorders. This can occur either in institutions. Reactive attachment disorder indicates the absence of either or both the main aspects of proximity seeking to an identified attachment figure. thoughts and expectations in later relationships. are sometimes discussed under the term 'attachment disorder'. although they are not disorders in the clinical sense.[9] There is a lack of consensus about the precise meaning of the term 'attachment disorder' although there is general agreement that such disorders only arise following early adverse caregiving experiences. and who remain as consistent caregivers for some time. anxious-avoidant. and disorganized. namely "no discriminated attachment figure". Discussion of the disorganized attachment style sometimes includes this style under the rubric of attachment disorders because disorganized attachment is seen as the beginning of a developmental trajectory that will take the individual ever further from the normal range. The words attachment style or pattern refer to the various types of attachment arising from early care experiences. behavior. These classifications consider that a disorder is a variation that requires treatment rather than an individual difference within the normal range.[11] 217 .[8] In the clinical sense.[10] Early intervention for disorganized attachment. midway along the range of disturbance would be insecure or other undesirable attachment styles.[7] Although an attachment is a "tie" it is not synonymous with love and affection although they often go together and a healthy attachment is considered to be an important foundation of all subsequent relationships. "secure base distortions" and "disrupted attachment disorder". called secure. and. is directed toward changing the trajectory of development to provide a better outcome later in the person's life. at the other extreme would be non-attachment. anxious-ambivalent. This spectrum would have at one end the characteristics called secure attachment.[6] Finally. (all organized). In relation to infants.Attachment disorder Some authors have suggested that attachment. culminating in actual disorders of thought. is better assessed along a spectrum than considered to fall into two non-overlapping categories. Current official classifications of RAD under DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 are largely based on this understanding of the nature of attachment. or from extremely neglectful primary caregivers who show persistent disregard for the child's basic attachment needs after the age of 6 months. the term is also sometimes used to cover difficulties arising in relation to various attachment styles which may not be disorders in the clinical sense. it primarily consists of proximity seeking to an attachment figure in the face of threat. Some of these styles are more problematic than others. as an aspect of emotional development.[5] Agreement has not yet been reached with respect to diagnostic criteria. Zeanah and colleagues proposed an alternative set of criteria (see below) of three categories of attachment disorder. Attachment and attachment disorder Attachment theory is primarily an evolutionary and ethological theory.

'Disinhibited' and 'inhibited' are not opposites in terms of attachment disorder and can co-exist in the same child. The inhibited form has a greater tendency to ameliorate with an appropriate caregiver whilst the disinhibited form is more enduring. Further although attachment disorders tend to occur in the context of some institutions. in which the child prefers a familiar caregiver.[14] Boris and Zeanah (1999). preferred attachment figure.Attachment disorder Classification ICD-10 describes Reactive Attachment Disorder of Childhood. but responds to that person in an unpredictable and somewhat bizarre way.excessive familiarity with relative strangers" (DSM-IV-TR) and therefore a lack of 'specificity'.[13] Boris and Zeanah's typology Many leading attachment theorists. Within official classifications. repeated changes of primary caregiver or extremely neglectful identifiable primary caregivers who show persistent disregard for the child's basic attachment needs. and • implicit lack of identifiable. Experiences of abuse are associated with the development of disorganised attachment. Inhibited Type and Disinhibited Type. both known as RAD. It divides this into two subtypes. alarm or distress. • requires a history of significant neglect. there should be no automatic diagnosis on this basis alone as children can form stable attachments and social relationships despite marked abuse and neglect. being a commission rather than omission and because abuse of itself does not lead to attachment disorder..[15] have offered an approach to attachment disorders that considers cases where children have had no opportunity to form an attachment. thus failing to maintain 'proximity'. DSM-IV-TR also describes Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood. and set out recommendations for assessment. as manifest by excessively inhibited responses" and such infants do not seek and accept comfort at times of threat. and those where an existing attachment has been abruptly disrupted. This is somewhat controversial. the second basic element of attachment behavior. less well known as DAD.. Abuse can occur alongside the required factors but on its own does not explain attachment disorder. Such children may be indiscriminately sociable and approach all adults. are a real and appropriate concern for professionals working with children".[12] While RAD is likely to occur following neglectful and abusive childcare. not all children raised in these conditions develop an attachment disorder. The inhibited form is described as "a failure to initiate or respond. an essential element of attachment behavior. The disinhibited form shows "indiscriminate sociability.to most social interactions. There is as yet no official consensus on these criteria. attachment disorganization is a risk factor but not in itself an attachment disorder. • onset before 5 years of age. Boris and Zeanah use the term "disorder of attachment" to indicate a situation in which a young child has no preferred adult caregiver. This would significantly extend the definition beyond the ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR definitions because those definitions are limited to situations where the child has no attachment or no attachment to a specified attachment figure. The ICD-10 descriptions are comparable. whether familiar 218 . ICD-10 includes in its diagnosis psychological and physical abuse and injury in addition to neglect. such as Zeanah and Leiberman.. The APSAC Taskforce recognised in its recommendations that "attachment problems extending beyond RAD. The two classifications are similar and both include: • markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness in most contexts. those where there is a distorted relationship. • the disturbance is not accounted for solely by developmental delay and does not meet the criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder. known as RAD.. and Disinhibited Disorder of Childhood. have recognized the limitations of the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria and proposed broader diagnostic criteria.

they appear to be on developmental trajectories that will end in poor social skills and relationships. Daniel Schechter and Erica Willheim have shown a relationship between maternal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder and secure base distortion (see above) which is characterized by child recklessness. In this situation. The children may snub the returning caregiver.[19] 219 .Attachment disorder or not. These children are more likely to have later social problems with peers and teachers. This type of problem. This type of attachment problem is parallel to Reactive Attachment Disorder as defined in DSM and ICD in its inhibited and disinhibited forms as described above. Smaller numbers of children show less positive development at age 12 months. alternatively.[16] Problems of attachment style The majority of 12-month-old children can tolerate brief separations from familiar caregivers and are quickly comforted when the caregivers return. or showing other behaviors that seem to imply fearfulness of the person who is being sought. may be excessively compliant. which is not covered under other approaches to disordered attachment. may cling to the adult. A small group of toddlers show a distressing way of reuniting after a separation. Insecure attachment styles in toddlers involve unusual reunions after separation from a familiar person. Such children are said to have a secure attachment style. it may be appropriate to think of certain attachment styles as part of the range of attachment disorders. and role-reversal. but the relationship is such that the child cannot use the adult for safety while gradually exploring the environment. These children also use familiar people as a "secure base" and return to them periodically when exploring a new situation. and finally detachment from the original relationship and recovery of social and play activities. backing toward the caregiver or approaching with head sharply averted. hypervigilance. or may show role reversals in which they care for or punish the adult. Most recently. or may go to the person but then resist being picked up.[18] Disorganized patterns of attachment have the strongest links to concurrent and subsequent psychopathology. as it appears to interfere with regulation or tolerance of negative emotions and may thus foster aggressive behavior. freezing in place. separation anxiety.[17] Disorganized attachment has been considered a major risk factor for child psychopathology. The young child's reaction to such a loss is parallel to the grief reaction of an older person. results from an abrupt separation or loss of a familiar caregiver to whom attachment has developed. with progressive changes from protest (crying and searching) to despair. the child has a preferred familiar caregiver. and characteristically continue to develop well both cognitively and emotionally. but some of them spontaneously develop better ways of interacting with other people. Boris and Zeanah also describe a condition they term "secure base distortion". Called a disorganized/disoriented style. The third type of disorder discussed by Boris and Zeanah is termed "disrupted attachment". Although these children's behavior at 12 months is not a serious problem. and considerable research has demonstrated both within-the-child and environmental correlates of disorganized attachment. and withdrawal from communication or play. sadness. Such children may endanger themselves. Their less desirable attachment styles may be predictors of poor later social development. Because attachment styles may serve as predictors of later development. this reunion pattern can involve looking dazed or frightened. they may be emotionally withdrawn and fail to seek comfort from anyone.

[33] 'Preschool Parent Psychotherapy.[37] the New Orleans Intervention. Relationship-based therapy (DIR) (also referred to as Floor Time) by Stanley Greenspan.'. A pediatrician may recommend a treatment plan. like depression.[26] This is a semi-structured interview designed to be administered by clinicians to caregivers. as children with poor attachment experiences often do not elicit appropriate caregiver responses from their attachment behaviors despite 'normative' care. self endangering behavior. willingness to go off with relative strangers. special education services and parenting skills classes. counseling. responsive. such as negotiation of separation in the toddler and preschool period. however. preferred adult. or hyperactivity. attachment problems and moods or behaviors considered to be potential problems within the context of attachment theory. responding to comfort when offered. depend on factors such as the 220 .[20] [21] [22] the separation and reunion procedure and the Preschool Assessment of Attachment ("PAA"). and cooperative adult is available.[35] [36] Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC). gestures and voice develops with social experience by seven to nine months. such as that suggested by Dozier. Medication can be used as a way to treat similar conditions. .[38] [39] [40] and Parent-Child psychotherapy. excessive clinging. Individual-difference.'[30] manipulation of sensitive responsiveness. changing the caregiver. Further developments in attachment.[44] Another author has compared atypical social behavior in genetic conditions such as Williams syndrome with behaviors symptomatic of RAD.'. The ability to send and receive social communications through facial expressions. or if that is not possible.[37] Treatment for reactive attachment disorder for children usually involves a mix of therapy.[43] Possible mechanisms One study has reported a connection between a specific genetic marker and disorganized attachment (not RAD) associated with problems of parenting. emotional regulation. reticence with unfamiliar adults. a mix of family therapy. wait and wonder.[25] More recent research also uses the Disturbances of Attachment Interview or "DAI" developed by Smyke and Zeanah. consider the attachment status of the adult caregiver to play an important role in the development of the emotional connection between adult and child. social and emotional reciprocity. individual psychological counseling.[23] the Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment ("ORCE")[24] and the Attachment Q-sort ("AQ-sort"). if a familiar. difficulties or disorders include the Strange Situation procedure (Mary Ainsworth). seeking comfort when distressed. vigilance/hypercompliance and role reversal. It covers 12 items. These must be designed to make sure the child has a safe environment to live in and to develop positive interactions with caregivers and improves their relationships with their peers. namely having a discriminated. sensitive.[34] 'Circle of Security'.[45] Typical attachment development begins with unlearned infant reactions to social signals from caregivers. play therapy. At about eight months. (1999). For example. and to look to the faces of familiar caregivers for information that either justifies or soothes their fear.Attachment disorder Diagnosis Recognised assessment methods of attachment styles.[31] [32] modified 'Interaction Guidance. This developmental combination of social skills and the emergence of fear reactions results in attachment behavior such as proximity-seeking. Treatment There are a variety of mainstream prevention programs and treatment approaches for attachment disorder. anxiety. infants typically begin to respond with fear to unfamiliar or startling situations.[41] Other known treatment methods include Developmental. checking back after venturing away from the care giver. there is no quick fix for treating reactive attachment disorder.[27] [28] [29] Such approaches include 'Watch. although DIR is primarily directed to treatment of pervasive developmental disorders[42] Some of these approaches. This makes it possible for an infant to interpret messages of calm or alarm from face or voice. This includes foster parents. All such approaches for infants and younger children concentrate on increasing the responsiveness and sensitivity of the caregiver. and parenting education.

[51] In the inhibited form infants behave as if their attachment system has been "switched off". with which it is considered incompatible. or not related to any clinical disorder at all. However the innate capacity for attachment behavior cannot be lost. or the lack of experiences with caregivers who communicate in a predictable fashion. such as autism. have been attributed to the absence of the mental functions that underlie Theory of Mind. Faced with a swift succession of carers the child may have no opportunity to form a selective attachment until the possible biological-determined sensitive period for developing stranger-wariness has passed. or frequent changes. but are not related to attachment. It is thought this process may lead to the disinhibited form.[3] A common feature of this form of diagnosis within attachment therapy is the use of extensive lists of "symptoms" which include many behaviours that are likely to be a consequence of neglect or abuse. However children who suffer the inhibited form as a consequence of neglect and frequent changes of caregiver continue to show the inhibited form for far longer when placed in families. Although it is reported that very young infants respond differently to humans and objects. and beyond the ambit of the discourse on a broader set of criteria discussed above. However. including diagnosis and accompanying parenting techniques. An infant who experiences fear but who cannot find comforting information in an adult's face and voice may develop atypical ways of coping with fearfulness such as the maintenance of distance from adults. It is possible that the congenital absence of this ability. Theory of Mind develops relatively gradually and possibly results from predictable interactions with adults. the term attachment disorder has been increasingly used by some clinicians to refer to a broader set of children whose behavior may be affected by lack of a primary attachment figure. that has resulted in tragic outcomes for children. destructive behaviors.[50] Alternatively. despite its name. An infant who is not in a position do this cannot afford not to show interest in any person as they may be potential attachment figures.[55] This form of therapy. as it does by seven to nine months. or the seeking of proximity to all adults. Theory of Mind is the ability to know that the experience of knowledge and intention lies behind human actions such as facial expressions. could underlie the development of reactive attachment disorder.[54] Although there are no studies examining diagnostic accuracy. the development of Theory of Mind may play a role in emotional development. with a constitutional tendency either to excessive or inadequate fear reactions.[56] [57] It has been described as potentially abusive and a pseudoscientific intervention. Such lists have been described as "wildly inclusive". or a disrupted attachment relationship.[48] [49] Atypical development of fearfulness. the two variations of RAD may develop from the same inability to develop "stranger-wariness" due to inadequate care. concern is expressed as to the potential for over-diagnosis based on broad checklists and 'snapshots'. a seriously unhealthy attachment relationship with a primary caregiver. is scientifically unvalidated and is not considered to be part of mainstream psychology or. This may explain why children diagnosed with the inhibited form of RAD from institutions almost invariably go on to show formation of attachment behavior to good carers.Attachment disorder caregiver's interaction style and ability to understand the child's emotional communications.[51] Additionally. might be necessary before an infant is vulnerable to the effects of poor attachment experiences. Some neurodevelopmental disorders. Appropriate fear responses may only be able to develop after an infant has first begun to form a selective attachment. some ability of this kind must be in place before mutual communication through gaze or other gesture can occur. These symptoms accord with the DSM criteria for reactive attachment disorder.[52] [53] Pseudoscientific diagnoses and treatment In the absence of officially recognized diagnostic criteria.[47] Either of these behavior patterns may create a developmental trajectory leading ever farther from typical attachment processes such as the development of an internal working model of social relationships that facilitates both the giving and the receiving of care from others. refusal to 221 .[58] The APSAC Taskforce (2006) gives examples of such lists ranging across multiple domains from some elements within the DSM-IV criteria to entirely non-specific behavior such as developmental lags. to be based on attachment theory.[46] With insensitive or unresponsive caregivers. an infant may have few experiences that encourage proximity seeking to a familiar person.

of which the best known are holding therapy. xvii. p. rebirthing. 665-687. "Preface". [4] Prior & Glaser p 183 [5] O'Connor & Zeanah. rage-reduction and the Evergreen model. This change may have been hastened by the publication of a Task Force Report on the subject in January 2006. (2006) [7] Bowlby (1970) p 181 [8] Bretherton & Munholland (1999) p 89 [9] AACAP 2005.[67] Notes [1] Zeanah.N. Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood. In Berlin LJ. (2006) p78 [3] Berlin LJ et al. Duke series in child development and public policy. p. ISBN 1-59385-470-6. Guilford Press. Some checklists suggest that among infants. 121-160. 18(3). Following the associated publicity. pp. Critics maintain these therapies are not based on an accepted version of attachment theory. (2003) [6] Chaffin et al. Willheim E (2009). These therapies have little or no evidence base and vary from talking or play therapies to more extreme forms of physical and coercive techniques. and hoarding or gorging on food. pp. ATTACh. et al. (2005). Intervention and Policy. although these practices continue. The APSAC Taskforce expresses concern that high rates of false positive diagnoses are virtually certain and that posting these types of lists on web sites that also serve as marketing tools may lead many parents or others to conclude inaccurately that their children have attachment disorders. [21] Main & Solomon (1986).95-124. formally adopted a White Paper stating its unequivocal opposition to the use of coercive practices in therapy and parenting. 222 . lack of a conscience. Ziv Y. (2005) [11] Prior & Glaser (2006) p 223 [12] Prior & Glaser 2006. an organisation originally set up by attachment therapists.[62] An estimated six children have died as a consequence of the more coercive forms of such treatments and the application of the accompanying parenting techniques.[60] The theoretical base is broadly a combination of regression and catharsis. stealing. some advocates of attachment therapy began to alter views and practices to be less potentially dangerous to children. [22] Main & Solomon (1990). Enhancing Early Attachments: Theory. [17] Mercer. lack of cause and effect thinking. Greenberg MT. (2003) [20] Ainsworth (1978). lying. In general these therapies are aimed at adopted or fostered children with a view to creating attachment in these children to their new caregivers.[61] These therapies concentrate on changing the child rather than the caregiver. blood and gore. Amaya-Jackson L. abnormal speech patterns. Research."[59] There is also a considerable variety of treatments for alleged attachment disorders diagnosed on the controversial alternative basis outlined above. persistent nonsense questions or incessant chatter. preoccupation with fire. 2005 [2] Chaffin et al.[66] In April 2007. cruelty to animals and siblings. accompanied by parenting methods which emphasise obedience and parental control. pp.[63] [64] [65] Two of the most well-known cases are those of Candace Newmaker in 2001 and the Gravelles in 2003 through 2005. Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health Issue. 220-221. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinics of North America. J (2006) p 107 [18] VanIJzendoorn & Bakermans-Kranenburg (2003) [19] Zeanah et al. p1208 [10] Levy K. poor impulse control. poor peer relationships. popularly known as attachment therapy. fighting for control over everything.Attachment disorder make eye contact. “prefers dad to mom” or “wants to hold the bottle as soon as possible” are indicative of attachment problems. commissioned by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) which was largely critical of attachment therapy. [13] Prior & Glaser (2006) p218-219 [14] Chaffin (2006) p 86 [15] Boris & Zeannah (1999) [16] Schechter DS.

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doi:10. CT: Praeger ISBN 0275982173 • Marvin.com/routledg/rahd/2003/00000005/ 00000003/art00016) . J.1159/000084813. Understanding Attachment and Attachment Disorders: Theory. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinics of North America. Child Development 65.1080/14616730310001593974.. doi:10. The Circle of Security project: Attachment-based intervention with caregiver – pre-school child dyads (http://www.Yogman (eds) Affective development in infancy. V. Cummings (eds) Attachment in the preschool years: Theory. (2003). Spagnola M. "Characteristics of infant child care: Factors contributing to positive caregiving". and Powell. Cooper. "The relative efficacy of two in altering maltreated preschool children's representational models: implications for attachment theory". In T. Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood. NJ: Ablex ISBN 0893913456 Main. htm. "Attachment and borderline personality disorder: implications for psychotherapy" (http://content.) (p. and Zeanah. (1990). doi:10. Clarkin JF (2005). doi:10. G. R. A. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Series.ingentaconnect. (1994). • Health Child. Sarner. (pp. (ed. ISBN 1593851715 Main.doi:10.1017/S095457940200411X. Available on the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry website at (http://www. Maughan A. Norwood. • Van Ijzendoorn M. & Rosa. Attachment & Human Development Vol 4 No 1 April 2002 107–124. In M.. J (2006) Understanding Attachment: Parenting. Evidence and Practice (2006). 665-687. The influence of temperament and mothering on attachment and exploration: an experimental manipulation of sensitive responsiveness among lower-class mothers with irritable infants.. findings and implications for the classification of behavior. Infant-parent psychotherapy. "Attachment disorders: assessment strategies and treatment approaches" (http:/ /www. "Do first-year intervention effects endure? Follow-up during toddlerhood of a sample of Dutch irritable infants". doi:10.S. 432). Greenberg. ISBN 0275976750 Mercer. • Prior.jsessionid=H5QGQZ70p3VqMFJnGb5k207f5McynvWT1XQGv9hVxnDCPm4kp9Y1!901085598!181195628!8091!-1) • Toth S. M. pp.1016/S0885-2006(96)90009-5.H. Discovery of an insecure disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern: procedures. ISBN 0226306305. L. Braxelton and M.2307/1131911. research and intervention. Development and psychopathology 14 (4): 877–908.. Inc. D.com/openurl?genre=article&doi=10. Cicchetti D. and Solomon. Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Pawl. 18(3). 121–160). Hoffman. PMID 8556900. CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group. K. 313–320(8) DOI: 10.com/produktedb/produkte.1080/14616730310001593974&magic=pubmed). C.F. Weber M. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 11 (3): 269–306. Disturbances of Attachment Interview. 95–124). Bakermans-Kranenburg M... Willheim. Zeanah. Manly J. • O'Connor TG. Jr. (1986).) Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed. Silverman. Human (1996). R. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. D.H. New York: Guilford Press. PMID 15802944.. September 2003 . Zeanah CH (2003). Cicchetti and E. Attachment disorders and disorganized attachment: Similar and different Attachment & Human Development. A. Number 3. PMID 12944216. and Solomon.karger. J. J.Attachment disorder • • • • • • 225 relationship problems (pp. E.com/pt/re/jaacap/ home. Attach Hum Dev 5 (3): 223–44. Volume 5. Lieberman. Attachment therapy on trial: The torture and death of Candace Newmaker. Meehan KB. Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health Issue. J. (2009). (pp.informaworld.jaacap.. (1999). Jessica Kingsley Publishers London ISBN 1843102455 OCLC 70663735 • Schechter. In C. Mercer. 1457–1477.circleofsecurity. child care and emotional development. L. (2000)... (2002).. • van den Boom.. Reynoso J. D.pdf).1080/14616730310001593938 (http://www. M.2307/1131277 • van den Boom DC (1995). Glaser. Westport.asp?typ=fulltext& file=PSP2005038002064). New York: Guilford Press ISBN 1593852452 Levy KN. Child Dev 66 (6): 1798–816. Westport. PMID 12549708. Psychopathology 38 (2): 64–74. D.org/docs/languages/08 AHD final. 243–264). • Smyke. B.

Y.. Ziv. New York: Basic Books.) (1993). New York: Guilford Press.Attachment disorder • Waters. 2005 pps 195-216 ISBN 1593854706 (pbk) Further reading • Holmes.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/ recordDetails/detailmini. E. Sci.1301. The Search for the Secure Base. A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development.L. ISBN 1-57230-087-6. • Zeanah.. Zeanah CH (2003). doi:10.) (1999). research.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ334806& ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ334806) • O'Connor TG. H.. C. J (1988). ISBN 1583911529 • Cassidy. Ann. J (2001). T. "Attachment relationship experiences and childhood psychopathology" (http://www. • Zeanah. and Deane. L. • Zeanah CH.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14998869). Y. Shaver. Theory. T. CH (ed. and policy The Guilford Press. PMID 14998869. 1008: 22–30.1196/annals. In I. "Attachment disorders: assessment strategies and treatment approaches" (http:/ /www. Enhancing Early Attachments.informaworld. Research. and Clinical Applications.com/openurl?genre=article&doi=10.J. N. intervention. London: Routledge. A. Settles L (2003)... ISBN 0-415-00640-6. Amaya-Jackson. Attach Hum Dev 5 (3): 223–44. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. 41–65 (http://www.annalsnyas. doi:10.003. "Building Attachment Relationships Following Maltreatment and Severe Deprivation" In Berlin. New York: Guilford Press. Handbook of Infant Mental Health. J. Defining and assessing individual differences in attachment relationships: Q-methodology and the organization of behavior in infancy and early childhood. 226 . Keyes A. P (eds. Waters (Eds) Growing pains of attachment theory and research: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 50. and Smyke. Serial No. K (1985). M.ed. Bretherton and E.eric.. Acad.1080/14616730310001593974. PMID 12944216. Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge. 209 (1–2). ISBN 1593851715 • Bowlby.1080/14616730310001593974&magic=pubmed). and Greenberg.

developmental psychology.[4] The monograph was published in 14 different languages and sold over 400. rather than a direct cause of.[3] Bowlby drew together such empirical evidence as existed at the time from across Europe and the USA. and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment" and that not to do so might have significant and irreversible mental health consequences. "maternal deprivation" as a discrete syndrome is not a concept that is much in current use other than in relation to severe deprivation as in "failure to thrive". amongst others.[2] The result was the monograph Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951. later difficulties. cognitive science and control systems theory and drew upon them to formulate the innovative proposition that the mechanisms underlying an infant's ties emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure. Bowlby's work went beyond the suggestions of Otto Rank and Ian Suttie that mothering care was essential for development. His main conclusions. and in changing practices relating to the stays of small children in hospitals so that parents were allowed more frequent and longer visits.000 copies in the English version alone. The 1951 WHO publication was highly influential in causing widespread changes in the practices and prevalence of institutional care for infants and children.[6] Bowlby claimed to have made good the "deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect" in Maternal Care and Mental Health in his later work Attachment and Loss published between 1969 and 1980. which sets out the maternal deprivation hypothesis. The limited empirical data and lack of comprehensive theory to account for the conclusions in Maternal Care and Mental Health led to the subsequent formulation of attachment theory by Bowlby. including Spitz (1946) and Goldfarb (1943. In the area of early relationships it has largely been superseded by attachment theory and other theories relating to even earlier infant–parent interactions. In relation to 227 . As a concept. psychologists and learning theorists.Maternal deprivation Maternal deprivation The term maternal deprivation is a catch-phrase summarising the early work of psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. psychoanalysts. 1945). discipline and child care—has become generally accepted.[5] Following the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health Bowlby sought new understanding from such fields as evolutionary biology. John Bowlby on the effects of separating infants and young children from their mother (or mother substitute)[1] although the effect of loss of the mother on the developing child had been considered earlier by Freud and other theorists. ethology. Bowlby's work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospital and institutional care lead to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organisation's report on the Mother and child mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe whilst he was head of the Department for Children and Parents at the Tavistock Clinic in London after World War II. and focused on the potential outcomes for children deprived of such care. Although the monograph was primarily concerned with the removal of children from their homes it was also used for political purposes to discourage women from working and leaving their children in daycare by governments concerned about maximising employment for returned and returning servicemen. parental deficiencies are seen as a vulnerability factor for. were both controversial and influential.[7] Although the central tenet of maternal deprivation theory—that children's experiences of interpersonal relationships are crucial to their psychological development and that the formation of an ongoing relationship with the child is as important a part of parenting as the provision of experiences. intimate. The publication was also highly controversial with. and sparked significant debate and research on the issue of children's early relationships. that "the infant and young child should experience a warm.

long-term separation from the familiar caregiver. David Levy noted a phenomenon he called "primary affect hunger" in children removed very early from their mothers and brought up in institutions and multiple foster homes.[12] In another study conducted in the 1930s. a British physician whose early death limited his influence.[8] Sigmund Freud may have been among the first to stress the potential impact of loss of the mother on the developing child. suggested that the child's basic need is for mother-love. The toddlers' IQ rose dramatically. and apathy to partial emotional deprivation (the loss of a loved object) and proposed that when the love object is returned to the child within three to five months. and no concern was evinced at the possible effect of this double separation on the child. as. but also in the IQ of institutionalised children as compared to a matched group in foster care. Skeels study was attacked for lack of scientific rigour though he achieved belated recognition decades later.[9] As little of Freud's theory was based on actual observations of infants. recovery is prompt but after five months. when the mother was sent to prison. Spitz adopted the term anaclitic depression to describe the child's reaction of grief. In the 19th century. Rank stressed the traumatic experience of birth as a separation from the mother. this may have been because loss of the mother in infancy frequently meant death for a breast-fed infant. His investigation focused on infants who had experienced abrupt. rather than birth as an uncomfortable physical event.[9] [10] In the 1930s. and his greatest anxiety is that such love will be lost. psychologists in the 1890s and paediatricians were also concerned by the high mortality rate in hospitals and institutions obsessed with sterility to the detriment of any human or nurturing contact with babies. French society bureaucratised a system in which infants were breast-fed at the homes of foster mothers. a psychoanalyst. He questioned whether there could be a "deficiency disease of the emotional life. noting the decline in IQ in young orphanage children. little effort was made to consider the effects of real experiences of loss. Not long after Rank's introduction of this idea. These studies and conclusions were thus different from the investigations of institutional rearing.[13] Rene Spitz. He called this reaction to total deprivation 228 . though often pleasant on the surface. removed toddlers from a sterile orphanage and gave them to "feeble-minded" institutionalised older girls to care for. deprivation. History Bri. Ian Suttie. Harold Skeels. Many traditions have stressed the grief of mothers over deprivation of their children but little has been said historically about young children's loss of their mothers. they will show the symptoms of increasingly serious deterioration. for instance. Following Freud's early speculations about infant experience with the mother. undertook research in the 1930s and '40s on the effects of maternal deprivation and hospitalism. understimulation and deficiencies that may arise from institutional care. Otto Rank suggested a powerful role in personality development for birth trauma. comparable to a deficiency of vital nutritional elements Sister Irene at her New York Foundling Hospital within the developing organism". returning to the biological family after weaning.[11] A few psychiatrists. anger. but his concern was less with the actual experience of maternal care than with the anxiety the child might feel about the loss of the nourishing breast. psychologist Bill Goldfarb noted not only deficits in the ability to form relationships. These children.[12] In a series of studies published in the 1930s.Maternal deprivation institutional care there has been a great deal of subsequent research on the individual elements of privation. One rare paediatrician went so far as to replace a sign saying "Wash your hands twice before entering this ward" with one saying "Do not enter this nursery without picking up a baby". seemed indifferent underneath.

In a range of areas Bowlby cited the lack of adequate research and suggested the direction this could take.[20] Maternal Care and Mental Health Bowlby's work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospital and institutional care lead to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organisation's report on the mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe whilst he was head of the Department for Children and Parents at the Tavistock Clinic in London after World War II. who. twelve had suffered prolonged maternal separations as opposed to only two of the control group. evacuated and orphaned children were the subjects of studies that outlined their reactions to separation.[16] 229 [15] The conclusions were During the years of World War II. Of the forty-four thieves. Some of this material remained unpublished until the post-war period and only gradually contributed to understanding of young children's reactions to loss.[14] hotly disputed and there was no widespread acceptance. The second was the mother's emotional attitude towards her child. which sets out the maternal deprivation hypothesis. varied in countless ways by relations with the father and with siblings.[3] The WHO report was followed by the publication of an abridged version for public consumption called Child Care and the Growth of Love. there was work from England undertaken by Dorothy Burlingham and Anna Freud on children separated from their families due to wartime disruption. In addition.[17] [18] Bowlby. Naturally extreme emotions would be moderated and become amenable to the control of the child's developing personality. Bowlby tackled not only institutional and hospital care.[2] Bowlby travelled on the Continent and in America.[21] The result was the monograph Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951. "It is this complex rich and rewarding relationship with the mother in the early years. but also policies of removing children from "unwed mothers" and untidy and physically neglected homes.Maternal deprivation "hospitalism". He stated. fourteen fell into the category which Bowlby characterised as being of an "affectionless character". These authors were mainly unaware of each others' work and Bowlby was able to draw together the findings and highlight the similarities described despite the variety of methods used ranging from direct observation to retrospective analysis to comparison groups. including the ability to cope by forming relationships with other children. He proposed that two environmental factors were paramount in early childhood."[4] . that child psychiatrists and many others now believe to underlie the development of character and mental health. had direct experience of working with deprived children through his work at the London Child Guidance Clinic. There were many problematic parental behaviours in the samples but Bowlby was looking at one environmental factor that was easy to document. and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both found satisfaction and enjoyment. or prolonged separation from her. and Bowlby's own work. It was believed to be essential that the infant and young child should experience a warm. called for more investigation of children's early lives in a paper published in 1940.[22] Principal concepts of Bowlby's theory The quality of parental care was considered by Bowlby to be of vital importance to the child's development and future mental health. and lack of support for families in difficulties. paediatricians and child psychiatrists including those who had already published literature on the issue. He was also one of the first to undertake direct observation of infants. This book sold over half a million copies worldwide. The first was death of the mother. Given this relationship. namely prolonged early separations of child and mother.[19] This was followed by a study on forty–four juvenile thieves collected through the Clinic. unlike most psychoanalysts. communicating with social workers. emotions of guilt and anxiety (characteristics of mental illness when in excess) would develop in an organised and moderate way. intimate. Of these fourteen.

has received scant attention . soonest mended" approach... of an emotional relationship..[26] On the issue of removal of children from their homes.. neither the word "maternal" nor the word "deprivation" seems to be a literally correct definition of the phenomenon under consideration. depression. Bowlby advised that parents should be supported by society as parents are dependent on a greater society for economic provision and "if a community values its children it must cherish its parents". Partial deprivation could result in acute anxiety. as the following statement by Mary Ainsworth in 1962 indicates: "Although in the early months of life it is the mother who almost invariably interacts most with the child .[27] "Maternal" Bowlby used the phrase "mother (or permanent mother substitute)". residential nurseries and hospitals.. informative discussions with children about their parents and why they ended up in care and how they felt about it rather than the "least said.Maternal deprivation The state of affairs in which the child did not have this relationship he termed "maternal deprivation".. a consistent caregiving adult of any gender or relationship to the child. was unable to give the loving care a small child needs. 'discontinuity'.[23] However. 230 .. Questions about the exact meaning of this term are by no means new.. The end product of such psychic disturbance could be neurosis and instability of character. or of the experience of the type of care called "mothering" in many cultures.[4] As it is commonly used. [In the case of] institutionalization .. The point that children were loyal to and loved even the worst of parents. not uncommon in institutions.. deprived of interaction with a father-figure as well as a mother-figure . Also "husbandless" mothers of children under 3 should be supported to care for the child at home rather than the child be left in inadequate care whilst the mother sought work. neediness and powerful emotions which the child could not regulate. [It may be better to] discourage the use of [the term 'deprivation'] and encourage the substitution of the terms 'insufficiency'. He was strongly in favour of support being provided to parents and extended families to improve the situation and provide care within the family rather than removal if possible. Bowlby emphasised the strength of the tie that children feel towards their parents and discussed the reason why.[24] Other proposals included the proper payment of foster homes and careful selection of foster carers. the role of other figures. or mother substitute. of an adoptive or foster mother. "children thrive better in bad homes than in good institutions". This term covered a range from almost complete deprivation. Fathers left with infants or small children on their hands without the mother should be provided with "housekeepers" so that the children could remain at home. to partial deprivation where the mother. the term 'parental deprivation' would have been more accurate. The focus was the child's developing relationships with his mother and father and disturbed parent–child relationships in the context of almost complete deprivation rather than the earlier concept of the "broken home" as such. especially the father. the term maternal deprivation is ambiguous as it is unclear whether the deprivation is that of the biological mother.[23] Complete or almost complete deprivation could "entirely cripple the Residential nursery capacity to make relationships".."[28] Ainsworth implies.. [P]aternal deprivation . was strongly made. the main focus of the monograph was on the more extreme forms of deprivation. and 'distortion' instead. to mild deprivation where the child was removed from the mother's care but was looked after by someone familiar whom he trusted.[25] and frank. and needed to have that fact understood non-judgementally.[3] In terms of social policy. is acknowledged to be significant .. (It was assumed the mother of the illegitimate child would usually be left with the child). for the child has been . as he put it..

children needed a close and continuous caregiving relationship. or "dependency" was secondary. a term by which we mean both the child's actual mother and/or any other person of either sex who may take the place of the child's physical mother during a significant period of time". of the dynamic union that mother and child represent". the importance of Bowlby's initial writings on "maternal deprivation" lay in his emphasis that children's experiences of interpersonal relationships were crucial to their psychological development and that the formation of an ongoing relationship with the child was as important a part of parenting as the provision of experiences. Bowlby proposed instead that to thrive emotionally.[2] Food was seen as the primary drive and the relationship.[5] He had already found himself in conflict with dominant Kleinian theories that children's emotional problems are almost entirely due to fantasies generated from internal conflict between aggressive and libidinal drives. contrary to the focus of psychoanalysts on the internal fantasy world of the child. 1955 According to Michael Rutter. the argument focussed attention on the need to consider parenting in terms of consistency of caregivers over time and parental sensitivity to children's individuality and it is now generally accepted. and a move towards the professionalisation of alternative carers.[33] Bowlby's theory sparked considerable interest and controversy in the nature of early relationships and gave a strong impetus to what Mary Ainsworth described as a "great body of research" in what was perceived as an extremely difficult and complex area. This led him to see that far more systematic knowledge was required 231 . Bowlby also broke with social learning theory's view of dependency and reinforcement. another contemporary referred to "the quasi-mystical union of mother and child. Although this view was rejected by many at the time.[32] Maternity ward.[31] The practice of allowing parents frequent visiting to hospitalised children became the norm and there was a move towards placing homeless children with foster carers. the change was given added impetus by the work of social worker and psychoanalyst James Robertson who filmed the distressing effects of separation on children in hospital and collaborated with Bowlby in making the 1952 documentary film A Two-Year Old Goes to the Hospital. and because he believed it could have serious effects on a child's development and because it was preventable. (His breach with the psychoanalysts only became total and irreparable after his later development of attachment theory incorporating ethological and evolutionary principles. discipline and child care. He chose the actual removal of children from the home at this particular time because it was a specific event.[30] Influence on institutionalised care The practical effects of the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health were described in the preface to the WHO 1962 publication Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects as "almost wholly beneficial" with reference to widespread changes in the institutional care of children. In hospitals. views that he had already expressed about the importance of a child's real life experiences and relationship with carers had been met by "sheer incredulity" by colleagues before World War II. the important area to study was how a child was actually treated by his parents in real life and in particular the interaction between them.Maternal deprivation A contemporary of Ainsworth spoke of "the mother. rather than to events in the external world.[2] Bowlby later stated that he had concluded that. In addition.[29] However. the effects of which could be studied. rather than in institutions.[31] Psychoanalysis Bowlby departed from psychoanalytical theory which saw the gratification of sensory needs as the basis for the relationship between infant and mother. when he was effectively ostracised).

the theoretical basis of Bowlby's monograph was controversial in a number of ways. Bowlby and his colleagues were pioneers of the view that studies involving direct observation of infants and children were not merely of interest but were essential to the advancement of science in this area. any experience of institutional care or a multiplicity of "mothers" necessarily resulted in severe emotional deprivation and sometimes. this was not fully investigated in his monograph as the main focus was on the risks of complete or almost complete deprivation.[35] or that the formation of an ongoing relationship with a child was an important part of parenting. Rutter highlighted the other forms of deprivation found in institutional care and the complexity of separation distress. Ainsworth in the WHO 1962 publication also attempted to address this misapprehension by pointing out that the requirement for continuity of care did not imply an exclusive mother–child pair relationship. although Bowlby mentioned briefly the issue of "partial deprivation" within the family.[33] The idea that early experiences have serious consequences for intellectual and psychosocial development was controversial in itself.[37] Such strictures suited the policies of governments concerned about finding employment for returned and returning servicemen after World War II. misinterpretation and criticism Aside from his profound differences with psychoanalytic ideas.[37] He addressed this point in a 1958 publication called Can I Leave My Baby?. Bowlby's close colleague. and suggested that anti-social behaviour was not linked to maternal deprivation as 232 . His 1981 monograph and other papers (Rutter 1972. There was criticism of the confusion of the effects of privation (no primary attachment figure) and deprivation (loss of the primary attachment figure) and in particular. the WHO published Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects to which Mary Ainsworth.[36] Others questioned the extent to which his hypothesis was supported by the evidence. As a consequence it was claimed that only 24-hour care by the same person (the mother) was good enough.[37] It was also pointed out that there was no explanation of how experiences subsumed under the broad heading of "maternal deprivation" could have effects on personality development of the kinds claimed.[5] In addition to criticism. contributed with his approval. He then goes on to describe the subsequent development of attachment theory.[38] In fact. that children thrived better in bad homes than in good institutions. The WHO advised that day nurseries and creches could have a serious and permanent deleterious effect. he was also of the view that babies should be accustomed to regular periods of care by another and that the key to alternative care for working mothers was that it should be regular and continuous. addressed the many different underlying social and psychological mechanisms and showed that Bowlby was only partially right and often for the wrong reasons.[31] Bowlby's work was misinterpreted to mean that any separation from the natural mother. Some profoundly disagreed with the necessity for maternal (or equivalent) love in order to function normally.[39] was often taken to extremes leading to reluctance on the part of Children's Officers (the equivalent of child care social workers) to remove children from homes however neglectful and inadequate. of the failure to distinguish between the effects of the lack of a primary attachment figure and the other forms of deprivation and understimulation that might affect children in institutions. day care and nurseries were not good enough and mothers should not go out to work. although Bowlby was of the view that proper care could not be provided "by roster". In fact. He amassed further evidence. distorted or exaggerated for various purposes.[34] Controversy.Maternal deprivation of the effects on a child of early experiences. Rutter 1979) comprise the definitive empirical evaluation and update of Bowlby's early work on maternal deprivation.[40] Michael Rutter made a significant contribution to the controversial issue of Bowlby's maternal deprivation hypothesis.[36] In 1962. This heightened the controversy. Bowlby explained in his 1988 work that the data were not at the time "accommodated by any theory then current and in the brief time of my employment by the World Health Organisation there was no possibility of developing a new one". misrepresented. his ideas were often oversimplified.[28] Bowlby's quotable remark. that all children undergoing such experiences would develop into "affectionless children". to present the recent research and developments and to address misapprehensions.

of necessity. argued that research showed that it did not matter which parent the child got on well with as long as he got on well with one of them. which contributed significantly to attachment theory. volume one of Attachment (1969). Nor is there any discussion as to whether the maternal role had. mothers. makes it quite clear that infants become attached to carers who are sensitive and responsive in their social interactions with them and that this does not have to be the mother or indeed a female. covered infants relationships with all family members. He concluded. the mother. although the words "parents" and "parental" are also used. there having by 1962 been some limited research on the issue which illustrated the importance of the father's relationship with his children. in Attachment and Loss.[41] Rutter has more recently advised attention to the complexity of development and the roles of genetic as well as experiential factors. for some the person who plays and talks most with the child and for others the person who feeds the child. described by New Society as a "classic in the field of child care". to be filled by women as such. Bowlby's work was misinterpreted by some to mean natural mothers only. school-teachers and others all have an impact on development.Maternal deprivation 233 such but to family discord. but the process of attachment applies to any carer and infants develop a number of attachments according to who relates to them and the intensity of the engagement. friends. that both parents influence their child's development and that which parent is more important varies with age.[28] Father and child Michael Rutter in Maternal Deprivation Reassessed (1972). sex and temperamental development.[2] Fathers are mentioned only in the context of the practical and emotional support they provide for the mother but the monograph contains no specific exploration of the father's role. It was also stated that in relation to institutional care. no difference in nurturing capacity was found. Children also have fathers!"[40] Within attachment theory. "discontinuity" and "distortion" to either. "For some aspects of development the same-sexed parent seems to have a special role. "parental deprivation" would have been more accurate. although Ainsworth preferred the terms "insufficiency".[44] However. As a matter of social reality mothers are more often the primary carers of children and therefore are more likely to be the primary attachment figure. but their influences and importance differ for different aspects of development. A less exclusive focus on the mother is required. with a number of varied influences determining which path a child would take. attachment theory relates to the development of attachment behaviours and relationships after about 7 months of age and there are other theories and research relating to earlier carer–infant interactions. noting that separation is only one of many risk factors related to poor cognitive and emotional development.[43] The 1962 WHO publication contains a chapter on the effect of "paternal deprivation". Bowlby. The father. In societies where the care of infants has been assigned to boys rather than girls. The importance of these refinements of the maternal deprivation hypothesis was to reposition it as a "vulnerability factor" rather than a causative agent. Bowlby referred primarily to mothers and "maternal" deprivation. Schaffer in Social Development (1996) suggests that the father–child relationship is primarily a cultural construction shaped by the requirements of each society.[42] Fathers In accordance with the prevailing social realities of his time.[43] The hope was expressed by Ainsworth that in the future there would be more such research and indeed her early research. brother and sisters.[45] [46] . namely the assumption that the daily care of infants and small children was undertaken by women and in particular.

however such research rarely mentions "maternal deprivation" other than in a historical context. except in the area of extreme deprivation.. of which attachment is only one aspect. 1969 to 1980 .[37] 234 .. information processing. feminists objected to the idea of anatomy as destiny and concepts of "naturalness" derived from ethnocentric observations. Certainly his hypothesis was used by governments to close down much needed residential nurseries although governments did not seem so keen to pay mothers to care for their children at home as advocated by Bowlby. cybernetics. they criticised Bowlby's historical perspective and saw his views as part of the idealisation of motherhood and family life after World War II. as outlined by John Bowlby . rather than a hierarchy (subsequently thought to be the case within developments of attachment theory) had not been borne out by research and this view placed too high an emotional burden on the mother.[49] Rather. continuous and sensitive relationship. The studies on which he based his conclusions involved almost complete lack of maternal care and it was unwarranted to generalise from this view that any separation in the first three years of life would be damaging. Maternal Care and Mental Health. Maternal deprivation as a discrete syndrome is a concept that is rarely used other than in connection with extreme deprivation and failure to thrive. They argued that anthropology showed that it is normal for childcare to be shared by a stable group of adults of which maternal care is an important but not exclusive part. The idea of exclusive care or exclusive attachment to a preferred figure. His major work Attachment was published in three volumes between 1969 and 1980.[47] The first was that Bowlby overstated his case. which is now generally accepted. "ethological attachment theory.. Subsequent research showed good quality care for part of the day to be harmless. reviewed the world literature on maternal deprivation and suggested that emotionally available caregiving was crucial for infant development and mental health. The first early formal statements of attachment theory were presented in three papers in 1958. little remains of the underlying detail of Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation that has not been either discredited or superseded by attachment theory and other child development theories and research. Rather there is consideration of a range of different lacks and deficiencies in different forms of care.[5] Aside from its central proposition of the importance of an early. has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development in the first 3 years of life. or lack of care. At the time of the 1951 publication.[6] According to Zeanah. there are many significant differences between the two. Bowlby's (1951) monograph. Bowlby drew on concepts from ethology.[42] Subsequent studies have however confirmed Bowlby's concept of "cycles of disadvantage" although not all children from unhappy homes reproduce the deficiencies in their own experience. Attachment theory revolutionised thinking on the nature of early attachments and extensive research continues to be undertaken. The opening of East European orphanages in the early 1990s following the end of the Cold War provided substantial opportunities for research on attachment and other aspects of institutional rearing.. Thirdly.[47] Maternal deprivation today Whilst Bowlby's early writings on maternal deprivation may be seen as part of the background to the later development of attachment theory. developmental psychology and psychoanalysis. as well as consideration of constitutional and genetic factors in determining developmental outcome. the monograph concentrates mostly on social policy."[48] Beyond that broad statement. Secondly.Maternal deprivation Feminist criticism There were three broad criticisms aimed at the idea of maternal deprivation from feminist critics. For his subsequent development of attachment theory. it is now conceptualised as a series of pathways through childhood and a number of varied influences will determine which path a particular child takes. 1959 and 1960. there was little research in this area and no comprehensive theory on the development of early relationships.

[9] Brown. 221 [2] Bretherton. New York: International Universities Press. These beliefs are also congruent with CAM psychotherapies such as attachment therapy (not based on attachment theory). (1939–1945). are concepts that connect easily to the unfounded assumption that all adopted children suffer emotional disorders. pp. J. PMID 21004303. (1986).R.Maternal deprivation The maternal deprivation concept outside mainstream psychology The idea that separation from the female caregiver has profound effects is one with considerable resonance outside the conventional study of child development. some decisions appear to have been derived from the "tender years" concept.5. . London: Penguin. 26–29 [20] Bowlby J (1944).[50] Concern with the negative impact of separation from the mother is characteristic of the belief systems behind some complementary and alternative (CAM) psychotherapies. 59–62 [22] Karen R. [18] Freud.[52] Belief in prenatal fetal awareness. (1951).[53] Notes [1] Holmes J. (1951) pp. and Burlingham. Over the last decade or so. however. [4] Bowlby J. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. "The Nature of the Child's Ties". D. 62–66 [23] Bowlby J.[9] [51] Today. (1992). 18–22 [14] Spitz. 84–90 [25] Bowlby J. pp. the "tender years" doctrine was long applied when custody of infants and toddlers was preferentially given to mothers. 25 [17] Freud. 117–122 235 . which purport to bring about age regression and to recapitulate early development to produce a better outcome. and Burlingham. [16] Karen R. 24 [6] Cassidy. V. (1945). p. [3] Bowlby. [7] Bowlby. Research and Clinical Applications. (1951) pp. Guilford press. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1: 53–74. [19] Karen J.759.T. New York: Blackwell. The Writings of Anna Freud. and Shaver. These beliefs were at one time in existence among some legitimate psychologists of psychoanalytic background. [15] Spitz R (1950). A. [8] Fildes. Geneva: World Health Organisation. pp. (1943). and emotional attachment of child to mother as a prenatal phenomenon. Maternal Care and Mental Health. Infants Without Families and Reports on the Hampstead Nurseries.T. I.. (1951) pp. "sometimes referred to by Bowlby's colleagues as "Ali Bowlby and the Forty Thieves"" [21] Karen R. D. Such attachment is said to lead to emotional trauma if the child is separated from the birth mother and adopted. [10] Suttie. beliefs in prenatal communication between mothers and infants are largely confined to unconventional thinkers such as William Emerson. 3. garfield. doi:10. "Relevance of direct infant observation". 20–21 [13] Karen R. ISBN 0415210429. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 25 (19–52): 107–27. even if this occurs on the day of birth and even if the adoptive family provides all possible love and care. pdf) (PDF). library. ISBN 1568217579. pp. 11–12 [24] Bowlby J. War and Children. "The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth". pp. J. "Maternal Care and Mental Health" (http:/ / www. R. J. (1935). "Hospitalism: An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood". In United States law. p. pp. Wet Nursing. JAC (1961). Such belief systems are concerned not only with the impact of the young child's separation from the care of the mother. P. mental communication between mother and unborn child. "Forty-four juvenile thieves: Their characters and home life". Developmental Psychology 28 (5): 759–775. New York: Medical War Books. 11 [5] Bowlby J. I. The Origins of Love and Hate. London: Penguin. [11] Karen R. Freud and the post-Freudians.1037/0012-1649. but others involve the contrary assumption that a 2-year-old is too young to have developed a relationship with either parent. J. (1988). but with an emotional attachment between mother and child which advocates of these systems believe to develop prenatally. edu/ classics1986/ A1986F063100001. A. ISBN 978-1572308268.28. upenn. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 5: 66–73. (1988) p. ISBN 0837169429. In Cassidy. (1999). (1951) p. ISBN 978-0631158318. 13–17 [12] Karen R.

blackwell-synergy. apa. L. Social Development: an introduction. (May 1995). Vol 1. PMID 7650083. J Consult Clin Psychol 64 (1): 42–52. [34] Bowlby J. Maternal Care and Mental Health. ISBN 978-0140227000. 65 [37] Rutter M. pp. M. . Child Dev 73 (1): 1–21. . (2002). M. 51 [50] Mercer. J. ISBN 978-0275982171. Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love. (1951) pp.G. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 3: 85–120. W. [49] Holmes J. [43] Andry R.1469-7610. 49–51 [42] Rutter M. Public Health Papers.1995. doi:10. Geneva: World Health Organization.x. W. Child Care. Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects. (1978). In Greenspan. R. No. J. 45–46 [39] Bowlby J. 45–48 [48] Zeanah. Maternal Deprivation Reassessed. J. and Emotional Development. doi:10. • Karen. 225. R. (2006). (1999). (1981). CT: Praeger. "Autoerotism".2. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 36 (4): 549–71.Maternal deprivation [26] Bowlby J. (1996). G. Westport. (1973). John Bowlby & Attachment Theory. References • Bowlby. [52] Emerson. London: Routledge. • Holmes.1111/1467-8624.42. J. p. [51] Freud.and Perinatal Psychology Journal 10 (3): 125–142.. T. [36] Karen R. Maternal Deprivation Reassessed: 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 1568217579. Nadison. (1981). "The vulnerable pre-nate". [45] Schaffer. and Pollock. [47] Holmes J. • Bowlby. • Rutter. 67–92 [28] Ainsworth. (1998).1037/0022-006X. PMID 8907083. 1982). [30] Rank. "Aggression".1111/j. J. Geneva: World Health Organization. and development: from evangelism through science toward policy and practice" (http:/ / www. Geneva: World Health Organisation. com/ openurl?genre=article& sid=nlm:pubmed& issn=0009-3920& date=2002& volume=73& issue=1& spage=1).183. H. No. J. [41] Holmes J. ISBN 0415006406. doi:10. 14. (1949). Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects. PMID 14717240. C.H. 124–126 [27] Bowlby J. [31] Ainsworth. doi:10. Infancy. Public Health Papers. pp.. nurture. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 3: 43–48. ISBN 0140805613. Public Health Papers. [38] Holmes J. (2003). (1951). Harmondsworth: Penguin. Developmental Psychology 14 (2): 183–184. 43–45 [35] Wootton B. [33] Rutter. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Viking/Allen Lane. (1969. No. [46] Field. CT: International Universities Press. Child Psychology & Mental Health.. Pre. London: Pimlico.E.H. "Nature. "Prenatal attachment and bonding". "Beyond insecurity: a reconceptualization of attachment disorders of infancy" (http:/ / content. The Course of Life. (1988) pp. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631185741. 14.I. 255–266. Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects.A. M. (February 1996). (1993). [29] Spitz. p. Attachment therapy On Trial: The Torture and Death of Candace Newmaker. [32] Schwartz. 68 [40] Rutter M.D.R. (1996). 14. S. 236 . (1962). Attachment: Attachment and Loss. Vol. [53] Mercer.14. org/ journals/ ccp/ 64/ 1/ 42). et al. London: Routledge. L. Geneva: World Health Organization.00388. No. "Paternal and Maternal Roles and Delinquency".. Harmondsworth: Penguin. (1962). ISBN 978-0275976750. (1962). "Interaction behaviours of primary versus secondary caretaker fathers". I. Maternal Deprivation Reassessed: 2nd edition. Understanding Attachment: Parenting. (1951) pp. ISBN 978-0415077309. A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory. Cassandra's Daughter: A History of Psychoanalysis. [44] Bowlby J. Oxford. "A Social Scientist's Approach to Maternal Deprivation".R. ISBN 978-0140227000. CT: Praeger. Sarner. pp.tb02314. p.64. Geneva: World Health Organization. (1962). pp. M. Westport. Public Health Papers. (1988). ISBN 978-0712674713.1. (1951) p. 14. (1972). (1949). Rosa. B. Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects. "The Effects of Maternal Deprivation: A Review of Findings and Controversy in the Context of Research Strategy". ISBN 0670886238. ISBN 0-19-511501-5. "Clinical implications of attachment concepts: retrospect and prospect".1037/0012-1649.

diabetes.[1] Prenatal nutrition addresses nutrient recommendations before and during pregnancy.[4] This does not mean that heavy babies are less of a concern. type-2 diabetes. A common saying that 'a woman is eating for two while pregnant' implies that a mother should consume twice as much during pregnancy. or Thrifty phenotype.[2] On the other hand. there are persisting changes in the body structure and function that are caused by environmental stimuli. Birth weight of the newborn at delivery reflects the sufficiency and the quality of maternal nutrient for the fetus during pregnancy. Prenatal nutrition has a strong influence on birth weight and further development of the infant. it was not well accepted and was met with much skepticism. obesity. Compared with the infant. Maintaining a healthy weight during gestation lowers adverse risks on infants such as birth defects. Pregnancy. it is important to maintain a healthy gestational weight gain throughout pregnancy for achieving the optimal infant birth weight.[3] Background Barker's Hypothesis The "Barker Hypothesis". Although maternal consumption will directly affect both herself and the growing fetus. However.[5] "Barker's Hypothesis" is also known as “Fetal Programming Hypothesis”. rather than going to the infant. excessive calories. Therefore.[6] This relates to the concept of developmental plasticity where 237 . Death rate would rise as birth weight increases beyond normal birth weight range. provided more convincing results with minimal confounding variables. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.org/details/PsychogenicD) Prenatal nutrition and birth weight Nutrition and weight management before and during pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. insufficient consumption will result in lower birth weight. often get stored as fat in the mother. over eating excessively will compromise the baby's health as the infant will have to work extra hard to become healthy in the future. The word “programming” illustrates the idea that during critical periods in early fetal development.[5] Therefore.[1] Ideally. When this theory was first proposed. the rate of weight gain should be monitored during pregnancy to support the most ideal infant development. Associated risk of lifelong diseases includes cardiovascular disease.archive.[6] The main criticism was that confounding variables such as environmental factors could attribute to many of the chronic diseases such that low birth weight alone should not be dictated as an independent risk factor.[5] Subsequent research studies supporting the theory attempted to adjust these environmental factors and in turn.Maternal deprivation External links • Rene Spitz's film "Psychogenic Disease in Infancy" (1957) (http://www. and hypertension. states that conditions during pregnancy will have long term effects on adult health. Babies born lighter in weight appear to have an increased rate of mortality than babies born at a heavier weight. as well as chronic conditions in adulthood such as obesity. the mother possesses the least biological risk. and cardiovascular disease (CVD). in reality this is not true.

maternal malnutrition may be a cause of increased disease susceptibility in adulthood.[7] These findings agree well with Barker’s hypothesis.[7] The Dutch Famine during World War II had a profound effect on the health condition of the general public.[8] What is unique about Dutch Famine as an experimental study on the effects of maternal malnutrition is that the population was strictly circumscribed in time and place and the sudden onset and relief of the famine was imposed on a previously well-nourished population.[5] Physiological and metabolic processes in the body undergo long term changes as a result of restricted growth.[7] In the early May The tile is a tribute to the Dutch Famine. the infant would be less adaptive to the harsh environment than low birth weight babies. especially women who conceived during the period of time. The daily ration had increased to more than 2000 calories in June 1945. .Prenatal nutrition and birth weight 238 our genes can express different ranges of physiological or morphological states in response to the environmental conditions during fetal development. the liberation of the Netherlands restored the food supply.[8] Even though pregnant and lactating women had extra food during the famine.[5] When the living environment switches from the condition of malnutrition to a society of abundant supply of nutrients.[5] Consequently the baby adapts by changing its body size and metabolism to prepare for harsh conditions of food shortages after birth.[5] If the mother has an inadequate diet then it signals the baby that the living condition in the long term will be impoverished. 1945.[7] The famine was imposed on a previously well-nourished population and the official daily ration for the general adult population gradually decreased from 1800 calories in December 1943 to 1400 calories in October 1944 to below 1000 calories in the late November 1944. these extra supplies could no longer be provided at the height of the famine. The Dutch famine of 1944 or the 'Hunger Winter' during World War II serves as an epidemiological study that is used to examine the effects of maternal under-nutrition during different gestational stages.[4] The Dutch Famine Since small birth weight is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases in later life. if the fetus growing in the womb of a healthy mother is exposed to prolonged famine after birth. it supports the theory that maternal under-nutrition leads to a lower birth weight due to restricted intrauterine development and ultimately leads to higher risks of chronic conditions in adult life.[5] By the same token. The period of maternal starvation is shown to have limited intrauterine growth and has been identified as one of the most important contributor to coronary heart disease as well as other chronic diseases later in life. this exposes the baby to a bountiful environment that goes against what its body is designed for and this places the baby at a higher risk of adult diseases later in adulthood.[8] December 1944 to April 1945 was the peak of the famine where the official daily ration fell abruptly to about 400~800 calories. and poor maternal nutrition during gestation contributes to restricted fetal development. The famine was a period (roughly five to six months) of extreme food shortage in the west of Netherlands.

[1] Blastogenesis is the stage from fertilization to about 2 weeks. on the other hand. Embryonic stage is approximately from 2 weeks to 8 weeks. stages). which is approximately the weight 6 raisins.[1] Embryo at 8 weeks after [9] fertilization Fetus at 18 weeks after [10] fertilization Fetus at 38 weeks after [11] fertilization Pre-pregnancy Weight and Moochy Gestational Weight Gain The pattern and amount of weight gain is closely associated with gestational stages. Pregnancy becomes visible at this stage.[1] In the second trimester and third trimester (late embryonic and fetal BMI chart. During this period of time.[3] . which include blastogenesis.[1] Additional energy is required during pregnancy due to the expansion of maternal tissues and stores in order to support fetal development. the mother experiences a minimal weight gain (approximately 0.[1] Life size model of a 8-week-old fetus (at the end of embryonic stage). The amount of weight gain depends strongly on their pre-pregnant weight.5-2 kilograms). are based on physiological fetal development. embryonic stage and fetal stage. the fetus undergoes rapid weight growth and the weight increases to about 3000~4000 grams. each spanning 3 months. where all major features of human are present and operational by the end of this stage. The fertilized egg or the zygote becomes a blastocyst where the outer layer and the inner cell mass differentiate to form placenta and the fetus respectively.[1] Fetal stage is from 9 weeks to term. Implantation occurs at this stage where the blastocyst becomes buried in the endometrium. It is also in this stage where the blastocyst develops into an embryo.[1] Gestational stages.[1] It is also in this period that the mother experiences the bulk of her gestational weight gain but the amount of weight gain varies greatly. the embryo develops rapidly and becomes a fetus.Prenatal nutrition and birth weight 239 Recommendations for Pregnant Women Gestation Stages Gestation is the period of embryo development from conception to birth. In the first trimester (blastogenesis and early embryonic stages). while the embryo weighs only 6 grams.[1] Gestation is about 40 weeks in humans and is divided into three trimesters.

which equates to roughly 0. a normal weight is strongly recommended for mothers when entering gestation.0 and 11. they are encouraged to record activity and intake level.[3] Vigorous physical activity is not recommended since an excessive loss of calories is induced which is not sufficient to support fetal development. corresponding to approximately 0.[3] Low pre-pregnancy BMI increases the risk of low birth weight infants.5 or below.[3] Unfortunately.[3] Underweight women usually have inadequate nutrient stores that are not enough to provide for both herself and the fetus.0 and 9. This group have the lowest risk of adverse birth outcomes. and vegetables should be emphasized for pregnant women.[3] Underweight Women Women's are classified as underweight if they have a pre-pregnant BMI of 18.[3] Maternal body weight is determined by the Body Mass Index (BMI) which is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters. The common saying “a women is eating for two” often leads to mothers thinking that they should eat twice as much.[12] While pregnant.0 kilograms throughout gestation. This can . As such. underweight mothers should seek individualized advice tailored especially for themselves. Gestational weight gain should also be progressive and the recommended weight depends on pre-pregnant body weight. walking is encouraged for mothers classified in this category.0 kilograms overall. fruits and vegetables as well as low-fat dairy alternatives. A proper diet is also essential to healthy weight gain. only a small increase in caloric intake is needed to provide for the fetus. In reality.[3] Overweight and Obese Women Women with a high pre-pregnancy weight are classified as overweight or obese.5 to 18. estimated energy requirements for them are not available.2 kilogram per week in the second and third trimesters.9 are in the overweight category and should gain between 7.[3] Women with BMI between 25 and 29. and overweight or obese women should undergo a smaller weight gain. healthy choices should be emphasized for these extra calories such as whole grain products. the mother should engage in mild physical activities.0 kilograms in total. approximately 350 calories more in the second trimester and 450 calories more in the third trimester.[3] In order to maintain a steady weight gain.[3] Also. Participating in aerobic activities such as walking and swimming 3 to 4 times a week is usually adequate.[3] Whereas women with BMI of 30 or above are in the obese category and should gain only between 5. it is recommended that underweight women should undergo a larger weight gain for healthy pregnancy outcomes.Prenatal nutrition and birth weight 240 Generally.5~24.9 are classified as having a normal or healthy body weight. defined as having a BMI of 25 or above.[3] Their babies are least likely to either be low-birth weight or high-birth weight.[3] In general. Health choices such as low-fat milk and alternatives.[3] While exercise and a proper diet are both needed to maintain the recommended weight gain. It is advised that women with a normal weight before pregnancy should gain a total of 11. body weight should be managed within the recommended gestational weight gain range as it is shown to have a positive effect on pregnancy outcomes.[3] As such. but the risk can be balanced by an appropriate gestational weight gain from 12.28 kilogram each week during the second and third trimesters.5 kilograms to 16.[3] Normal Weight Women Women having a BMI of 18. which is approximately 0.5 kilogram each week in the second and third trimesters.4 kilogram per week in the second and third trimesters. or about 0. fruits.5 kilograms in total. a balance between the two is very important.[1] Since the total weight gain depends on pre-pregnant body weight. as it promotes overall health of infants.

which is the length from Ultrasound of fetus (~3 inches in length).9 11.0~9.[15] The length measured in centimeters should correspond to the number of weeks that the [15] mother has been pregnant. then the measurement of the date of last menstrual period becomes quite important since the crown heel length has become less of a reliable indicator of gestational age.[13] Recommendations for Low and High Birth Weight Diagnosis In order to have a good estimate of birth weight.0 lb) Overweight BMI 25. the amount of total and weekly weight gain can vary by a factor of two depending on a woman's pre-pregnant weight.[14] After the 20th week of pregnancy.[14] Measured values from ultrasonography are compared with the growth chart to estimate fetal weight.Prenatal nutrition and birth weight 241 be done with the help of tools such as My Food Guide Servings Tracker from Health Canada and EATracker that are available online.0 kg (11~20 lb) 0.0~ 29.5 lb) .[15] Another way to estimate fetal size is to look at the mother’s weight gain.5~18 kg (28~40 lb) 0. ultrasonography or ultrasound during pregnancy and the date of last menstrual period are needed.[3] In extreme cases where the BMI exceeds 35.2 kg (0.4 kg (1. the top portion of the uterus to the pubic bone.6 lb) Obese BMI > 30 5. The second column summarizes the total recommended weight gain for each type of body weight. and the third column presents the corresponding weekly weight gain during the period when the fetus undergoes rapid growth (during second and third trimesters). help from a registered dietitian is recommended.0 lb) Healthy weight BMI 18. further tests using ultrasound would be needed to check the results. the mother would need to visit the doctor for the measurement of fundal height.5 kg (1.3 kg (0. If the measured number is higher or lower than 2 centimetres.[15] . Pre-pregnancy BMI Category Recommendated Total Weight Gain Weekly Weight Gain (after 12 weeks) Underweight BMI <18.5 kg (15~25 lb) 0.[14] If growth defects were observed in the first trimester.[3] Summary Table The following table summarizes the recommended rate of weight gain and total weight gain according to pre-pregnancy BMI for singleton pregnancies.5~16 kg (25~35 lb) 0.5 12.5~ 24.[14] This correlation between crown rump length and gestational age would be most effectively shown when no growth defects are observed in first trimester. a woman in the obese category is recommended to gain a total of 5~9 kilograms. For example. In extreme cases.[15] How much weight the mother gains can be used to indicate fetal size.9 7. The first column categorizes the type of body weight based on the Body Mass Index.0~ 11.[15] Crown rump length can be used as the best ultrasonographic measurement for correct diagnosis of gestational age during the first trimester. whereas an underweight woman needs to gain up to 18 kilograms in weight.

It is necessary to monitor fetal growth and perform pregnancy examinations to determine health status and detect any possibility of unrecognized diabetes.[18] An indicator for excessive growth. Monitoring fetal growth can help identify the problem during pregnancy well before birth. and medical conditions. nutritional status.[18] Since the baby is bigger in size. alcohol abuse. a glucose/water solution can be offered to the infant.Prenatal nutrition and birth weight 242 Low Birth Weight There are two ways to determine small for gestational age infants. based on data consisting of a reference population.[18] It seems that a common factor for LGA babies is whether or not the mother has diabetes when she is pregnant. Many research studies agree that SGA babies are those with birth weight or crown heel length measured at two standard deviations or more below the mean of the infant’s gestational age. Many factors.[17] Complications for the infant include limitations in body growth since the number and size of cells in tissues is smaller.[15] It would be beneficial to seek professional help and counseling. a temperature-controlled bed would help to keep their bodies from losing heat.[16] This indicates that these babies are weighing less than 90% of babies of the same gestational age.[18] There might be a need for early delivery if the baby gets too big and perhaps Caesarean section would be needed. there’s a higher chance of injury when coming out of the mother’s body.[15] It is also more difficult to maintain body temperature since there is less blood flow within the small body.[14] Other studies classify SGA babies as those with birth weight values below the 10th percentile of the growth chart for babies of the same gestational age. gestational age. and consistent monitoring can be helpful to assist women bearing SGA infants.[15] Since the baby cannot maintain body temperature sufficiently. High Birth Weight Research show that when birth weights of infants are greater than the 90th percentile of the growth chart for babies of the same gestational age.[15] As such.[14] Insufficient uteroplacental perfusion is an example of a placental factor.[14] There are a number of maternal factors.[18] For diabetic mothers. they are considered large for gestational age or LGA. .[18] The infant would likely suffer hypoglycemia (low glucose level in the blood) after birth.[18] Many factors account for LGA babies. Birth weight chart. If the baby can’t suck well.[15] There are ways to help prevent SGA babies.[19] Many complications are observed for LGA babies and their mothers. education.[15] The infant likely did not receive enough oxygen during pregnancy so the oxygen level is low. it is necessary to monitor oxygen level to make sure that it doesn’t go too low.[18] There are ways to help prevent LGA babies.[18] To increase the blood glucose level in blood. regardless of Ultrasound examination. is the appearance of macrosomia.[14] Identification of the causes of SGA for individual cases aids health professionals in finding ways to handle each unique case. which include age. smoking. contribute to the cause of impaired fetal growth.[14] Chromosomal abnormalities and genetic diseases are examples of fetal factors. and fetal factors. then it may be necessary for tube-feed.[18] This indicates that these babies are weighing more than 90% of babies of the same gestational age.[18] The infant would also have difficulty breathing. including genetics and excessive nutrient supply.[17] Nutritional counseling. including maternal. A longer delivery time may be expected since it is a difficult birth. placental.

1016/j.2006. especially water. [7] Roseboom.earlhumdev. CD. it is important to drink enough fluids.53. has a positive effect on the baby’s health. women of short stature (<157 centimetres). Maintaining healthy and steady weight gain during pregnancy promotes overall health and reduces the incidence of prenatal morbidity and mortality.822. com/ losing-pregnancy-weight-weight-problems-during-pregnancy-and-the-effect-on-your-baby/ ). "Weight Problems During Prengnacy And The Effect On Your Baby" (http:/ / www.1136/jcp.[20] If the fetus is predicted to have high birth weight.928.Maternal Weight and Weight Gain in Pregnancy" (http:/ / www. [2] De Leon. Course Notes. “moderation” should be taken into account for both dietary and physical activity recommendations. Since conditions during pregnancy will have long term effects on adult health. International Journal of Epidemiology 30 (5): 928–934. and pregnant teens. in addition to the general recommendations. "The Dutch famine and its long-term consequences for adult health".[20] If the fetus is predicted to have low birth weight. University of British Columbia. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 23/ suppl_6/ 588S).[21] To prevent problems like dehydration and constipation. Health Canada. as these ranges are wide. Rebecca (2006). it would be ideal to increase caloric intake. doi:10. such as fruit juices.07.[3] Estimated energy requirements (EER) for overweight/obese women are unavailable so more research is needed to evaluate on that. "The Developmental Origins of Adult Disease" (http:/ / www. Retrieved December 1. P (2001). Victoria. Early Human Development (Elsevier Ireland) 82: 485–491. . Journal of the American College of Nutrition (American College of Nutrition) 23 (6): 588S-595S. doi:10.[20] Eating a balanced diet would be optimal for healthy pregnancy results. This. [5] Barker. toloseweightafterpregnancy.Prenatal nutrition and birth weight careful management of diabetes during pregnancy period would be helpful in terms of lowering some of the risks of LGA. FNH 471 Human Nutrition Over the Life Span.001. Painter. php). It would be beneficial to maintain adequate physical activity to meet energy needs from the food consumed. ca/ fn-an/ consult/ _matern-weight-poids2009/ draft-ebauche-eng. in turn. hc-sc. gc. jacn. doi:10. Fall. to support blood volume increases during pregnancy.[3] Practical Advice for Mothers The following general tips can be helpful to pregnant women. [3] "Draft Prenatal Nutrition Guidelines for Health Professionals . which can be done by having extra Food Guide Servings daily. the ranges for underweight women carrying twins is unknown. DI (2000). smaller and more frequent meals should be consumed to allow better weight management. is also suggested. Rooij.[22] It is recommended to accompany regular meals with a daily prenatal vitamin supplement that has sufficient folic acid and iron content. "Fetal origins of adult disease: epidemiology and mechanisms".1093/ije/30.[20] References [1] Barr. [6] Byrne. [4] Bateson.[23] Moderate sugar intake.[18] Points to Consider The goal of pregnancy is to have a healthy baby. Losing Pregnancy Weight.11. Tessa. DJP (2004). .[23] It is essential to limit food and beverages with high calories and salt content.5.[3] Recommendations for women carrying twins are given but more research should be done to precisely determine the total weight gain. 2010. Susanne de. 2009. "Fetal experience and good adult design". There was not enough information to recommend weight gain cutoffs and guidelines for women carrying three or more babies. Susan (2010). the total recommended pregnancy weight gain depends on pre-pregnant body weight. J Clin Pathol 53: 822–828.[3] Also. and weight issues should be addressed before pregnancy. Phillips. . 243 . Most importantly. Retrieved 3 March 2011. Future Direction for Research It is reasonable to expect higher weight gain for multiple gestations.

. html). et al. com/ static/ pregnancy-week-40. M. 3dpregnancy. Queen's Printer for Ontario. PEDIATRICS 111 (6): 1253–1261. aspx?id=72& Topic=5& Cat=162). "Prediabetes or Impaired Glucose Intolerance" (http:/ / www. [13] "Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines" (http:/ / www. [19] BabyCenter Medical Advisory Board. Retrieved November 28. . "Labor complication: Big baby (macrosomia)" (http:/ / www. and a sketch is available here (http:/ / www. [20] "Prenatal Nutrition Guidelines for Health Professionals . 2009. (2003). [9] 3D Pregnancy (http:/ / www. 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-21. org/ DiseaseHealthInfo/ HealthLibrary/ hrnewborn/ sga. Inc. 3dpregnancy. A rotatable 3D version of this photo is available here (http:/ / www. 2002. Yang. Retrieved 2010-12-13. Healthline Networks.. iom. 2010. capitalhealth. html?tracking=P_RelatedArticle#). Retrieved 2010-11-05. gc. [17] Lisa Gourley. [11] 3D Pregnancy (http:/ / www. and a sketch is available here (http:/ / www. ISBN 380557780X. 2001". ca/ fn-an/ pubs/ nutrition/ guide-prenatal-eng. ca/ fn-an/ nutrition/ weights-poids/ guide-ld-adult/ weight_book_tc-livres_des_poids_tm-eng. Xiaoguang (2004). 3dpregnancy. Lucile Packard Children's Hospital. Institute of Medicine. html). Health Canada. doi:10. [22] Ministry of Health Promotion. [12] "Canadian Guidelines for Body Weight Classification in Adults" (http:/ / www. htm). Gerard. A rotatable 3D version of this photo is available here (http:/ / www. gc. ca/ en/ ViewDocument. html) (Image from gestational age of 40 weeks). html) (Image from gestational age of 20 weeks). 2008. org/ display/ PPF/ DocID/ 23374/ router. 3dpregnancy. com/ 0_labor-complication-big-baby-macrosomia_1152319. Retrieved 2010-12-13. Uauy. pdf+ html). April 24–October 1. aspx). ca/ EspeciallyFor/ WeightWise/ Prediabetes_Impaired_Glucose_Tolerance_Adults. SD. com/ pictures/ pregnancy-week-20.1542/peds. Retrieved 2010-12-13. BabyCenter. "Staying Healthy During Pregnancy" (http:/ / kidshealth. com/ pictures/ pregnancy-week-40. Retrieved 2010-11-09. [10] 3D Pregnancy (http:/ / www. [21] Larissa Hirsch. [15] "Small for Gestational Age" (http:/ / www. "Prenatal Nutrition" (http:/ / www. Children's Hospital and Health System. chw. "Large for Gestational Age" (http:/ / www. New York: Basel. html). php). Ricardo. "The Juicy Story on Drinks" (http:/ / www. com/ static/ pregnancy-week-10. [14] Lee. php). HealthLink Alberta. 3dpregnancy. 3dpregnancy. "Nutritional Interventions during Pregnancy for the Prevention or Treatment of Impaired Fetal Growth: An Overview of Randomized Controlled Trials" (http:/ / jn. hc-sc. Retrieved 2010-11-18. full. 3dpregnancy. asp). com/ rotatable/ 40-weeks-pregnant. html). 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-17. com/ rotatable/ 10-weeks-pregnant. .6. com/ static/ pregnancy-week-20. [16] Merialdi. [18] Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. The Nemours Foundation. 2006. html).Background on Canada's Food Guide" (http:/ / www. (2003). lpch.C.1253. edu/ Reports/ 2009/ Weight-Gain-During-Pregnancy-Reexamining-the-Guidelines. hc-sc. Carroli. G. eatrightontario. 2009. Retrieved 2010-11-09. babycenter. healthline. et al. The impact of maternal nutrition on the offspring. html). 2003.Prenatal nutrition and birth weight [8] Hornstra. 2010. org/ content/ 133/ 5/ 1626S. PA. "International Small for Gestational Age Advisory Board Consensus Development Conference Statement: Management of Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age. . com/ galecontent/ prenatal-nutrition/ 4). Retrieved November 27. 2008. Chernausek. com/ rotatable/ 20-weeks-pregnant. Retrieved 2010-11-05. Health Canada. Retrieved 2010-11-23. 3dpregnancy. html) (Image from gestational age of 10 weeks). nutrition. 244 . and a sketch is available here (http:/ / www.111. html).L. L. The Journal of Nutrition 133 (5): 1626S-1631S. [23] Alberta clinical experts. bc). A rotatable 3D version of this photo is available here (http:/ / www. com/ pictures/ pregnancy-week-10. org/ parent/ pregnancy_center/ your_pregnancy/ preg_health. 2010. 3dpregnancy.

heart rate. while immune and digestive functions are inhibited (the fight or flight response)." MeSH D001007 [2] Anxiety (also called angst or worry) is a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic. fear is related to the specific behaviors of escape and avoidance. or headaches. uneasiness.[7] suggesting that it is a distinction between future vs. and dread. The physical effects of anxiety may include heart palpitations. cognitive. it is distinguished from fear. (2) temporal focus.[4] Anxiety is considered to be a normal reaction to a stressor. emotional. tachycardia. It may help an individual to deal with a demanding situation by prompting them to cope with it. it may fall under the classification of an anxiety disorder.[8] fear and anxiety were said to be differentiated in four domains: (1) duration of emotional experience. chest pain. in either presence or absence of psychological stress. trembling. This portrait "conveys an impression of anxiety and weariness. fatigue. and promoting caution while approaching a potential threat. muscle weakness and tension. As the body prepares to deal with a threat. worry. geared towards a specific threat.[5] Description Anxiety is a generalized mood condition that can occur without an identifiable triggering stimulus. Additionally. broadly focused towards a diffuse threat.[6] Another view defines anxiety as "a future-oriented mood state in which one is ready or prepared to attempt to cope with upcoming negative events". nausea. As such. In a 2011 review of the literature. Fear was defined as short lived. present focused. When anxiety becomes excessive. sweating. which is an appropriate emotional response to a perceived threat. and facilitating escape from threat. stomach aches. while anxiety was defined as long acting. future focused. whereas anxiety is related to situations perceived as uncontrollable or unavoidable.Anxiety 245 Anxiety Anxiety A marble bust of the Roman Emperor Decius from the Capitoline Museum. Someone who has anxiety might also experience it subjectively as a sense of dread . (3) specificity of the threat. and (4) motivated direction. blood pressure. perspiration. blood flow to the major muscle groups are increased. as of a [1] man shouldering heavy [state] responsibilities. shortness of breath. anxiety can create feelings of fear.[3] The root meaning of the word anxiety is 'to vex or trouble'. External signs of anxiety may include pallor. present dangers which divides anxiety and fear. and pupillary dilation. and behavioral components.

"[11] The behavioral effects of anxiety may include withdrawal from situations which have provoked anxiety in the past. Although single genes have little effect on complex traits and interact heavily both between themselves and with the external factors." and "a specific psychological vulnerability. "You may. and.[19] 246 . obsessions about sensations. Although panic attacks are not experienced by every person who has anxiety. this study highlights an additional environmental factor that may result from being raised by parents suffering from chronic anxiety themselves. fear that the chest pains are a deadly heart attack or that the shooting pains in your head are the result of a tumor or aneurysm."[10] The cognitive effects of anxiety may include thoughts about suspected dangers. You feel an intense fear when you think of dying."[14] While chemical issues in the brain that result in anxiety (especially resulting from genetics) are well documented. This may cause false positive reactions but also avoid real threats. nucleus accumbens) more strongly in temperamentally inhibited than noninhibited adolescents. and fearful finds that their nucleus accumbens is more sensitive than that in other people when selecting to make an action that determined whether they received a reward. and feeling like everything is scary..’ or self agency. As researchers note "a sense of ‘responsibility. A person experiencing a panic attack will often feel as if he or she is about to die or lose consciousness. Panic attacks usually come without warning and although the fear is generally irrational. nervous habits. in a context of uncertainty (probabilistic outcomes) drives the neural system underlying appetitive motivation (i. This may explain why anxious people are less likely to die due to accidents. a trapped in your mind feeling.[17] [18] In these studies. Research upon adolescents who as infants had been highly apprehensive. or you may think of it more often than normal. the participants also reported moderate anxiety.[15] This suggests a link between circuits responsible for fear and also reward in anxious people.. Barlow of Boston University conducted a study that showed three common characteristics of people suffering from chronic anxiety."[15] Neural circuitry involving the amygdala and hippocampus is thought to underlie anxiety. such as fear of dying.e. The emotional effects of anxiety may include "feelings of apprehension or dread. they are a common symptom. One candidate gene with polymorphisms that influence anxiety is PLXNA2. the subjective perception of danger is very real. deja vu. which he characterized as "a generalized biological vulnerability. anticipating the worst. PET-scans show increased bloodflow in the amygdala. This might indicate that anxiety is a protective mechanism designed to prevent the organism from engaging in potentially harmful behaviors." "a generalized psychological vulnerability.Anxiety or panic. feeling like your mind's gone blank"[9] as well as "nightmares/bad dreams. watching (and waiting) for signs (and occurrences) of danger.[12] Anxiety can also be experienced in ways which include changes in sleeping patterns. vigilant. feeling tense or jumpy.[12] Causes An evolutionary psychology explanation is that increased anxiety serves the purpose of increased vigilance regarding potential threats in the environment as well as increased tendency to take proactive actions regarding such possible threats.[16] When people are confronted with unpleasant and potentially harmful stimuli such as foul odors or tastes. research is underway to unravel possible molecular mechanisms underlying anxiety and comorbid conditions. and increased motor tension like foot tapping. irritability. trouble concentrating..[13] The psychologist David H. or can’t get it out of your mind. restlessness.

In Art and Artist (1932). Students who have test anxiety may experience any of the following: the association of grades with personal worth.[20] Abnormal and pathological anxiety or fear may itself be a medical condition falling under the blanket term "anxiety disorder". when a person is faced with extreme mortal dangers. and HAM-A (Hamilton Anxiety Scale) can be used to detect anxiety symptoms and suggest th