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A guidebook

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Language of adoption


Open adoption


Closed adoption


Domestic adoption


Foster care adoption


International adoption


Interracial adoption


Embryo donation


Foster care




AIDS orphan




Third culture kid


Cultural variations in adoption


Child development stages




Adoption home study


Child protection


Child abuse


Human bonding


Affectional bond


John Bowlby


Mary Ainsworth


Michael Rutter


Attachment theory


Attachment in children


Attachment measures


Attachment therapy


Attachment disorder


Maternal deprivation


Prenatal nutrition and birth weight




Emotional dysregulation


Posttraumatic stress disorder


Reactive attachment disorder


Disinhibited attachment disorder


Institutional syndrome


Fetal alcohol syndrome


Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder


Prenatal cocaine exposure


Cleft lip and palate


Disruption (adoption)


Genealogical bewilderment


Adoption in the United States


Adoption in Italy


Adoption in France


Adoption in Australia


Adoption in Guatemala


LGBT adoption


Child laundering


Trafficking of children


Adoption disclosure


Adoption reunion registry


Adoption tax credit


Aging out


List of international adoption scandals


Article Sources and Contributors


Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Article Licenses




Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the
parenting for another and, in so doing, permanently
transfers all rights and responsibilities from the original
parent or parents. Unlike guardianship or other systems
designed for the care of the young, adoption is intended
to effect a permanent change in status and as such
requires societal recognition, either through legal or
religious sanction. Historically some societies have
enacted specific laws governing adoption whereas
others have endeavored to achieve adoption through
less formal means, notably via contracts that specified
inheritance rights and parental responsibilities. Modern
systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to
be governed by comprehensive statutes and regulations.
Adoption has a long history in the Western world,
closely tied with the legacy of the Roman Empire and
the Catholic Church. Its use has changed considerably
over the centuries with its focus shifting from adult
adoption and inheritance issues toward children and
family creation and its structure moving from a
recognition of continuity between the adopted and kin
toward allowing relationships of lessened intensity.


Sister Irene of New York Foundling Hospital with children. Sister
Irene is among the pioneers of modern adoption, establishing a
system to board out children rather than institutionalize them.



Adoption for the well-born
While the modern form of adoption emerged in the United States, forms of the
practice appeared throughout history.[1] The Code of Hammurabi, for example,
details the rights of adopters and the responsibilities of adopted individuals at
length and the practice of adoption in ancient Rome is well documented in the
Codex Justinianus.[2] [3]
Markedly different from the modern period, ancient adoption practices put
emphasis on the political and economic interests of the adopter,[4] providing a
legal tool that strengthened political ties between wealthy families and creating
male heirs to manage estates.[5] [6] The use of adoption by the aristocracy is well
documented; many of Rome's emperors were adopted sons.[6]
Infant adoption during Antiquity appears rare.[4] [7] Abandoned children were
often picked up for slavery[8] and composed a significant percentage of the
Empire’s slave supply.[9] [10] Roman legal records indicate that foundlings were
occasionally taken in by families and raised as a son or daughter. Although not
normally adopted under Roman Law, the children, called alumni, were reared in
an arrangement similar to guardianship, being considered the property of the
father who abandoned them.[11]

Trajan became emperor of Rome
through adoption, a customary
practice of the empire that enabled
peaceful transitions of power.

Other ancient civilizations, notably India and China, utilized some form of adoption as well. Evidence suggests their
practices aimed to ensure the continuity of cultural and religious practices, in contrast to the Western idea of
extending family lines. In ancient India, secondary sonship, clearly denounced by the Rigveda,[12] continued, in a
limited and highly ritualistic form, so that an adopter might have the necessary funerary rites performed by a son.[13]
China had a similar conception of adoption with males adopted solely to perform the duties of ancestor worship.[14]

Middle Ages to Modern Period
Adoption and commoners
The nobility of the Germanic, Celtic, and Slavic cultures that
dominated Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire denounced
the practice of adoption.[15] In medieval society, bloodlines were
paramount; a ruling dynasty lacking a natural-born heir apparent was
replaced, a stark contrast to Roman traditions. The evolution of
European law reflects this aversion to adoption. English Common Law,
for instance, did not permit adoption since it contradicted the
customary rules of inheritance. In the same vein, France's Napoleonic
Code made adoption difficult, requiring adopters to be over the age of
50, sterile, older than the adopted person by at least fifteen years, and
At the monastery gate (Am Klostertor) by
to have fostered the adoptee for at least six years.[16] Some adoptions
Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller.
continued to occur, however, but became informal, based on ad hoc
contracts. For example, in the year 737, in a charter from the town of Lucca, three adoptees were made heirs to an
estate. Like other contemporary arrangements, the agreement stressed the responsibility of the adopted rather than
adopter, focusing on the fact that, under the contract, the adoptive father was meant to be cared for in his old age; an
idea that recalls conceptions of adoption under Roman law.[17]
Europe's cultural makeover marked a period of significant innovation for adoption. Without support from the
nobility, the practice gradually shifted toward abandoned children. Abandonment levels rose with the fall of the



empire and many of the foundlings were left on the doorstep of the Church.[18] Initially, the clergy reacted by
drafting rules to govern the exposing, selling, and rearing of abandoned children. The Church's innovation, however,
was the practice of oblation, whereby children were dedicated to lay life within monastic institutions and reared
within a monastery. This created the first system in European history in which abandoned children were without
legal, social, or moral disadvantage. As a result, many of Europe's abandoned and orphaned became alumni of the
Church, which in turn took the role of adopter. Oblation marks the beginning of a shift toward institutionalization,
eventually bringing about the establishment of the foundling hospital and orphanage.[18]
As the idea of institutional care gained acceptance, formal rules appeared about how to place children into families:
boys could become apprenticed to an artisan and girls might be married off under the institution's authority.[19]
Institutions informally adopted out children as well, a mechanism treated as a way to obtain cheap labor,
demonstrated by the fact that when the adopted died, their bodies were returned by the family to the institution for
This system of apprenticeship and informal adoption extended into the 19th century, today seen as a transitional
phase for adoption history. Under the direction of social welfare activists, orphan asylums began to promote
adoptions based on sentiment rather than work, and children were placed out under agreements to provide care for
them as family members instead of under contracts for apprenticeship.[21] The growth of this model is believed to
have contributed to the enactment of the first modern adoption law in 1851 by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts,
unique in that it codified the ideal of the "best interests of the child."[22] [23] Despite its intent, though, in practice, the
system operated much the same as earlier incarnations. The experience of the Boston Female Asylum (BFA) is a
good example, which had up to 30% of its charges adopted out by 1888.[24] Officials of the BFA noted that, although
the asylum promoted otherwise, adoptive parents did not distinguish between indenture and adoption; "We believe,"
the asylum officials said, "that often, when children of a younger age are taken to be adopted, the adoption is only
another name for service."[25]

Modern period
Adopting to create a family
The next stage of adoption's evolution fell to the emerging nation of the United States. Rapid immigration and the
aftermath of the American Civil War resulted in unprecedented overcrowding of orphanages and foundling homes in
the mid-nineteenth century. Charles Loring Brace, a Protestant minister became appalled by the legions of homeless
waifs roaming the streets of New York City. Brace considered the abandoned youth, particularly Catholics, to be the
most dangerous element challenging the city's order.[26] [27]
His solution was outlined in The Best Method of Disposing of Our Pauper and
Vagrant Children (1859) which started the Orphan Train movement. The orphan
trains eventually shipped an estimated 200,000 children from the urban centers of
the East to the nation's rural regions.[28] The children were generally indentured,
rather than adopted, to families who took them in.[29] As in times past, some
children were raised as members of the family while others were used as farm
laborers and household servants.[30]

Charles Loring Brace.


The sheer size of the displacement—the largest migration of children in
history—and the degree of exploitation that occurred, gave rise to new agencies
and a series of laws that promoted adoption arrangements rather than indenture.
The hallmark of the period is Minnesota's adoption law of 1917 which mandated
investigation of all placements and limited record access to those involved in the
adoption.[31] [32]

William and his brother Thomas.
They rode the Orphan Train in 1880
at the ages of 11 and 9, respectively.
William was taken into a good home.
Thomas was exploited for labor and
abused. The brothers eventually
made their way back to New York
and reunited.

During the same period, the Progressive movement swept the United States with
a critical goal of ending the prevailing orphanage system. The culmination of
such efforts came with the First White House Conference on the Care of
Dependent Children called by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1909,[33] where it
was declared that the nuclear family represented "the highest and finest product
of civilization” and was best able to serve as primary caretaker for the abandoned
and orphaned.[34] [35] Anti-institutional forces gathered momentum. As late as
1923, only two percent of children without parental care were in adoptive homes,
with the balance in foster arrangements and orphanages. Less than forty years
later, nearly one-third were in an adoptive home.[36]

Nevertheless, the popularity of eugenic ideas in America put up obstacles to the growth of adoption.[37] [38] There
were grave concerns about the genetic quality of illegitimate and indigent children, perhaps best exemplified by the
influential writings of Henry H. Goddard who protested against adopting children of unknown origin, saying,
Now it happens that some people are interested in the welfare and high development of the human race; but
leaving aside those exceptional people, all fathers and mothers are interested in the welfare of their own
families. The dearest thing to the parental heart is to have the children marry well and rear a noble family.
How short-sighted it is then for such a family to take into its midst a child whose pedigree is absolutely
unknown; or, where, if it were partially known, the probabilities are strong that it would show poor and
diseased stock, and that if a marriage should take place between that individual and any member of the family
the offspring would be degenerates.[39]
It took a war and the disgrace of Nazi eugenic policies to alter attitudes. The period 1945 to 1974, the Baby scoop
era, saw rapid growth and acceptance of adoption as a means to build a family.[40] Illegitimate births rose three-fold
after World War II, as sexual mores changed. Simultaneously, the scientific community began to stress the
dominance of nurture over genetics, chipping away at eugenic stigmas.[41] [42] In this environment, adoption became
the obvious solution for both unwed mothers and infertile couples.[43]
Taken together, these trends resulted in a new American model for adoption. Following its Roman predecessor,
Americans severed the rights of the original parents while making adopters the new parents in the eyes of the law.
Two innovations were added: 1) adoption was meant to ensure the "best interests of the child;" the seeds of this idea
can be traced to the first American adoption law in Massachusetts,[16] [23] and 2) adoption became infused with
secrecy, eventually resulting in the sealing of adoption and original birth records by 1945. The origin of the move
toward secrecy began with Charles Loring Brace who introduced it to prevent children from the Orphan Trains from
returning to or being reclaimed by their parents. Brace feared the impact of the parents' poverty, in general, and their
Catholic religion, in particular, on the youth. This tradition of secrecy was carried on by the later Progressive
reformers when drafting of American laws.[44]
The number of adoptions in the United States peaked in 1970.[45] It is uncertain what caused the subsequent decline.
Likely contributing factors in the 1960s and 1970s include a decline in the fertility rate, associated with the
introduction of the pill, the completion of legalization of artificial birth control methods, the introduction of federal
funding to make family planning services available to the young and low income, and the legalization of abortion. In
addition, the years of the late 1960s and early 1970s saw a dramatic change in society's view of illegitimacy and in

the United States remains the leader in its use. hovering between 133.7% 4. family preservation efforts grew[47] so that few children born out of wedlock today are adopted (Refer to Table 1).0% 0. 10 other.764 (2006) Iceland between 20-35 [57] year Ireland 263 (2003) Italy 3. influenced as they were by Western ideas following colonial rule and military occupation.000 (2004) 669.021.3% 7. stepparent). by country) for a number of Western countries .2% 1.000 during the period 2002 to 2006.5% 3.1 per 100 Live Births 10-20 of these were national adoptions of infants.1% 2.[52] Country Adoptions Live Births [53] Australia 270 (2007–2008) England & Wales 4.466(2002) [66] 1.560 (2007) [60] 61.601(2006) [58] 4.4 per 100 Live Births 92 non-family adoptions.[51] Although adoption is today practiced globally. 4. Live Births. The Netherlands passed its law in 1956. 459 international adoptions were also recorded. 174 stepchildren.010 (2006) [64] 1.2% 1. Adoption in the United States still occurs at nearly three times those of its peers although the number of children awaiting adoption has held steady in recent years. 91.725 [68] (2002) ~3 per 100 Live Births The number of adoptions is reported to be constant since 1987. yet it is less common. 35 foster. The rest were international adoptions. and Adoption/Live Birth Ratios are provided in the table below (alphabetical.1 per 100 Live Births Adoptions breakdown: 438 inter-country.9% 1.5% 0.000 to 129.7% 1. West Germany enacted its first laws in 1977.158 (2006) Norway 657 (2006) Sweden 1044(2002) [55] [59] [61] [63] [65] United States approx 127.000 [67] (2001) Adoption/Live Birth Ratio Notes [54] 0.517 (2003) 0. [62] 0. the Asian powers opened their orphanage systems to adoption.[50] Additionally. England and Wales established their first formal adoption law in 1926. Ironically.0% Black Women 1.2 per 100 Live Births Includes known relative adoptions [56] Includes all adoption orders in England and Wales 254.8 per 100 Live Births 0. 171 family adoptions (e.1% 0.545(2006) Table 2: Adoptions.7 per 100 Live Births 0. adoption is far more visible and discussed in society today.0% NA White Women 19.g.6 per 100 Live Births 560. 58.Adoption 5 the legal rights[46] of those born outside of wedlock.[48] Race Before 1973 1973–1981 1982–1988 1989–1995 1996–2002 8.3% All Women Table 1: Percentage of Infants (Born to Never-Married Women) Who Were Relinquished[49] The American model of adoption eventually proliferated globally. Sweden made adoptees full members of the family in 1959. In response. The table below provides a snapshot of Western adoption rates.

the most recent study of experiences of women who adopt suggests they are most likely to be 40–44 years of age.[74] • The practice of closed adoption.[78] A common example of this is a "stepparent adoption". related to. or police stations within a few days of birth. anonymously. biological kins'.[82] Unrelated adoptions may occur through the following mechanisms: • Private domestic adoptions: under this arrangement.). closed adoption may allow the transmittal of non-identifying information such as medical history and religious and ethnic background. These may include wanting to cement a new family following divorce or death of one parent. and six States in the U.[77] How adoptions originate Adoptions can occur either between related family members.4%. and health concerns relating to pregnancy and childbirth.[75] seals all identifying information. Rarely. exchange of information. bringing together prospective adoptive parents and families who want to place a child. where the new partner of a parent may legally adopt a child from the parent's previous relationship.including the U.[69] [69] [70] [71] [72] Open adoption can be an informal arrangement subject to termination by adoptive parents who have sole authority over the child. Tay-Sachs disease) are not passed on.[80] [81] Other reasons people adopt are numerous although not well documented. a practice criticized by some adoptee advocacy organizations as being retrograde and dangerous. states.S. the norm for most of modern history.[73] As of February 2009. closed adoption is seeing renewed influence. as a result of parental death. have impaired fertility. The most recent data from the U. states allowed legally enforceable open adoption contract agreements to be included in the adoption finalization.S. Intra-family adoption can also occur through surrender. 24 U. or when the child cannot otherwise be cared for and a family member agrees to take over. Although there are a range of possible reasons. as a result of safe haven laws passed by some U. currently married. Nevertheless.g.S. In safe-haven states. perhaps. most adoptions occurred within a family. In some jurisdictions.[79] Estimates suggest that 11–24% of Americans who cannot conceive or carry to term attempt to build a family through adoption. • Open adoption allows identifying information to be communicated between adoptive and biological parents and. maintaining it as secret and barring disclosure of the adoptive parents'. but such access is not universal (it is possible in a few jurisdictions . the biological and adoptive parents may enter into a legally-enforceable and binding agreement concerning visitation. One study shows this accounted for 80% of unrelated infant adoptions and half of adoptions through foster care. The New York Foundling Home is among North Infertility is the main reason parents seek to adopt children they are not America's oldest adoption agencies. to ensure that inheritable diseases (e.. to avoid contributing to perceived overpopulation out of the belief that it is more responsible to care for otherwise parent-less children than to reproduce. it is the outgrowth of laws that maintain an adoptee's right to unaltered birth certificates and/or adoption records. infants can be left.K. and adoptees' identities. compassion motivated by religious or philosophical conviction. all parties being residents . and childless. at hospitals. charities and for-profit organizations act as intermediaries.[76] Today. and that the overall rate of ever-married American women who adopt is about 1. Historically. indicates about half of adoptions are currently between related individuals. or other interaction regarding the child. or unrelated individuals. fire departments.S.Adoption 6 Contemporary adoption Forms of adoption Contemporary adoption practices can be open or closed. interaction between kin and the adopted person.

[87] • Embryo adoption: based on the donation of embryos remaining after one couple’s in vitro fertilization treatments have been completed.[85] and between 1995 and 2005. embryos are given to another individual or couple.S. The particular terms of a common-law adoption are defined by each legal jurisdiction. state of California recognizes common law relationships after co-habitation of 2 years. • Common law adoption: this is an adoption which has not been recognized beforehand by the courts. The practice is called "private fostering" in Britain. The U. This includes adoptions that end prior to legal finalization and those that end after that point (in U.S. indicates there is wide variation by country since adoptions from abroad account for less than 15% of its cases.[90] How adoptions can disrupt Disruption refers to the termination of an adoption. the latter cases are referred to as having been dissolved).[88] [89] At the end of a designated term of (voluntary) co-habitation. which came into force on 1 May 1995 and has been ratified by 85 countries as of November 2011.Adoption of the same country. Of the 127.[83] • Foster care adoption: this is a type of domestic adoption where a child is initially placed in public care. in the United States. embryo adoption is governed by property law rather than by the court systems. Alternatively. For example. prospective adoptive parents sometimes avoid intermediaries and connect with women directly.000 children from China.[91] Ad hoc studies.000 Russian children have been adopted in the United States since 1992.[86] The laws of different countries vary in their willingness to allow international adoptions. Private domestic adoption accounts for a significant portion of all adoptions. Americans adopted more than 60. In the United States. the Hague Conference on Private International Law developed the [Hague Adoption Convention]. drafting contracts through a lawyer (these efforts are illegal in some jurisdictions). in contrast to traditional adoption. even though not initially sanctioned by the court.[84] • International adoption: involves the placing of a child for adoption outside that child’s country of birth. the U.[91] 7 . example.S. the adoption is then considered binding. but where a parent. however. This can occur through both public and private agencies. The wide range of values reflects the paucity of information on the subject and demographic factors such as age. performed in the U. In some countries.[83] More than 60.000 or 40% were through the foster care system. followed by the placement of those embryos into the recipient woman’s uterus. Its importance as an avenue for adoption varies by country. it is known that older children are more prone to having their adoptions disrupted. such as Sweden. however. these adoptions account for the majority of cases (see above Table).500 adoptions that occurred in the U. without resort to any formal legal process. nearly 45% of adoptions are estimated to have occurred through private arrangements. the example of the United States is instructive. in some courts of law.S. as witnessed by the public. suggest that between 10-25 percent of adoptions disrupt before they are legally finalized and from 1-10 percent are dissolved after legal finalization. and in an effort to protect those involved from the corruption and exploitation which sometimes accompanies it.[83] about 51. law. The Disruption process is usually initiated by adoptive parents via a court petition and is analogous to divorce proceedings. Recognizing the difficulties and challenges associated with international adoption. Nevertheless.S.. to facilitate pregnancy and childbirth. leaves his or her children with a friend or relative for an extended period of time. for example. It is a legal avenue unique to adoptive parents as disruption/dissolution does not apply to biological kin.

the study speculated that adoptive parents might invest more in adoptees not because they favor them. hours worked. in some respect.[111] Some conclusions about the development of adoptees can be gleaned from newer studies. As a result. are at risk of developing psychiatric problems. with the fact of "being adopted. focusing on "family orchards. step.Adoption Parenting and development of adoptees Parenting Biological ties are the hallmark of parent-child relationships. etc. a pioneer in the professionalization of adoption services and herself an adoptive mother. seem to develop differently than the general population while facing greater risks 8 . (1990. e.[109] [110] Development The consensus among researchers is that adoption affects development throughout life. e.[108] as well as depressive. They include how to respond to stereotypes. but because they are more likely than genetic children to need the help. suggesting that parents who adopt invest more time in their children than other parents and concludes. Earlier literature on the topic supported the conception of such problems. the study indicated that food expenditures in households with mothers of non-biological children (when controlled for income. for example. and its absence has caused concern throughout the history of adoption. Some children from foster care have histories of maltreatment." creating unique responses to significant life-events. and it can be said that adoptees. A study evaluating the level of parental investment indicates strength in adoptive families. by providing further education and financial support. however.[96] Beyond the foundational issues. people are less interested in sustaining the genetic lines of others. who commented on her contemporaries' view of adoptive parenting.."[95] Another recent study found that adoptive families invested more heavily in their adopted children.adoptive parents enrich their children's lives to compensate for the lack of biological ties and the extra challenges of adoption. and foster children.g. physical abuse. the unique questions posed for adoptive parents are varied. such as physical and psychological neglect. 1995) found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants in their sample exhibited disorganized attachment styles. the birth of a child. causing the researchers to speculate that.."[92] The traditional view of adoptive parenting received empirical support from a Princeton University study of 6. and appearance. including dissociative symptoms.g. age.[106] [107] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems.000 adoptive."[100] Adopting older children presents other parenting issues. much of that research has since been deemed flawed due to methodological failures.[103] [104] [105] Studies by Cicchetti et al. and how best to maintain connections with biological kin when in an open adoption.[99] Familiar lessons like "draw your family tree" or "trace your eye color back through your parents and grandparents to see where your genes come from" could be hurtful to children who were adopted and do not know this biological information. "No one who is not willfully deluded would maintain that the experiences of adoption can take the place of the actual bearing and rearing of an own child. step-children. household size.[94] Other studies provide evidence that adoptive relationships can form along other lines. and foster families in the United States and South Africa from 1968–1985.) were significantly less for adoptees. answering questions about heritage. ". though. and sexual abuse. Noting that adoptees seemed to be more likely to experience problems such as drug addiction. Numerous suggestions have been made to substitute new lessons. The traditional concern is expressed by Jessie Taft. anxiety.. both adult adoptees and adoptive parents report being happier with the adoption..[97] One author suggests a common question adoptive parents have is: "Will we love the child even though he/she is not our biological child?"[98] A specific concern for many parents is accommodating an adoptee in the classroom. personality. and acting-out symptoms.[93] This theory is supported in another more qualitative study where in adoptive relationships marked by sameness in likes. researchers often assume that the adoptee population faces heightened risk in terms of psychological development and social relationships. instinctually.[101] [102] Such children are at risk of developing a disorganized attachment.

with international adoptees and female international adoptees. work on adult adoptees has found that the additional risks faced by adoptees are largely confined to adolescence. the adoptee population appeared to be unaffected in terms of their outside relationships. however.[113] Similar mechanisms appear to be at work in the physical development of adoptees. specifically in their school or social abilities. substance use. resembling instead those of their biological parents and to the same extent as peers in non-adoptive families. This suggests that there will always be some children who fare well. studies from the Colorado Adoption Project examined genetic influences on adoptee maturation. regardless of their experiences in early childhood. and impaired social competence after parental divorce.Adoption during adolescence.[116] The adoptee population does.[121] Other researchers also found that prolonged institutionalization does not necessarily lead to emotional problems or character defects in all children. while adult adoptees showed more variability than their non-adopted peers on a range of psychosocial measures.[112] Concerning developmental milestones. Young adult adoptees were shown to be alike with adults from biological families and scored better than adults raised in alternative family types including single parent and step-families. In the case of parental divorce.[114] [115] These differences in development appear to play out in the way young adoptees deal with major life events. adult adoptees exhibited more similarities than differences with adults who had not been adopted. Professor Goldfarb in England concluded that some children adjust well socially and emotionally despite their negative experiences of institutional deprivation in early childhood. Researchers from the University of Minnesota studied adolescents who had been adopted and found that adoptees were twice as likely as non-adopted people to suffer from oppositional defiant disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with an 8% rate in the general population).[117] Suicide risks were also significantly greater than the general population.[118] Nevertheless. Many adopted persons experience difficulty in establishing a sense of identity. seem to be more at risk for certain behavioral issues. in one of the earliest studies conducted. concluding that cognitive abilities of adoptees reflect those of their adoptive parents in early childhood but show little similarity by adolescence. in particular. at highest risk. Danish and American researchers conducting studies on the genetic contribution to body mass index found correlations between an adoptee's weight class and his biological parents' BMI while finding no relationship with the adoptive family environment. While the general population experienced more behavioral problems. about one-half of inter-individual differences were due to individual non-shared influences.[120] There have been many cases of remediation or the reversibility of early trauma. lower school achievement. adoptees have been found to respond differently than children who have not been adopted.[119] Moreover. who are resilient. For example. [122] 9 . Swedish researchers found both international and domestic adoptees undertook suicide at much higher rates than non-adopted peers. Moreover.

Adoption 10 Public perception of adoption In Western culture. Nevertheless. Donaldson Adoption Institute. medical issues. more prone to Actors at the Anne of Green Gables Museum on Prince Edward Island. however."[125] The majority of people state that their primary source of information about adoption comes from friends and family and the news media. and unselfish. alcohol problems. Nearly one-third of the surveyed population believed adoptees are less-well adjusted. later. and predisposed to drug and Canada. with nearly 90% describing them as.[130] Negative perceptions result in the belief that such children are so troubled it would be impossible to adopt them and create "normal" families. Additionally. In contrast. This idea places alternative family forms outside the norm. 72% indicated receiving positive impressions."[132] . Some adoption blogs.[129] The stigmas associated with adoption are amplified for children in foster care. research indicates. along with doubts concerning the strength of their family bonds. the same study indicated adoptive parents were viewed favorably. Since its first publication in 1908.[123] [124] The most recent adoption attitudes survey completed by the Evan Donaldson Institute provides further evidence of this stigma. 40-45% thought and how the Cuthberts took her in. has been widely popular in the adoptees were more likely to have behavior English-speaking world and. advantaged. still substantial criticism of the media's adoption coverage. the dominant conception of family revolves around a heterosexual couple with biological offspring. disparaging views of adoptive families exist. criticized Meet the Robinsons for using outdated orphanage imagery[127] [128] as did advocacy non-profit The Evan B. Japan. "lucky.[131] A 2004 report from the Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care has shown that the number of children waiting in foster care doubled since the 1980s and now remains steady at about a half-million a year. the story of the orphaned Anne. most people report the media provides them a favorable view of adoption.[126] There is. problems and trouble at school. As a consequence. for example.

.[141] By 1979. birthparents. 2008.[133] Beginning in the 1970s efforts to improve adoption became associated with opening records and encouraging family preservation. as reform. placements of children.[134] [135] create confusion regarding genealogy. These ideas arose from suggestions that the secrecy inherent in modern adoption may influence the process of forming an identity." [142] Later years saw the evolution of more militant organizations such as Bastard Nation (founded in 1996). if possible. Delaware. allowing those separated by adoption to locate one another. calling sealed records "an affront to human dignity. an Open Records emblem used in adoption-institution that is among the country's oldest and one that had pioneered Adoptee Rights Protest. and Maine. this was clearly illustrated by the shift in policy of the New York Foundling Home. Tennessee.[139] While in 1975. artist: D. Canada and Mexico gathered in Washington. In the United States. groups such as Origins USA (founded in 1997) started to actively speak about family preservation and the rights of mothers. Oregon. mothers and children should be kept together." reflecting the belief that children would be better served by staying in their own families and communities.".[140] and Lee Campbell and other birthmothers established CUB Concerned United Birthparents. England and Wales opened records on moral grounds.[143] [144] Simultaneously. a striking shift in policy that remains in force today. Martin. "Primal wound" is described as the "devastation which the infant feels because of separation from its birth mother. In 1975. Jean Paton founded Orphan Voyage in 1954.[138] Open records: Movements to unseal adoption records for adopted citizen proliferated along with increased acceptance of illegitimacy.Adoption Reform and reunion trends Adoption practices have significantly changed over the course of the last century. in some way. New sealed records.. representatives of 32 organizations from 33 states.[145] The intellectual tone of these recent reform movements was influenced by the publishing of The Primal Wound by Nancy Verrier. New Hampshire.[136] and provide little in the way of medical history. adoptive parents and adoptee at the adoptee's age of majority or earlier if all members of the triad agree. Florence Fisher the Adoptees' Liberty Movement Association (ALMA) in 1971.. DC to establish the American Adoption Congress (AAC) passing a unanimous resolution: "Open Records complete with all identifying information for all members of the adoption triad. "to prevent Orleans. the International Soundex Reunion Registry (ISRR).[137] In America. It is the deep and consequential feeling of abandonment which the baby adoptee feels after the adoption and which may continue for the rest of his life. Emma May Vilardi created the first mutual-consent registry."[134] 11 . It established three new principles including. Similar ideas were taking hold globally with grass-roots organizations like Parent Finders in Canada and Jigsaw in Australia. with each new movement labeled. social-welfare agencies began to emphasize that. Family preservation: As concerns over illegitimacy began to decline in the early 1970s. groups that helped overturn sealed records in Alabama.

some indication of the level of search interest by adoptees can be gleaned from the case of England and Wales which opened adoptees' birth records in 1975.[152] The book "Adoption Detective: Memoir of an Adopted Child" by Judith and Martin Land provides provides insight into the mind of an adoptee from childhood through to adulthood and the emotions invoked when reunification with their birth mothers is desired.[148] It appears the desire for reunion is linked to the adoptee's interaction with and acceptance within the community. 3) together. these factors engender. 90% responded that reunion was a beneficial experience. Writer Lesley Lathrop (left).[146] In part.[149] Externally-focused theories. One paper summarizes the research. however. suggest that reunion is a way for adoptees to overcome social stigma. It is speculated by adoption researchers. most reunion results appear to be positive.[150] Some adoptees reject the idea of reunion. First proposed by Goffman. The externally-focused rationale for reunion suggests adoptees may be well adjusted and happy within their adoptive families. including medical information. impairing their ability to present a consistent identity. The UK Office for National Statistics has projected that 33% of all adoptees would eventually request a copy of their original birth records. and relinquishment.[147] The research literature states adoptees give four reasons for desiring reunion: 1) they wish for a more complete genealogy. The projection is known to underestimate the true search rate. . and 4) they have a need for a detailed biological background. since many adoptees of the era have access to get their information by other means. studies show significant variation. and 4) these adoptees react by searching for a blood tie that reinforces their membership in the community. This does not. the theory has four parts: 1) adoptees perceive the absence of biological ties as distinguishing their adoptive family from others. 2) this understanding is strengthened by experiences where non-adoptees suggest adoptive ties are weaker than blood ties. in contrast. though. exceeding original forecasts made in 1975 when it was believed that only a small fraction of the adoptee population would request their records. In the largest study to date (based on the responses of 1. Internally-focused theories suggest some adoptees possess ambiguities in their sense of self. birth. the problem stems from the small adoptee population which makes random surveying difficult. stating.007 adoptees and relinquishing parents). reunions can bring a variety of issues for adoptees and parents. Reunion helps resolve the lack of self-knowledge. however. It is unclear. a sense of social exclusion. imply ongoing relationships were formed between adoptee and parent nor that this was the goal. that the reasons given are incomplete: although such information could be communicated by a third-party. what differentiates adoptees who search from those who do not.Adoption 12 Reunion Estimates for the extent of search behavior by adoptees have proven elusive. found they expressed a need to actually meet biological relations. in some adoptees. "…attempts to draw distinctions between the searcher and non-searcher are no more conclusive or generalizable than attempts to substantiate…differences between adoptees and nonadoptees. 2) they are curious about events leading to their conception. if not impossible. Nevertheless. who sought reunion. interviews with adoptees. but will search as an attempt to resolve experiences of social stigma."[151] In sum. an adoptee. 3) they hope to pass on information to their children. however. at reunion Nevertheless.

In German occupied Poland. which allows the tribe and family of a Native American child to be involved in adoption decisions. These practices have become significant social and political issues in recent years. Along with the change in times and social attitudes came additional examination of the language used in adoption. Adoption terminology The language of adoption is changing and evolving. This controversy illustrates the problems in adoption.000 Polish children with purportedly Aryan traits were removed from their families and given to German or Austrian couples. psychological or physical) that existed prior to the legal adoption often continue past this point or endure in some form despite long periods of separation. with preference being given to adoption within the child's tribe. The United States. as detailed in The Girls Who Went Away.Adoption Controversial adoption practices Reform and family preservation efforts have also been strongly associated with the perceived mis-use of adoption. for example. parents' rights have been terminated when their ethnic or socio-economic group has been deemed unfit by society. and overall lack of choice. as adoption search and support organizations developed. and support groups formed like CUB (Concerned United Birthparents). it is estimated that 200.[159] This influenced Pat Johnston's "Positive Adoption Language" (PAL) and "Respectful Adoption Language" (RAL). As books like Adoption Triangle by Sorosky. may simultaneously cause offense or insult to others. as well as the fact that coining new words and phrases to describe ancient social practices will not necessarily alter the feelings and experiences of those affected by them. Proponents 13 . a period called the Baby scoop era. there were challenges to the language in common use at the time. but instead describe scenarios of powerlessness.[161] [162] It also reflects the point of view that the term "birth mother" is derogatory in implying that the woman has ceased being a mother after the physical act of giving birth. and since the 1970s has been a controversial issue tied closely to adoption reform efforts. now has the 1978 Indian Child Welfare Act. lack of resources. a major shift from natural parent to birthparent [156] [157] occurred. In 1979.[158] which was the basis for her later work "Constructive Adoption Terminology". The controversy arises over the use of terms which. Honest Adoption Language (HAL) "Honest Adoption Language" refers to a set of terms that proponents say reflect the point of view that: (1) family relationships (social. Forced adoption based on ethnicity occurred during World War II. Social workers and other professionals in the field of adoption began changing terms of use to reflect what was being expressed by the parties involved. while designed to be more appealing or less offensive to some persons affected by adoption. These kinds of recommendations were an attempt to encourage people to be more aware of their terminology. Two of the contrasting sets of terms are commonly referred to as positive adoption language (PAL) (sometimes called respectful adoption language (RAL)). "placing" (to replace the term "surrender").[160] The terms contained in "Positive Adoption Language" include the terms "birth mother" (to replace the terms "natural mother" and "real mother"). and many cases the policies have changed. In some cases.000 returned to their families after the war. Positive Adoptive Language (PAL) In the 1970s. and that (2) mothers who have "voluntarily surrendered" children to adoption (as opposed to involuntary terminations through court-authorized child-welfare proceedings) seldom view it as a choice that was freely made.[154] The Stolen Generation of Aboriginal people in Australia were affected by similar policies. and honest adoption language (HAL). Marietta Spencer wrote "The Terminology of Adoption" for The Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). as were Native Americans in the United States and First Nations of Canada.[153] and only 25. adoption practices that involved coercion were directed against unwed mothers. Pannor and Baran were published.[155] From the 1950s through the 1970s. emotional.

adopted children must keep their original surname to be identified with blood relations. Stereotyping is mostly implicit. Language at its best honors the self-referencing choices of the persons involved. or furthering division. these cultural distinctions have led to making adoption illegal. Blue-Ribbon Babies and Labors of Love: Race. unconscious. Language evolves with social attitudes and experiences. and Gender in U.Adoption of HAL liken this to the mother being treated as a "breeder" or "incubator". for example. In addressing the linguistic problem of naming. 185 pages. can be used in negative ways by detractors. A common problem is that terms chosen by an identity group. Uses interviews with 131 adoptive parents in a study of how adopters' attitudes uphold. not all cultures have the concept of adoption.S. the described person's individual merits become apparent. and facilitated by the availability of pejorative labels and terms. In Egypt. All terminology can be used to demean or diminish.[165] [166] Cultural variations Attitudes and laws regarding adoption vary greatly. and freedoms of certain people are restricted because they are reduced to stereotypes. Rendering the labels and terms socially unacceptable. (2000). Edna Andrews says that using "inclusive" and "neutral" language is based upon the concept that "language represents thought. This compromises the integrity of the language and turns what was intended to be positive into negative or vice-versa. uplift or embrace. 3." and "surrendered for adoption. and there are persons who find them lacking. utilizes inclusive terms and phrases. created to support an agenda. as acceptable descriptors of themselves. or subvert prevailing ideologies of kinship in the United States." Inclusive Adoption Language There are supporters of various lists. thus often devaluing acceptability."[164] Advocates of inclusive language defend it as inoffensive-language usage whose goal is multi-fold: 1. Whereas all cultures make arrangements whereby children whose own parents are unavailable to rear them can be brought up by others. A. traditionally. New York: Basic Books." "first mother. observe hijab (the covering of women in the presence of non-family) in their adoptive households. meaning and use. that is treating unrelated children as equivalent to biological children of the adoptive parents. and is sensitive to the feelings of the primary parties.[167] and. 4. The rights. developed over many decades. Adoption Nation: How the Adoption Revolution Is Transforming America. opportunities. Class. Adoption Practice (University of Texas Press. 14 . including "natural mother. 2010). Under Islamic Law. and may even control thought. people then must consciously think about how they describe someone unlike themselves. 2. rather than his or her stereotype.[163] Terms included in HAL include terms that were used before PAL.[168] Further reading • Christine Ward Gailey. accommodate. When labeling is a conscious activity. • Pertman.

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Mosher and Christine A. privatefostering. & E. Department of Health and Human Services. [108] Carlson. org/ galleries/ default-file/ Feb07ASRAdoption. Department of History. Cummings (Eds). L. In J. NY: Guilford Press [105] Main. 520-554). Adoption History Project. 4. html William D. Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory. [83] US Child Welfare Information Gateway: How Many Children Were Adopted in 2000 and 2001? (http:/ / www. Lin. gov/ pubs/ s_disrup. University of Oregon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press [106] Carlson. K. pdf U. com/ books?id=cTLomwSIaHkC& pg=PA16& lpg=PA16). Child Development 69. acf.95. Page 4. April 3. D. & Hesse. [97] A. (1988). 2004 [98] Michaels. Joseph Goldstein. (1999) Attachment disorganization: unresolved loss. Child Maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. pdf). E. pdf U. (2009). Evolution and Human Behavior 30 (3): 184–189. gov/ programs/ cb/ stats_research/ afcars/ trends. Fertility: Continuity and Change in the National Survey of Family Growth. American Sociological Review. Attachment in the Preschool Years (pp. gov/ nchs/ data/ series/ sr_23/ sr23_027. 1107-1128 [109] Lyons-Ruth. [82] http:/ / www.. page 19.Geraldine Van Bueren. org/ galleries/ default-file/ Feb07ASRAdoption. L. 2005 [101] Gauthier. In M. Greenberg. org/ web/ 20070221194844/ http:/ / www. G. Adaptive Parents: Evaluating the Importance of Biological Ties for Parental Investment" (http:/ / web. web: Books-Google-81MC (http:/ / books.M.2009. and Intervention (pp161-184).. Greenberg. org/ pubs/ journals/ 2800496. p. htm). [93] Case. Recall of childhood neglect and physical abuse as differential predictors of current psychological functioning.. princeton. (1990) Parents’ Unresolved Traumatic Experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status. L. Shaver (Eds. K. Cicchetti. Raynor. Attachment relationships among children with aggressive behavior problems: The role of disorganized early attachment patterns. childwelfare. cfm) [84] http:/ / www. asanet.. J. [90] Somebody Else's Child (http:/ / www.S. & Arnoff.S. Barnett. The Adopted Child Comes of Age. & Braunwald.01. 135-157).. Child Welfare Information Gateway. A. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. guttmacher. Center for Disease Control. In M. hhs. December 2004 [92] E. [86] " Adopted Chinese orphans often have special needs (http:/ / www. html Adoption: An American Revolution [100] http:/ / www. and Florence Rondell..S.. htm US Child Welfare Information Gateway: Trends in Foster Care and Adoption [85] " Who Will Adopt the Orphans? (http:/ / www. & Repacholi.. boston. A prospective longitudinal study of disorganized/disoriented attachment. html Robin Hillborn.T.T. E. F. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. . archive. net/ ad/ adteach. 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Are Associations Between Parental Divorce and Children’s Adjustment Genetically Mediated?. Marriage & Family Review. pg. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 314/ 4/ 193) Volume 314:193-198. 19. 70 18 .” [142] TRIADOPTION Archives TRIADOPTION Archives (http:/ / www. April 12. Lise M. “The Meaning of the Search” in Brodzinsky and Schechter. D. org/ docs/ index. Journal of Marriage and the Family 57 August 1995: pg. 49. adoptioninstitute. 105-119). March. uoregon. and cognitive development from 1-16 years: A parent-offspring adoption study. vol. inist. International journal of obesity (http:/ / cat. 40-45 [116] Thomas O’Conner. V. 105-106 [139] Adoption History Project Topic Confidentiality (http:/ / darkwing. “The Meaning of the Search” in Brodzinsky and Schechter. An adoption study of human obesity. Psychopathology of Childhood (pp. and Social Stigma: Bias in Community Attitudes. June 2002. jstor. Topic Illegtimacy (http:/ / darkwing. com/ printedition/ news/ 20080213/ 1a_adoptionxx. L. [122] Pringel. org/ media/ 20070409_press_disney. W. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ illegitimacy.W. nurture. 2007 (http:/ / www. UK Office for National Statistics.New Hampshire (http:/ / www. Rushbrooke. Hoch & J.. 67 [147] R. prolonged separation and emotional adjustment. 654. 653-660. htm) [138] Martin Gottlieb. Zubin (Eds. Journal of Marriage and the Family 57 August 1995: pg. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ confidentiality. 37-48 [123] http:/ / www. [[Family Relations (journal)|Family Relations (http:/ / www. jstor. no1. org/ pss/ 353920 K. Pages 199 – 223 [120] L. aspx?pageId=24588 Accessed: 27th April 2008. Number 2 / February. fr/ ?aModele=afficheN& cpsidt=3406929). American Psychological Association (http:/ / www. Emotional and intellectual consequences of psychologic deprivation in infancy: A Re-evaluation. uoregon. pdf) 2000. triadoption. 2001. Vol. Arline. states unsealing records (http:/ / www. Psychological Science. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology (http:/ / www. April 7. Influences of genes and shared family environment on adult body mass index assessed in an adoption study by a comprehensive path model. 1997. org/ pss/ 585836)]] 2000. Population Trends (104). apa. G. Psychology of Adoption. art. & DeFries. March. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. jstor.. pp 26-34. and Practice.P. pdf) [143] USA Today. page 20. htm) [140] ISRR . html The Evan B.. jstor. 1540-9635. 2006 [119] William Feigelman. org/ Default. com/ 2007/ 04/ usa-today-article-on-meet-robinsons. 2003: Does Adoption Affect the Adolescent Eriksonian Task of Identity Formation? Available: http:/ / www. June 2002. memberlodge. 2009 [118] Annika von Borczyskowski. Population Trends (104). Psychiatric Times (http:/ / www. Adoption. [146] Schechter and Bertocci. 2007 press release (http:/ / www. brown. “The stranger who bore me: Adoptee-birth mother interactions. Evan Donaldson Institute. 653-660 [149] http:/ / digitalcommons. 8. 36 No. (1955). The proportion of adoptees who have received their birth records in England and Wales. M. net/ history. NY: Grune & Stratton. The Foundling. Summer 2001. org/ journals/ features/ dev364429. htm) [135] Miles. blogspot. Donaldson Adoption Institute. (1997). Evan Donaldson Institute. isrr.. org/ pss/ 353920 K. April 9. McMaster University. Comparisons with Persons Raised in Conventional Families. 442-447. J.S. edu/ ~jadrian/ docs/ papers/ old/ 20030212%20Miles%20-%20Adoptive%20Identity. 1995. org/ activism/ local/ nh/ ) [145] Origins USA position papers Available: http:/ / originsusa. htm Why Adoptive Parents Support Open Records for Adult Adoptees [137] Adoption History Project (University of Oregon). com/ Misc/ AAC 1979 Resolution.ca/etd/213/ As if born to: The social construction of a deficit identity position for adopted persons (D.wlu. Summer 2001.." [126] National Adoption Attitudes Survey. com/ display/ article/ 10168/ 1367897). org/ pss/ 585831 Katrina Wegar. mayasmom. htm). Donaldson Adoption Institute [132] http:/ / pewfostercare. adoptioninstitute. org/ policy/ polface. com/ verrier. jstor. org/ activism/ support. php) [130] National Adoption Attitudes Survey. Issue 3. springerlink. Fulker. page 20 and 38. Adoption Research. [151] Schechter and Bertocci. Volume 25. 2/13/2008. dissertation) Wilfrid Laurier University [113] Plomin.C.Adoption [112] Beauchesne.). nejm. (1997). com/ content/ y73646n507593n76/ ) Volume 41. pg. pg. pages 26-34 [148] http:/ / www. Family Ideology.” [124] http:/ / www.4 429-437 [117] Kaplan.” Dissertation. [125] National Adoption Attitudes Survey. bastards. In P. html) [128] Maya's Mom. As adoptees seek roots. pp. June 2002. 4 (Oct. Rushbrooke. March. Early. January 23. Topic History in Brief (http:/ / darkwing.. usatoday. Adult Adoptees and Their Friends. ca/ dissertations/ AAINN60675/ K. & Bossio. Psychology of Adoption. BASTARD NATION .W. org/ pss/ 353920 K. html) [141] R. R. Vol. Journal of Marriage and the Family 57 August 1995: pg. 407-418 [121] Goldfarb. Corley. January 26. Nature. htm) [134] Book Review: The Primal Wound by Nancy N. bastards. [http://scholars. 1990 [150] http:/ / www.” [144] Bastard Nation. [114] AJ Stunkard. uoregon. Verrier (http:/ / primal-page. March. No. 1986 [115] Vogler. page 47” [127] 3 Generations of Adoption. com/ talk/ a8739/ meet_the_robinsons) [129] The Evan B. pdf Retrieved: 30 Jan. 49. 2008 [136] http:/ / www.” [131] http:/ / www. psychiatrictimes. 2000).” 1990. DiAnne Border. Evan Donaldson Institute. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ adoptionhistbrief. pp..International Soundex Reunion Registry Reunion Registry (http:/ / www. R. The proportion of adoptees who have received their birth records in England and Wales. Suicidal behavior in national and international adult adoptees.” 1990. cs. (1960). 363-370. The New England Journal of Medicine (http:/ / content. 2007 (http:/ / adopteesx3. mcmaster. php?DocID=41 The Pew Commission of Children in Foster Care [133] Adoption History Project (University of Oregon). Family Relations.

trial/ index. "Adoption in Islam. Pannor and Baran were published. nicwa. html?eref=rss_world#cnnSTCText). (1993). Buck. 1996). 2008. perspectivespress. As books like Adoption Triangle by Sorosky. html) by Diane Turski [164] Cultural Sensitivity and Political Correctness: The Linguistic Problem of Naming. "placing" (to replace the term "surrender"). org/ files/ literature/ Adoption in Islam. com/ triadoption/ Misc. April 2004. adoption. html) by Brenda Romanchik [160] Speaking Positively: Using Respectful Adoption Language (http:/ / www. [162] Wells. Language evolves with social attitudes and 19 ." CNN (http:/ / www. com/ pjpal. shtml) Holt International 1997 [167] Sayyid Muhammad Rivzi. [155] National Indian Child Welfare Association: the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) (http:/ / www. Accessed September 15. J. adoption. html)". com/ cms/ s/ 2/ edf71f50-c208-11de-be3a-00144feab49a. holtinternational. as adoption search and support organizations developed. [168] Tim Lister and Mary Rogers. In 1979.[3] which was the basis for her later work "Constructive Adoption Terminology".[5] The terms contained in "Positive Adoption Language" include the terms "birth mother" (to replace the terms "natural mother" and "real mother"). com/ 2009/ WORLD/ meast/ 03/ 23/ egypt. utilizes inclusive terms and phrases. [165] PAL 1992 (http:/ / www. htm) Child Welfare League of American 1980s [159] Adoption Language (http:/ / library. in Jewish Virtual Library (American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise). jewishvirtuallibrary. pdf) OURS 1992 [166] Holt 1997 (http:/ / www. March 23. rpt. and honest adoption language (HAL). Vol. com/ articles/ a-few-words-on-words-in-adoption. Along with the change in times and social attitudes came additional examination of the language used in adoption. there were challenges to the language in common use at the time.” Children and Youth Services Review Vol. a major shift from natural parent to birthparent [1] [2] occurred. The term "natural mother" had been in common use previously. htm) The Adoption History Project [158] Adoption Terminology (http:/ / darkwing. org/ adoption/ language. as well as the fact that coining new words and phrases to describe ancient social practices will not necessarily alter the feelings and experiences of those affected by them. The term "birth mother" was first used in 1956 by Pearl S. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ birthparents. 26 Issue 4. Language of adoption The language of adoption is changing and evolving. Financial Times. 2010. uoregon. org/ Indian_Child_Welfare_Act/ ) [156] Birthparent Legacy Term (http:/ / www. 2009. October 30. [154] Gitta Sereny. org/ jsource/ Holocaust/ children. [153] " Searching for missing relatives in Poland (http:/ / www. by Patricia Irwin Johnston [161] Logan. Lathrop. ft. April 09. edu/ ~adoption/ archive/ CwlaAT. 71. 4 (Winter. [163] "Why Birthmother Means Breeder. Positive Adoption Language In the 1970s. Adoption and Fostering 17 (4): 22–26. Language at its best. This controversy illustrates the problems in adoption. S. jaffari. British Journal of Social Work 26: 609–625. honors the self-referencing choices of the persons involved.[4] This influenced Pat Johnston's "Positive Adoption Language" (PAL) and "Respectful Adoption Language" (RAL). "What do Birtmothers Want?". / Origin of the Term Birthparent. and is sensitive to the feelings of the primary parties. "Birth Mothers and Their Mental Health: Uncharted Territory". pp. pdf) TRIADOPTION® Archives [157] Birth Parents (http:/ / darkwing. Marietta Spencer. and since the 1970s has been a controversial issue tied closely to adoption reform efforts. Edna Andrews.Adoption [152] R. (1996). No. html). while designed to be more appealing or less offensive to some persons affected by adoption. may simultaneously cause offense or insult to others. The controversy arises over the use of terms which. Two of the contrasting sets of terms are commonly referred to as positive adoption language (PAL) (sometimes referred to respectful adoption language (RAL)). Social workers and other professionals in the field of adoption began changing terms of use to reflect what was being expressed by the parties involved. “Openness in adoption: retrospective lessons and prospective choices. adoptivefamilies. wrote "The Terminology of Adoption" for The Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). and support groups formed like CUB (Concerned United Birthparents). uoregon.389-404. American Speech. 2009. pdf)." (http:/ / foundandlostsupport." (http:/ / www. com/ birthmothermeansbreeder. sacredhealing. "Egypt says adoptive moms were human smugglers. cnn. Sullivan and E. "Stolen Children" (http:/ / www. html). com/ pdf/ PositiveLanguage.

. and is not as descriptive. lack of resources. psychological or physical) that existed prior to the legal adoption continue. ("Adopted" becomes a participle rather than an adjective. Example of terms used in Positive Adoption Language Non-preferred: PAL term: Reasons stated for preference: your own child birth child. have evolved and changed some over the years. and so is not a descriptive or accurate term. emotional. Honest adoption language "Honest Adoption Language" refers to a set of terms that reflect the point of view that: (1) family relationships (social. too.[8] This can be evident in English speaking cultures when there is prominent use of negative or inaccurate language describing adoption.e. rather than a past event.[6] [7] The reasons for its use: Some terms like birth parents. adoptive families face adoptism. They feel PAL has become a way to present adoption in the friendliest light possible. give up for adoption place for adoption or make an adoption plan "Give up" implies a lack of value.[9] [10] It also reflects the point of view that the term "birth mother" is derogatory in implying that the woman has ceased being a mother after the physical act of giving birth. but instead describe scenarios of powerlessness.) Others contend that "is adopted" makes adoption sound like an ongoing disability. Some adoptive parents supported this change as they felt using "natural" indicated they were "unnatural". to combat adoptism. there is no choice as the parent's rights were terminated because the parent was deemed to be unfit. Some feel the social work system has negatively compromised the intention of the birth family references and other terms. For others. so that either the initial intent needs to be honored. Although it can be seen as unnatural to conceive and relinquish children. birth father were chosen by those working in adoption reform as terms to replace 'natural' and it took nearly a decade before agencies. courts and laws embraced the change in self-referencing. and overall lack of choice. The reasons against its use: Some birth parents see "positive adoption language" as terminology which glosses over painful facts they face as they go into the indefinite post-adoption period of their lives. The example below is one of the earliest and it should be noted that these lists." For many parents placing a child for adoption is an informed completely voluntary choice. The preferred terms are more emotionally neutral.[11] Terms . The term "natural" in its origin means a family by the natural means of conception and birth and its primal bond which exists by itself since the beginning unless it's severed. your adopted child your child The use of the adjective "adopted" signals that the relationship is qualitatively different from that of parents to birth children. child is adopted child was adopted Some adoptees believe that their adoption is not their identity. birth mother. Proponents of HAL liken this to the mother being treated as a "breeder" or "incubator".Language of adoption 20 experiences. the purpose is to present the adoption of those children in need as natural. a sales and marketing tool. biological or genetic mother/father/parent The use of the term "real" implies that the adoptive family is artificial. many adoptive families choose the use of positive adoption language. surrender for adoption placed or placed for adoption The use of the adjective "surrendered" implies "giving up. i. So. social workers. but is an event that happened to them. In some cultures. natural parent birth parent or first parent The use of the term "natural" implies that the adoptive family is unnatural. biological child Saying a birth child is your own child or one of your own children implies that an adopted child is not. in order to obtain even more infants for adoption. and that (2) mothers who have "voluntarily surrendered" children to adoption (as opposed to involuntary terminations through court-authorized child-welfare proceedings) seldom view it as a choice that was freely made. or the terminology must again change. real mother/father/parent birth.

"Mother" and "surrendered for adoption. Some adoptive parents feel disrespected by language like 'natural parent' because it can indicate they are unnatural." The reasons for its use: In most cultures. and having no relationship or connection with his or her natural mother past the event of having been born. Some people choose to use "Honest Adoption Language" (HAL) because it reflects the original terminology. HAL reflects the opinion that there are two sets of parents in the adopted person's life: adoptive parents and natural parents. Those who adopted a child were thereafter termed its "guardians. HAL acknowledges that past adoption practice facilitated the taking of children for adoption. ignores the emotional and psychological (and often physical) presence of a second set of parents in the child's life." or "adoptive" parents. HAL does not honor the historical aspects of the early adoption reform movement who requested and worked years to have terminology changed from natural to birth.Language of adoption 21 included in HAL include the original terms that were used before PAL. The reasons against its use: The term "Honest" implies that all other language used in adoption is dishonest. child of one's own HAL views the term "birth child" as being derogatory. implying that the adoptee was a "birth product" produced for the adoption market. They feel this language also reflects continuing connection and does not exclude further contact. In contrast to RAL. "Make a plan" and "place for adoption" are viewed by HAL proponents as being dishonest terms which marginalize or deny the [13] wrenching emotional effect of separation on the mother/child dyad. Some of those directly affected by adoption separation believe these terms more accurately reflect important but hidden and/or ignored realities of adoption. hence [12] the term "surrender." "Surrender" is also the legal term for the mother's signing a Termination of Parental Rights. The use of the word "child" is accurate up until the end of childhood. Many women who have gone through the process and who are separated from their children by adoption believe that social work techniques used to prepare single mothers to sign Termination Of Parental Rights papers closely resembles a psychological war against natural motherhood. It also implies that the mother is a "birth mother" with no connection to her child or interest in her child past this point place for adoption give up for adoption surrender for adoption (have) (are) separated by adoption. limiting a woman's purpose in her child's life to the physical act of reproduction and thus implying that she is a "former mother" or "breeder. After that the continued use of "child" is infantilizing." "foster. Example of Terms used in Honest Adoption Language Non-preferred: HAL Term: Reasons stated for preference: birth mother/father/parent mother or natural mother HAL views term "birth mother" as being derogatory. . "Realistic Plan". adopted child adopted person or person who was adopted The use of the adjective 'adopted' signals that the relationship is qualitatively different from that of parents to other children." HAL terms reflect the point of view that there is a continuing mother-child relationship and/or bond that endures despite separation birth child natural child. the adoption of a child does not change the identities of its mother and father: they continue to be referred to as such. and imply the mother has made a fully informed decision. including "natural mother". often against their mother's expressed wishes. mother/father/parent (when referring solely to the parents who had adopted) adoptive mother/father/parent/adopter Referring to the people who have adopted the child as the mother or father (singular).

and there are persons who find them lacking. 22-26. com/ articles/ a-few-words-on-words-in-adoption. adoptivefamilies. pdf) OURS 1992 [7] Holt 1997 (http:/ / www. org/ v6n1/ buterbaugh. pp. 4 (Winter. 22 . Vol. "Birth Mothers and Their Mental Health: Uncharted Territory". there can be disagreements within the group itself. sacredhealing. References [1] Birthparent Legacy Term (http:/ / www. html) by Brenda Romanchik [5] Speaking Positively: Using Respectful Adoption Language (http:/ / www. No. rather than his or her stereotype. html). Stereotyping is mostly implicit.Language of adoption Inclusive Adoption Language There are supporters of various lists. the described person's individual merits become apparent. by Patricia Irwin Johnston [6] PAL 1992 (http:/ / www. A common problem is that terms chosen by an identity group. 17(4). Edna Andrews. [11] "Why Birthmother Means Breeder. When labeling is a conscious activity. 2. pactadopt. J. To be inclusive requires that no group ascribes to others what they must call themselves. adoption. All terminology can be used to demean or diminish. as acceptable descriptors of themselves. holtinternational. This compromises the integrity of the language and turns what was intended to be positive into negative or vice-versa. people then must consciously think about how they describe someone unlike themselves. developed over many decades. Rendering the labels and terms socially unacceptable. British Journal of Social Work. The rights. opportunities. uoregon. Inclusive adoption language is far more than an aesthetic matter of identity imagery that one embraces or rejects.389-404. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ birthparents. htm) Child Welfare League of American 1980s [4] Adoption Language (http:/ / library. perspectivespress. In this evolving debate about which terms are acceptable in any era. Words and phrases must reflect mutual respect and honor the individual choice. can be then used in negative ways by detractors. created to support an agenda. or furthering division. 609-625. net/ ~judy. it can focus the fundamental issues and ideals of social justice. org/ adoption/ language. html) [9] Logan. Edna Andrews says that using "inclusive" and "neutral" language is based upon the concept that "language represents thought. meaning and use. com/ pjpal. Adoption and Fostering."[14] Advocates of inclusive language defend it as inoffensive-language usage whose goal is multi-fold: 1. "What do Birthmothers Want?". and facilitated by the availability of pejorative labels and terms. 26. html). att. html) by Diane Turski [12] Not By Choice (http:/ / www. Eclectica. and shows respect for difference. 1996). 71. com/ birthmothermeansbreeder. edu/ ~adoption/ archive/ CwlaAT. to exploit and exclude. American Speech. 3. Jul/Aug 2001 [13] "The Trauma of Relinquishment. shtml) Holt International 1997 [8] Adoptism defined (http:/ / www. unconscious. (1996). eclectica." (http:/ / foundandlostsupport. (http:/ / home. com/ pdf/ PositiveLanguage. htm)" by Judy Kelly (1999) [14] Cultural Sensitivity and Political Correctness: The Linguistic Problem of Naming. kelly/ thesis. uplift or embrace. org/ press/ articles/ adoptism. Words have the power to communicate hospitality or hostility. uoregon. 4. pdf) TRIADOPTION® Archives [2] Birth Parents (http:/ / darkwing. com/ triadoption/ Misc. and may even control thought. Language that is truly inclusive affirms the humanity of all the people involved. S. thus often devaluing acceptability. 6(1). htm) The Adoption History Project [3] Adoption Terminology (http:/ / darkwing. as well as affirm and liberate. by Karen Wilson-Buterbaugh. (1993). In addressing the linguistic problem of naming. [10] Wells. Inclusive language honors that each individual has a right to determine for themselves what self-referencing term is comfortable and best reflects their personal identity. / Origin of the Term Birthparent. and freedoms of certain people are restricted because they are reduced to stereotypes.

such as the child's birthday 23 . Although practices vary state by state. Adoption is a lifetime commitment. before she has even done so. would be emotionally difficult for her.[4] If they live close enough to each other. Many birth mothers ask the hospital staff to hand the baby to the adoptive parents first. there are more variations in the years following the birth. both the birth and adoptive parents want to make sure the other is someone they can count on.[8] Often these photos and updates will be sent more than just once a year. it is not uncommon for the birth mother to invite the adoptive mother (or adoptive father too if the birth mother wishes) to come to her doctor appointments. Open adoption has become the norm in most states in the adoption of newborns. then advance to a face-to-face meeting if the meeting by phone went as well as hoped. and short written updates.) If they are geographically distant from each other (as some adoptions are interstate. often only independent adoptions (usually adoptions initiated by an attorney) involved openness. where it is not unusual for the adoptive mother (and the adoptive father. with the birth mother playing no role. and just like marriage. Pre-birth openness The days are long past when a birth mother would go to an adoption agency to give up her child. openness as well. most adoptions start with the birth mother reviewing dozens of photo-resume letters of prospective adoptive parents. Usually. the parental rights of biological parents are terminated. as demonstrated below. but then wish to go “their own way” in life thereafter. The goal for both birth and adoptive parents at this stage is to make sure they are looking at the adoption in the same way. these are adoptive families who have retained that agency or attorney to assist them in the adoption process. but also personal information about each other. This lets the adoptive parent vicariously live through the birth mother regarding the pregnancy. as they are in "closed adoptions" and the adoptive parents become the legal parents.[3] Many birth mothers do more than just meet the adoptive parents once before the birth. so does the birth mother want the same information about the people she is considering as the parents for her child. Getting to know the adoptive family gives her confidence in the placement and the knowledge she can feel secure in the child’s future with the mom and dad (or single parent) she selected. or the child. if that is the birth mother’s wish) to be a labor coach. families. then have that agency take full responsibility in selecting the adoptive family. Most states permit full openness not just regarding identities. yet the parties elect to remain in contact. or complete.[5] Post-birth openness Although pre-birth openness is getting to be routine in newborn adoptions. In open adoption. after the adoption has been completed.Open adoption Open adoption Open adoption is an adoption in which the biological mother or parents and adoptive family know the identity of each other. until the child reaches the age of 18. the first meeting will normally be by phone. But “open” can mean different things to different people. with the birth mother living in a different state from the adoptive parents). or a few.[1] When the birth mother has narrowed down her prospective adoptive parents to one. so they can be the first people to hold their child. and be present for the delivery. now most adoption agencies have some. normally they arrange to meet in person. The same is true at the hospital. and lets the birth mother see the adoptive parent's joy and anticipation of soon becoming a parent.[2] Good adoption agencies and attorneys do this in a pressure-free setting where no one is encouraged to make an immediate decision. The birth mother may feel that future contact with the adoptive parents.[6] Some birth mothers want to get to know the adoptive parents before the birth. both short and long term. While it is true that decades ago.[7] Likely the most common arrangement in open adoptions is for the adoptive parents to commit to sending the birth mother photos of the child (and themselves as a family) each year. Just as the adoptive parents want to learn about the birth mother’s life and health history.

asking themselves how they would feel regarding a particular planned role in the new family.[11] Adoptive parents will want to talk about adoption to their child from a very early age. but which they can't provide. the birth mother has no legal right to make parenting decisions. photos and updates. wanting the best for their baby. The more progressive states may have a rough percentage accordingly: Pre-birth contact. but no post-birth contact: 30% Pre-birth contact. courts will find these agreements enforceable. And adoptive parents should remember. and photos and updates only thereafter: 65% Pre-birth contact. or more common recently. as long as they serve the best interests of the child. "If I were pregnant. and one or two annual face-to-face get-togethers: 5% It is not unheard of for birth mothers to request an open adoption. what would make me feel confident. and giving up my child. birth mothers should be sensitive to the feelings of the adoptive parents. and one person does not just say what they think the other wants to hear. more and more adoptive parents are opening their minds to a more open adoption than they might initially imagined if desired by the birth mother. so to hide it from the child is nonsensical. What is important is that the birth mother and adoptive parents are honest with each other regarding the type of adoption each truly hopes for. photos and updates.) Every adoptive parent wants their child to be proud of their adoption heritage and confident in themselves and their place in a family.[13] A good analysis for adoptive parents to emply in determining what is the right degree of openness is to put themselves in the place of a birth mother and ask. the percentages may look more like this: Pre-birth contact. as everyone the adoptive parents know . In other words. It is not unusual for these agreements to be more like "handshake" agreements. and put themselves in the role of an adoptive parent. and one or two annual face-to-face get-togethers: 25% In more conservative states. Normally. Many adoptive parents view her as someone they'd enjoy staying a part of their lives. thinking that the birth mother’s role is somewhat like that of a distant relative. The saying "It takes a village to raise a child" comes to mind. Some birth and adoptive parents agree they would like to stay in face-to-face contact. This can be via mail. Adoptions are the same. kidney tissue. that birth parent will be the first person they search for.[14] As a practical matter.[15] 24 . caring young women. then disappear from the child and adoptive family's life. although they offer less protection to a birth parent if the adoptive parent's promises were not honored. Even in those states which do not expressly have laws in this area. not to mention she was the person who created their family for them. nor should she want to. friends.[9] A few states permit the birth and adoptive parents to sign a contract of sorts. What is right for one couple will not work for another. et cetera. but she still has love to offer. With this thought in mind. and photos and updates only thereafter: 65% Pre-birth contact.[12] (Even if the adoptive parents were so inclined. these "open adoption agreements" can usually be prepared if the parties desire to formalize the agreement. via email. and feel good about the placement?" Most birth mothers are loving. some states seem to have more open adoptions than others.Open adoption or other significant events. Likewise. It could be once or multiple times annually throughout the child’s life. putting in writing any promises regarding contact after the adoption is finalized. then face a conflict later. but no post-birth contact: 10% Pre-birth contact. It could be just a time or two in the first year. hiding adoption is really not possible. if their child ever has a medical emergency requiring a birth parent’s aid (bone marrow. and sometimes it is done directly.[10] Which type of open adoption is best? Adoption is like marriage. The amount of contact can vary greatly. hiding something the child should see as prideful and joyful. relatives .all know the child joined their family via adoption. Sometimes an intermediary is selected to receive and forward the updates. Some adoptions are more open than just sending photos and updates.neighbors. There are countless ways that a marriage can work. which often only a direct blood relative can provide).

when a child has bonded to a birth parent (perhaps being raised by her or him for an extended time) then a need for an adoptive placement arises. so adoption is the best option.[20] In many cases. If it is not transplanted in special manner. One researcher has referred to these families. Generally speaking. For this purpose. in fact most adoptions in the United States were open until the twentieth century. many states have important putative father registries. The records were sealed. adoption was seen as a social support: young children were adopted out not only to help their parents (by reducing the number of children they had to support) but also to help another family by providing an apprentice. et cetera.[18] [19] By the 1980's. most adoptive parents and biological parents had contact at least during the adoption process. These adoptions were predominantly closed. and "Open Adoption" was created. the potential benefits to a continuing relationship with the birth father can be just as viable as with a birth mother. It's like uprooting a tree. particularly during the BSE (Baby Scoop Era) 1945-1975 rendered "unwed mothers" social outcasts. although some adoption activists see these as a hindrance rather than a help. is not readily given to mothers of adoption separation before Consents are signed.Open adoption Open adoption and birth fathers No disrespect is intended toward birth fathers in only discussing openness with birth mothers above. There are sometimes problems concerning birth mothers and adoption agencies who neglect to make sure the proper paperwork is done on the birth father's part. and often there was no long-term relationship with the birth mother. In a mother driven society after WWII infertile couples were also seen as deviant due to their inability to bear children. The social experiment of taking the children from "unmarried mothers" and "giving them" to adoptive parents became the norm during the BSE. however. that made every attempt to match the child physically to their adoptive families. it is not uncommon in these adoptions for there to be no contact between the child and adoptive parents. given the fact the pregnancies were usually unplanned. It is crucial to remember that no child can be relinquished legally without the birth father's consent. domestic adoption decreased dramatically. The social stigma of unmarried mothers. The adoption industry needed an incentive to entice mothers to surrender their children for adoption. and there are no family members able to take over the parenting role. Although the child may still foster idealized feelings for that failing parent. The fact that 80% of Open Adoptions close early after the birth of a child. and the birth parent. as the social stigma slowly decreased with Abortion Laws and ready access to birth control.[21] [22] 25 . History of openness in adoption A closed adoption is an adoption in which the parties involved do not know the identities of each other. Closed and secret records reassured adoptive parents from the fear of returning biological parents. Adoptions became closed when social pressures mandated that families preserve the myth that they were formed biologically. For those few birth fathers who volunteer to take a helpful and active role in creating the adoption situation for the adopting parents. [16] Open adoption and older children What about the placement of older children? These can take two widely divergent paths. Sometimes a parent raised a child. is that few birth fathers elect to take a role in adoption. serious consequences can follow. but a problem has arisen. He must be given the chance to take full custody. as 'as if' families. biological mothers were told to keep their child a secret. it is usually critical for that child's emotional welfare to maintain ties with the birth parent. and parenting is no longer possible. and adoptive parents told to treat the child "as if born to". The reality. Until the 1930's. [17] Another way older children can be placed for adoption is where the birth parents' rights were terminated by a court due to improper parenting: abuse. Although open adoptions are thought to be a relatively new phenomenon.

[23] In Alabama. access to non-identifying information about their relatives. by Lois Melina and Sharon Kaplan Roszia. 1993 [8] ADOPTION: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO ADOPTING QUICKLY AND SAFELY. adoption101. Approximately 27 states allow biological parents access to non-identifying information.S. race. by Hicks [10] THE OPEN ADOPTION EXPERIENCE. the information may not be released without a court order documenting good cause to release the information. by James Gritter. by Randall Hicks. html [13] ADOPTION WITHOUT FEAR. Routledge Press. religion. Europe and in several provinces in Canada are automatically entitled to their birth certificates and may access their adoption records. Children’s Bureau. Administration on Children. ethnicity. org/ 03_homework/ 02_history/ 07_closed. people adopted in the United Kingdom. upon reaching adulthood. 26 . Most states have instituted procedures by which parties to an adoption may obtain non-identifying and identifying information from an adoption record while still protecting the interests of all parties. by Melina and Roszia [11] RAISING ADOPTED CHILDREN. 2006 [15] ADOPTION: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO ADOPTING QUICKLY AND SAFELY. html). and the existence of biological siblings. New Hampshire. Many states ask biological parents to specify at the time of consent or surrender whether they are willing to have their identity disclosed to the adoptee when he or she is age 18 or 21. Corona Publishing 1991 [5] DEAR BIRTH MOTHER. Harper Paperbacks. com/ open_adoption. Non-identifying information includes the date and place of the adoptee's birth. 1993 [2] http:/ / www. physical description. childwelfare. com [3] http:/ / www. html [4] DEAR BIRTH MOTHER. by Duxbury [18] History of Adoption: Closed Adoption (http:/ / www. "Refiguring Kinship in the Space of Adoption". by Silber and Speedlin [6] adoption101. or other relatives. Identifying information is any data that may lead to the positive identification of an adoptee. there is no requirement to document good cause in order to access their birth certificates. retrieved 2008-05-02 [20] Adamec & Pierce. "Going 'Home': Adoption. gov/ systemwide/ laws_policies/ statutes/ infoaccessap. One Voice.1353/anq. by Melina [12] http:/ / www. Administration for Children and Families. cfm). medical history. SharedJourney.Open adoption Access to birth records In nearly all US states.5. Barbara (Spring 2007). education. U.2007. retrieved 2008-05-02 [19] Closed Adoption (http:/ / www.[28] and Origins USA. 1991 [21] Yngvesson. biological parents. Loss of Bearings. Youth and Families. by Melina and Roszia [17] MAKING ROOM IN OUR HEARTS. Harper Paperbacks.[29] campaign for adoptees' automatic access to birth certificates in other US states.[24] References [1] RAISING ADOPTED CHILDREN. by Hicks [16] THE OPEN ADOPTION EXPERIENCE. Alaska. html). occupation of the biological parents. Social Text .[24] [25] [26] [27] Some groups. .74 (Duke University Press) 21 (1): 7–27 [22] Yngvesson. Nearly all states allow the adoptee. age. In addition. by Lois Melina. Australia. At age 18. National Adoption Center. All states allow an adoptive parents access to nonidentifying information of an adoptee who is still a minor. Anthropological Quarterly (George Washington University Institute for Ethnographic Research) 80 (2): 561–579. by Micky Duxbury. doi:10.com [7] THE OPEN ADOPTION EXPERIENCE. sharedjourney. reason for placing the child for adoption. Perigee Press 2007 [9] ADOPTION: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO ADOPTING QUICKLY AND SAFELY. A person seeking a court order must be able to demonstrate by clear and convincing evidence that there is a compelling reason for disclosure that outweighs maintaining the confidentiality of a party to an adoption. many states give such access to adult siblings. adoptionclubhouse. and Oregon. adoption records are sealed and withheld from public inspection after the adoption is finalized. If consent is not on file. Nearly all states permit the release of identifying information when the person whose information is sought has consented to the release. . Corona Publishing. Delaware. by Kathleen Silber and Phylis Speedlin. such as Bastard Nation. com/ talk_about_adoption. com/ adoption/ closed. Barbara (Spring 2003). Kansas. 1989 [14] MAKING ROOM IN OUR HEARTS.0036 [23] Access to Adoption Records (http:/ / www. adoption101. and the Mythology of Roots". adoption101. Department of Health and Human Services.

The sealed records effectively prevent the adoptee and the biological parents from finding.com/) • Open Adoption Resources and Support (http://www. and the record of the biological parent(s) is kept sealed. but it exists alongside the practice of open adoption.openadopt.) An adoption of an older child who already knows his or her biological parent(s) cannot be made closed or secret.) 27 .AdoptionSmiles. Many adopting parents in non-private adoptions would apply to a local.openadoption.html/) • Open Adoption and Family Services: How to Create a Child-Centered Open Adoption (http://www.openadoption. or even knowing anything about each other (especially in the days before the Internet).canadaadopts. org/open-adoptees/centered-open-adoption/) • Open Adoption. memberlodge. Minnesota was the first U. to allow birth parents to make a new life. and to ensure the sex of the child (a family with five girls and no boys.net/) • www. External links • adoption101. most United States states and Canadian provinces had a similar law. stm Retrieved 29th February 2008 [25] http:/ / www.org/) A web site dedicated to practical advice and cautions in work to achieve an open adoption • (http://www. aspx?pageId=24588 Accessed: 27th April 2008. [29] Origins USA position papers Available: http:/ / originsusa. com/ od/ adoptionrights/ a/ openingrecords. would not likely be adopted by others).[1] Within the next few decades. Background and procedure Historically. as the government has largely taken over some of their previous responsibilities.[2] (The CWLA and many adoption agencies are still in operation today. This formerly was the most traditional and popular type of adoption. (Often.com (http://www. state licensed adoption agency. asexuality. No Secrets Available: http:/ / www.openadoptioninsight. state to pass an adoption confidentiality and sealed records law.e. adoptive parent profiles .com (http://www. for example). • Open Adoption information for those interested in adoption (http://www. about. but with an expanded and somewhat different agenda compared to past decades. org/ html/ articles. birth parent support (http://www. onevoicenosecrets. It still exists today. The agency may be a member of the national Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). html Accessed: 2nd March 2008 [26] http:/ / apostille.com): Adoption Smiles is a free listing service for parents interested in open adoption. the emergence of non-profit organizations and private companies to assist individuals with their sealed records has been effective in helping people who want to connect with biological relatives to do so. unsealedinitiative. post-gazette. [24] http:/ / www. the biological father is not recorded—even on the original birth certificate.shtml) Open adoption information and resources in Canada. In 1917. Closed adoption Closed adoption (also called "confidential" adoption and sometimes "secret" adoption) is the process by where an infant is adopted by another family. However.Open adoption 2006. The reason for sealing records and doing a closed adoption is to protect the adoptee and adoptive parents from disruption by the birth parents and in turn. org/ main/ Accessed: 27th April 2008. us/ news/ bill_looks_to_open_adoption_records.adoptionsmiles. htm Accessed: 2nd March 2008 [28] One Voice.S.openadoption. having concern for a child's welfare (i.com/open_adoption.adoption101. org/ Default.com/canada/open. shtml Accessed: 2nd March 2008 [27] http:/ / adoption. the four primary reasons for married couples to obtain a child via closed adoption have been (in no particular order) infertility.org/) • Openadoption.org (http://www. com/ pg/ 07316/ 833100-84. peaking in the decades of the post-World War II Baby Scoop Era.

a local judge formally and legally approves the adoption. Originally. Directory of Hospitals. especially if it primarily serves unwed mothers. The infant is then issued a second. Yesterday's Children. there have been Search Angels who help adoptees. there has been a grass roots support system in place for those seeking information and reunion with family. Some states have confidential intermediary systems. the laws were reinterpreted or rewritten to seal the information even from the involved parties. or vice versa. Often. many such hospitals were run by the Salvation Army. birthparent and agency). this practice is discouraged. In the USA. the agency transfers the infant from foster care (if used) to the adoptive parents. registration and support. International Soundex Reunion Registry. and that nothing was overlooked at the time of birth. all of these hospitals had closed due to high costs and the reduced need for secrecy. Though they did not exist until late in the 20th century. the UK and Australia there are now various forms of open records giving adoptees and birth family members access to information in their files and on each other. The biological mother has until the final court hearing. siblings and birth families locate their relatives for free. and other online resources that offer search information. in the many years which have passed since the adoptee was born. This would also help ensure that he or she was healthy. as the social stigma of having a child out of wedlock in America had decreased. as it prevents immediate bonding between the mother and child. Georgia. these are persons personally touched by adoption who do not feel anyone should be charged a fee to get information about themselves or their family. Laws are ever changing and in many states of the USA. the states will not give the adoptee the correct location of their birth. This often requires a person to petition the court to view the sealed adoption records. Adoption Agencies and Maternity Homes was published in 1981 and contains information about most US and Canadian facilities. and from one agency to another). In some states. This becomes the adopted person's permanent. and the information given to them can be quite limited (though this has varied somewhat over the years. that the birthparent was sure about relinquishment.Closed adoption Prior to adoption. the biological mother can take back the child months after the placement of the child. both parties must have registered in order for there to be a match. From the very beginning. and into the 1970s with the creation of ALMA. adoptive parent. Also. Virginia) the city and county of the adoptees birth is changed on the amended birth certificate. Nowadays. In these mutual consent registries. today there are many internet sites. The hospital may also be omitted on the amended birth certificate. the infant would often be placed in temporary and state-mandated foster care for a few weeks to several months until the adoption was approved. a birth mother or female adoptee has both moved to another address. Quite often. More and more mothers were either raising their child as a single parent (often with the help of the newly created institution of government welfare. (North Carolina. William Booth. Orphanages. then the intermediary conducts a search similar to that of a private investigator. Most require the adoptee to be at least 18 years old. Adoption Directory [3] Searches and reunions From the early 1950s when Jean Paton began Orphan Voyage. Over time. and named after its founder. and dozens of other local search and reunion organizations. and 28 . Reg Niles. In the post WWII era laws were enacted which prevented both the adoptee and adoptive family to access the original. Once the adoption has been approved. Concerned United Birthparents. Reunion registries were designed so adoptees and their birth parents. amended birth certificate that states the adopting parents are the actual parents. By the mid-1970s. After the infant has spent a few weeks or months with the adoptive parents. siblings or other family members can locate one another at little or no cost. legal birth certificate. This can be either a search for the birth mother at the request of the adoptee. to where the adoptive parents were living at the time the adoption was finalized. both prenatally and postnatally. Triadoption Library. much better medical testing is available. the sealed record laws were meant to keep information private from everyone except the 'parties to the action' (adoptee. Usually. most provinces in Canada. chat rooms.

However. Although rare. can be done afterwards for the father. In 1998. adoptees are able to do this second search for their birth father by themselves (or they try before paying for assistance). DNA tests designed for genealogists have been used by adult adoptees to identify biological relatives. However. but varies by state and agency. In recent years. it is still confidential information to everyone else until the other party agrees otherwise. with a minimum age of 18 for the adoptee. In many cases. and anyone can request from them how-to request this help.) 29 . Upon completion of the search in which the birth mother agrees to be contacted. as well as to help other types of people searching. Some other states which formerly kept closed adoption records sealed permanently by default have since changed to allowing release once the adoptee turns 18. these laws were not made retroactive. the intermediary initiates obtaining the court order and is reimbursed for doing so. Both parties can protect their privacy by giving notice of how to be either contacted or not. 2009. and only in the most extreme and unusual circumstances ask for additional funds. and if the latter. Females have statistically been somewhat more likely than males to search for their birth parents. The adoptive parents' application to an adoption agency remains confidential. If the adoptee is unable to locate (or would prefer to use a third person) to find his or her birth father. A few cases have surfaced in which records were thought to have been sealed but were not—either by mishandling or misunderstanding. they may not circumvent the law regarding the confidentiality process. if desired. with identifying information being released or not. In all adoption searches. the intermediary usually sends the adoptee the official unamended birth certificate obtained from the court. Nevertheless. by law. and are far more likely to search for their adopted children. only future adoptions subsequent to the laws' passage apply. All adoptions subsequent to September 1. (See the previous section. Oregon voters passed Measure 58 which allowed adoptees to unseal their birth records without any court order. Very often. the information would not be given out. However. Ontario. or one additional year if the birth parents initiate the request. Canada opened its sealed records to adoptees and their birth parents. which was quite uncommon prior to the early 1990s. On June 1. it is usually easier than the initial search for the birth mother. 2008 will be "open adoptions"[5] For searches involving a confidential intermediary. While this can make the search difficult and time consuming. should this party indicate that he or she does not want to be contacted. If and when the intermediary is able to contact the birth mother (or adoptee). the reason the infant was put up for adoption in the first place was the birth father's unwillingness to marry or otherwise care for the child. often the same confidential intermediary can be used for an additional fee. For persons who can not afford the fees. The cost for a confidential intermediary and related court fees can be around $500. she is informed that her adopted child (or birth mother) is inquiring about her. In many states. it is uncommon to find both the birth mother and father at the same time. once the court grants this.[4] Legal matters Only a court order allows closed adoption records to be unsealed. Most agencies charge a fixed fee which includes everything. These services typically cost much more.Closed adoption married or remarried resulting in a change of her surname. many birth fathers in this situation have agreed to meet with their grown children decades later. There are also private search companies and investigators who charge fees to do a search for or assist adoptees and birth mothers and fathers locate each other. and typically provide their own intermediary services. however. A separate search. there is usually assistance available from the tax-payer supported state department or the non-profit agency. a marriage certificate may provide the needed clue as to the person's whereabouts. a small number of people have been prosecuted over the years for violating the confidentially of sealed adoption records. but like search organizations and search angels. and the mother might have additional information. have far greater flexibility in regards to releasing information. Since males seldom change their surnames.

they felt it could be inferred that adopted children are always children. Criticism of closed adoption Closed adoption has been increasingly criticized in recent years as being unfair to both the adoptee and his or her birth parents. while "known" adoptees may have the same status as non-family members. and what is covered by the payment to the intermediary. the decision is up to the adoptive parents regarding how to inform the child that he or she has been adopted. some adoptive parents are solely focused on nature (i. The law has since been changed. going unresolved in families with adopted children. still keep this information sealed even after the adoptee and the birth parents agree to know and contact each other. Starting in the mid-1980s.Closed adoption Many states. However. this was not given at the time of adoption. and the father's history is usually little known even to the mother.[6] For many years in New York State. Some people believe that making the identities of a child's parents quite literally a state secret is a gross violation of human rights. The parents may even unfavorably compare their adopted child with a near-perfect. older adults or even senior citizens felt like they were being treated like children. There are also independent and state funded reunion registries that facilitate reuniting family members. and offers other adoption-related support. Should an adoptee subsequently lose his or her unamended birth certificate. and thus second-class citizens subject to discrimination. The probate laws of most states in the U. This is a change from previous decades. the birth mother may have desired the secrecy because of a premarital affair. there is some variation in probate laws from one state to another. and blame the child's heredity. adoptees had to obtain the permission of their adoptive parents (unless deceased) to be included in a state-sponsored reunion registry regardless of the age of the adoptee. the probate court has no obligation to fulfill this type of request. In some cases. Often. Should a birth parent include an "unknown" adoptee in his or her will. adoption agencies do not contain the word "adoption" in their name. prohibit an adoptee from automatically inheriting from his or her birth parents.) Difficulties include the lack of a genetic medical history which could be important in disease prevention. A second court order would be required to have this information unsealed permanently. though. the Dear Abby column Dear Abby [10] and various TV shows and movies. while non-adoptive parents are focused on nurture. The International Soundex Reunion Registry (ISRR) is the oldest and largest. and required to obtain their parents' signature on the form. a court order may be required to obtain another one (even if a photocopy is submitted). On the other hand. Although a non-profit adoption agency (if one is used) might mail newsletters and solicit funds from the parents. There can be additional complications if the birth father has subsequently moved to another state. genetically-related "fantasy" child. In a broader sense. This is well beyond the scope of the initial search. heredity) instead. possibly accompanied by child abuse. [8] The Salvation Army also provides information in helping those who were born or gave birth in its maternity hospitals or homes (see the external links below).[7] Organizations and media Most US states and Canadian provinces have independent non-profit organizations that help adoptees and their birth parents initiate a search. In virtually all cases. if at all. This enables them to blame ordinary problems which all parents face on their child's supposedly "defective" genes. This applies regardless of whether or not the birth father participated in or agreed to the adoption. any son or daughter would be an heir upon his or her father's death—regardless of who his childhood caretakers were. and at what age to do so. Had the adoption not have taken place.S.e. Thus. This results in what could have been an easily resolved problem. (Usually. it has been extremely rare for them to communicate directly with the child. when nothing was ever released without a rarely given or sought court order. Adoptive parents may be less likely to consider the possibility that they are doing something wrong. 30 . Many in the adoption community first learned of search and support resources through newspaper articles Adoption Articles [9]. traditionally.

sacredhealing. More than 100 reunions have occurred as a result of the program. External links • Salvation Army (former Booth Hospitals) [11] • ISRR Reunion Registry [12] • Adoption Archives [13] References [1] [2] [3] [4] Adoption History: Adoption History in Brief (http:/ / darkwing. isrr. and Adoptive Parents ISBN 0-931722-59-4 [7] http:/ / www. html [8] http:/ / www. ca/ newsdetails. many of those being the adoption-related cases. isrr. nacac. htm/ [10] http:/ / www. edu/ ~adoption/ topics/ adoptionhistbrief. org) http:/ / www. org/ policyarticles/ accessbirthrecords. In September 2010. This was under their "Lost Loves" category. nsf/ vw-text-dynamic-arrays/ 88256D3D006526AD88256BD0007B4A98?openDocument [12] http:/ / www. aspx?id=257 [6] The Adoption Triangle: Sealed or Opened Records: How They Affect Adoptees. htm) Child Welfare League of America (http:/ / www. isrr. net [9] http:/ / www. sacredhealing. DNA-Testing-Adviser. the program returned to Lifetime from 4 to 7 pm ET/PT. com/ triadoption/ Reg%20Niles%20AAOMH. com/ triadoption/ articles. Reruns of the program (with a few new segments and updates) were also aired on the Lifetime Television cable network until mid-2006. triadoption. and very briefly on Spike TV in late 2008. net/ [13] http:/ / www. adoptontario. htm/ http:/ / www. salvationarmy. the vast majority of which involved closed adoption.Closed adoption many adoptees and their parents first learned about the possibility of reunion on the NBC (later CBS) television program Unsolved Mysteries hosted by Robert Stack. usw. htm [11] http:/ / www1. Birth Parents. org/ usw/ www_usw. uoregon. net/ articles. com/ 31 . com [5] http:/ / www. cwla.

adoptive family and the child). domestic adoption begins with the decision of the birth parents to place their unborn baby or child with another family.Domestic adoption Domestic adoption Domestic adoption is the placing of a child within the same country as the child’s birth. creating a dedicated website with picture and video uploads of child milestones for birth parent viewing). While all adoption plans are unique.g. but this contact is limited and only non-identifying information is shared.g. addresses. Significantly. private or state-run adoption agency.. or in some states a facilitator). Birth parents may play an active role in the adoption process and may be involved in selecting an adoptive family. the parties may choose to stay connected through the internet in a non-identifying manner (e. they become active participants in the adoption process and may experience greater confidence in their adoption plan. In doing so. a person adopted in the United Kingdom becomes entitled to their birth certificate and may access their adoption records.org/adoptionchoices. birth parents may play an active role in selecting an adoptive family and receive pictures and letter updates through the agency. phone calls.http://www. and may include yearly pictures.allforchildren. http:/ / www.g. This may be achieved through a private agency or the state.html Open adoption See also: Open adoption Open adoption is where the adopted person has access to their file and/or original records.html ===Semi-open adoption Semi open adoption in private adoption involves a degree of contact between the birth and adoptive parents.. There are several ways in which birth and adoptive families connect.allforchildren. In the alternative. Thanks to technology advances. letters. first names and the state/region in which the parties reside may be disclosed. Domestic adoption Adoption is a legal process through which a child who will not be raised by his/her birth parents becomes a full and permanent legal member of another family. Open adoption may also be defined as a type of private adoption.without the assistance of an intermediary. in an open adoption the adopted child may meet his/her birth family and/or a degree of ongoing communication will exist. The parties will determine the nature and extent of contact and this is often communicated and managed directly -.. such as foster care. Privately-arranged adoptions through an attorney or facilitator are illegal in some jurisdictions. Communication is often made through an intermediary.html 32 . In a private adoption. Even after an adoption is finalized. birth parents may have the option of choosing an open. the relationship between the parties will continue. http://www. such as through a personal contact or an adoption professional (e. semi-open. This may be a right available at certain ages . Open adoption involves a degree of ongoing personal contact between the parties to an adoption (the birth parents. such as an adoption agency. In most jurisdictions. visits. For example.org/adoptionchoices. a private attorney. birth parents may request assistance from their adoption professional in choosing an adoptive family. at age 18. allforchildren. Birth parents may be given profiles of waiting adoptive families to look at and choose from. Identifying information is shared between the parties (such as names. or e-mails. or confidential (a/k/a closed) adoption.org/ adoptionchoices. and phone numbers).e.

or court order.Domestic adoption Confidential (a/k/a closed) adoption See also: Closed adoption In some confidential adoptions. External Links www. Familyformation. com/ http://www. It may also occur because the parties involved do not want any contact. no further information is shared between the adoptive parents and the birth parents.org/adoptionchoices.html</ref> In other confidential adoptions no information is shared between the parties involved.allforchildren.org/domestic. Foster care adoption is a legal process through which children in the public. such as when a child is removed form the home by the state because of abuse or neglect. allforchildren. org [2] http:/ / www.org [1] • familyformation.html 33 . foster care system become full and permanent legal members of another family.<refhttp://www. This may occur because of the law in the jurisdiction concerned. After the adoption is legalized. non-identifying information is shared between the parties involved.com [2] References [1] http:/ / www.allforchildren.allforchildren. for children whose welfare and protection requires that they be removed from their own homes (often due to claims of abuse or neglect). Foster Care adoptions Foster care is a form of substitute care. up to the point of placement. such as medical history and social background. usually in a home licensed by a public agency.

gov/ http:/ / www. foster care system entered through no fault of their own.davethomasfoundation. davethomasfoundation.Foster care adoption Foster care adoption Foster care adoption is a type of domestic adoption where the child is initially placed into a foster care system and is subsequently placed for adoption. davethomasfoundation. however:[4] . abandonment and/or abuse. the parents can never return to claim the child. is a not-for-profit organization that supports foster care adoption and provides grants to national and regional adoption organizations for programs to raise awareness and make adoption easier and more affordable.000 children waiting in the U.[1] In some jurisdictions. and there is financial support available for all adoptions. Children may be placed into foster care for a variety of reasons. foster care system waiting for permanent families.36% were unsure or confused about the adoption process. childwelfare. founded by Wendy’s founder Dave Thomas.[2] Trends and Research Nationwide. Supporting Organizations The Dave Thomas Foundation for Adoption.46% mistakenly believed that foster care adoption is prohibitively expensive. once the court finalizes the legal termination of parental rights.S. .45% believed children in foster care have entered the system because of juvenile delinquency. as victims of neglect. org/ Our-Work/ Research External links • A Child is Waiting: A Step-by-Step Guide to Adoption (http://www. .org/wiki/Domestic_adoption 34 . A national survey by Harris Interactive revealed that 48 million Americans considered adoption from foster care in 2007. when in reality there is very little cost to adopt from foster care.[3] Child welfare professionals must recruit potential adoptive families for these children who are waiting for adoption. gov/ adoption/ foster/ http:/ / www.wikipedia. including removal from the home by a governmental agency because of maltreatment.S. there are more than one hundred thousand of children in the U.org/ Free-Adoption-Resources/Adoption-Guides) http://en. . org/ http:/ / www. the vast majority of the 129. adoptive parents are licensed as and technically considered foster parents while the adoption is being finalized. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. hhs. In reality.67% were unnecessarily concerned that biological parents could return to claim the children.

In the United States. the dossier is submitted for review to the appropriate authorities in the child's country. Even when the Hague does not apply. have relatively well-established rules and procedures for international adoptions.S. a home study and USCIS (United States Citizen and Immigration Services)(formerly INS (Immigration and Naturalization Service) approval are requirements. In addition. although some only focus on a single country. for instance. Depending on the country. This is called a "blind" referral. report from the adoptive parents' doctor regarding their health. gender. Malawi. Typically this includes financial information. such as age. while other countries expressly forbid it. This is generally called a referral. prospective adoptive parents must meet the legal adoption requirements of their country of residence and those of the country whose nationality the child holds. In the United States. the parents may have to make more than one trip overseas to complete the legal process. If the child's country is not a participant in the Hague Convention. such as paperwork to make the child a legal citizen of the adopting parents' country or re-adopt them. International Adoption is not the same thing as Transcultural or Interracial adoption. while in others cases.International adoption International adoption International adoption (also referred to as intercountry adoption or transnational adoption) is a type of adoption in which an individual or couple becomes the legal and permanent parents of a child that is a national of a different country. For example. such as China and Korea. government if the child's country is also a participant in the Hague Convention. Again. which does not allow "matching" of a child to (a) prospective parent(s)).[1] Process overview The requirements necessary to begin the process of international adoption can vary depending on the country of the adoptive parent(s). fingerprints. typically the first stage of the process is selecting a licensed adoption agency or agency to work with. while most countries require prospective adoptive parents to first get approval to adopt. Some countries. informing the parents when they may travel to meet the child and sign any additional paperwork required to accept the referral. then the rules of the Hague do not apply. have extended residency requirements for adoptive parents that in effect rule out most international adoptions. requires residency except in special cases. one or more follow up (or "post placement") visits from a social worker may be required — either by the placing agency used by the adoptive parents or by the laws of the country from which the child was adopted. Some countries allow a child to be escorted to the adoptive parents' home country and the adoptive parents are not required to travel to the country of their adopted child. The laws of different countries vary in their willingness to allow international adoptions. There are usually several requirements after this point. do not allow referrals until the prospective parent travels to the country on their first trip. they are matched to an eligible child (except in some countries such as India. The parent is usually sent information about the child. Each agency or attorney works with a different set of countries. health history. a background check. requirements will vary widely from country to country. A travel date is typically included.[2] The Hague is discussed below. Pursuant to the rules of the Hague Convention (an international treaty related to adoption issues) the adoption agency or attorney must be accredited by the U. it can be obtained from a private adoption agency. citizenship is automatically granted to all 35 . a home study review by a social worker. notably many African nations. A dossier is prepared that contains a large amount of information about the prospective adoptive parents required by the child's country. Once complete. Some countries. such as Kazakhstan. and even region to region in large countries such as Russia. and other supporting information. In general. and instead the specific laws of the child and adoptive parents must be followed.[3] After the dossier is reviewed and the prospective parents are approved to adopt. etc. in some the approval can only be received from a state agency. Some countries.

The U. weight. psychological health. a picture of the child. about 60% are boys. Haiti. marital status and history. Colombia (310). Vietnam recently signed a treaty openings its doors for adoption. South Korea is the one country that has a relatively large excess of boys being adopted. Items such as the age of the child.[8] China is the one major country where girls adopted far outnumber boys. and 732 issued in 2006. about 95% of Chinese children adopted are girls.International adoption foreign-born children when at least one adoptive parent is a U. Adoption from Ethiopia has become an increasingly popular option for adoptive families in the US. child's health). State Department) [7] Other less common countries include Bulgaria.[10] 36 . Norway. and ancestry are used by different countries to determine what parents are eligible to adopt from that country. Although Nepal has not closed it doors for adoption.S. in accordance with the Child Citizenship Act of 2000. Each country. the United States government has suspended adoptions from Nepal. [6] Sources of children and adoptive parents The most common countries for international adoption by parents in the United States for 2007 were China (5453). Items such as the age of the adoptive parents. Although India also has a noticeable excess of girls being adopted (68% girls). Russia (2310). Australia. and often each part of the country. and Poland. Each country sets its own rules. due to the Chinese culture's son preference in combination with the official planned birth policy implemented in 1979. Reliability and verifiability of the information is also variable. Canada. Guatemala (4728). Department of State has designated two accrediting entities for organizations providing inter-country adoption services in the United States that work with sending countries that have ratified the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption. as an immigrant or the child's adoption in the parent's home jurisdiction. however. Belarus and Cambodia were also important until government crackdowns on adoptions to weed out abuse in the system cut off the flow. educational level. timelines and requirements surrounding adoption. citizen.S. number of dependent children in the house. Depending on the circumstances of the adoption. some countries allow the child to be escorted to his or her new homeland. and the amount of travel time required in the child's birth country.[4] Policies and requirements Adoption policies for each country vary widely. Guatemala has recently closed its doors. This is a switch from the 1980s. can also vary widely from one country to another. India (416) Liberia (353). These statistics can vary from year to year as each country alters its rules. Kazakhstan (540). Romania. financial status. when most Korean adoptees (about two-thirds) were girls. and Philippines (265). Department of State maintains a list of all accredited international adoption providers. Department of State. and there are also rules that vary within the United States for each state. Vietnam (828) Ukraine (606).S. most other countries are about even. South Korea (939). fees and expenses. [5] The U.g.[9] there were 441 orphans visas issued to Ethiopian children in 2005. They are the Council on Accreditation and the Colorado Department of Health and Human Services. the actual grant of citizenship takes place either upon the child's admission to the U. Ethiopia (1255). also sets its own rules about what type of information will be shared and how it will be shared (e.S. Documents that were presented in support of the abandonment of these children in Nepal have been found to be unreliable and circumstances of alleged abandonment cannot be verified because of obstacle in the investigation of individual cases. sexual orientation.S. Most countries require that a parent travel to bring the child home.(U. Kenya. According to the U.S.

are now temporarily closed to adoptions after the country's ratification of the Hague Convention. as a matter of priority. Hague Conference on Private International Law See also Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption Recognizing some of the difficulties and challenges associated with international adoption. appropriate measures to enable the child to remain in the care of his or her family of origin. the sale of. and in an effort to protect those involved from the corruption and exploitation which sometimes accompanies it. However. creates a rigorous process that few pass. Ireland and the Russian Federation are signatories. Some countries. the sale of. Some countries. have extended residency requirements that in effect rule out most international adoptions. such as Romania are closed to international adoption altogether. this Convention has been ratified by 76 countries. A country like Guatemala. the Hague Conference j on Private International Law developed the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption.International adoption International Adoption Laws A country's willingness to allow international adoption will vary to accommodate that country's laws. of selling natives to foreigners and the shame that most governments feel about not being able to support their own children. while the Hague Convention is an excellent ideal. and instead of helping the children get out of orphanages. The convention causes some governments like India to run incredibly slow. To to prevent the abduction. notably many African nations. expressly forbid it. • to establish a system of co-operation amongst Contracting States to ensure that those safeguards are respected and thereby prevent the abduction. while others. such as China and Vietnam. Most children who grow up in orphanages and become legal adults get very little in the way of education.[11] which came into force on 1 May 1995. The main objectives of the Convention are: • to establish safeguards to ensure that intercountry adoptions take place in the best interests of the child and with respect for his or her fundamental rights as recognized in international law. As of October 2008. have relatively well-established rules and procedures for foreign adopters to follow. or traffic in children each State should take. Others.[15] 37 . as of 2009. working to ensure that adoptions under the Convention will generally be recognized and given effect in other party countries". While the Hague convention is an exemplary step in the right direction by most governments.[14] However. it could sometimes actually hinder many adoptions to families that would normally qualify and causing children to miss opportunities that could have saved and changed their lives. many countries around the world are completely closed off to international adoption because of accusations of exporting children. with the exception of adoptions by close relatives (such as grandparents). getting older and older until they pass the age of adoption and simply wait until they are legal adults. • to establish "formal international and intergovernmental recognition of intercountry adoption. or pregnant and begin the vicious cycle all over again. in implementation it could actuality impede many adoptions. the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for example. but have not ratified. it keeps them inside them.[12] • to secure the recognition in Contracting States of adoptions made in accordance with the Convention. which has had a plethora of child trafficking. or traffic in children. most become unemployed. prostitution and many orphans.[13] The following is a quotation from the convention: Intercountry adoptions shall be made in the best interests of the child and with respect for his or her fundamental rights.

e.. 38 . Asian children who are adopted by Caucasians are of a recognizably different race than their adoptive parents." Often the pretence is that the child's parents are dead when in fact the child's parents are still alive. rather than by adoptive families. babies bought. In some cases the children are stolen from the home. identities of the children switched. While most international adoptions are not tainted by child trafficking.” Clearly. the United States has suspended adoption from certain countries in order to investigate fraud and. in other cases the children are left at orphanages for temporary care or schools for education. wherever possible.[19] Richard Cross. and might be expected to have a harder time fitting in than. the child in order to reach a decision on the child's future. The Declaration makes clear that international adoption should only be considered as a last resort. grow up in the care and under the responsibility of his parents and. Some believe that this is a particular concern for inter-racial adoptions. a Russian child. For example. estimated that most of the 800 adoptions Galindo facilitated were fraudulent--either based on fraudulent paperwork. where needed.” In such a situation. not rushing into adoptions in the wake of disasters. Child laundering is a more precise term that refers to the stealing of children who are then sold to adoptive parents as legitimate "orphans. and was investigated for this sort of corruption. Loss of culture.International adoption UN Declaration Relating to the Welfare of Children The UN declaration Relating to the Welfare of Children emphasises the preference for children being raised by family members. and the number of adoptions has fallen dramatically. This is explained in Article 15 “If a child cannot be placed in a foster or an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared for in the country of origin. In some cases the parents may even sell the children. Article 15 states “Sufficient time and adequate counselling should be given to the child's own parents. One of the debates in international adoption circles has been about the adopted child’s sense of belonging in their new country. was one of the top sources of adopted children.[18] Guatemala changed the country's adoption law after massive international pressure. Receiving nations such as the United States have implemented safeguards to ensure that adopted children are in fact legally available for adoption. and is most certainly against rushed international adoption. in any case. in an atmosphere of affection and of moral and material security.[16] Consequences and problems Negative consequences of international adoption See: List of international adoption scandals Child trafficking or child laundering Child trafficking is a broad term that refers to the buying. family or identity International adoption is a relatively new phenomenon when compared to domestic adoption. These then sell the children using false papers. selling or illegal transportation of children. say. require change from the sending country. Occasionally.. some problems do exist. etc. i. the Declaration also advocates time and patience in the adoptive process. coerced/induced/recruited relinquishments. the UN Declaration is against the idea of international adoption as a whole.[20] [21] The Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption (short title for Convention #33) is one measure intended to further shield international adoption against child trafficking. the lead federal investigator for the prosecution of Lauryn Galindo for visa fraud and money laundering involved in Cambodian adoptions.[17] This trafficking can occur anywhere but is most prominent in poorly regulated countries or where local corruption is a factor. Guatemala. ratified the Hague-convention on intercountry adoptions. “The child shall. Up to the end of 2007. intercountry adoption may be considered as an alternative means of providing the child with a family. the prospective adoptive parents and. as appropriate.

and anthropologists alike. to those who have been internationally adopted and are now beginning to enter research fields focusing on adoption (such as members of the International Adoptee Congress Research Committee).” It has slowly shown positive results. and a closer kinship of adoptees to their birth country.[22] and Russian adoption agencies have become more of a business than a method to provide for children in need. David Eng. children are neglected in orphanages. adoption professionals and community representatives are only beginning to explore these questions with the growing community groups made up of international adoptees (many who have finally now reached maturity). sociologists. Anthropologists. belonging. it is hard to determine any sort of best practice in adoption if only based on conflicting research agendas. All these researchers now have the benefit of drawing on populations of the "first waves" of internationally adopted people who have now reached adulthood. Because of this. Korea holds “cultural training camps” where Korean adoptees are able to explore their birth country for the first time. how should the adoptive parents prepare to deal with a bi-racial family in which the adults are of one race while the child is of another? And how do we reconcile differences between adoptive parents' assumptions about adoption with adoptees' experiences of living with a condition that they were too young to decide on for themselves? As of right now. have very recently started to study the effects of kinship. The origin of the child also plays a role in whether he will adjust to adoption well. For example. the children and adoptive parents are encouraged to explore their origins of birth.[23] Even being of a different race than the adopted family can cause the adoptee to feel like a misfit. they are likely to act out because of the negative treatment they received in their country of origin. children from Russia are in high demand the adoption market in the United States. When these children are adopted. and these training camps are the Korean government’s way of changing the view of these “outcasts” to “overseas Koreans. they show likelihood to develop sleeping problems and ill health can result from their adjustment. Cultural backgrounds can affect adjustment as well. Prior to adoption. and are used as a bartering tool to make money. Is it detrimental to a child’s well-being to keep them from getting to know their birth origin? Or are more problems caused by encouraging and allowing foreign adoptees to explore their birth culture? Also. higher-degree studies and books by authors such as Toby Volkman. It helps if parents allow the child to sleep in their bedroom. When they are adopted and given a room of their own. and even genes and the roles they play in the upbringing of foreign adoptees.International adoption Nowadays. have rarely ever slept in a room by themselves at night. for example. with a variety of competing voices ranging from adoptive parents who not only adopt but also dominate published accounts of the practice. 39 . For example. Questions still remain. Korean adoptees were seen as outcasts. Until recently.” Scholarly accounts in journal articles. or in the bedroom of a sibling. Sara Dorow. an appropriation of valued resources and a constitution of personal ties. culture. Children from orphanages. paradigms and narratives presented by psychologists. Indigo Willing and Tobias Hubinette also suggest that adoption is a contested practice. the price to adopt a child from Russia is very high. a critical mass of scholars. however. More serious consultation with a range of internationally adopted people from various professional and community-work based backgrounds needs to be included before the field of adoption study is more truly representative and rigorously informed. nation. for example. to their birth cultures exploration is almost expected. an excruciating rupture and a generous incorporation. as seen in the rise of Korean and Vietnamese adoptee groups alone. Cultural treatment of children and political situations in countries affect children when they are adopted internationally. As Pauline Turner Strong said in an article in Relative Values: Reconfiguring Kinship Studies: "Adoption across political and cultural borders may simultaneously be an act of violence and an act of love. From their birth parents. often do not receive proper nutrition. At the same time.

it is also suggested that adoption in the immediate aftermath of trauma or upheaval may not be the best option. he finds Juffer's work encouraging.[27] There is also an increased risk.[25] Significant advances have been made in increasing the regulation of International Adoptions. [The Irreducible Needs of Children: What Every Child Must Have to Grow. Copyright 2000 by T. M. there are some limits to her research. In the long term cultural differences were not as problematic as expected. "Long-Term Outcomes in Adoption. [Brodzinsky. the study doesn't include any of the most difficult cases and as someone who works with adopted kids. the children are capable of change and development for the better. although adoption may have initial adverse effects and negative experiences for childhood. Differences in race between a child and their adoptive parents did not matter and children from interracial/international-adoption families performed the same as children adopted into families of the same race/culture. even in the case of interracial adoptions and international adoptions." The Future of Children 3. Nickman says.D. Essentially. Providing safety and emotional support may be better in those situations than immediate relocation to a new adoptive family. This can mean the difference between a life and death. abuse. Berry Brazelton. Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption International Adoption After a Disaster Of special note to international adoption are campaigns for adoptions that occur after disasters such as hurricanes.[24] Reform efforts Due to the appeal and otherwise obvious difficult issues presented by international adoption.International adoption Positive consequences of international adoption In most cases. Some are incredibly painful. 1993] A recent study by Dutch professor Femmi Juffer challenges the notion that adoption hurts a child’s self-esteem in that adopted kids would unconsciously blame themselves for the loss of their birth families and on some level feel that they hadn't been good enough for their families to keep them. Greenspan. that displaced and/or orphaned children may be more vulnerable to exploitation and child trafficking. immediately following a disaster. While adoption may be a way to provide stable. and wars. the reform movement seeks to influence governments to adopt regulations that serve the best interest of the child and meet the interests of both the adoptive and biological family members. or there may be a relative or neighbor who can offer shelter and homes. Still.[28] 40 . and squalor. mentally and physically. Overall. ISBN 0-7382-0516-8] Further. adjusted over time as well. says that while Juffer's study is careful and methodologically sound. and Flourish. In other cases. tsunamis. Learn. loving families for children in need. adopted children are happier and healthier. D. There is often an outpouring of adoption proposals in such cases from foreigners who want to give homes to children left in need. M. Juffer compiled data from 80 studies and concluded that adopted children are not at risk for low self esteem. those thought to be the most difficult and more severely and permanently damaged. who recently did a review of the adoption literature. it may turn out that the parents have survived but were unable to find the children. and even older adopted children. But Steven Nickman of Harvard Medical School.[26] Moving children too quickly into new adoptive homes among strangers may be a mistake because with time. MD. and Stanley I. Every child needs a family. Nickman knows that not all adoptions turn out well. the children may be saved from a life of desperation. than are orphans who are not adopted. international adoption results from a child whose birthparents were unable to parent and provide for them within the environment of a family instead of an institution such as an orphanage.

php) [13] Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (http:/ / www. gov/ family/ adoption/ stats/ stats_451. works (http:/ / works. New York : Maxwell Macmillan International. state. Guatemala adoption investigation. Department of State. adoptionagencychecklist.S. state. php?act=conventions. net/ index_en. ISBN 0-02-927055-3. adoption101.Convention of 29 May 1993 on Protection of Children and Co-operation in respect of Intercountry Adoption (http://www. washingtonpost. com/ international_adoption. Department of State (http:/ / www. September 2. gov/ hague/ agency4. Smolin . html) [21] Full lecture of special agent Richard Cross Richard Cross's full video and audio lecture available here (http:/ / cumberland. Diana and Laura Briggs. html) [11] Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (http:/ / hcch. at (http:/ / www. 1992. [5] http:/ / www. Trafficking. The Adoption Agency Checklist. state. com/ news/ world/ idahs-long-journey-from-malawi-to-burlington/ article1191477/ ) [2] http:/ / www. gov/ family/ adoption/ stats/ stats_451. at (http:/ / works. [24] NPR "Study: Adoption Not Harmful to Child's Self-Esteem" (http:/ / www. php?act=conventions.International adoption References [1] The lessons of Idah's long journey from Malawi to Burlington (http:/ / www. [23] Marre. org/ [16] http:/ / www. ie/ booklets/ Hague_Tsunami_statement. pdf& cid=69) [15] http:/ / www. doc The Adoption Board Further reading • Rosenberg. ie/ booklets/ Adoption_Board_Tsunami_statement. and Stealing Children (http://law.. net/ index_en. nl/ index_en.hcch. . adoptioninstitute. uscis. gov/ portal/ site/ uscis/ menuitem. Works at bepress legal repository. html [3] ADOPTION: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO ADOPTING QUICKLY AND SAFELY.S. org/ templates/ story/ story. Perigee Press 2007 [4] "Adoption: Before Your Child Immigrates to the United States" (http:/ / www. External links • adoption101. html Evan B. gov/ hague/ accreditation/ process. google. html [8] http:/ / eaci. org/ documents/ ga/ res/ 41/ a41r085. htm [17] David Smolin. edu/ cumberland_programs. com/ david_smolin/ ) [18] Washington Post. hcch. php?storyId=16572430) [25] Adopting Internationally.com/books?id=Cu90JIcPIqQC&printsec=frontcover). gov/ ) [10] U. asp?ID=630) [22] Marre. adoption. com/ page794. (http:/ / www. hcch. doc The Adoption Board [28] http:/ / www.com/) • Hague Conference . state. Donaldson Adoption Institute [27] http:/ / www. Elinor B. eb1d4c2a3e5b9ac89243c6a7543f6d1a/ ?vgnextoid=d72e18a1f8b73210VgnVCM100000082ca60aRCRD& vgnextchannel=d72e18a1f8b73210VgnVCM100000082ca60aRCRD). International adoption: global inequalities and the circulation of children. orphans visas from Ethiopia (http:/ / travel.com (http://www. 2011. status& cid=69) [14] Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (http:/ / www.com/expresso/eps/ 749/). theglobeandmail. npr. United States Citizenship and Immigration Services.gov (http:/ / adoption. html) [19] Smolin. 41 . adoption. International adoption: global inequalities and the circulation of children. html [6] http:/ / www. adoptionboard. 2009.bepress.php?act=conventions.adoption101. com/ ) [26] http:/ / www. by Randall Hicks. state. e-vision. php?q=0& q1=& q2=0& q4=0& q5=0& dirfld=01 [7] http:/ / travel. Retrieved February 28. php?act=conventions. state. samford.text&cid=69) • David M. hopeadoption. adoptionboard. bepress. gov/ hague_convention/ overview. The Adoption Life Cycle : the children and their families through the years (http://books. com/ david_smolin/ ) [20] Desiree Smolin and David Kruchkow. Diana and Laura Briggs.com (http:/ / www. text& cid=69) [12] Understanding the Hague Convention-Adoption.Child Laundering: How the Intercountry Adoption System Legitimizes and Incentivizes the Practices of Buying.net/index_en. Why Bad Stories Must Be Told. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 01/ 11/ AR2007011102542. com/ [9] U. New York : Free Press . Toronto : Maxwell Macmillan Canada . un. bepress. org/ publications/ policybriefs. adoptinginternationally. Kidnapping.

and transcultural. 42 . remove any misleading language. 32% are white. Children of Asian and Native American heritage were most easily placed outside of their racial group while those African Americans heritage proved more difficult. Metzenbaum Multiethnic Placement Act was passed. Out of all foster children waiting for adoption 51% are black. The campaign was called "Operation Brown Baby" and its objective was to find adoptive homes even if from a different race.Interracial adoption Interracial adoption Interracial adoption (also referred to as transracial adoption) refers to the act of placing a child of one racial or ethnic group with adoptive parents of another racial or ethnic group. and demand that discrimination would not be tolerated. Then during the civil rights movement. 1% are American Indian.000 (18 percent) contained members of different races. international. or national origin of the child or adoptive/foster parent."[2] History Before World War II it was very rare for white couples to adopt a child of a different race and every effort was made in order to match a child with the skin color and religion of the adoptive family.) It was then that the National Association of Black Social Workers condemned interracial adoption citing that adoptees were at risk for developing a poor racial identity due to lack of contact with role models of the same race. interracial adoptions in the United States increased dramatically and the numbers more than tripled from 733 cases in 1968 to 2. It prohibits an agency that receives Federal assistance and is involved in foster care and adoptive placements from delaying or denying the placement of a child based on race. The most recent estimate of interracial adoption was performed in 1987 by the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and it found that 1% of white women adopt black children. Statistics Based on the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS). (There are now about 6. Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) show that adoption of an unrelated child was most common among childless white women and those with higher levels of income and education. 11% are Hispanic. 1% are Asian/Pacific Islander. in 1996 it was amended with the Interethnic Adoption Provisions. The purpose of these revisions was to strengthen compliance and enforcement of the procedures.7 million households with adopted children. about 308. color.500 cases a year. and 2% of women of other races adopt white children (estimates include foreign-born). 64 percent of biological children" and "Of the 1. not Hispanic children made up the majority of all categories of children of householders under 18: about 58 percent of adopted children. and African American heritage. These provisions forbid agencies from delaying or denying the placement of a child solely on the basis of race and national origin. In the 1990s the placement of black children into non-black homes virtually came to a complete stop. and 5% are unknown/unable to determine. Interracial adoption is not the same thing as transcultural or international adoption though in some circumstances an adoption may be interracial.[1] The US Census 2000 found that "White (and no other race). 5% of white women adopt children of other races. Then in 1944 the Boys and Girls Aid Society took an interest in the increasing number of minority children waiting to be adopted which focused on children from Asian American. the fiscal year of 1998 showed that approximately 64% of children waiting in foster care are of minority background. Native American. Law In 1994 the Howard M.574 cases in 1971. Then.

43 .Interracial adoption Another important law regarding interracial adoptions was the Adoption and Safe Families Act that was implemented in 1997. who appear unmistakably different from whites. Academic research Adolescent adjustment One study found that interracial adoptees fare sometimes better. sometimes worse. did negatively impact adjustment outcomes. These measures investigated indices of academic. The purpose of this law is to reduce the time that a child spends in foster care by implementing a two-year limit and therefore hopefully moving a child closer to permanent adoption. one study focused on Korean and Chinese children adopted by families in the United States. interracial adoptees had significantly higher grades and significantly higher academic expectations but marginally more distant father relationships and higher levels of psychosomatic symptoms than their same-race adopted counterparts. Specifically. Interracial adoptive parents living in predominantly white communities tended to have adoptees that experienced more discomfort about their appearance than those who lived in integrated settings. experiences of discrimination generated feelings of appearance discomfort. Particularly. psychological. evidence also showed that extra-family forces. Also. On the other hand. Asian adolescents adopted by white parents had both the highest grades and the highest levels of psychosomatic symptoms. many Latino children with European physical features can safely escape such expressions of racism. Cultural identity Research has focused on the formation of cultural identity by the children adopted. Appearance Discomfort Another reported that reported adjustment problems among their children at approximately the same levels as were reported by the parents of intraracially adopted whites. for example societal racism. The purpose of this act was to reduce the instability and abuse problems in the foster care system. whereas black adolescents adopted by black parents reported the highest levels of depression. Interviews discovered that a high degree of involvement by children in Korean cultural activities was positively associated with scores measuring the strength of the children's Korean identity as well as with ease of communication with their parents about their adoptions. Critics argue that it also takes the emphasis off of trying to keep children with their biological parents. familial. Many Children find that they are so adapted to their parents' and family's culture that they start to forget their own. The research suggested that black and Asian children. For example. Yet. One of this study's most interesting findings showed that interracial adoptive parents' decisions on where to live had a substantial impact upon their children's adjustments. Apparently. black adoptees reported higher levels of self-worth than non-black adoptees. but overall about the same as their same-race adopted counterparts across the 12 adjustment measures investigated. are most likely to encounter such societal discrimination. and health outcomes for 4 groups of interracial and same-race adopted adolescents. Parental encouragement of cultural activities & co-participation in them seemed to be critical in the development of ethnic identification.

. • Courtney. 74(4). They are thrown into a vicious cycle where the chances plummet that they will ever get adopted. these studies analyze the presence of an ethnocentric bias in legal and scientific assessments of children’s well-being and adjustment. a biracial social worker in New York who was raised by an adoptive white family. particularly black children. a chairman of the organization. and the Need for Multiple Measures of Adolescent Adjustment. After aging out of foster care. "Often when people are looking at 'love is all it takes.. com/ culture-and-ethnicity/ the-colors-of-adoption-black-vs-white/ article/ 1791/ 1. 27% of males and 10% of females were incarcerated within 12 to 18 months. J. adoption. E.[4] Pro race matching David Watts."[3] Never getting adopted has been shown to have a negative impact on children. "Transracial. I. states that "It's a bad idea to put a black child in a white home. 43(1). M. (1998). 37% had not finished high school. com/ information/ adoption-statistics-foster-care-1999." "Same race makes sense because it is what the child is accustomed to. html) • Burrow. 50% were unemployed. • Feigelman. I think it's impossible for someone of one culture to teach another culture". adoption. (2000). L. that number dropped to 21% after leaving care. July 21. "Intercountry. html) (http:/ / library. may have methodological difficulties. 75-87. html) (http:/ / statistics. "In Struggling in the Adult World. Somehow when it's a case of adoption. 64(4). what causes the least disruption in the child's life. and Piliavin. Critics of race matching say there is a darker side involving whites with lingering racist beliefs against mixing races. & Reid. cfm) (http:/ / www." Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. gov/ pubs/ s_seek. and 19% of females had given birth to children.Interracial adoption Ethnocentric bias Finally." says Toni Oliver.. They argue that children are hurt most by the practice. "One of the problems with race-matching policies. pdf) (http:/ / library." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. acf." Dissertation Abstracts International. 33% received public assistance. 17(3). N. Before leaving care." International Social Work. W.' they seem to overlook the impact race has on our society. Two points of view Pro interracial adoption A dichotomy exists in reference to the subject of interracial adoption. Study conducted by School of Social Work." The National Association of Black Social Workers (NABSW) has taken this stance. The humanities and social sciences. Same-Race Adoptions. suggesting that interracial adoption is a form of "genocide" and that "black children in white homes are cut off from the healthy development of themselves as black people. hhs. census. 165-183. Specifically."[5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] (http:/ / naic. A. University of Wisconsin–Madison. S. 577-583. 44 . A. Transracial Adoption and Ethnic Identity. race suddenly doesn't seem to matter anymore. "Adjustments of transracially and inracially adopted young adults. "International Adoption: The Relationship between Child and Parent Characteristics and Parent Report of Child Adjustment. "You have to live it in order to absorb it. "is that it leaves the children in the system to wait. 47 percent were receiving some kind of counseling or medication for mental health problems. some research has examined the empirical studies of interracial adoption themselves. G." says Donna Matias. a lawyer with the Institute of justice. & Finley. • Grob (2003). adoption. W. (2004). • Huh. (2000). com/ culture-and-ethnicity/ the-colors-of-adoption-black-vs-white/ article/ 1791/ 1. These studies address whether past research that claims that interracial adoption positively benefits children of color." The Washington Post. gov/ prod/ 2003pubs/ censr-6. 1998.

a "semi-open" arrangement is used in which the parties know family and other information about each other.adoptionhistory. but their real names and locating information are withheld.php) Interracially/ Bi-Racial Adoptions] • Adoption. survive indefinitely in frozen storage. the donation of embryos and a clinical assisted reproduction procedure is involved.asian-nation. if possible. as a practical reality someone must eventually decide on a permanent disposition for them.adoption. 45 .000 for oocyte donation . those donating embryos must. or IVF treatments.[1] Others use the terms synonymously because regardless of whether the arrangement is open or anonymous. and the recipient couple is preparing to raise a child not genetically related to them. It is defined as the giving—generally without compensation—of embryos remaining after one couple's In vitro fertilisation.org/) • Asian-Nation (http://www. If the donors are not available to be screened.com/) • Adoption History (http://www. and not the child of the donor. Some writers use the term "embryo donation" to refer strictly to anonymous embryo donation.[4] or donating them for use in embryonic stem cell research.com/international-adoption/adoption-inquiry. in order to provide a layer of privacy protection. The resulting child is considered the child of the woman who carries it and gives birth.S.aican. Embryo donation can be handled on an anonymous basis (donor and recipient parties are not known to each other).com (http://library.org/) • AICAN . and the recipients must agree to accept the associated risk.Australian Intercountry Adoption Network (http://www. This is the same principle as is followed in egg donation or sperm donation. newsweek. Alternatives to donating remaining embryos are: discarding them (or having them implanted at a time when pregnancy is very unlikely.com/id/194886) Embryo donation Embryo donation is a form of third party reproduction. A US study concluded that embryo donation is approximately twice as cost-effective as oocyte donation in terms of cost per live birth. the embryos are donated after the woman for whom they were originally created has successfully carried one or more pregnancies to term. followed by the placement of those embryos into the recipient woman's uterus to facilitate pregnancy and childbirth in the recipient. Occasionally.shtml) Interracially Adopted Asian Americans] • Raising Katie What adopting a white girl taught a black family about race in the Obama era (http://www. theoretically.org/adopted. Although embryos can.000 per live delivery compared to $41. and "embryo adoption" to refer to the open process. or on an open basis (parties' identities are shared and the families agree to a relationship.[3] The rules for screening are outlined by the U. with a cost of $22. to another person or couple. The amount of screening the embryo has already undergone is largely dependent on the genetic parents' own IVF clinic and process.[2] In the United States. be screened for a series of infectious diseases. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The embryo recipient may elect to have her own embryologist conduct further testing.babyasw. Most often.Interracial adoption External links • Adoption Services Worldwide (http://www. the embryos must be given a label that indicates that the required screening has not been done.

[11] Dr. and Dr. Soon thereafter. The genetic parents and adoptive parents may negotiate their own terms for future contact between the families. these were embryos made from donor gametes specifically for the recipients. others see it as a "gift of a potential life". came into being. and that no court action is required to establish legal parentage for the recipient. Embryo ownership is transferred directly from the genetic parents to the adoptive parents. Devroey et al. However. Again. which reviews their file and matches them to genetic parents with similar preferences including 46 . The matter gained another political dimension in the United States when Congress and the Bush administration gave $1 million to promote embryo adoption. depending on the requirements of both the home study and placement agencies. Maria Bustillo in Florida.. clinicians reasoned that more couples could be helped toward parenthood by substituting donor sperm for men who have no viable sperm.Embryo donation History Not long after IVF came into common clinical practice. Their completed paperwork and fees are submitted to the placement agency. Prior to this. or donor eggs for women who have no viable oocytes – or both. The menstrual cycles of the donor and recipient women were synchronized using medications.[12] while still others believe that a new human life begins at the time of fertilization. Genetic parents may be updated by the agency when a successful pregnancy is achieved and when a child(ren) is/are born. The process described below is typical of an "adoption-agency-based" national program: Genetic parents entering an embryo adoption program are offered the benefits of selecting the adoptive parents from the agency's pool of prescreened applicants.[14] One advantage some embryo adoption couples in Georgia have derived from this law is that they have become eligible for the federal Adoption Tax Credit. A careful reading of the 1983 clinical report often cited as the first instance of embryo donation reveals that the donated embryo was actually created for the recipient at the same time that four embryos were made for the donor couple’s own use. None of these embryos had been cryopreserved. health checks and in some cases. Georgia enacted a statute called the Option of Adoption Act" in 2009 which provided a procedure for. but (importantly) did not require—a confirmatory court order of parentage following embryo adoption. Some see the embryo as "tissue". traditional adoption home study. thousands of women who were infertile had regarded adoption as the only available path to parenthood. in some cases sparing the woman a second egg harvesting procedure. The third group sees embryo donation as little different from traditional adoption. clinicians discovered a way to maintain (cryopreserve) embryos in frozen storage and thaw them once again for implantation later. Thus what was called gamete and embryo donation.[9] [10] in the legal literature. adoption education.[13] Process Embryo donation is legally considered a property transfer and not an adoption by state laws. except that the recipient woman has the experience of pregnancy and childbirth. Howard Jones in Virginia have reported embryo transfers occurring between 1986 and 1990 that clearly represented adoption of remaining embryos. Embryo donation can be carried out as a service of an individual infertility clinic (where donor and recipient families typically live in the local area and are both patients of the same clinic) or by any of several national organizations. court certification of adoption eligibility. and the transfers occurred on the same day.[7] [8] No one knows for sure when the first true embryo adoption occurred. In some ways. thus. however.. Prospective adoptive parents entering a program complete an application. it is similar to other donations such as blood and major organ donations.[5] [6] At about the same time. reports were published documenting successful pregnancies and births from cryopreserved donor embryos. These scientific advances set the stage to allow open and candid discussion of embryo donation and transfer as a solution to infertility. The term was used as early as the mid-1980s.

Nightlight Christian Adoptions [2] National Embryo Donation Center [3] http:/ / www. and Crystal Angels [20]. social. and Procreative Liberty: the Legal Structure of the New Reproduction. Fertil. 2011. bethany. Genetic and prospective parents are then given the chance to approve the match. References [1] Snowflake Program. Families. Paulson RJ. gainesvilletimes. The process is entered in to willingly by both sets of parents because of the added safeguards. Med J Aust 1985 Apr 1. The use of embryo cryopreservation in human IVF programmes.2009. Daly D (April 2009). gov/ news/ releases/ 2001/ 08/ 20010809-2. the embryo is transferred to the adoptive mother's clinic for a frozen embryo transfer. though no longer referring exclusively to Nightlight's Snowflake Embryo Adoption Program. Van den Abbeel E. html [14] http:/ / www. http:/ / georgewbush-whitehouse. including Embryos Alive [18]. embryodonation. for several years. Tennessee. NEJM 1987.fertnstert. childrensconnections. the term "Snowflake Babies" has become common vernacular when referring to the embryo-adoption process. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1985 Dec. Embryos.Embryo donation desired level of openness post-adoption. This allows the family to receive all the services in a comprehensive manner at one location under the guidance of a trained coordinator.03. van Waesberghe L. doi:10. Concurrently. the National Embryo Donation Center [16] (NEDC) reports 280 born through their program since its inception in 2003. adoptanembryo. Because Nightlight Christian Adoptions was the first to publicize the option nationally and. August 9. net http:/ / www. org/ explorembryo.net) is the nation's only church-based embryo adoption enterprise. Washington (www. The only exception is the home study. gov/ BiologicsBloodVaccines/ TissueTissueProducts/ QuestionsaboutTissues/ ucm136397. [5] Trounson A. non-profit. Wisanto A. Camus M. The Embryo Donation Services of Cedar Park.96(8):900-906 [12] National Embryo Donation Center: Questionnaire Study of Prospective Embryo Donors [13] The White House. South Calif Law Rev 1986 Jul. Wood C. Trounson AO. Steril. embryosalive. Wilson CK. Pregnancy With a Frozen-thawed Embryo in a Woman With Primary Ovarian Failure.142(7):409-11 [7] Sauer MV. 1986. Wade A. miracleswaiting. Nightlight has reported 271 children born through the embryo adoption program. Freemann LE. 93 (2): 379–381. 2001. Freeman M. President Discusses Stem Cell Research. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1989 Aug.12(4):825-33 [6] Downing BG.adoptanembryo. Its primary difference from Nightlight and other adoption-agency-based programs is that the clinical services. Frozen embryos: moral. Establishment of 22 Pregnancies After Oocyte and Embryo Donation.163(5 Pt 1):1421-1424 [8] Van Steirteghem AC. As of July. Birth After Transfer of Cryopreserved Embryos. et al. rather than being performed at a separate infertility clinic. None of the procedures involved with embryo adoption by either the genetic or adopting parents are legal requirements of embryo transfer. htm 47 . and legal implications. 59: 939-1041 [10] Wurmbrand MJ. Bethany Christian Services [19] . Office of the Press Secretary. com/ news/ archive/ 20665/ [15] Embryo Adoption & Donation [16] http:/ / www. Human Oocyte and Preembryo Donation: an Evolving Method for the Treatment of Infertility. Founded by an embryo adoption mother. it operates on principles similar to the Snowflake Program [17]. org/ crystal_angels. as described above.[15] The Snowflakes Embryo Adoption Program refers to the uniqueness of each embryo. "A cost-effectiveness comparison of embryo donation with oocyte donation". NEDC is the nation's only clinic-based. Located in Knoxville. 317:113 [9] Robertson JA. knowledge and communication offered to both parties by the system. van Steirteghem AC.019. archives. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990 Nov. Braeckmans P. Once all parties agree. Freemann L. located near Seattle. com/ http:/ / www. Mohr LR. htmhttp:/ / www. org/ [17] [18] [19] [20] http:/ / www. handled most cases in which families were matched outside the confines of an individual clinic. Sommerfelt C. national embryo donation entity. fda. van den Abbeel E.59(5):1079-1100 [11] Devroey P. html [4] Finger R. PMID 19406398. Several other agencies nationwide offer embryo donation services.1016/j. Southern California Law Review. org/ main/ embryo-services http:/ / www. are performed at the NEDC facility in Knoxville.

with a relative or an Independent Living Center or long term care facility (for children with development disabilities. It requires preparation classes as well as an application process. physical disabilities or mental disabilities). The application varies but may include: a minimum age. administration. In the US.[5] Regulation. Foster care placement 547. Each state's services are monitored by the federal Department of Health and Human Services through reviews such as Child and Family Services Reviews. In some states.[6] The foster parent licensing process is often similar to the process to become licensed to adopt. Foster care is intended to be a short term situation until a permanent placement can be made:[1] • Reunification with the biological parent(s) • When it is deemed in the child's best interest.415 children were in publicly supported foster care in the United States in September 2000. • Adoption • Preferably by a biological family member such as an aunt or grandparent. state and federal levels including 48 . and oversight The policies regarding foster care as well as the criteria to be met in order to become a foster parent vary according to legal jurisdiction. most children enter foster care due to neglect. • Permanent transfer of guardianship • If none of these options are viable the plan for the minor may enter OPPLA (Other Planned Permanent Living Arrangement). Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System and Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System Assessment Reviews. the child may be adopted by someone who is a stranger to the child.000 children ready for adoptive families in the nations foster care systems.773 children in foster care. the next preference is for the child to be adopted by the foster parents or by someone else involved in the child's life (such as a teacher or coach). • If neither above option are available. a criminal record check at local.[2] Children may enter foster care via voluntary or involuntary means. there were about 123.[3] In 2009. Title IV-E Foster Care Eligibility Reviews. In the United States.[4] African American children represented 41% of children in foster care. This is to maintain continuity in the child's life. counties have this responsibility. foster home licensing requirements vary from state to state but are generally overseen by each state's Department of Social Services or Human Services. verification that your income allows you to meet your expenses. a drop of about 20% in a decade. This is generally the first choice. The foster parent is remunerated by the state for their services. • If no biological family member is willing or able to adopt.[2] In 2009.Foster care Foster care Foster care is the term used for a system in which a minor who has been made a ward is placed in the private home of a state certified caregiver referred to as a "foster parent". This option allows the child to stay in custody of the state and the child can stay placed in a foster home. making all legal decisions while the foster parent is responsible for the day to day care of said minor. Involuntary placement occurs when a child is removed from their biological parent or lawful guardian due to the risk or actual occurrence of physical or psychological harm. The state via the family court and child protection agency stand in loco parentis to the minor. white children represented 40% and Hispanic children represented 15% in the year 2000. Voluntary placement may occur when a biological parent or lawful guardian is unable or unwilling to care for a child. there were 423.

and not enough money into "front-end" or basic services. Children found to be unable to function in a foster home may be placed in Residential Treatment Centers (RTCs) or other such group homes. the Agency benefits.[7] There are some children in foster care who are difficult to place in permanent homes through the normal adoption process. Observers of the growth trend note that a county will only continue to receive funding while it keeps the child in its care. to an adoptive home. the state of Texas paid mental treatment centers as much as $101."[8] Governments offer a variety of incentives and services to facilitate this class of adoptions. In some cases.[9] Funding and system incentives A law passed by Congress in 1961 allowed AFDC (welfare) payments to pay for foster care which was previously made only to children in their own homes. . This may create a "perverse financial incentive" to place and retain children in foster care rather than leave them with their parents. "special needs" can include situations where children have specific chronic medical problems. which could help solve the problems causing family inadequacies. The county does not receive as much in federal funds for "front-end" services. sibling groups. or to the birth parents when applicable. California:[11] The Grand Jury heard from staff members of the DFCS and others outside the department that the department puts too much money into "back-end services. In some cases. a reference from a doctor to ensure that all household members are free from diseases that a child could catch and in sufficient health to parent a child and.Foster care 49 finger printing and no prior record of child abuse or neglect.e. as it receives for out-of-home placements or foster care services. A National Coalition for Child Protection Reform issue paper states "children often are removed from their families `prematurely or unnecessarily' because federal aid formulas give states `a strong financial incentive' to do so rather than provide services to keep families together. the focus of treatment in such facilities is to prepare the child for a return to a foster home. These children are often said to require “special-needs adoption. behavioral problems. and incentives are sometimes set up for maximum intervention. financially.” In this context."[10] Findings of a grand jury investigation in Santa Clara. from placing children in foster homes. mental health issues." i.. This made aided funding foster care for states and localities. and learning disabilities. In other words. letters of reference from an employer and others who know them.105 a year per child. therapists and attorneys. facilitating rapid growth. But two major reviews of the scholarly literature have questioned these facilities' effectiveness. and older children qualify as "special needs. In theory.

One of the main components of ASFA is the imposition of stricter time limits on reunification efforts. Opponents of ASFA argued that the real reason children languished in foster care was that too many were taken needlessly from their parents in the first place.000 fewer than when ASFA was passed[14] The Foster Care Independence Act of 1999. COUNTY OF SAN JOAQUIN. the United States 9th Circuit Court of Appeals found in ROGERS v.[15] [16] Constitutional issues In May 2007. liberty. without due process of law. helps foster youth who are aging out of care to achieve self-sufficiency.Foster care 50 United States Foster care legislation since 1990 In 1997. opponents said.S. This bill extended various benefits and funding for foster children between the age of 18 and 21 and for Indian children in tribal areas. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 is the most recent piece of major federal legislation addressing the foster care system. and would only slow a decline in the foster care population that should have occurred anyway because of a decline in reported child abuse. Average length of stay in foster care in the U. Chafee and ETV money is administered by each state as they see fit.[13] Ten years after ASFA became law. The new law requires state child welfare agencies to identify cases where "aggravated circumstances" make permanent separation of child from the birth family the best option for the safety and well-being of the child. Since ASFA did not address this. the number of children in foster care on any given day has been about 7. nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.. the lack of such legislation was the reason it was common for children to languish in care for years with no permanent living situation identified. the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States" and no state may "deprive any person of life. the Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) was passed. was acting without due process and without exigency (emergency conditions) violated the 14th Amendment and Title 42 United State Code Section 1983. 05-16071[17] that a CPS social worker who removed children from their natural parents into foster care without obtaining judicial authorization. Proponents of ASFA claimed that before the law was passed.[12] This reduced the time children are allowed to remain in foster care before being available for adoption. No. government has also funded the Education and Training Voucher Program in recent years in order to help youth who age out of care to obtain college or vocational training at a free or reduced cost. The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution says that a state may not make a law that abridges ". or property. The U.S.. it would not accomplish its goals." Title 42 United States Code Section 1983[18] states that citizens can sue in federal courts any person that acting under a color of law to deprive . The legislation also strengthens requirements for states in their treatment of siblings and introduces mechanisms to provide financial incentives for guardianship and adoption.

[25] 51 .9 million verdict grew to a $9.> But until the State proves parental unfitness. and to enter an order granting custody to the child's relative. placing the child within the wider family or community is preferred[24] This is consistent with the Aboriginal Child Placement Principle. Respite care is a type of foster care that is used to provide short-term (and often regular) accommodation for children whose parents are ill or unable to care for them on a temporary basis. is provided to children who are in need of care and protection. and the case remanded to the trial court to vacate the orders granting adoption and denying custody.[21] The previous judgment granting the foster mother's adoption petition was reversed. Supreme Court reviewed a case when Department of Social Services removed two younger children from their natural parents only because the parents had been previously found negligent toward their oldest daughter.[24] It is also used to provide a break for the parent or primary carer to hopefully decrease the chances of the situation escalating to one which would lead to the removal of the child(ren). As well as foster care.[24] In the case of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in particular.[22] The case finally ended in 2011 when the United States Supreme Court denied Orange County's request to overturn the verdict. In other situations parents may be incapable of providing adequate care for the child. In most cases. DSS transferred him to a foster home on the ground that immediate removal was necessary to avoid imminent danger to his life or health.[21] In 2007 Deanna Fogarty-Hardwick obtained a jury verdict against Orange County (California) and two of its social workers for violating her Fourteenth Amendment rights to familial association by unlawfully placing her kids in foster care. or accommodation may be needed during times of family conflict or crisis.[20] Also District of Columbia Court of Appeals conclude that the lower trial court erred in rejecting the relative custodial arrangement selected by the natural mother who tried to preserve her relationship with the child. children in home-based care are also on a care and protection order. 455 US 745. and residential care. due process requires that the State support its allegations by at least clear and convincing evidence. however. Kramer. the child and his parents share a vital interest in preventing erroneous termination of their natural relationship".Foster care the citizens of their civil rights under the pretext of a regulation of a state. Non-government organizations are widely used.[23] Australia Home-based care. <. but not exclusively.[19] In case of Santosky v. every effort is made to reunite children with their families wherever possible.[22] The $4. In the event that children are placed in home-based care.. Children and young people are provided with alternative accommodation while they are unable to live with their parents.5 million judgment as the County lost each of its successive appeals. states and territories are responsible for funding home-based care. As with the majority of child protection services.[24] In the significant number of cases substance abuse is a major contributing factor. which includes foster care. to provide these services. The Supreme Court vacated previous judgment and stated: "Before a State may sever completely and irrevocably the rights of parents in their natural child. this can include placements with relatives or kin.[20] When the third child was only three days old.[24] Current policy There is strong emphasis in current Australian policy and practice to keep children with their families wherever possible.[24] In some cases children are placed in home-based care following a child protection substantiation and where they are found to be in need of a safer and more stable environment.

which can cause cortical atrophy. synaptic sculpturing (determining the make-up of the synapse). parental PTSD was a risk factor for the development of PTSD in adult offspring in comparison to those whose parents went through the Holocaust without developing PTSD. and deficits in executive functioning. stress response and cognitive skills are formed during this period. Recent studies in the U. anxiety as well other developmental problems. In the Överkalix study in Sweden. The offspring of survivors with PTSD had lower levels of urinary cortisol excretion.[31] [32] [33] Neurodevelopment Foster care has been shown in various studies to have deleterious consequences on the physical health and mental wellbeing of those who were in foster care. child abuse and stress[39] [40] have been shown to have a profound effect on gene expression. The developing brain is directly influenced by negative environmental factors including lack of stimulation due to emotional neglect. emotional and cognitive well-being.[42] [43] [44] In studies of the adult offspring of Holocaust survivors.[41] Many physiological and behavioral characteristics ascribed to Mendelian inheritance are due in fact to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. The implications in terms of foster care and the cost to society as a whole is that the stress. and suicide. they were found to have double the incidence of depression. the effects of epigentic inheritance were shown to have a direct correlation to the environmental influences faced by the parents and grandparents.[34] Negative environmental influences during this critical period of brain development can have lifelong consequences.[26] In a study of adults who were in foster care in Oregon and Washington state. Negative environmental influences. Foster children have elevated levels of cortisol. (Harden BJ. The processes that govern the development of personality traits. and one of the most critical periods of brain development occurs in the first 3–4 years. suggest that foster care placements are more detrimental to children than remaining in a troubled home. apoptosis (death and reabsorption of neurons). and an enlargement of the brain's ventricles. Many children enter foster care at a very young age. Negative environmental influences have a direct effect on all areas of neurodevelopment: neurogenesis (creation of new neurons). but that the damage can transcend generations. such as maternal deprivation. poor nutrition. Most of the processes involved in healthy neurodevelopment are predicated upon the establishment of close nurturing relationships and environmental stimulation.S.[27] [28] [29] [30] These children experience higher degrees of incarceration. arborization (the growth of dendritic connections. 20% as compared to 10% and were found to have a higher rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than combat veterans with 25% of those studied having PTSD. a stress hormone in comparison to children raised by their biological parents. deprivation and other negative environmetal factors many foster children are subjected to has a detrimental effect not only their physical.[35] [36] [37] [38] Epigenetic effects of environment Gene expression can be affected by the environment through epigenetic mechanisms. poverty. homelessness. a period where the development of mental and psychological processes are at one of their critical peaks. Children in foster care have a higher probability of having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. migration (of neurons to different regions of the brain).Foster care The negative effects of foster care Individuals who were in foster care experience higher rates of physical and psychiatric morbidity than the general population and suffer from not being able to trust and that can lead to placements breaking down. The human brain doesn't fully develop until approximately the age of twenty. Elevated cortisol levels can compromise the immune system. exposure to violence in the home environment and child abuse. synaptogenesis (creation of synapses). myelinzation (protective covering of neurons). 2004). salivary cortisol and enhanced plasma cortisol suppression in response to low dose dexamethasone administration than offspring of 52 . including transgenerational epigenetic effects in which physiological and behavioral (intellectual) transfer of information across generations-not-yet-conceived is effected.

[48] and through the inhibition of a class of enzymes known as the histone deacetylases (HDACs). the effects of abuse may extend beyond the immediate victim into subsequent generations as a consequence of epigenetic effects [47] transmitted directly to offspring and/or behavioral changes in affected individuals. Drug combination approaches have also shown promise for the treatment of mood disorders including bipolar disorder. and 42% of those who had been physically abused fulfilled the PTSD criteria.[45] [46] Epigenetic Effects of Abuse "In addition. (Neighh GN et al. 2002). This is in contrast to the normal stress response in which cortisol levels are elevated after exposure to a stressor. 2009) It has been suggested in various studies that the deleterious epigentic effects may be somewhat ameliorated through pharmacological manipulations in adulthood via the administration of nerve growth factor-inducible protein A. "More than half the study participants reported clinical levels of mental illness. Low cortisol levels are associated with parental. and a rate of 4% in the general population. compared to less than a quarter of the general population"."[49] [50] Post traumatic stress disorder Children in foster care have a higher incidence of Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a study conducted in Oregon and Washington state. particularly maternal. (Marsenich.[53] [54] . the rate of PTSD in adults who were in foster care for one year between the ages of 14-18 was found to be higher than that of combat veterans. These children may have developed PTSD due to witnessing violence in the home.2% as opposed to 47% in the general population.Foster care 53 survivors without PTSD. "HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) such as Trichostatin A (TSA). anxiety and depression. with 25 percent of those in the study meeting the diagnostic criteria as compared to 12-13 [51] Regions of the brain associated with stress and post traumatic stress disorder percent of Iraq war veterans and 15 percent of Vietnam war veterans. The recovery rate for foster home alumni was 28. and L-methionine an essential amino acid.In one study (Dubner and Motta. "TSA can be used to alter gene expression by interfering with the removal of acetyl groups from histones". PTSD. The results of the study point to the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. 1999)[52] 60% of children in foster care who had experienced sexual abuse had PTSD. PTSD was also found in 18% of the children who were not abused. have been developed for the treatment of a variety of malignancies and neurodegenerative disorders.

54 .[62] [63] [64] [65] These children may be described as experiencing trauma as the result of abuse or neglect. it is not uncommon in children in foster homes or other stressful environments.[56] [57] [58] Food Maintenance Syndrome is characterized by a set of aberrant eating behaviors of children in foster care. and physical neglect. and children in residential care 6 times more likely to be assessed by a pediatrician for abuse than a child in the general population". emotional deprivation. which disrupts the normal development of secure attachment.[74] [75] Three out of 10 of the United States homeless are former foster children.[60] [61] Children with histories of maltreatment.[76] According to the results of the Casey Family Study of Foster Care Alumni. it resembles "the behavioral correlates of Hyperphagic Short Stature". inflicted by a primary caregiver.Foster care Eating disorders Foster children are at increased risk for a variety of eating disorders. three New York street children.000 reach the age of majority and leave foster care without a permanent family—many to join the ranks of the homeless or to commit crimes and be imprisoned. and sexual abuse.[64] [66] [67] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems.[72] [73] "One of every 10 foster children stays in foster care longer than seven years. it was prevalent amongst 25 percent of the study group in New Zealand. It is hypothesised that this syndrome is triggered by the stress and maltreatment foster children are subjected to. are at risk of developing psychiatric problems. including dissociative symptoms. While it is believed to have genetic component. In one study in the United Kingdom "foster children were 7-8 times.[77] Very frequently. up to 80 percent are doing poorly—with a quarter to a third of former foster children at or below the poverty line. It is "a pattern of excessive eating and food acquisition and maintenance behaviors without concurrent obesity". and in a study done in the United Kingdom. but others experienced "unofficial" placements in the homes of family or friends. physical abuse.[59] Disorganized attachment A study by Dante Cicchetti found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants in his study exhibited symptoms of disorganized attachment. and acting-out symptoms. 35% of foster children experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (BMI) once in care. Obesity children in foster care are more prone to becoming overweight and obese. HSS is triggered by being exposed to an environment of high psychosocial stress. an excessive appetite (hyperphagia) and mild learning disabilities. 1890 times the national poverty rate.S.[71] Poverty and homelessness Nearly half of foster kids in the U. and each year about 15. anxiety. become homeless when they turn 18. people who are homeless had multiple placements as children: some were in foster care. Such children are at risk of developing a disorganized attachment.[68] as well as depressive. in comparison to the general population.[69] [70] Child abuse Children in foster care experience high rates of child abuse.[28] Bulimia Nervosa is seven times more prevalent among former foster children than in the general population. such as physical and psychological neglect. HSS improves upon removal from the stressful environment.[55] Hyperphagic Short Stature syndrome (HSS) is a condition characterized by short stature due to insufficient growth hormone production.

these children are far more likely to suffer abuse.Individuals who had been in long-term foster care tended to have the most dismal outcome. accidents. the completion rate for the general population in the same age group is 24%. *The study reviewed case records for 659 foster care alumni in Northwest USA. Several studies have indicated that foster care children tend to underachieve academically with many never completing high school.7% for over 25. the probability of dropping out of school is greater than 75%. 23 percent had a history of suicide attempts. The length of time a person remains homeless is prolonged in indiviuals who were in foster care. 42. a sizable difference. 2.[82] A study conducted in Finland among current and former foster children up to age 24 found a higher mortality rate due to substance abuse.. have been abused and neglected.. suicide and illness.305 former foster children who had been in care prior to their teens. including sexual molestation than in the general population". In a small study of twenty-two Texan youths who aged out of the system..1% completed a vocational degree.[79] the increased risk of suicide is still prevalent after leaving foster care and occurs at a higher rate than the general population. or receive out of home placement by the courts. 21.[84] Poor academic prospects [85] Educational outcomes of ex-foster children in the Northwest Alumni Study* • • • • • 56% completed high school compared to 82% of the general population. concluded: Former child welfare clients were in year of birth and sex standardised risk ratios (RRs) four to five times more likely than peers in the general population to have been hospitalised for suicide attempts.[86] .D..Foster care 55 Individuals with a history foster care tend to become homeless at an earlier age than those who were not in foster care and Caucasians who become homeless are more likely to have a history of foster care than Hispanics or African Americans . 20.7% completed some education beyond high school. although an additional 29% of former foster children received a G. In a study conducted in Philadelphia by Johns Hopkins University it was found that. among high school students who are in foster care. compared to an additional 5% of the general population.[78] Suicide-death rate Children in foster care are at a greater risk of suicide.[80] A Swedish study utilizing the data of almost one million people including 22.8% complete a bachelors degree.E.9% for those over 25. and interviewed 479 of them between September 2000 and January [85] 2002.. The deaths due to illness were attributed to an increased incidence of acute and chronic medical conditions and developmental delays among children in foster care. 1.[83] Georgia Senator Nancy Schaefer published a report "The Corrupt Business of Child Protective Services"[84] stating: "The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect in 1998 reported that six times as many children died in foster care than in the general public and that once removed to official “safety”.[81] Death rate Children in foster care have an overall higher mortality rate than children in the general population.6% completed any degree or certificate beyond high school 16.former child welfare/protection clients should be considered a high-risk group for suicide attempts and severe psychiatric morbidity.

brand name.135 Texas foster care 0–19 years-old. patent protected medication was prevalent. an ex-foster child was awarded $30 million by jury trial in California (Santa Clara County) for sexual abuse damages that happened to him in his foster home from 1995 to 1999. .9% received 4 different classes.[93] The sex acts he forced the children in his foster care to perform sent him to prison for 220 years. according to the Santa Clara County District Attorney's Office.75 for generics and $90. this was the largest such settlement in the agency's history. The agency has also been accused of racism.[95] According to the civil rights suit filed on request of twins' adoptive mother in December 2007 in U. Later in 2010. Federal Court. Pediatrics 2008 Psychiatrists prescribed 93% of the psychotropic medication. Oregon Department of Human Services agreed to pay $2 million into a fund for the future care of twins who were allegedly abused by their foster parents.2%).189 were prescribed psychotropic medication. menace and fear. John Jackson.[93] In 2009. difference. was licensed by the state. in the general market only 28% are for brand name SSRI's vs generics.8%). and it was noted in the review of these cases that the use of expensive. and seven counts of lewd or lascivious acts on a child under 14.[92] These statistics do not speak to the situation these children are coming from.[88] — Psychotropic medication patterns among youth in foster care.17 for branded products. Giarretto Institute. "Concomitant psychotropic medication treatment is frequent for youth in foster care and lacks substantive evidence as to its effectiveness and safety". despite the fact that he abused his own wife and son.[93] [94] The foster parent. the private foster family agency responsible for licensing and monitoring Jackson's foster home and others. The average out-of-pocket expense per prescription was $34. 41.42. 12.Foster care 56 State abuses in the United States Drug testing Throughout the 1990s. violence. resulting in an annual prevalence of 37. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs (55. Jackson was convicted in Santa Clara County of nine counts of lewd or lascivious acts on a child by force.. a $55.9% of these children being prescribed medication.S. In 2006. in group homes. In a review (September 2003 to August 2004) of the medical records of 32.3% received 3 different classes of these drugs during July 2004. overdosed on drugs and was arrested for drunken driving. experimental HIV drugs were tested on HIV-positive foster children at Incarnation Children’s Center in Harlem. as 98 percent of children in foster care in New York City belong to ethnic minorities. some comparing the trials to the Tuskegee syphilis experiment.[89] Sexual abuse and negligence One study by Johns Hopkins University found that the rate of sexual abuse within the foster-care system is more than four times as high as in the general population. There have been several notable lawsits concerning sexual abuse and negligence that caused review of the foster care system in some states: In 2010. In the case of SSRIs the use of the most expensive medications was noted to be 74%. and Jackson himself was liable for the rest. the rate of sexual abuse is more than 28 times that of the general population.[87] Unnecessary/over medication Studies[88] have revealed that youth in foster care covered by Medicaid insurance receive psychotropic medication at a rate that was 3 times higher than that of Medicaid-insured youth who qualify by low family income.[90] [91] An Indiana study found three times more physical abuse and twice the rate of sexual abuse in foster homes than in the general population. also was found to be negligent and liable for 75 percent of the abuse that was inflicted on the victim. and antipsychotic agents (53.9%). The most frequently used medications were antidepressants (56.[91] A study of foster children in Oregon and Washington State found that nearly one third reported being abused by a foster parent or another adult in a foster home. and 15. but it does show the very large problem of child-on-child sexual abuse within the system. duress.

These children were classified as orphans although most were not.[95] Several lawsuits were brought in 2008 against the Florida Department of Children & Families (DCF). the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act. Early Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment. and DYFS failed to take proper action. forcibly removed from their homes and raised in white institutions. On June 9. [107] The lost children (Australia) An estimated 150.[97] Ferrara was arrested in 2001. was molesting young girls. foster homes and religious institutions.000 "forgotten Australians" and in 2010 British Prime Minister Gordon Brown issued a similar apology to those who were victimised by the Child Migrants Programme. a foster parent. water or human touch. the DCF continued to place foster children with Ferrara and his then-wife until 2000. didn't receive medical attention. who had a shunt put into his head at birth to drain fluid.[110] [111] 57 . 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. v. The boy. Bonifacio Velazquez. The court accepted the plan on June 17.[97] [98] The suits claimed that even though there were records of sexual misconduct allegations against Ferrara in 1992. Among these Forgotten Australians were members of the "Stolen Generation". McGreevey[102] was filed in federal court by "Children’s Rights" New York organization on behalf of children in the custody of the New Jersey Division of Youth and Family Services (DYFS).000 children." The brother and sister often went without food. the term given for those who experienced care in foster homes and institutions in the 20th century. Some of these shelters are wings of juvenile detention facilities. At least 10.26 million.[103] [104] The complaint alleged violations of the childrens' constitutional rights and their rights under Title IV-E of the Social Security Act.[98] Similary. were shipped to Australia after the war. This practice was in effect from the beginning of the nineteenth century until 1967. In the period after World War II the policy was dubbed the "Child Migrants Programme". some as young as 3.[103] These files revealed numerous cases in which foster children were abused. 2004. the child welfare panel appointed by the parties approved the NJ State’s Reform Plan. Kevin Rudd apologised to the approximately 500.[106] Strip Searches Sometimes children who have been taken from their homes due to abuse or neglect are temporarily placed into shelters if a foster home is not immediately available. allowing plaintiffs to collect information concerning harm to children in foster care through a case record review.2 million to settle a lawsuit that alleged DCF ignored complaints that another mentally disabled Immokalee girl was being raped by her foster father. and 1999.[99] [100] [101] In a class action lawsuit Charlie and Nadine H. and the Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA).[108] [109] most to join the ranks of the "Forgotten Australians". Records show that Ferrara had as many as 400 children go through his home during his 16 years as a licensed foster parent (from 1984 to 2000).[97] Officials stated that the lawsuits over Ferrara ended up costing the DCF almost $2. In 2008 Australian Prime Minister. The same foster family previously took into their care hundreds of other children over nearly four decades. Many of these children were sent to orphanages. until the 15-year-old gave birth to a child.Foster care the children were kept in makeshift cages—cribs covered with chicken wire secured by duct tape—in a darkened bedroom known as "the dungeon. where they were used as a free source of labour and many were severely abused and neglected. the children of Australian Aborigines.000 British children were sent to overseas colonies and countries in the commonwealth such as Australia. 2004.[104] The same organization also filed similar lawsuits against several other states in recent years that caused some of the states to start child welfare reforms. in 2007 Florida's DCF paid $1.[105] In July 2002. 79. accusing it of mishandling reports that Thomas Ferrara. the Americans with Disabilities Act. so when police rescued the twins he was nearly comatose. Sometimes the foster children placed into these shelter wings are subjected to strip searches similar to those performed on juvenile offenders. 1996. after a 9-year-old girl told detectives he regularly molested her over two years and threatened to hurt her mother if she told anyone.[96] DHS said the foster parents deceived child welfare workers during the checkup visits. The prime consideration was money as it was cheaper to care for children in commonwealth countries than it was in the United Kingdom. the federal court granted plaintiffs’ experts access to 500 children’s case files.

[122] Foster care In popular culture • Fictional characters • In the Fox television show. Bones. The Casey Family Programs Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study was a fairly extensive study into various aspects of the psychosocial effects of foster care noted that 80% of ex-foster children are doing "poorly".[116] ". technically challenging.[117] and PTSD.[52] [118] it may also serve to obfuscate the true cause of underlying issues. all those experiences are of much significance which show how the judgment of the senses may be modified by experience and by training derived under various circumstances. stimulate happiness through an increased sense of connectedness and sense of indebtedness. Temperance Brennan (played by Emily Deschanel) grew up in foster care when her parents went missing. fostered. or on the other hand. While Hardison had a good experience with his "nana". NBA Defensive Player of the Year in 1999 & 2000 and seven-time NBA All-Star 58 . • Famous former foster children • Allison Anders.[124] • On TNT's Leverage. cognitive and epigenetic effects of foster care have been established in innumerable studies in various countries. forensic anthropologist Dr.[119] [120] [121] Foster Parent and Child Reunions Foster parents play an important pivotal role in the lives of infants placed in their care during critical developmental periods.[125] [126] • The main and title character in the book The Great Gilly Hopkins is a foster child who wishes to be reunited with their mother.. the symptoms may be exacerbated by having a history of foster care and the attendant abuses. Children in the child welfare system have often experienced significant and repeated traumas. and convoluted as searching for biological parents.. psychological. When orphaned. Parker (played by Beth Riesgraf) and Hardison (played by Aldis Hodge) both grew up in foster care. 1866 While having a background in foster homes—especially in instances of sexual abuse—can be the precipitating factor in a wide variety of psychological and cognitive deficits such as ADHD. or adopted children suffering from genealogical bewilderment are curious to learn about their family background and medial history. A successful reunion with a loving set of benevolent caregiving foster parents also has potential to create positive emotional responses.[113] [114] [115] Adult neurogenesis has been shown to be an ongoing process.[123] • ABC's Secret Life of the American Teenager's Ricky (played by Dareen Kagasoff) is in foster care. and provide a uniquely treasured experience for children who were fostered." Hermann von Helmholtz. writer and director • Alonzo Mourning.Foster care [112] Therapeutic intervention The negative physical. and may be adapted to the new conditions.. Neuroplasticity The human brain however has been shown to have a fair degree of neuroplasticity. Parker had several bad experiences with several bad foster families. searches to locate former foster parents have potential to be just as captivating.. The foster care experience may have nothing to do with the symptoms. Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy is one of the approaches that has been used to treat the resulting trauma and attachment difficulties caused by chronic early maltreatment within a care-giving relationship.

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PMID 17049865. Dailyrecord.Parker's Biography" (http:/ / www.org/cgi/content/full/65/6/625) 63 . • Carlson. Chapter 5—Foster Parents. Nature reviews. Retrieved 2011-11-01. Retrieved 2011-11-01. (2011). co.com. A first person account directed to successfully aging out of foster care.2006. Retrieved 2011-11-01. "Experience-dependent structural synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain". Kendra (2002).tv.19(2):187-95.Alec Hardison's Biography" (http:/ / www. Current biology : CB 17 (4): R141–4. Applied Research Projects. Texas State University Paper 332. James. "Structural plasticity: rewiring the brain". Tnt. bbc. 2009-11-16. Retrieved 2011-11-01.1038/nrn2699.nhi.11. E. 2005/2009/2011 [120] Becker-Weidman. doi:10. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 13 (9): 885–97. D. A. html). Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy: Essential Methods & Practices.tv. . uk/ news/ uk-world-news/ 2010/ 02/ 24/ gordon-brown-apologises-for-programme-which-saw-thousands-of-british-children-to-colonies-to-be-abused-86908-22066649/ ).html) Retrieved June 27.1113/jphysiol.1016/S0272-7358(98)00107-X. (http://ecommons. Epilogue. Gerhard T. tnt.. Winterstein AG. "A prospective longitudinal study of disorganized/disoriented attachment". [113] Johansen-Berg. 259-260.) Creating Capacity for Attachment. com/ abcfamily/ path/ section_Shows+ Secret-Life-Of-The-American-Teenager/ page_LScott-Caldwell) [125] "The Leverage Team . Clinical psychology review 20 (3): 359–78. doi:10. [114] Duffau. The Journal of physiology 586 (16): 3759–65.2005. D. K (2009). Further reading • Hurley. (2001). 2010. [127] "Foster to Famous" (http:/ / www. H (2008). tnt. D. Biaggio. . BBC News.Foster care [110] "British Child Migration to Australia: History. (1998). Ming. Murdoch. .org/online/issues/125/fostercare. and References p.cub. D. doi:10. 2010 [121] Hughes. S. doi:10. . PMID 19364296 [118] Weinstein. [116] Ge. Neuroscience 10 (9): 647–58. doi:10. fox.jocn. Sailor. "Historical Analysis and Contemporary Assessment of Foster Care in Texas: Perceptions of Social Workers in a Private. com/ famous). Oklahoma City. au/ elaw/ issues/ v9n4/ buti94. Song. PMID 17307051. & Shell. KA. dailyrecord. [111] "Australia 'sorry' for child abuse" (http:/ / news. Paul E. edu. "Almost Home" (http://www. • McCutcheon. [117] Chen CY. 2006. PMID 10779899. • Knowlton. OK: Wood N Barnes. A. Attachment Focused Family Therapy. Lanham. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. Retrieved 2011-11-01.uk. co. "Synaptic integration and plasticity of new neurons in the adult hippocampus".. M (2000). com/ page/ Best+ of+ Bones+ Season+ 4) [124] Secret Life Of The American Teenager Margaret (http:/ / abcfamily.txstate. PMID 9768489. p.edu. Senate Inquiry and Responsibilities" (http:/ / www. . "The Original Foster Care Survival Guide".155655. Determinants of initial pharmacological treatment for youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.edu/arp/332) External links • The Mental Health of Children in Out-of-Home Care: Scale and Complexity of Mental Health Problems (http:// www.045. 275 [123] Bones Season 4 TOP 10 Most Shocking Moments (http:/ / boneswiki. MD. p.2008. tv/ series/ leverage/ characters/ ?contentId=41358). Retrieved 2011-11-01.ama-assn. [115] Holtmaat. uk/ 2/ hi/ 8361389.co. "Brain plasticity: from pathophysiological mechanisms to therapeutic applications". 2009 Apr..1016/j. Svoboda. [112] "Gordon Brown apologises to British children who were abused after being sent abroad to start better life" (http:/ / www. Child Development 69 (4): 1107–1128. PMC 2538931. Non-Profit Foster Care Agency". Judith and Martin Land. H (2006). PMID 19693029.A. Norton: NY. . go. (Eds.1016/j. Jason Aronson. H (2007). [119] Becker-Weidman. A.medscape. Staffelbach. [126] "The Leverage Team .au. Fosterclub.. GL. 20-26. murdoch. Tnt. 2009 [122] Adoption Detective: Memoir of an Adopted Child. stm). "Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: differential diagnosis in childhood sexual abuse". fosterclub.12. tv/ series/ leverage/ characters/ ?contentId=41356).com/viewarticle/575410_2) • Effects of Enhanced Foster Care on the Long-term Physical and Mental Health of Foster Care Alumni (http:// archpsyc. PMID 18499723.022.

the young will be called orphans when the mother dies regardless of the condition of the father. or "adult orphans". and a double orphan has lost both parents. In certain animal species where the father typically abandons the mother and young at or prior to birth. Much higher numbers of orphans exist in war-torn nations such as Afghanistan. After years of war. or separation or loss from. an orphan does not have any surviving parent to care for him or her.[5] This contrasts with the older use of half-orphan to describe children that had lost only one parent. only a child (or the young of an animal) who has lost both parents is called an orphan.[4] Orphans by Thomas Kennington In the common use. . as most children can expect both of their parents to survive their childhood.[7] An Afghan girl in a Kabul orphanage. However. In this approach.[6] Populations Orphans are relatively rare in developed countries.Orphan 64 Orphan An orphan (from the Greek ὀρφανός[1] ) is a child permanently bereaved of or abandoned by his or her parents. a paternal orphan is a child whose father has died. there are an estimated 1. and other groups label any child that has lost one parent as an orphan. However. the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). a maternal orphan is a child whose mother has died. adults can also be referred to as orphans. both parents".5 million orphans in Afghanistan. abandonment or desertion by. One legal definition used in the United States is a minor bereft through "death or disappearance of. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS). Definitions Various groups use different definitions to identify orphans.[2] [3] In common usage.

000 in Yugoslavia. Orphans are turned out of the orphanages at the age of 16.[9] • Russia: An estimated 650.6% Latin America & Caribbean Total • 2001 figures from 2002 UNICEF/UNAIDS report[8] • China: A survey conducted by the Ministry of Civil Affairs in 2005 showed that China has about 573.000 children are in Russian orphanages.9% Asia 65. and the results are poor for most of them: 40% are homeless. plus many more in the Soviet Union.166 7.000 in the Netherlands 300. The American orphan Henry Darger portrayed the horrible conditions of his orphanage in his art work. World War Two. Other notable orphans include entertainment greats such as Louis Armstrong. Italy and elsewhere.5% 8.Orphan 65 Continent Number of orphans (1000s) Orphans as percentage of all children Africa 34. and Leo Tolstoy.[11] .such as AIDS. Judt (2006) estimates there were 9. with its massive numbers of deaths and population movements created large numbers of orphans—with estimates for Europe ranging from 1.504 6.000 to 13.294 11. and innumerable fictional characters in literature and comics. the Muslim prophet Mohammed. 20% turn to crime. 60.000 orphaned children in Czechoslovakia. Babe Ruth and Aaron North. have created many orphans.000 orphans below 18 years old.000.964 7.[10] Notable orphans Famous orphans include world leaders such as Nelson Mandela and Andrew Jackson. Germany. Johann Sebastian Bach.000 in Poland and 200. History Wars and great epidemics.000. writers such as Edgar Allan Poe.000.4% 107. and 10% commit suicide. Marilyn Monroe.

as well as some less well-known authors of famous orphans like Little Orphan Annie have used orphans as major characters. M. R. especially in children's and fantasy literature. treat not the orphan with harshness. Parents. furthermore. on Perseus [2] Merriam-Webster online dictionary (http:/ / www. It creates characters that are self-contained and introspective and who strive for affection." (The Quran. Mime offers food to the young Siegfried. R. Henry George Liddell. com/ dictionary/ orphan) [3] Concise Oxford Dictionary." (Hebrew Bible. Orphans can metaphorically search for self-understanding through attempting to know their roots. The Morning Hours: 9) References [1] ὀρφανός (http:/ / www. by freeing them from familial obligations and controls." . 6th edition "a child bereaved of parents" with bereaved meaning (of death etc) deprived of a relation [4] Iii. One recurring storyline has been the relationship that the orphan can have with an adult from outside his or her immediate family as seen in Lyle Kessler's play Orphans. such as most variants of Cinderella. Jeremiah 49:11) • "Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to look after orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being polluted by the world. or this one (http:/ / query. Charles Dickens. shtml) about The Society for the Relief of Half-Orphan and Destitute Children. . edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. and removing the parents makes the character's difficulties more severe. contain the idea that helping and defending orphans is a very important and God-pleasing matter. for the love of Allah. Among more recent authors. 0057:entry=o)rfano/ s). Cronin. an orphan he is raising. and depriving them of more prosaic lives. Exodus 22:22) • "Leave your orphans. J. Rowling's Harry Potter series. J. com/ orphans/ society-half-orphan-asylum. James 1:27) • "And they feed. A. Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer. tufts. All these characteristics make orphans attractive characters for authors. the indigent. removing the other parent prevents complicating the necessary relationship. org/ pub/ GlobalReport/ 2008/ jc1510_2008_global_report_pp11_28_en. nytimes. and J. Several citations: • "Do not take advantage of a widow or an orphan. Tolkien. L. Roald Dahl. gov/ portal/ site/ uscis/ menuitem. this 19th century news story (http:/ / www. perseus. pdf) [6] See. and orphaning the character frees the writer from the necessity to depict such an irrelevant relationship. Robert Scott. Parents can also be allies and sources of aid for children. 5af9bb95919f35e66f614176543f6d1a/ ?vgnextoid=17f496981298d010VgnVCM10000048f3d6a1RCRD& vgnextchannel=063807b03d92b010VgnVCM10000045f3d6a1RCRD) [5] UNAIDS Global Report 2008 (http:/ / data. merriam-webster. I will protect their lives. html?res=9B00E1D9163AE033A25755C1A9649D94669FD7CF) about the Protestant Half-Orphan Asylum. 04. The Human: 8) • "Therefore. Eligibility For Immigration Benefits As An Orphan (http:/ / www. uscis. Lemony Snicket. the orphan. and the captive. for example. can be irrelevant to the theme a writer is trying to develop. olivetreegenealogy. Your widows too can trust in me. Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables books. Examples from classic literature include Charlotte Brontë." (The New Testament. A Greek-English Lexicon. K. unaids.[12] The lack of parents leaves the characters to pursue more interesting and adventurous lives. Illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagner's Siegfried A number of well-known authors have written books featuring orphans. including the Bible and the Quran. In religious texts Many religious texts.Orphan 66 In literature Orphaned characters are extremely common as literary protagonists. if one parent-child relationship is important.(The Quran." (Hebrew Bible. com/ gst/ abstract. Orphans are common in fairy tales.

Like Our Very Own: Adoption and the Changing Culture of Motherhood. 21 [12] Philip Martin. Ellen. Widows And Orphans First: The Family Economy And Social Welfare Policy. A Child for Keeps: The History of Adoption in England. Lunatics. p 16. Orphans and Juvenile Criminals in Early Modern Germany (2009) • Keating. "The orphaned colony: Orphanage. Postwar: a history of Europe since 1945 (2006) p. Julie. http:/ / www. "Children on the Brink 2002: A Joint Report on Orphan Estimates and Program Strategies" (http:/ / www. htm) [10] " A Summer of Hope for Russian Orphans (http:/ / www.R." Indian Economic and Social History Review. . 1918-45 (2009) • Miller. ed. Timothy S. and Historians: Recent Approaches to the History of Child Welfare in Canada. usaid. [11] For a high estimate see I. July 21.B. Timothy A. Adoption in America: Historical Perspectives (2003) Hacsi. Dear and M. Abandoned Children of the Italian Renaissance: Orphan Care in Florence and Bologna (2005) United States • • • • Berebitsky. E. for lower Tony Judt.D. htm (last accessed 15 July 2009) [8] TvT Associates/The Synergy Project (July 2002). gov/ pop_health/ aids/ Publications/ docs/ childrenbrink. 2009. pp 463-488 • Terpstra. xinhuanet. UNAIDS and UNICEF. com/ english/ 2009-07/ 21/ content_11745889. ISBN 0-87116-195-8 Bibliography • Bullen. net. 1880-1939 (2006) • Miller. com/ 2002/ 07/ 21/ nyregion/ a-summer-of-hope-for-russian-orphans. pp 133–145 • Harrington. Children of the Laboring Poor: Expectation and Experience Among the Orphans of Early Modem Augsburg (2006) • Sen. 2002. au/ 7. Satadru. child and authority in British India. The Orphans of Byzantium: Child Welfare in the Christian Empire (2009) • Safley. Foot. Oct-Dec 2007. 30/ content/ 2009/ s2615472. The New York Times. Nicholas.C. S. Joel F. Vol. abc. Abandoned: Foundlings in Nineteenth-Century New York City (2007) 67 . nytimes. 1851-1950 (2000) Carp. 18 Issue 35. eds. Vol. A Second Home: Orphan Asylums and Poor Families in America (1997) Herman.Orphan [7] Virginia Haussegger Mahboba's promise ABC TV 7. pdf). Julie. The Oxford companion to World War II (1995) p 208. Thomas Max. Wayne. "The Unwanted Child: The Fate of Foundlings. 44 Issue 4. Janie. "Orphans. html?pagewanted=all)". The Writer's Guide to Fantasy Literature: From Dragon's Lair to Hero's Quest." Histoire Sociale: Social History. John. "Kinship by Design: A History of Adoption in the Modern United States (2008) ISBN 9780226327600 • Kleinberg. [9] China to insure orphans as preventitive health measure (http:/ / news.30 Report. Idiots. J. May 1985.

the term is used for a child whose mother has died due to AIDS before the child's 15th birthday. org. [3] AIDS Orphan's Preventable Death Challenges Those Left Behind (http:/ / www.org (http:/ / data. org/ aidsorphans. .AIDS orphan 68 AIDS orphan An AIDS orphan is a child who became an orphan because one or both parents died from AIDS. by Tony Karon. htm). org/ Publications/ IRC-pub05/ orphrept_en. za/ content.4-million Aids-orphans to get 'adult' rights" (http:/ / www. pdf) PDF [2] Stuijt.namchild. unaids.com/content/art1111. org/ about. asp?TopLinkID=6& PageID=18) Government of South Africa External links • AIDS Orphan Resources Around the Globe (http://www.thebody. AIDS-related deaths are often people who are their family's primary wage earners. The resulting AIDS orphans frequently depend on the state for care and financial support.8599. childrencount. Retrieved 2006-10-08. time. "South Africa's 3. com/ time/ world/ article/ 0.[2] There are 70. ci. php) [5] "AIDS orphans" (http:/ / www.[3] By the year 2010. projectaidsorphan. it is estimated that over 20 million children will be orphaned by AIDS. particularly in Africa. one study estimated that 80% of all AIDS orphans still have one living parent.[5] References [1] UNAIDS.html) • !Nam Child Wiki (http://www. [6] children count (http:/ / www. avert.[5] Aids orphans in Malawi The highest number of orphans due to AIDS alive in 2007 was in South Africa[5] (although the definition of AIDS orphan in South African statistics includes children up to the age of 18 who have lost either biological parent).[6] In 2005 the highest number of AIDS orphans as a percentage of all orphans was in Zimbabwe. June 01.gov. . In statistics from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). regardless of whether the father is still alive. html).[1] As a result of this definition.na) (Namibian Wiki on Children) . digitaljournal.000 new AIDS orphans a year. Adriana (04 April 2009).128736. 2001 [4] Project Aids Orphan (http:/ / www.[4] Because AIDS affects mainly those who are sexually active.00. Avert. com/ article/ 270409). the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).

[10] One explanation for this is the prevalence of permanent temporary foster care. group homes may be used for short-term placements.[3] [4] In large institutions.[10] Whereas orphanages are intended to be reasonably permanent placements. researchers from Duke University have shown that institutional care in America in the 20th century produced the same health.Orphanage 69 Orphanage An orphanage is a residential institution devoted to the care of orphans – children whose parents are deceased or otherwise unable or unwilling to care for them.[1] Other residential institutions for children can be called group home. are legally responsible for supporting children. Compared to foster care. Comparison to alternatives St. physical contact. mental.[5] [6] In the worst cases. especially in developing countries will prey on vulnerable families at risk of breakdown and actively recruit children. the biological family can also be dangerous to a child. social or cognitive development. emotional. conventional wisdom held that orphanages. but in the absence of these or other relatives willing to care for the children. especially large orphanages. This is the name for a long string of short stays with different foster care families. a group home for children and teens with autism. In the some cases. orphanages in developing countries are rarely run by the state[1] [2] Former Berlin Pankow orphanage In some places. However some orphanages. rehabilitation center or youth treatment center. They may be residential treatment centers. and orphanages are one way of providing for their care and housing. orphanages can be dangerous and unregulated places where children are subject to abuse and neglect. or substance abuse problems or child soldiers undergoing decommissioning. however they are still commonly founded by smaller charities and religious groups. foster care or adoption. Few large international charities continue to fund them.g.[10] Permanent temporary foster care is highly disruptive to the child and prevents the child from developing a sense of security or belonging. and better than care in the homes of strangers. babies may not receive enough eye contact. and sometimes grandparents. children's home. they become a ward of the state. orphanages are generally more expensive. and stimulation to promote proper physical. Placement in the home of a relative maintains and usually improves the child's connection to family members.[10] [11] . orphanages are slowly being phased out in many countries in favour of direct support to vulnerable children. Nicholas Orphanage in Novosibirsk. intellectual. and they frequently specialize in a particular population with psychiatric or behavioral problems. and physical outcomes as care by relatives. Parents.. e. eating disorders.[7] [8] [9] However. were the worst possible care option for children. Russia During the 20th century.

thanks to improved social security such as the Social Security Act which allowed Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) to be passed. This 70 . the need to operate large orphanages has decreased.[16] Alternatively the children whose upkeep is being funded by foreigners may be sent to work. In many works of fiction (notably Oliver Twist and Annie). He should be as careful and as diligent in the management of the orphan's property as of his own or even more careful still.Orphanage Deinstitutionalisation Increasingly there is a move to Deinstitutionalise child care systems. In the United States. This lack of social security and failure to develop alternative ways to support vulnerable families is the key reason that orphanages remain in many other countries. This would ensure their support and their learning an occupation. Orphanages are no longer common in the European community. Disabled children may need small family type homes where their needs can be catered for. Often circumstances will have changed since the separation. Older children may be supported to independence. as it is no longer common for birth parents in Western countries to give up their children. It is important to understand the reasons for child abandonment then set up targeted alternative services to support vulnerable families at risk of separation[12] such as mother and baby units and day care centres. Orphanage Scams Visitors to developing countries can be taken in by orphanage scams. This marked a change in social attitudes. It is true that some orphanages are funded on a per child basis and there can be attempts made to encourage children from poor families to enter the orphanage which will provide food. clothing and an education but often lack the individual love required for full cognitive development. were founded in the 1st century amid various alternative means of orphan support.[13] History The first orphanages. during the Middle Ages. and Romania in particular has struggled to reduce the visibility of its children's institutions to meet conditions of its entry into the European Union. This involves closing down orphanages and other institutions for children and developing replacement services. Many orphanages practiced some form of "binding-out" in which children. and as far fewer people die of diseases or violence while their children are still young. If that is not possible domestic adoption or long term fostering are considered. close down orphanages in favor of foster care and accelerated adoption. Plato (Laws. these can include orphanages created for the day[15] or orphanages as a front to get foreigners to pay school fees of orphanage director's extended families. called "orphanotrophia". the United States and other countries have moved to de-institutionalize the care of vulnerable children—that is. as soon as they were old enough. prescribed care for the widow and the orphan. Jewish law.[18] [19] [20] In Cambodia some are bought from their parents for very little and passed on to westerners who pay a large fee so they can adopt them. after a series of scandals involving the coercion of birth parents and abuse of orphans (notably at Georgia Tann's Tennessee Children's Home Society). not to school.[17] The worst even sell children.[21] . for instance. to monasteries. the exact opposite of what the donor is expecting. the administrators of orphanages are depicted as cruel monsters. and Athenian law supported all orphans of those killed in military service until the age of eighteen. Moreover. Major charities are increasingly focusing their efforts on the re-integration of orphans in order to keep them with their parents or extended family and communities. The first option for a child is to see if they can be reunited with their biological or extended family."[14] The care of orphans was referred to bishops and. founded in 1740 by George Whitefield. Men should have a fear of the loneliness of orphans and of the souls of their departed parents. A man should love the unfortunate orphan of whom he is guardian as if he were his own child. 927) says: "Orphans should be placed under the care of public guardians. the largest remaining orphanage is the Bethesda Orphanage. Such practices are assumed to be quite rare in the modern Western world. were given as apprentices to households. The deinstitutionalisation programme sped up in the 1950s.

A smaller number of children have also been able to be relocated into foster families". correspondingly.[26] Bulgaria The Bulgarian government has giving interest to strength the children's rights. Such places as were available could only be obtained by procuring votes for admission. Support is given to poor families and work during daytime. to soothe colic in babies.[27] [28] There are living 7000[29] children in Bulgarian orphanages wrongly classified as orphaned. each one having only 12-40 children residing there. placing them out of reach of poor families. Bulgaria is working hard to get all institutions closed within the next few years and find alternative ways to take care of the children. London Rev Andrew Reed 1822 Female Orphan Asylum Brighton Francois de Rosaz 1827 Infant Orphan Asylum Wanstead Rev Andrew Reed 1829 Sailor Orphan Girls School London 1836 Ashley Down orphanage Bristol George Müller 1844 Asylum for Fatherless Children Purley Rev Andrew Reed 1854 Wolverhampton Orphan Asylum Goldthorn Hill. Europe The orphanages and institutions remaining in Europe tend to be state funded. In Nepal orphanages can be used as a way to remove a child from their parents before placing them for adoption overseas which is equally lucrative to the owners who will receive a number or official and unofficial payments and 'donations'[23] [24] . Glos 1813 London Asylum for Orphans Hackney. Known orphanages are: Founded in Name Location Founder 1795 Bristol Asylum for Poor Orphan Girls (Blue Maids' Orphanage) nr Stokes Croft turnpike. with the rest of the children placed in orphanages in temporary periods when the family is in crisis. Wolverhampton John Lees . In November 2007. Only 10% of them are orphans. day centers have started up. Bulgaria adopted a national strategic plan for the period 2008–2018 to improve the living standards of the country's children.[30] United Kingdom During the Victorian Era. and orphanages were set up to reduce infant mortality.Orphanage 71 also happens in China[22] . Bristol 1800 St Elizabeth's Orphanage of Mercy Eastcombe. Albania There are approximately 10 small orphanages in Albania. Such places were often so full of children that "killing nurses" often administered Godfrey's Cordial.[25] Bosnia and Herzegovina SOS Children's Villages giving support to 240 orphaned children.[31] Many orphaned children were placed in either prisons or the workhouse. or else they were left to fend for themselves on the street. child abandonment was rampant. a special concoction of opium and treacle. as there were so few places in orphanages.

Middlemore 1872 St Theresa Roman Catholic Orphanage for Girls Plymouth 1873 Dr Thomas Barnado Maria Rye Charles Spurgeon Rev Thomas Bowman Stephenson James William Condell Fegan Ryelands Road Leominster 1874 Cottage Homes for Children West Derby Mrs Nassau Senior 1875 Aberlour Orphanage Aberlour. London 1869 Stockwell Orphanage London 1869 New Orphan Asylum Upper Henwick. London 1861 Female Orphan Home Charlotte Row. London 1861 Female Orphan Asylum Westminster Road. London 1861 Orphan Working School Haverstock Hill. London 1861 Jews' Orphan Asylum Goodmans Fields.Orphanage 72 1856 Wiltshire Reformatory Warminster 1860 Major Street Ragged Schools Liverpool Canon Thomas Major Lester 1861 St. Marylebone. Worcs 1869 Wesleyan Methodist National Children's Homes various 1869 London Orphan Asylum Watford 1870 Fegans Homes London 1870 Manchester and Salford Boys' and Girls' Refuge Manchester 1871 Wigmore West Bromwich and Walsall WJ Gilpin 1872 Middlemore Home Edgbaston Dr John T. Bow. Whitechapel. Regent's Park. London 1861 London Orphan Asylum Hackney. London 1862 Swansea Orphan Home for Girls Swansea 1865 The Boys' Home Regent's Park London 1866 Dr Barnado's various 1866 National Industrial Home for Crippled Boys London 1867 Peckham Home for Little Girls London 1868 The Boys' Refuge Bisley 1868 Royal Albert Orphanage Worcester 1868 Worcester Orphan Asylum Worcester 1869 Ely Deaconesses Orphanage Bedford Rev TB Stevenson 1869 Orphanage and Almshouses Erdington Josiah Mason 1869 The Neglected Children of Exeter Exeter 1869 Alexandra Orphanage for Infants Hornsey Rise. London 1861 The Orphanage Asylum Christchurch. London 1861 British Orphan Asylum Clapham. St Peter Walworth. Kentish Town. Scotland Rev Charles Jupp . London 1861 The Sailors' Orphan Girls' School & Home Hampstead. London 1861 Orphanage Eagle House. London 1861 Merchant Seamen's Orphan Asylum Bromley St Leonard. Philip Neri's orphanage for boys Birmingham Oratorians 1861 Adult Orphan Institution St Andrew's Place. Hammersmith.

41 percent of the institutions have each more than 60 children. London 1881 Jews Hospital & Orphan Asylum Knights Hill Road.[35] [36] Poland Children's rights enjoys a relatively strong protection in Poland. London 1881 Orphans' Home South Street. Southwark. Fordyce 1881 The Waifs and Strays' Society East Dulwich. Norwood. Violation of children's rights leads to court. Southwark. Social Workers' opportunities have increased by get more foster homes established and aggressive family members can now be forced away from home.[37] . London 1881 Orphanage Infirmary West Square. London Road.Orphanage 73 1877 All Saints Boys' Orphanage Lewisham. there are 35 orphanages. (RC Institution for Poor Orphan Children) Brompton. Kensington Estonia As of 2009. London Road.[34] Lithuania In Lithuania there are 105 institutions.[32] [33] Hungary A comprehensive national strategy for strengthening the rights of children adopted by Parliament in 2007 and will run until 2032. Birmingham 1918 Painswick Orphanage Painswick unknown Clio Boys' Home Liverpool unknown St Philip's Orphanage. Child flow to orphanages has been stopped and they are now protected by social services. London 1880 Birmingham Working Boy's Home (for boys over the age of 13) Birmingham Major Alfred V. Lambeth. London Edward de Montjoie Rudolf 1881 Catholic Childrens Protection Society Liverpool 1881 Dorset County Boys Home Milborne St Andrew 1881 Brixton Orphanage Brixton Road. which houses approximately 1300 orphaned children. instead of re-placing the child / children. Lithuania has the highest number of orphaned children in Northern-Europe. Orphaned children are now protected by social services. London 1882 St Michael's Home for Friendless Girls Salisbury 1890 St Saviour's Home Shrewsbury 1890 Orphanage of Pity Warminster 1890 Wolverhampton Union Cottage homes Wolverhampton 1892 Calthorpe Home For Girls Handsworth.

2009 68858 24. 2000 83907 53. but only 3 percent of them are orphans. 1990 47.569 4. 2011 50000 10. there are 10.833 [43] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] The reason of the large change of children protected by the state in 2000 comparing with 1999 is that many children's hospital and residential schools for small children where redesigned in to orphanages in year 2000.833 orphaned children in 256 large institutions in Romania. 1999 57087 33." But several Dickensian orphanages remain in Romania.227 16. 1994 52. 2008 71047 24.092 10. but by 2020 Romanian institutions should be a thing of the past with family care services will replacing the old system.786 13.821 12.979 15.965 9. 2001 78000 47.660 11. 2005 83059 32. . 2010 62000 19. state of the art.Orphanage 74 Republic of Moldova More than 8800 children expected to grow up at any kind of state institution. 1998 55641 38.986 3. 1997 51468 39. world class. 2002 87867 49. in some counties Romania now has "a completely new.[38] Romania The Romanian child welfare system is in the process of revising itself and has reduced the flow of infants into orphanages. All children in need will be protected by social services by 2020. 2006 78766 28.335 7.[42] # year Total children in care of the state. Number of children in orphanages 1.597 5. 2003 86379 43.000 17. 2007 73793 26. child health development policy.405 2.599 14.171 8.[40] Romania still has the highest number of orphaned children in Europe.[39] According to Baroness Emma Nicholson.[41] As of 2011.356 6. 2004 84445 37.

Of these at least four have since been closed.000 orphans found the following number in institutional care: 64 in registered institutions and 164 in unregistered institutions. Sub Saharan Africa Whilst some African orphanages are state funded the majority (especially in Sub Saharan Africa) appear to be funded by donors.800 children in institutional care in 148 orphanages.000 are living in orphanages. a last resort.[61] The Government of Rwanda are working with Hope and Homes for Children to close the first institution and develop a model for community based childcare which can be used across the country and ultimately Africa[62] Tanzania "Currently. and deinstitutionalization through family reunification and independent living are being emphasized. 5."[59] Ghana A 2007 survey sponsored by OrphanAid Africa and carried out by the Department of Social Welfare came up with the figure of 4.000 orphans. often from Western nations.Orphanage Serbia There are many state orphanages "where several thousand children are kept and which are still part of an outdated child care system". The website www. The conditions for them are bad because the government doesn't paid rapidly attention to improve the living standards for disabled children in Serbia's orphanages and medical institutions.000 children in the care of the state. because there is a social service law which requires that the children reside in a family home. Ethiopia "For example. None of them are currently living in an orphanage.[58] Sweden In Sweden there are 5." / "Attitudes regarding the institutional care of children have shifted dramatically in recent years in Ethiopia.[57] Slovakia The Committee gave some recommendations. 75 . and the creation of an independent institution for the protection of child rights.000 orphans and vulnerable children.org details these reforms.[60] Rwanda Out of 400. There appears to be general recognition by MOLSA and the NGOs with which Pact is working that such care is. at best. only 160 children remain of the 785 who were in JACH's three orphanages. such as proposals for the adoption of a new "national 14" action plan for children for at least the next five years. and that serious problems arise with the social reintegration of children who grow up in institutions."[63] A world bank document on Tanzania showed it was six times more expensive to institutionalise a child there than to help the family become functional and support the child themselves. in the Jerusalem Association Children's Home (JACH).ovcghana. Kenya A 1999 survey of 35. there are 52 orphanages in Tanzania caring for about 3.

and in five years.000[69] • Orphan school attendance ratio.000[68] Senegal • Children (0–17 years) orphaned by AIDS. estimate 560.000 to 543.000[69] SAARC Countries Nepal There are at least 602 child care homes housing 15. about 1. there were an estimated 280. South Africa does not licence orphanages any more but they continue to be set up unregulated and potentially more harmful. http://mmorphanage.095 children in Nepal[70] "Orphanages have turned into a Nepalese industry there is rampant abuse and a great need for intervention. 2005.[66] [66] Ninety-six thousand orphans in Togo attend school. estimate 340. Theoretically the policy supports community based family homes but this is not always the case.000 of them orphaned by AIDS.[73] 76 . http://www. 2005. One example is the homes operated by Thokomala. 2005. 1999–2005 71. and the government operates eight of its own. the number is expected to reach 900.org[60] Zimbabwe There are 38 privately run children's charity homes.)[65] Togo In Togo."[71] [72] Many do not require adequate checks of their volunteers leaving children open to abuse. estimate 31.000 orphans under 18 years of age in 2005.2 million by 2010. estimate 25.[64] South Africa Since 2000.000.000.thokomala. Statistics on the total number of children in orphanages nationwide are unavailable. the number of orphans is expected to increase rapidly in the coming years to 8. Out of this total number. With the spread of HIV/AIDS.000[68] • Children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes.Orphanage Nigeria In Nigeria. the number of orphans in Zimbabwe more than doubled from 200. in the country. Between 1994 and 1998. The breakdown of care was as follows: 38% grandparents 55% extended family 1% older orphan 6% non-relative Recently a group of students started a fundraising website for an orphanage in Zambia.za.org. 1999–2005 74. 88. or orphanages.000[69] • Children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes.[66] Sierra Leone[67] • Children (0–17 years) orphaned by AIDS. (Unfortunately. a rapid assessment of orphans and vulnerable children conducted in 2004 with UNICEF support revealed that there were about seven millions orphans in 2003 and that 800. there is no room for these children.8 million are orphaned by HIV/AIDS. Zambia A 1996 national survey of orphans revealed no evidence of orphanage care. but caregivers say their facilities were becoming unmanageably overwhelmed almost on a daily basis. 2005.000 more orphans were added during that same year.000[68] • Orphan school attendance ratio.

[75] Bangladesh "There are no statistics regarding the actual number of children in welfare institutions in Bangladesh. Alauddin and Tahia Maskan. The Department of Social Services. health services and other basic opportunities for hapless children. South Korea "There are now 17.500 -State institutions 250 -babies in three available "baby homes" 400 -Destitute Children's Rehabilitation Centre 100 -Vocational Training Centre for Orphans and Destitute Children 1. One example follows: 400 – Approximately – Nawab Sir Salimullah Muslim Orphanage[76] Maldives Orphans.I. the number of children enrolled has increased almost 80 percent since last January.) 9. but unknown: "There are no accurate figures available on how many orphans there are in Cambodia.400 -Sixty-five Welfare and Rehabilitation Programmes for Children with Disability The private welfare institutions are mostly known as orphanages and madrassahs. The authorities of most of these orphanages put more emphasis on religion and religious studies. is run by expats based in the capital city of Phnom Penh.O. it helps support orphans and other poor and homeless people.H.216 persons in 1971 to 9 institutions and 638 persons by the end of 2001. from 700 to over 1. estimate 51 "Minivan News" April 2007. Children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes. but who can't support their children.Orphanage 77 Afghanistan "At Kabul's two main orphanages. Almost half of these come from families who have at least one parent."[78] Cambodia There are numerous NGOs focusing their efforts on assisting Cambodia's orphans: one group. 2010." (The following numbers mention capacity only. basic education. under the Ministry of Social Welfare." One charity named C. . not actual numbers of orphans at present.E.[79] The total number of orphans is much higher. "World Orphans" constructed 47 orphanages housing over 1500 children in a three year period.000 children in public orphanages throughout the country and untold numbers at private institutions."[74] The non-governmental organisation Mahboba's promise assists orphans in contemporary Afghanistan. shelter.C. has a major programme named Child Welfare and Child Development in order to provide access to food. [77] . Retrieved 6 The Far East Taiwan The number of orphanages and orphans drastically dropped from 15 institutions and 2.200 children.

orphanage and there are over 120 orphans living in the facility. and a number of university scholarships.2 billion.000 children in Chinese orphanages.Orphanage China "Currently there are 50. Egypt Today (11/2001). 100.000 of these children.000 Bahraini families are granted monthly payments.000 of China's orphans are now in any form of institutional care.000 orphaned children in Laos.littlestlamb. There are only three orphanages in the whole country providing places for a total of 1. Note: There are about 185 orphanages in Egypt. The most recent figure provided by the government for the country's orphan population. a government association affiliated with the Ministry of Social Affairs." "Official figures show that fewer than 20. By Anneli Dahlbom One of the largest orphanages in Laos is in the town of Phonsavan. Menoufiya and Qalyubiya. 30 at Sayeda Zeinab orphanage. Shanghai Star (12/13/2001). the whereabouts of the great majority of China's orphans would still be a complete mystery. only a small proportion of whom are in any form of acknowledged state care. The above information was taken from the following articles: "Other families" by Amany Abdel-Moneim. "Ramadan brings charity to Egypt's orphans".O. Since then almost 7. and occasional contests are held each year by the organization for the benefit of orphans and widows sponsored by the organization.[80] The Middle East and North Africa Egypt "The [Mosques of Charity] orphanage houses about 120 children in Giza. Even if it were accurate. annual school bags. seems implausibly low for a country with a total population of 1. It is an S. while the number of abandoned children shows no sign of slowing. was established in 1992. leaving crucial questions about the country's child welfare system unanswered and suggesting that the real scope of the catastrophe that has befallen China's unwanted children may be far larger than the evidence in this report documents. various social and educational activities. Al-Ahram Weekly (5/1999). It houses about 44 children." "Dar Al-Mu'assassa Al-Iwaa'iya (Shelter Association). 78 . Orphanage Project in Egypt—www. Laos "It is stated that there are 20." "We [Dar Al-Iwaa] provide free education and accommodation for over 200 girls and boys." There are also 192 children at The Awlady. "A Child by Any Other Name" by Réhab El-Bakry.org Sudan There is still at least one orphanage in Sudan although efforts have been made to close it[81] Bahrain The "Royal Charity Organization" [82] is a Bahraini governmental charity organization founded in 2001 by King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah to sponsor all helpless Bahraini orphans and widows. and 300 at My Children Orphanage." Chinese official records fail to account for most of the country's abandoned infants and children. Graduation ceremonies.S. however." No Title.000.

"[88] Azerbaijan "Many children are abandoned due to extreme poverty and harsh living conditions. orphanages are better known as the Children Homes (Russian: Детскиe домa). increasing at the rate of 113. but very few of them are in English. UNICEF estimates that 95% of these children are social orphans.714 orphans.Orphanage Iraq UNICEF maintains the same number at present.000 orphans live in Russia." Palestinian Territory "In 1999."[89] Belarus Approximate total – 1." Former Soviet Union In the post-Soviet countries. Russia Over 700. The number dropped from 1. all children enroll into internat-schools (Russian: Школа-интернат) (see Boarding school). This is due to the policy of child re-integration in their household adopted by the Ministry of Social Affairs.000 children classified as being 'without parental care' (most of them live with other relatives and fosters).000 per year.773 (1993 statistics for "all types of orphanages") Kyrgyzstan Partial information: 85 – Ivanovka Orphanage[90] 79 . the number of children living in orphanages witnessed a considerable drop as compared to 1998.190 children). meaning that The Moscow Orphanage (founded in 1763. both the number of homes and the number of beneficiaries has declined. "Of a total of more than 600. After reaching school age. [83][84] [85] [86] There are many web pages for Russian orphanages. such as St Nicholas Orphanage [87] in Siberia or the Alapaevsk orphanage in the Urals. "While the number of state homes for orphans in the whole of Iraq was 25 in 1990 (serving 1.980 to 1." The new project "will benefit all the 1.190 children placed in orphanages. constructed in the 1770s) they have at least one living parent who has given them up to the state." A 1999 study by UNICEF "recommended the rebuilding of national capacity for the rehabilitation of orphans. The quality of services has also declined. Family members or neighbors may raise some of these children but the majority live in crowded orphanages until the age of fifteen when they are sent into the community to make a living for themselves. as many as one-third reside in institutions.

000 children. Fiji Orphans.000 children in the West. South."[99] In 2007." Catholic Relief Services provides assistance to 120 orphanages with 9. However. according to the CIA World Factbook. the number of orphans has skyrocketed. many are vulnerable or originate in vulnerable families that "hoped to increase their children's opportunities by sending them to orphanages. About 9. since the January 2010 earthquake. but Chambre de L'Enfance Necessiteusse Ha_tienne (CENH) indicated that it has received requests for assistance from nearly 200 orphanages from around the country for more than 200. and the living conditions for orphans have seriously deteriorated. UNICEF estimated there were 380.000. but instead shelters for vulnerable children. Southeast and Grand Anse. Official numbers are hard to find due to the general state of chaos in the country. North America & Caribbean Haiti Haitians and expatriate childcare professionals are careful to make it clear that Haitian orphanages and children's homes are not orphanages in the North American sense. 2005. children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes. Archived from the original [97] on 2007-11-29.[100] 80 .Orphanage Tajikistan "No one can be sure how many lone children are there in the republic.000[92] Other information: • • • • thousands – Zaporozhzhya region[93] 150 – Kiev State Baby Orphanage[94] 30 – Beregena Orphanage 120 – Dom Invalid Orphanage[95] Uzbekistan Partial Information: 80 – Takhtakupar Orphanage Oceania Indonesia No verifiable information for the number of children actually in orphanages.000 orphans in Haiti. Neither the number of children or the number of institutions is officially known. often housing children whose parent(s) are poor as well as those who are abandoned. "Convention on the Rights of the Child" [96] (PDF). neglected or abused by family guardians. Retrieved 2007-11-12.000 are in internats and in orphanages. They estimate receiving ten requests per week for assistance from additional orphanages and children's homes."[91] Ukraine 103. The number of orphaned and abandoned children is approximately 91. estimate 25. but some of these are repeat requests.000 "Unicef Fiji Statistics" [98]. but these include only orphanages that meet their criteria. Although not all are orphans. which has a population of just over 9 million.

or other types of institutional care. group homes. now called the Carolina Youth Development Center.[10] In the State of New York..[105] • Happy Hills Farm in Texas[10] • The Crossnore School. in the mountains of Crossnore. Approximately one sixth are placed in orphanages. the Charleston Orphan House. a nurse takes care of three children.at least 10. In fact. over time other charities have found other ways to care for children. was the first public orphanage in the United States. Georgia. non-denominational child welfare organization that still believes in building orphanages for children. founded in 1740. In a Colombian orphanage.000 Mexican children live in orphanages and more live in unregistered charity homes" • Mexican Orphanages [101] • Mazatlan Mexico Orphanage [102] • Casa Hogar Jeruel: Orphanage in Chihuahua City. About one quarter are placed with relatives.000 children in orphanages. many private charities existed to take care of destitute orphans. Most organizations provide a range of services to families in crisis. and institutional placements. including mental health care. .Orphanage 81 Mexico ". • Hope and Homes for Children are working with Governments in many countries to deinstitutionalise their child care systems. it is older than the country itself and was a site frequently visited by many of the country’s founding fathers.. SC. Orphanages were relatively common until the end of the 20th century. • SOS Children's Villages is the world's largest non-governmental. and multiple retrospective studies indicate that the former residents have higher than average educational outcomes and generally positive memories."[106] Peru Casa Hoger Lamedas Pampa.[104] Partial information: • Bethesda Home for Boys. is the oldest child caring institution in the country.currently there are about 20.. in Savannah.[10] Only 3% of former residents feel hostile towards the orphanages they were placed in. with many organizations preferring smaller "group home" sizes. in Huanaco Significant charities that help orphans Prior to the establishment of state care for orphans in First World countries. Mexico [103] United States The size of orphanages has declined over time. North Carolina[10] Central and South America Guatemala ".. Benjamin Franklin was an early investor and Bethesda was constituted by a grant from King George with the encouragement of Charles and John Wesley. • Established in 1790. foster care. slightly more than half of children in need of care are placed in foster care with strangers. located in Charleston.

. sky. pdf [14] "The Catholic Encyclopedia. Mid-day. pdf [29] http:/ / www. bbc. The Spectator. html). org.uk. soschildrensvillages. uk/ en/ 54_9678. savethechildren. nepalitimes. abstract). [11] (http:/ / news. The group raises money through theatrical performances and movie screenings. . html). html [26] http:/ / www. se/ php/ rapporter/ documents/ Europa%20och%20Centralasien/ Bulgarien%2C%20MR-rapport%202010. Retrieved 17 October 2011. myrepublica. Retrieved 17 October 2011. UK. . pdf [7] "Online library : Save the Children UK" (http:/ / www.org. BBC. . co. doc [17] "Bali’S Orphanage Scam" (http:/ / www. oneheart-bg. nytimes. [20] "News in Nepal: Fast. The Wall Street Journal. . manskligarattigheter. com/ content/ 7/ 1/ 34.org. [25] http:/ / www. com/ photo. html39. stm).Com. gov. com/ issue/ 2011/ 09/ 30/ Nation/ 18609).uk. html). "U. 5 September 2011. 12 June 2011. humanrights. Volume XI" (http:/ / www. se/ dynamaster/ file_archive/ 080325/ 51cacb4e4318d3f2d78c62ef72787efe/ Bulgarien. [15] "The Case of the Vanishing Orphanage | Good Intentions Are Not Enough" (http:/ / goodintents. [6] http:/ / www. . "South Africa: Homes close down for violating human rights" (http:/ / 7thspace. org/ docs/ Family%20or%20the%20institution. bg/ public/ images/ tinybrowser/ upload/ PPT%20BEIP%20Group%20for%20website. org/ orphanages/ vanishing-ophanage). html). [8] Paul Lewis in Tirana (27 October 2008). Full & Factual" (http:/ / www. . adoptionworx. se/ php/ rapporter/ documents/ Europa%20och%20Centralasien/ Bulgarien%2C%20MR-rapport%202010. php?action=news_details& news_id=32247). unicef. . thtml). E-include. wsj. "Orphanage scam grows" (http:/ / www. uk/ en/ 54_9678. uk/ society/ 2008/ oct/ 27/ tirana-orphanage-child-abuse-trial?INTCMP=SRCH).S. html). eu/ en/ articles/ 508-committee-of-ministers-recommendation-on-deinstitutionalization-of-children-with-disabilities). .com. biz/ articles/ greenspeak/ 2010/ orphanage. "Cashing it big on children" (http:/ / www. [19] "Orphanage Scams" (http:/ / thirdworldorphans. Prashant (15 June 2010). spectator. Retrieved 17 October 2011. htm). 8 October 2011. . Tva. com/ portal/ index. . Baliadvertiser. Retrieved 17 October 2011.org. . Savethechildren. Retrieved 17 October 2011. Richard B. [9] 7thSpace (10 August 2011). [13] http:/ / www. . Savethechildren.com. [2] Little Princes. . Nepali Times. • ACTUP! is a student run charity set up in aid of an orphanage in the Vinh province. Vietnam. "Three British evangelicals cast blame on each other in trials over child abuse at Albanian orphanage | Society" (http:/ / www. org/ ceecis/ Planning_for_Deinstitutionalization_and_Reordering_Child_care_Services_ENG. Retrieved 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. The Guardian (UK).uk.org. savethechildren. Seth (5 November 2001). savethechildren. gov. com/ home/ video/ 16088779 [23] Thomas Bell. sagepub. Retrieved 17 October 2011.org. Thirdworldorphans. 82 . Retrieved 17 October 2011.biz.eu. Retrieved 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. Savethechildren. org/ gpage. . Goodintents. htm). aspx [27] http:/ / www. org. Oneheart-bg. Thomas (28 September 2011). uk/ essays/ all/ 7289558/ how-to-fix-orphanages. [10] McKenzie. Myrepublica. pdf [30] "One Heart Bulgaria – Non-profit Humanitarian Aid Organization" (http:/ / www. [5] "Young Children in Institutional Care at Risk of Harm" (http:/ / tva. ca/ Where-we-help/ Europe/ Bosnia-and-Herzegovina/ Pages/ default. com/ article/ SB10001424052748703510304574626080835477074. co. "BBC News – Nepal comes to terms with foreign adoptions tragedy" (http:/ / www. Interrupts Cambodian Adoptions" (http:/ / www.com. pdf [28] http:/ / www. uk/ news/ world-south-asia-15066220). crin. com/ 2001/ 11/ 05/ world/ us-interrupts-cambodian-adoptions. References [1] "How to fix orphanages" (http:/ / www. baliadvertiser. 1 January 2006. [18] Nawgrahe. gov. unicef. Retrieved 17 October 2011. newadvent. . com/ headlines/ 391272/ south_africa_homes_close_down_for_violating_human_rights. Retrieved 17 October 2011.Orphanage • Dr Barnardo's Homes (now simply Barnardo's) • The Miracle Foundation is concerned with helping orphans in India. "The Best Thing About Orphanages" (http:/ / online. co. [16] http:/ / www. [4] "Online library : Save the Children UK" (http:/ / www. The New York Times (Cambodia). e-include.sagepub. . [22] http:/ / news. org/ cathen/ 11322b. co. [24] Bell. uk/ 2/ hi/ africa/ 7974232. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 7thspace. htm). htm). htm). [21] Mydans.org. humanrights. mid-day. com/ news/ 2010/ jun/ 150610-Yerwada-Orphanage-Baby-Scam-Pune. . . org. guardian. uk/ en/ 54_9173. Retrieved 17 October 2011. (14 January 2010). bbc. Conor Grennan [3] "Online library : Save the Children UK" (http:/ / www. accessed 3 September 2009 [12] "Inclusion Europe | Committee of Ministers: Recommendation on Deinstitutionalization of Children with Disabilities" (http:/ / www. org/ ). Retrieved 17 October 2011.

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[44] http:/ / www. aspx?reportid=94067 [71] "News in Nepal: Fast. html) 83 . hopeandhomes. copii. [64] "Press centre – Millions of orphans in Nigeria need care and access to basic services" (http:/ / www. pdf [56] http:/ / www. Myrepublica.30 Report. 4. humanrights. Worldbank. New York: Plenum Press. . 2009. co. pdf [39] http:/ / news. manskligarattigheter. unicef.Com. org/ infobycountry/ senegal_statistics. php?action=news_details& news_id=32247). html). gov. hopeandhomes. relieffundforromania. hopeandhomes. Full & Factual" (http:/ / www. org/ downloads/ HHC-ARK_brochure. relieffundforromania. [72] http:/ / s3. ro/ Files/ ianuarie2003ro_20073232438465. pdf [43] "Romanian Orphans in Romania – how we help" (http:/ / www. copii. gov. [65] (http:/ / report.com. migeprof. csmonitor. . usaid. irinnews. htm) [77] http:/ / minivannews. ro/ Files/ aprilie2004ro_20073231959852. html [42] http:/ / www. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 6267121. kff. 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"Health warning over Russian youth" (http:/ / news.Orphanage [79] "Statistics" (http:/ / www. "The parentless don’t need cheap pity. .org. us/ main/ fostercare/ stats2009. hopeandhomes.org. asp) New York State Office of Children and Family Services.parentless. Retrieved 17 October 2011. uk/ worldservice/ people/ highlights/ 001027_adoption. Retrieved 17 October 2011.myorphanage. unicef. 19 May 2008. ocfs. org/ russia_orphans.org/) • Aid to Vietnamese orphans (http://www. 194. [89] Azerbaijan (http:/ / www. asp). bbc. unicef. org/ reports98/ russia2/ ).orphanage. . Retrieved 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. zp. org/ infobycountry/ fiji_statistics. prijut. hrw. shtml). orphans. ru/ english/ [88] "Human Rights Watch" (http:/ / www.ua. "Orphanages in Haiti and Cambodia rent children to fleece gullible Westerners | Mail Online" (http:/ / www. BBC News. Charleston. casahogarjeruel. html [99] (http:/ / www.org) •  "Orphans and Orphanages". htm [103] http:/ / www. rcws. bh/ eng [83] http:/ / www. [93] Albert Pavlov (translated from Russian by Anna Large) (21 March 2007). 190/ html/ menu2/ 6/ crc/ doc/ report/ srf-indonesia-1.org. html) [92] Photo: Vasiliy Artyushenko. "A photoreport: “From Heart to Heart – 2”: a trip to the rural orphanages of Zaporozhye region:: Zaporozhzhya orphans. co. [80] "Phonsavan Orphanage" (http:/ / www.zp. co. savethechildren. com/ Azerbaijan. . stm). bbc. html#ixzz1JroqmjrL ). org/ [104] Facts About Children in Foster Care New York State – 2009 (http:/ / www.org/) • History of Beaver County Children's Home (http://bcch15066. Retrieved 17 October 2011. [101] http:/ / www. org/ orphanages/ orphankiev. htm). Ukraine" (http:/ / deti. htm [84] "Russian Orphans Facts and Statistics" (http:/ / www. . • World orphanages website (http://www. . . org/ russian_orphans/ index. Wyrick and Company.org) • MyOrphanage. Daily Mail (UK). [81] http:/ / www. html). orphanagefunds. archive. pdf [82] http:/ / www. [106] "The Children of Guatemala | BBC World Service" (http:/ / www. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Hrw. 28 October 2000. SC 1991. Retrieved 17 October 2011. Steven (1 June 2005). org/ aboutus_statistics. org/ orphanages/ moreukr. Deti. bigfamilyministry.org/) • Remembering Children Homes and Orphanages (http://childrenhomes. ny. Catholic Encyclopedia. lauram.ua. gov.org – In Touch With Orphanages (http://www.org) • Orphanage Review Board (http://www. pdf [97] http:/ / 193. pdf) page 14 and 15 of actual report. com/ Hogar%202006. iorphan. org [102] http:/ / www. uk/ debate/ article-1375330/ Orphanages-Haiti-Cambodia-rent-children-fleece-gullible-Westerners. org/ web/ 20071129174720/ http:/ / 193.RescuedOrphans. com/ hand_warmers_charity. Bigfamilyministry.htm) • Closing Orphanages – There is another way to care for the most vulnerable children (http://www. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4600785. . missionpartners. Retrieved 17 October 2011. synergyaids. html) [91] (http:/ / www. clouddepotnine.org) • Rescued Orphans – World's Largest Directory Of Orphanages (http://www. html). [87] http:/ / www. BBC. mw. 1913. internews.com. 138. rykersdream. ua/ 3000/ 3050/ 60819). [105] A Legacy of Caring: The Charleston Orphan House 1790–1990. 9 March 1998. org/ orphanages/ ivanovka. com/ Statistics. Yekaterina SHCHETKINA | Society |People" (http:/ / www. org/ sudan/ UNICEF_Sudan_Technical_Briefing_Paper_1_-_Alternative_family_care. [86] Eke. [94] Kiev Children's Work (http:/ / www. missionpartners. ru/ ASIA-PLUS/ bulletin_23/ children. . state. not web page counter [100] Ian Birrell (4 October 2011). Alla KOTLIAR. 194.org/) 84 . com/ documents/ 3549_fhi10. php?a_id=5150). Rykersdream. . dailymail. html) [96] http:/ / web. [85] "Information about Russian orphans" (http:/ / www. Mw. 190/ html/ menu2/ 6/ crc/ doc/ report/ srf-indonesia-1. Retrieved 17 October 2011. missionpartners. pdf [98] http:/ / www. Retrieved 17 October 2011. html) [95] Dnepropetrovsk Children's Work (http:/ / www. External links • Keeping Children Out of Harmful Institutions: Why we should be investing in family-based care (http://www. html) [90] Kyrgyzstan Children's Work (http:/ / www. Iorphan. anewarrival. Cloud Depot Nine Charity. co.org.covsa.uk/en/54_9678. ua/ eng/ show_article. 138. .

[3] Because culture by definition is something that must be shared with others. More recently. 66% of TCKs came from missionary families. thus integrating elements of those cultures and their own birth culture. has spent a significant period of time in one or more culture(s) other than [their] own. business (16%). we began to use the term "third culture" as a generic term to cover the styles of life created. Origins and terminology Dr. after a childhood spent in other cultures. regardless of nationality.[6] In 1993 she wrote: In summarizing that which we had observed in our cross-cultural encounters. are also used by some. American sociologist David C. The TCK frequently builds relationships to all of the cultures. not refugees or immigrants. Cross-Cultural Kid (CCK). the "third culture" is a way of life shared with others. ” General characteristics TCKs tend to have more in common with one another. government (23%). the composition of international families changed. and learned by persons who are in the process of relating their societies. or interstitial way of life lived by those who had gone from one culture (the home or first culture) to a host culture (the second) and had developed their own shared way of life with others also living outside their passport cultures. military (30%). while not having full ownership in any.[1] Other terms. for all types of cross-cultural childhoods. the sense of belonging is in relationship to others of similar background. and 16% came from business families. into a third culture". as with any culture. McCaig did not want the nuances particular to each type of experience to be lost. such as trans-culture kid. Others have used different expressions to describe this same population. Sponsors are generally broken down into five categories: missionary (17%). than they do with non-TCKs from their passport country. . shared. After World War II. Although elements from each culture may be assimilated into the TCK's life experience. David C. Before World War II.Third culture kid 85 Third culture kid Third culture kid (TCK. Ruth Van Reken is now suggesting a more comprehensive term. 3CK) is a term coined in the early 1950s by American sociologist and anthropologist Ruth Hill Useem "to refer to the children who accompany their parents into another society". For this reason. to each other. as a child. TCK World: The Official Home of Third Culture Kids [7] She describes the third culture as a shared. Useem coined the term third culture kid after her second year-long visit to India with her fellow sociologist/anthropologist husband and three children. —Ruth Hill Useem. Currently they include 3CK or trans-culture kid. Pollock's definition recognizes the reality of what Eakin is describing but takes it back to Useem's idea that. Norma McCaig used the term Global Nomad essentially to define the same group because (1) she didn't like being called a kid when she was grown up and (2) she wanted to make clear for future research purposes that this experience happened because of a parent's career choice (which was the case with the TCKs in Useem's first study.[5] Some TCK families migrate for work independently of any organization based in their country of origin. or sections thereof. The term "Third Culture Kids" or TCKs was coined to refer to the children who accompany their parents into another society. adjusting to their passport country often takes years. Pollock developed the following description for third culture kids[2] : “ A Third Culture Kid (TCK) is a person who has spent a significant part of [their] developmental years outside the parents' culture. and "other" (14%). although Useem didn't mention this). with the increase of international business and the rise of two international superpowers. Although moving between countries may become an easy thing for some TCKs.[3] [4] TCKs are often multilingual and highly accepting of other cultures. Around 1985. Kay Eakin adapted this term and described a TCK as "someone who.

Third culture kid Research Research into third culture kids has come from two fronts.. First. etc. Since the only way to identify somebody who grew up in a foreign culture is through self-identification. The sponsor affects many variables such as: how long a family is in a foreign culture. the U. the family's interaction with the host country nationals. Military Military brats are the most mobile of TCKs and spend an average of 7 (seven) years abroad while growing up.[8] Second. because of the 86 .S. or fear of repatriation or family disgrace with colleagues"."[11] It has been observed that TCKs may be more prone to abuse as the family can become too tight knit. While much of the research into TCKs has shown consistent results across geographical boundaries.. Physical.[10] When a group (whether it is the military. successful in their careers. church. a business. It can be devastating when it is not. While overseas a majority of non-infant and non-toddler military brats live off-base.[10] Also. sexual and emotional abuse . it is making a significant investment. those military brats who only live on base tend to be exposed the least to the local culture compared to other TCKs.S armed forces has sponsored significant research into the U. Useem taught for over 30 years. "Almost all" TCK families are deployed to foreign countries as a result of the father's profession. most of the research into TCKs has been conducted by adult TCKs attempting to validate their own experiences.. This research has been conducted largely at Michigan State University. how enmeshed the family becomes with local practices. government.. but a high percentage of military brats have lived off base overseas for years at a time.[11] Sponsorship TCK's exposure to foreign countries depends largely on parent's sponsoring organization. "The strength of [the] family bond works to the benefit of children when parent-child communication is good and the overall family dynamic is healthy. Because military bases aim for self-sufficiency. due to budgeting priorities of military bases. Research into TCKs has either studied students currently living in a foreign culture or years later as adults.[8] Most TCK research on adults is limited to those people whose time in a different culture occurred during the school age years. They will also have a smaller likelihood of having divorced parents (divorced parents are unlikely to allow their former spouse to take their child to another country). whereas bases tend to house more singles and families with very small children. military brat experience..) decides to send somebody to a foreign country. and are not likely to divorce. where Dr. TCKs will thus have a higher probability of coming from a family where at least one parent earned a college degree and often an advanced degree. may go unnoticed or unacknowledged by others for a variety of reasons. The group wants to send people who will represent it the best.[10] TCKs also tend to come from families that are closer than non-TCK families. "Because the nuclear family is the only consistent social unit through all moves. such as misguided notions about 'respecting privacy'.[9] Families The parents of TCKs are often highly educated. and the family's interaction with people from the home country. some international sociologists are critical of the research that "expects there to be one unified 'true' culture that is shared by all who have experiences of growing up overseas". family members are psychologically thrown back on one another in a way that is not typical in geographically stable families. and provide the most value for the investment. and very few families live in another country primarily due to the mother's occupation. Approximately 59% of military brats spend more than 5 years in foreign countries. scientific sampling methods on adults may contain bias due to the difficulty in conducting epidemiological studies across broad-based population samples.

approximately 36% of USA military brat TCK families have at least one parent with an advanced degree. or USA. This is significantly higher than the general population. e.[13] This group typically has spent the least amount of time in foreign countries (42% are abroad for 1–2 years and 70% for less than 5). Of all TCKs. the Nuclear Energy Agency. 44% have lived in at least four countries. Singapore. While parents of military brats had the lowest level of education of the five categories. Other TCK families who do not fit one the above categories include those employed by intergovernmental agencies (for example. of any TCKs.Third culture kid self-sufficiency of military bases and the distinctiveness of military culture. They are also the most likely of the TCKs to integrate themselves into the local culture. 63% of business TCKs have lived in foreign countries at least 10 years but are more likely than MKs to live in multiple countries. 85% of MKs spend more than 10 years in foreign countries and 72% lived in only one foreign country. the Commonwealth Secretariat. an Americanized Arab Muslim living in Chinatown. and local organizations such as hospitals. their involvement with local people and culture can vary greatly. Business TCKs will have a fairly high interaction with their host nationals and with others from their passport country. Their involvement with locals and others from their passport country depends on the role of the parent.[14] 87 .[5] Non-military government Nonmilitary government TCKs are the most likely to have extended experiences in foreign countries for extended periods. particularly in the Arab world and in Latin America.[12] TCKs in this category also might live in an area with a certain ethnic majority other than their own. as well as the rootless lifestyle of moving constantly while growing up.[12] Religious Missionary Kids (MKs) typically spend the most time overseas. Other professions include the media and athletics (for example. Parents who work in the pharmaceutical business typically move to countries such as Switzerland. Again. in one country. Wally Szczerbiak). Some may grow up moving from country to country in the diplomatic corps (see Foreign Service Brat) while others may live their lives near military bases. China. international non-governmental organizations (for example. international schools). Japan.g.[5] Business Business families also spend a great deal of time in foreign countries. 44% will also have spent at least 10 years outside of their passport country. even those military brats who never lived abroad can be isolated significantly from the civilian regional cultures of their "home" country. India.[12] Many of these "business" families are from oil companies. and the International Agency of the Francophonie). MKs generally have the most interaction with the local populace and the least interaction with people from their passport country.[12] 83% of missionary kids have at least one parent with an advanced degree. TCK parents in this category are the most likely (89%) to hold an advanced degree.

but that the understanding of the world around them differs. the United States and Africa has shown that TCKs from different countries share more in common with other TCKs than they do with their own peer group from their passport country. It would be typical for a TCK to say that he is a citizen of a country.[10] Kikokushijo In Japan. They do this because of the linguistic and cultural opportunities being immersed in English might provide their children when they are adults. the use of the term "third culture kids" to refer to children returned from living overseas is not universally accepted. literally "returnee children". Such children usually find it difficult to answer the question.Third culture kid Non-American third culture kids Most international TCKs are expected to speak English and some countries require their expatriate families to be proficient with the English language. Recently. Where their own language is not available. Germany. Many third culture kids face an identity crisis: they don't know where they come from. in the 1970s. TCKs have a globalized culture. which may make it seem difficult for TCKs to build long-term. however. yet most of them have not fully experienced any one culture making them feel incomplete or left out by other children who have not lived overseas. "Where are you from?" Compared to their peers who have lived their entire lives in a single culture. and government reports as early as 1966 recognised the need for the school system to adapt to them. French schools.S.[9] A few sociologists studying TCKs. families will often choose English-speaking schools for their children. and are often perpetually homesick for their adopted country. however. They often suffer a reverse culture shock upon their return. They know bits and pieces of at least two cultures. but that TCKs from different countries are really different from one another. There are. a term which has different implications.[9] Research on TCKs from Japan. German Schools and 'International Schools' which often follow one of the three International Baccalaureate programs. Public awareness of kikokushijo is much more widespread in Japan than awareness of TCKs in the United States. they were characterised in media reports and even by their own parents as "educational orphans" in need of "rescue" to reduce their foreignness and successfully reintegrate them into Japanese society.[10] Families tend to seek out schools whose principal languages they share. Italy. argue that the commonality found in international TCKs is not the result of true commonality. They believe that some of the superficial attributes may mirror each other. a growing number of online resources to help TCKs deal with issues as well as stay in contact with each other. Many countries have American schools. TCKs. especially. However.[9] The exteriors may be the same. in-depth relationships. Denmark.[15] Intercultural experiences Many TCKs take years to readjust to their passport countries.[10] This is largely because most international schools use the English language as the norm. Many choose to enter careers that allow them to travel frequently or live overseas. They often build social networks among themselves and prefer to socialize with other TCKs. but with nothing beyond his passport to define that identification for him. Others can have difficulty relating to them. and ideally one which mirrors their own educational system. These will be populated by expatriates' children and some children of the local upper middle class. This poses the potential for non-English speaking TCKs to have a significantly different experience from U. which makes it hard for others who have not had similar experiences to accept them for who they are. British schools. they are typically referred to both in Japanese and in English as kikokushijo. and because their children are more likely to have prior exposure to English than to other international languages. blogs and social networks including 88 . but rather the researcher's bias projecting expectations upon the studied subculture. They do this in an effort to maintain linguistic stability and to ensure that their children do not fall behind due to linguistic problems. views of kikokushijo have not always been positive. It is hard for TCKs to present themselves as a single cultured person.

and develop a chameleon-like ability to become part of other cultures. In addition.[22] [23] More welcoming of others into their community. have become a helpful way for TCKs to interact. As third culture kids mature they become adult third culture kids (ATCKs). and they often do. Facebook and TCKID. Some TCKs may also isolate themselves within their own sub-culture. due to their sociocultural adaptability. Some ATCKs come to terms with issues such as culture shock and a sense of not belonging while others struggle with these for their entire lives.Third culture kid 89 MySpace.[19] • Lack a sense of "where home is". The unique experiences of TCKs among different cultures and various relationships at the formative stage of their development makes their view of the world different from others. but are often nationalistic. or defining themselves in relation to some "other" ethnic or religious group. and Skype are often used so TCKs can keep in touch with each other. sometimes excluding native children attending their schools.[21] 80% believe they can get along with anybody.S. Career decisions [16] Missionary Military Government Business Other Executive/Admin 17% 40% 35% 10% 24% Semi/Professional 61% 34% 38% 47% 53% Support (Secretarial/Technical) 17% 27% 15% 16% 13% Sales 5% 6% 7% 5% 4% Other 1% 4% 5% 6% 6% Type of Work [17] Missionary Military Government Business Other Business/Financial 22% 32% 27% 20% 17% Education 25% 23% 17% 17% 28% Health/Social Services 24% 7% 13% 23% 13% Self Employed 11% 14% 14% 14% 14% Government 3% 5% 5% 7% 8% Military 2% 10% 6% 1% 2% Non-Medical Professional 3% 6% 12% 11% 10% Arts/Media 0% 3% 5% 4% 7% Religious 10% 0% 0% 2% 1% Work Setting Statistics (U.[19] [21] .[20] 90% report feeling as if they understand other people and cultural groups better than the average American. TCKs) Research has been done on American TCKs to identify various characteristics:[11] [18] [19] Sociopsychology • • • • • 90% feel "out of sync" with their peers.[21] Divorce rates among TCKs are lower than the general population. chatting programs including MSN Messenger. but TCKs marry at an older age (25+). They tend to get along with people of any culture. AIM.

ISBN 9780275972660. com/ milbrats.nomad children develop multicultural skills" (http:/ / www. Ender. transition-dynamics. government. html). html [8] Ender.S.[22] • Education. but in their twenties take longer than their peers to focus their aims. html). in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'. p. com/ useem/ art1. David C. state. p. google. com. (http:/ / www. . Beyond Adolescence: The Experiences of Adult Children of Military Parents. . html).[22] Notes [1] Useem. p 234. and in 18% by the mother. ed. Ender. 196. Ann (2002). tckworld. 'Other' Expatriate Adolescents: A Postmodern Approach to Understanding Expatriate Adolescents among non-U. com/ milbrats. com/ milbrats. asanet. p. Children. M. . . 80% of TCK families had at least one parent with a BA.S. [3] Eakin. 18. business management. in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'. TCKWorld. Dept of State. "Growing up with a world view . "One won't find many TCKs in large corporations. Annika (2002). transition-dynamics. [11] McCaig. html). ISBN 9780275972660.[24] • TCKs are highly linguistically adept (not as true for military TCKs). 157. [9] Hylmö. Gendai Shakai Kenkyū 6: 67–78. 168–170. pdf).. [14] Cottrell (2002) p 233-234. Portland: Greenwood. au/ books?id=eYK8vsA8K8MC& lpg=PP1& dq=third culture kid& pg=PA13#v=onepage& q=third culture kid& f=false).)[22] 45% of TCKs attended three universities before attaining a degree. ISBN 9780275972660. [2] Pollock. London: Nicholas Brealey. ed. . [5] Cottrell. . Ed. Annika (2002). M. org/ footnotes/ dec03/ departments. Children. Richard (2002). in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'. (http:/ / www. [10] Pearce. Norma (1994). Children's International Relocation and the Development Process. html). Ender. . (2009). 13.[26] [27] Education and career • • • • TCKs are 4 times as likely as non-TCKs to earn a bachelor's degree (81% vs 21%)[28] 40% earn an advanced degree (as compared to 5% of the non-TCK population.Third culture kid Cognitive and emotional development • Teenage TCKs are more mature than non-TCKs. M. TCKs may experience stress and even grief from the relocation experience. and highly-skilled positions are the most common professions for TCKs. Portland: Greenwood. jp/ bulletin/ 6/ kanou. tckworld. [7] http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. In 46% of TCK families an advanced degree was held by the father. . Retrieved 2010-01-18. com/ useem/ art1. M. in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'. Portland: Greenwood. html). military dependents were the "most representative of the United States population". "According to my passport. 230. Retrieved 90 . or follow their parents' career choices. ed. In the study. Greenwood. ed. pp. 201. Momo (2004-01-31). p. Van Reken. (http:/ / books. "Crosscultural upbringing: A comparison of the "third culture kids" framework and "Kaigai/Kikokushijo" studies" (http:/ / www. pp. Article 1.[25] • Like all children. Ruth E. U. Other Expatriate Adolescents: A Postmodern Approach to Understanding Expatriate Adolescents Among Non-U. Nor are there many in government . medicine. kaiku. com/ milbrats. "Third Culture Kids: Focus of Major Study" (http:/ / www. Ruth H. [6] Ruth Useem's obituary in Footnotes.[22] 44% earned undergraduate degree after the age of 22. ISBN 978-1857885255.[22] • TCKs are unlikely to work for big business. ed. (http:/ / www. they have not followed in parental footsteps". pp. cs. [12] Cotrell (2002) p 231 [13] Jordan (2002) p 227. [15] Kano Podolsky. Portland: Greenwood. (http:/ / www. . com/ nomads. [4] Hymlö. gov/ documents/ organization/ 2065. pdf) (PDF). Kay (1998).S. Morten (2002). the Newsletter of the American Sociological Association (http:/ / www2. kyoto-wu. transition-dynamics. I’m coming home" (http:/ / www. transition-dynamics. 196. xxv. com/ milbrats.[20] • Depression is comparatively prevalent among TCKs.. . Over all.[22] • A study whose subjects were all "career military brats"—those who had a parent in the military from birth through high school—shows that brats are linguistically adept. Third culture kids: growing up among worlds. transition-dynamics. ac. Ender.. in 'Military Brats and Other Global Nomads'. Foreign Service Journal: 32–41. December 2003. Educational and Occupational Choices of American Adult Third Culture Kids.[20] • TCKs' sense of identity and well-being is directly and negatively affected by repatriation. ISBN 9780275972660.. self-employment. 201. Ender. ISBN 9780275972660. Rev. html). M. html).

TCKs Four Times More Likely to Earn Bachelor’s Degrees (http:/ / www. Retrieved December 3. Ann and Ruth Hill Useem (1993). 2006. Moving Your Family Overseas. "Cultural Transitions During Childhood and Adjustment to College" (http:// worldwidefamilies. Cork (2004) "The Bamboo Chest: An Adventure in Healing the Trauma of War" (http://www. Edited Carolyn Smith. Westin Horton Plaza Hotel. org/ Moving. Pacific Command. . Edited Carolyn Smith. Lesia (April 2004). Caroline H. com/ useem/ art4. Julie and Linda Lankenau (Undated) “Third Culture Kids: Returning to their Passport Country” (http:// www. • Eakin. com/ useem/ art5. 2006. Military Brats and Other Global Nomads: Growing Up in Organization Families. html). TCKs Experience Prolonged Adolescence (http:/ / www. Portland. ME. tckworld.. html). ME. Third Culture Kids: Factors that Predict Psychological Health after Repatriation. Yarmouth. tckworld.htm) Prepared for Supporting the Military Child Annual Conference. 91 . tripod. tckworld. Alethia Publications: New York. html).S. 7(5). Alethia Publications: New York. Nat'l Inst for Trauma and Loss in Children. Kathleen Finn (2002). California. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads” • Kidd. Trauma and Loss: Research and Interventions. com/ useem/ art3. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads”. Intercultural Press. [23] Jordan (2002) p.htm) US Department of State. 2000). U. 8(4). pdf).gov/m/dghr/flo/rsrcs/pubs/4597. 1996. Retrieved December 3. ed. 1996 • Graham.amazon. "You can't go 'Home' Again" in Strangers at Home: Essays on the effects of living overseas and Coming 'home' to a strange land. • Hervey. edu/ Publications/ PM1529G. [25] Ender. com/ ). Retrieved December 3. Intercultural Press. Graphic Arts. Useem RH (1993). html). "The Military Culture as an Exemplar of American Qualities" (http://www. "Growing up in the Military" in Strangers at Home: Essays on the effects of living overseas and Coming 'home' to a strange land. Honors Thesis. 8(1) Accessed January 5.tckworld. [16] Cotrell (2002) p237 [17] Cotrell (2002) p238 [18] Useem RH (2001). International Schools Services. (2002). Smith College. p88-90 [26] Sheppard. Yarmouth. ME. Culture Shock: Successful Living Abroad. Useem RH (1994). (July 19.pdf) • Jordan. OR. Connecticut: Praeger. Alethia Publications: New York. [19] Lewis L. extension. Retrieved 22 January 2010.html) Third Culture Kid World. Third Culture Kids (http:/ / wanjennifer. 8(2).223 [24] Plamondon. iastate.mil/speeches/sst2000/milchild.Third culture kid 2007-11-08. References & Further Reading • Blair. Yarmouth. International Schools Services. com/ useem/ art2.pacom. Emily (2009). The Whole World Guide to Culture Learning. "Growing up in the Military" in Strangers at Home: Essays on the effects of living overseas and Coming 'home' to a strange land. • Britten. ed. Westport. Iowa State University. [28] Cottrell AB. tckworld. “The Effects of Deployment on Traditional and Nontraditional Military Families: Navy Mothers and Their Children” in Morten Ender. 1996 • Ender. International Schools Services. International Schools Services.state. William Steele (2003). Laila (2008). [27] Oesterreich. [21] Cottrell AB.com/comparisons. Intercultural Press. iss. TCKs maintain global dimensions throughout their lives (http:/ / www. Morten. International Schools Services. San Diego. Samuel (November 30. edu/ pages/ kids.tckworld. Admiral Dennis. . Useem RH (1993).org/Documents/JPC Article_Emily_Hervey. ed. Kay (1996). Survival Kit for Overseas Living. • Morten G. International Schools Services. "Understanding children: moving to a new home" (http:/ / www.. Edited Carolyn Smith. Commander in Chief. 1998) “TCK World: A Comparison of Different "Versions" Of TCKs” (http:// www. • Kohls RL (1996). 2006 • Cottrell. [22] Cottrell AB. ISBN 0-275-97266-6 • Pascoe R (1993). com/dp/0970358016) DPP 2004 • Hess DJ (1994). Morten.. [20] Cottrell AB. com/useem/art3. html). • Kalb R and Welch P (1992). Retrieved 22 January 2010. Michelle (2002). TCKs Experience Prolonged Adolescence (http://www. html). 2007. Ender. ATCKs have problems relating to their own ethnic groups (http:/ / www. 8(1). • Kelley. "Identity Formation and the Adult Third Culture Kid " In Morten Ender. Third Culture Kids: Focus of Major Study (http:/ / www. tlcinst. "Moving Can Become Traumatic" (http:/ / www. Useem RH (1993).html).

Third Culture Kids: Factors that Predict Psychological Health after Repatriation. • Useem. Phoebe.com) Official Home of Dr. • Seelye HN. Retrieved December 3. Carolyn (ed) (1996). Yarmouth. Wiley. Third Culture Kids: Prototypes for Understanding Other Cross-Cultural Kids (http://www. • Reken. Mary (2002). • Van Reken. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads”. and Daniela Tudor from TCKID • Worldwide Families | Third Culture Kids (http://worldwidefamilies. 2006.crossculturalkid. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads”. Ruth (1996). ed. Third Culture Kids.com/). Religious Culture Shock. • Smith. New York.org/ThirdCultureKids. ISBN 0-9639260-4-7 • Tyler. html) International Schools Services.htm) Retrieved December 3. Hill Useem's research. Ruth and Bethel. 2006. McGraw-Hill Companies.org/cck..abc. “Behavior of Civilian and Military High School Students in Movie Theaters”. New York: Harmony Books. Wasilewski JH (1996). • Stalnaker. Intercultural Press. Yarmouth. in Carolyn Smith "STrangers at Home: Essays on The effects of Living Overseas amd Coming Home/" • Reken. ME. (2008). in Morten Ender.. The Art of Coming Home. sociologist who coined the term "Third Culture Kid" • Third Culture Kids on ABC News (http://www. Paulette M.Third culture kid • Pearce. 2006. ed. • Price. Intercultural Press.militarybrat. (2002) “Military Brats: Issues and Associations in Adulthood“ in Morten Ender.au/rn/lifematters/stories/2009/2583257. (2002). in Morten Ender.aspx) Recent research and current resources • Military Brats Registry (http://www. “’Third Culture Kids: Prototypes for Understanding Other Cross-Cultural Kids”.net. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads External links • TCK World (http://www. Military Brats: Legacies of Childhood Inside the Fortress. World Citizens and "Rubberband Nationals" in Carolyn Smith Strangers at Home: Essays on the Effects of Living Overseas and Coming 'Home' to a Strange Land. “Military Brats and Other Global Nomads” • Plamondon. • Pollock DC and Van Reken R (2001). Yarmouth. Ruth and Paulette Bethel. ME.crossculturalkid.com/). (http://www. Laila. (http://www..denizenmag. ISBN 0-8442-3305-6.htm) Retrieved December 3.org/cck. (Social media site for military brats) • Denizen Magazine (http://www. New York: Aletheia Publications. • Shames GW (1997). Children's International Relocation and the Development Process. (undated) “Third Culture Kids: Focus of Major Study”. (2002). ISBN 1-85788-295-4.edu/pages/kids.. ISBN 0-517-58400-X • Williams. Honors Thesis. ed.htm) An interview with Ruth Van Reken. Karen and LisaMarie Mariglia. Mary Edwards (1991). in Morten Ender. ed. Brice Royer. ISBN 978-0-470-82072-8 • Storti C (1997). Nicholas Brealey Publishing/Intercultural Press. Between Cultures: Developing Self-Identity in a World of Diversity. Maine. Online magazine created by and dedicated to TCKs 92 .iss. • Wertsch. Smith College. Stan (2002) "Hub Culture: The Next Wave of Urban Consumers".tckworld. Ruth et al. “The Military Teenager in Europe: Perspectives for Health care Providers”. Transcultural Odysseys: The Evolving Global Consciousness.

whereas in England. these adoptive placements are meant to create enduring connections and social solidarity among families and lineages. Sikhs. Islamic countries such as Iraq and Malaysia have prohibitions against a child of Muslim parents being adopted by non-Muslim individuals. For example. Christians. Jews and Parsees can become only guardians under the Guardians and Wards Act of 1890. which had a system of true adoption. however. This does not negate the fact that English families often reared. While all societies make provision for the rearing of children whose own parents are unavailable to rear them.” but rather a ward of the adopting caretaker(s). India There is no uniform adoption law in India. this is close to other nations' systems for foster care. The child’s family name is not changed to that of the adopting parent(s) and his or her “guardians” are publicly known as such. cared for. To this day orphanages are still common all over South Korea. Africa On the other hand. It is only to point out that adoption is a specific legal arrangement within the many kinds of wardship or guardianship or fostering practiced worldwide. The Indian government regulates domestic and inter-country adoption of children in India. The placing family may receive another child from that family. Other common rules governing adoption in Islamic culture address inheritance. Like the reciprocal transfer of brides from one family to another. and the fact that adoptive parents are considered trustees of another individual's child rather than the child's new parents. children are often given to adoptive families. Adoptions outside the family were rare. if a parent dies intestate. the birth family seeks to create enduring ties with the family that is now rearing the child. By placing a child in another family's home. not all cultures use adoption. a child could inherit the parent's aristocratic title or samurai rank. This has also been the reason why most orphaned Korean children have been exported to countries such as the United States. The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act of 1956 allows only Hindus.[4] For children adopted outside India. which only introduced legal adoption in 1926. marriage regulations. or from another. loved and provided for parentless children.[2] [3] Korea In traditional Korean culture. In adoption systems. Jains. under a system of adoption. in many African cultures. adoption almost always occurred when another family member (sibling or cousin) gives a male child to the first-born male heir of the family. Legally. Arab Traditionally in Arab cultures if a child is adopted he or she does not become a “son” or “daughter. the adopted child stands in exactly the same position regarding inheritance as a biological child. Guardianship expires once the child attains the age of 18 years. only a biological child could inherit an aristocratic title. guardianship is awarded with the expectation that the child will be quickly adopted by the adopted parents in the country where they legally reside. and Buddhists to adopt.[1] In addition. Muslims. this statement could be debated. in pre-modern Japan. the child can also inherit the parent's hereditary rank.Cultural variations in adoption Cultural variations in adoption Adoption is an arrangement by which a child whose biological parents are unable to care for it is "adopted" and given the same legal and social status as though he/she were the biological child of the adoptive parents. Thus. This is also true to varying degrees in other Asian societies.[5] 93 .

Malarrive.g. 1936. (May 1976). The children. retained the tribal affiliation of their biological fathers. com/ baghdad/ 2006/ 06/ adoption_obstac. Annales Medico-Psychologiques 1 (5): 721–37.pp 190-193 94 . about. com/ googleScholar. htm)) [4] News from India (http:/ / indiaenews. com/ 2006-06/ 11324-indias-archaic-adoption-needs-overhaul. and inherited land only from the property of the paternal lineage.[7] New Zealand Māori have a form of traditional adoption practised within extended family called whāngai literally meaning to feed.. org/ web/ 20061202134315/ http:/ / www. entry for whāngai (http:/ / www. childsrights. Many Europeans and Americans associate adoption as a solution to something gone wrong. PMID 970828 [7] Donner. ( archived version 2006 (http:/ / web.Blogging Baghdad: The Untold Story . however. not from the property of the lineage of the guardian. notably in Africa. my/ BI/ 4_2_anakangkat. for example in Sikaiana. Beacon Press Edition. html) [3] FAQ on Adoption (http:/ / www. adoptionindia. co. prefer that children move between different households. William W. [10] Firth. cfm?dictionaryKeywords=whāngai) [9] Scotti. org/ html/ site_en/ index. gov. M. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 30. By contrast. "Sharing and Compassion: Fosterage in a Polynesian Society" (http:/ / www. Tahitians practice “fa’a’amu” adoption (meaning literally “giving to eat” adoption).National Registration Department of Malaysia. htm) [5] http:/ / www. nic. some Polynesian cultures.[8] Ties to the biological family are not normally severed. as traditionally has occurred in Western adoptions. they can even be asked for and given before birth. jpn. "We the Tikopia.MSNBC. 1963. qst?docId=5001854512). jpn. . and childless adults would sometimes take the child of another family and bring it up. nz/ index. Its basic functions compare to the ones of other traditional adoption practices.com (http:/ / onthescene. maoridictionary. php?subaction=showfull& id=1223651301& archive=& start_from=& ucat=2& ). "Fa'a'mu and Fanau. [8] Te Whanake Dictionary. Raymond. msnbc. (1999). questia. a child can be “given” with the agreement or on the initiative of the family council for a variety of reasons.[10] References [1] Adoption in Islam (http:/ / islam. Fosterage is viewed as a way to create and maintain close personal relations. and they do not permanently separate the children from their biological parents. J. archive.Cultural variations in adoption Polynesia “Fluid adoption” [6] is common in Polynesian culture. and rarely are ties to the biological family severed. It was not uncommon for families to rear children left parentless. unwanted pregnancy (by genetic parent) or infertility (by adoptive parent). These transfers of children between different caretakers and households are not exclusive. my/ FAQ-child+ adopted. in [6] Bourgeois. php) . e. com/ cs/ parenting/ a/ adoption. Crossing worlds (D’un monde à l’autre) Reflection on customary adoption practices (http:/ / www. 1957.[9] Tikopia Traditional Tikopia (Solomon Islands) society did not practice adoption as it is traditionally understood in Western societies. and parents traditionally do not refuse to let others take their children. gov. Daria Michel. Various traditional aspects and current problems of adoption and donation of children in French Polynesia". htm) [2] Adoption obstacles .

cultural. used as working concepts and in some cases asserted as nativist theories. and environmental factors. Walks up and down stairs 2 feet per step. Attends to own toilet needs . and watches where they go Cooperates with dressing.Child development stages 95 Child development stages Child development stages describe theoretical milestones of child development. 2 years Able to run. Can build a tower of 3 or 4 cubes and throw a ball Demands constant mothering. cognitive. then collapses with a bump Babbles 2 or 3 words repeatedly Drops toys. Turns head round to sound Squeals with delight appropriately. This article puts forward a general model based on the most widely accepted developmental stages. Feeds self with a spoon." driven by a wide variety of genetic. Discriminates smile. family. Undresses with assistance. Copies circle. Imaginary companions 4 years Goes down stairs one foot per step. Stands alone for a second or two. Palmar grasp of cube Double syllable sounds such as 'mumum' and 'dada' Localises sound 45 cm lateral to either ear May show 'stranger shyness' 9–10 months Wiggles and crawls. Cooperative play. Builds tower of 6 cubes Joins 2–3 words in sentences Parallel play. understands simple commands 18 months Can walk alone. copies a height. it is important to understand that there is wide variation in terms of what is considered "normal. skips on Questioning at its one foot. Imitates gate with cubes. vision and hearing development Developmental Milestones[1] Age Motor Speech Vision and hearing 4–6 weeks Additional Notes Smiles at parent 6–8 weeks Vocalizes 12–20 weeks Hand regard: following the hand [2] with the eyes. Gets up/down stairs holding intelligible words onto rail. However. nutritional. Builds tower of 9 cubes Constantly asks questions. Begins to jump with both feet. Many infantile cross substitutions in speech Dresses and undresses with assistance. Serves to practice emerging visual [3] skills. Objects taken to mouth Enjoys vocal play 6 months Transfers objects from one hand to the other. Many children will reach some or most of these milestones at different times from the norm. waves goodbye. Also observed in blind [2] children. Dry by day 3 years Goes up stairs 1-foot per step and downstairs 2 feet per step. Overview of motor. Many stage models of development have been proposed. Speaks in sentences. physical. Follows dangling toy from side to side. imitates cross and draws man on request. Many falling over. speech. Goes for objects and gets them. Sits unsupported. No grasp reflex Makes vowel noises 5 months Holds head steady. 3 months Prone:head held up for prolonged periods. Picks up objects with pincer grasp Babbles tunefully Looks for toys dropped Apprehensive about strangers 1 year Stands holding furniture. Picks up toy without 'Jargon'. Most children with autism are diagnosed at this age. Drinks from a cup with both hands. educational. Pulls self up to sit and sits erect with supports. Rolls over prone to supine.

• Eyes begin moving together in unison (binocular vision).7–37. • Head circumference increases approximately 2 cm per month until two months.98 in) per month 4–8 kg (8. • Increases are an important indication of continued brain growth.8–18 lb) 100–200 g per week 30 to 40 35. • Gums are red.8–5.5 cm (0.3 cm (0.6 kg (21 lb) Nearly triple the birth weight by first birthday 500 g per month 20 to 45 body temperature heart rate 20/100 130–250 g per month 22 to 40 body temperature 80 to 110 20/60 7–13 cm 12–15 kg (26–33 1 kg per year 20 to 35 (2. • Skin remains sensitive and easily irritated.51 in) per month (doubling birth weight) 500 g per month 25 to 50 body temperature heart rate 8–12 months Approx. • Posterior fontanelle.0–3. • Continues to breathe using abdominal muscles.1 in) per lb) year Weight gain Respiration rate (per minute) Normal body temperature Heart rate (pulse) (per minute) Visual acuity (Snellen chart) Specifications sorted by reached age 1–4 months Physical • Head and chest circumference are nearly equal to the part of the abdomen. • Cries with tears. then increases 1. . • Anterior fontanelle.1 in) per lb) year about 4 times birth weight body temperature heart rate 12–24 months 80–90 cm (31–35 in) 2 years 85–95 cm (33–37 in) Average weight 5–8 cm 9–13 kg (20–29 (2. Gives age Fluent speech with few infantile substitutions in speech 6 years Copies a diamond. • Legs.Child development stages 96 5 years Skips on both feet and hops. 1. Knows right from left and number of fingers Fluent speech Dresses and undresses alone Physical specifications Age Average length/height (cm) Length growth 1–4 months 50–70 cm (20–28 in) 2.5 °C 4–8 months 70–75 cm (28–30 in) 1. Draws a man and copies a triangle.5 times birth length by first birthday body temperature 9.5 cm per month until four months.

Movements are large and jerky. Transfers objects from one hand to the other.Child development stages Motor development • • • • • • • • • Rooting and sucking reflexes are well developed. • Anterior fontanelle. Sits alone without support. Gums may become red and swollen. and mouthing of objects. chewing. soon will begin to crawl forward. Reaches for objects with both arms simultaneously. when baby is held in a prone (face down) position. Landau reflex appears near the middle of this period. bowing gradually disappears as infant grows older. then 0. • Head circumference increases approximately 1 cm per month until six to seven months. infant throws out arms as a protective measure. with upper and lower incisors coming in first. strength insufficient to hold items.inability to move food to the back of the mouth. • Lifts head when placed on back. • True eye color is established. • Fat rolls ("Baby Fat") appear on thighs. biting.can not hold head up and line with the body. Holds hands in an open or semi-open position. but generally does not move forward. upper arms and neck. ongoing brain growth. Swallowing reflex and tongue movements are immature. and pounds objects. Motor development • • • • • • • • • • • • • Reflexive behaviors are changing: Blinking reflex is well established Sucking reflex becomes voluntary Moro reflex disappears When lowered suddenly. Upper body parts are more active: clasps hands above face. accompanied by increased drooling. Raises head and upper body on arms when in a prone position. back straightened. Swallowing reflex appears and allows infant to move solid foods from front of mouth to the back for swallowing. • May accidentally begin scooting backwards when placed on stomach. shakes.5 cm per month. • Posterior fontanelle closing or fully closed. Grasps with entire hand. • Teeth may begin to appear. rate and patterns vary from infant to infant. later reaches with one hand or the other. grasps object using entire hand (palmar grasp). • Can roll over from back or stomach position. reaches for objects. respiration rate depending on activity. Picks up objects using finger and thumb (pincer grip). and arms propped forward for support Pulls self into a crawling position by raising up on arms and drawing knees up beneath the body. Turns head side to side when in a supine (face up) position. • Legs may appear bowed. Grasp reflex. indicating healthy. waves arms about. Handles. rocks back and forth. • Breathing is abdominal. holding head erect. 4–8 months Physical • Head and chest circumferences are basically equal. • Looks for fallen objects by 7 months • Plays ‘peek-a-boo’ games 97 . Able to hold bottle. the head is held upright and legs are fully extended. head circumference should continue to increase steadily. puts everything in mouth.

Reaches for toys that are out of reach but visible Recognizes objects in reverse Drops thing intentionally and repeats and watches object Imitates activities like playing drum 98 . Shows awareness of distant objects (4 to 6 m or 13 to 20 ft away) by pointing at them. weather. Watches people. therefore. Explores new objects by poking with one finger. activity. may begin to walk alone. Stacks objects. Beginning to pull self to a standing position. Manipulates objects. Follows simple instructions. however. • Both eyes work in unison (true binocular coordination). toys. loses interest quickly and. can shift positions without falling. leaning on furniture for support. Continues to use abdominal muscles for breathing. Has good balance when sitting. cannot intentionally put an object down. Uses deliberate pincer grasp to pick up small objects. Feet appear flat as arch has not yet fully developed. often in the order of two lower incisors then two upper incisors followed by four more incisors and two lower molars but some babies may still be waiting for their first. and finger foods. hands appear large in proportion to other body parts. Head and chest circumference remain equal. also places objects inside one another. transferring them from one hand to the other. • Can see distant objects (4 to 6 m or 13 to 20 ft away) and points at them. and activities in the immediate environment. moves around obstacles by side-stepping. may be difficult to test formally.Child development stages • Cannot understand “no” or “danger” 8–12 Months Physical • • • • • • • • • • Respiration rates vary with activity Environmental conditions. Motor development • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Reaches with one hand leading to grasp an offered object or toy. Responds to hearing tests (voice localization). objects. Beginning to stand alone. Creeps on hands and knees. "Baby Fat" continues to appear on thighs. Legs may continue to appear bowed. Releases objects or toys by dropping or throwing. and clothing still affect variations in body temperature. More teeth appear. crawls up and down stairs. Arm and hands are more developed than feet and legs (cephalocaudal development). upper arms and neck. Anterior fontanelle begins to close. Walks with adult support. holding onto adult's hand.

Legs may still appear bowed. • Carries toys from place to place. • Demonstrates understanding of functional relationships (objects that belong together): Puts spoon in bowl and then uses spoon as if eating. falls often. Motor development • Crawls skillfully and quickly. • Most children walk unassisted near the end of this period. • Helps turn pages in book. • Uses furniture to lower self to floor. Toddler will begin to lose the "Baby Fat" once he/she begins walking. • Crawls up stairs on all fours. takes on more adult-like appearance. uses whole-arm movement. tries to make doll stand up. Cognitive development • Enjoys object-hiding activities • Early in this period. Later. Body shape changes. 99 . • Enjoys looking at picture books. direction becomes more deliberate. • Sits in a small chair. usually at the middle of this year. such as furniture or toys. not always accurate in getting utensils into mouth. • Puts toys in mouth less often. • Helps feed self. abdomen protrudes. grows approximately 1. • Gets to feet unaided. places teacup on saucer and sips from cup. • Stacks two to six objects per day. • Shows or offers toy to another person to look at. • Enjoys crayons and markers for scribbling. the child always searches in the same location for a hidden object (if the child has watched the hiding of an object). has difficulty stopping and usually just drops to the floor. Respiration rate varies with emotional state and activity. legs stiffened. frequent spills should be expected. Chest circumference is larger than head circumference. back is swayed. • Enjoys pushing or pulling toys while walking. goes down stairs in same position. • Repeatedly picks up objects and throws them. • Passes toy to other hand when offered a second object (referred to as "crossing the midline"-an important neurological development). not always able to maneuver around obstacles. anterior fontanelle is nearly closed at eighteen months as bones of the skull thicken.Child development stages Toddlers (12–24 months) Physical • • • • • • • • • Weight is now approximately 3 times the child's birth weight.3 cm every six months. still appears top-heavy. • Manages three to four objects by setting an object aside (on lap or floor) when presented with a new toy. collapses backwards into a sitting position or falls forward on hands and then sits. Anterior fontanelle closing or fully closed. • Attempts to run. enjoys holding spoon (often upside down) and drinking from a glass or cup. Rate of growth slows Head size increases slowly. the child will search in several locations. • Stands alone with feet spread apart. and arms extended for support.

• Identifies three body parts if someone names them: "Show me your nose (toe. • Places several small items (blocks. Recognizes self in mirror." • Indicates a few desired objects and activities by name: "Bye-bye. "Give Daddy the cup. Social • less wary of strangers. toddlers need to be watched carefully to prevent them from getting into unsafe situations. • Exceedingly curious about people and surroundings. clothespins. • Shows increasing understanding of spatial and form discrimination: puts all pegs in a pegboard. • Most children with autism are diagnosed at this age. some turn-taking in other kinds of vocal exchanges. typically these are words that refer to animals. Later.Child development stages • Names many everyday objects. likes to know that an adult is near. • Speech is 25 to 50 percent intelligible during this period. Enjoys adult attention. • Holophrastic speech: uses one word to convey an entire thought. will point to familiar persons. produces two-word phrases to express a complete thought (telegraphic speech): "More cookie. cereal pieces) in a container or bottle and then dumps them out." • When asked. Language • Produces considerable "jargon": puts words and sounds together into speech-like (inflected) patterns. gives hugs and kisses. but cannot truly imitate facial expression." "cookie". putting on shoes. • Plays by themselves • • • • • • Enjoys being held and read to. animals. Enjoys the companionship of other children. • Uses gestures. • Responds with some facial movement. eating." • Follows simple directions. places three geometric shapes in large formboard or puzzle. taking a bath. tries to join in. • Helps pick up and put away toys. such as making and imitating sounds. 100 . Often imitates adult actions in play. verbal request is often accompanied by an insistent gesture. often refuses to cooperate with daily routines that once were enjoyable. wants to try doing things without help. • Acquires and uses five to fifty words. meaning depends on the inflection ("me" may be used to request more cookies or a desire to feed self). ear). to direct adult attention. • Enjoys rhymes and songs. • Tries to make mechanical objects work after watching someone else do so." "Daddy bye-bye. and toys. and toys. • May have a tantrum when things go wrong or if overly tired or frustrated. food. such as pointing or pulling. Beginning to assert independence. • Seems aware of reciprocal (back and forth) aspects of conversational exchanges. but does not play cooperatively. • Responds to simple questions with "yes" or "no" and appropriate head movement. resists getting dressed. • Locates familiar objects on request (if child knows location of objects).

Unbuttons large buttons.) are a great way to encourage and stimulate this area of development. Want attention. which usually occurs during the sensorimotor stage of Piaget's childhood theory of cognitive development) • Names familiar objects. Cognitive • • • • Eye–hand movements better coordinated. eensy weensy spider. Climbs stairs unassisted (but not with alternating feet). • Respirations are slow and regular • Body temperature continues to fluctuate with activity. Grasps large crayon with fist. • Recognizes. and finger plays (e. Shame and Doubt (will) (J. fit large pegs into pegboard.g. rhymes. take them apart. • 16 baby teeth almost finished growing out Motor development • • • • • • • • • • • Can walk around obstacles and walk more erect Squats for long periods while playing. 2008) Psychosocial stimulation is vital during the toddler years. Often achieves toilet training during this year (depending on child's physical and neurological development) although accidents should still be expected. what caused a particular noise. • Attends to self-selected activities for longer periods of time.Child development stages Psychological Autonomy vs. Stacks four to six objects on top of one another. and environment. but ironically they enjoy sharing this discovery with others. notes their absence. Begins to use objects for purposes other than intended (may push a block around as a boat). and locates pain. trouble you watching TV. Seems fascinated by. emotional state. start crying loudly under the situation. Holds small cup or tumbler in one hand. Throws large ball underhand without losing balance. jumps up and down. 101 . Songs. the child will indicate readiness for toilet training. Another important advancement is active social play with adults including mirroring and repeating. figuring out situations: where the tennis ball rolled. Toddlers begin to learn and exhibit independence. abdomen still large and protruding. • Brain reaches about 80 percent of its adult size. expresses. where the dog went. turns. Does simple classification tasks based on single dimension (separates toy dinosaurs from toy cars). Balances on one foot (for a few moments). Climbs up on chair. or engrossed in. if not paid start throwing objects. Chasse. Opens doors by turning doorknobs. but may fall. and sits down. because abdominal muscles are not yet fully developed. Two year old Physical • Posture is more erect. (This is what Piaget termed object permanence. can put objects together. Play begins to become interactive. • Knows where familiar persons should be. Scared from dark. Uses feet to propel wheeled riding toys. little teapot. Discovering cause and effect: squeezing the cat makes her scratch. etc. finds a hidden object by looking in last hiding place first. scribbles. unzips large zippers. back swayed.

• Tells about objects and events not immediately present (this is both a cognitive and linguistic advance). most two-year olds understand significantly more than they can talk about.and four-word statements.[5] • Offers toys to other children. finds it difficult to wait or take turns. • Enjoys "helping" with household chores. wants it both ways. but seldom interacts directly." Uses some plurals. appears to sometimes be overly affectionate in offering hugs and kisses to children • Continues to use physical aggression if frustrated or angry (for some children. wants everything "just so".Child development stages • Expected to use "magical thinking". extremely difficult to reason with during a tantrum. feed a doll. • "Bossy" with parents and caregivers. Some stammering and other dysfluencies are common. orders them around. belongings placed "where they belong. routines carried out exactly as before. • Making choices is difficult. Social and emotional • Shows signs of empathy and caring: comforts another child if hurt or frightened. Receptive language is more developed than expressive language. • Watches and imitates the play of other children. • Temper tantrums likely to peak during this year. much of a two-year-old's talk has meaning to him or her. makes demands. often choosing similar toys and activities (parallel play). • Often defiant. in other words. Utters three. still tends to hoard toys. expects immediate compliance from adults. uses conventional word order to form more complete sentences." 102 . such as believing a toy bear is a real bear. but is usually possessive of playthings. • Ritualistic. Realizes language is effective for getting desired responses. vocabulary continuously increasing. Language • • • • • • • • • • • Enjoys participating while being read to. • Expresses more curiosity about the world. plays near others." Expresses negative statements by tacking on a negative word such as "no" or "not": "Not more milk. Has broken the linguistic code. shouting "no" becomes automatic. Physical aggression usually lessens as verbal skills improve. Speech is as much as 65 to 70 percent intelligible. imitates everyday activities: may try to toilet a stuffed animal. this is more exaggerated than for others). Refers to self as "me" or sometimes "I" rather than by name: "Me go bye-bye". • Is able to verbalize needs.[4] solitary play is often simple and repetitive. Uses fifty to three-hundred words. has no trouble verbalizing "mine. • Impatient.

Child development stages Three year old Physical • Growth is steady though slower than in first two years. Jumps on the spot. and squeezes it. Motor development • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Walks up and down stairs unassisted. Can kick big ball-shaped objects.500 calories) daily. Carries a container of liquid. • Manipulates large buttons and zippers on clothing. rolls. horizontal and circular strokes. males are approximately 53% of their adult height and females.300 J (1. aim and distance are limited. Shows improved control of crayons or markers. Enjoys swinging on a swing (not too high or too fast). • Posture is more erect. Can walk on one foot. such as a cup of milk or bowl of water. Enjoys playing with clay. uses vertical. head size is in better proportion to the body. brushes own teeth. • Adult height can be predicted from measurements of height at three years of age. • Needs to consume approximately 6. without much spilling. may jump from bottom step. Builds a tower of eight or more blocks. 57%. • Washes and dries hands. • Circumference of head and chest is equal. Catches a large bounced ball with both arms extended. landing on both feet. pounds. not in a fist as earlier. • Legs grow faster than arms. pours liquid from pitcher into another container. • Usually achieves complete bladder control during this time. • Slightly knock-kneed. May begin to show hand dominance. Throws a ball overhand. but not thoroughly. 103 . • can jump from low step • can stand up and walk around on tiptoes • "baby" teeth stage over. Pedals a small tricycle. using alternating feet. • "Baby fat" disappears as neck appears. balance momentarily. abdomen no longer protrudes. Holds crayon or marker between first two fingers and thumb (tripod grasp). Needs minimal assistance eating. Can turn pages of a book one at a time Enjoys building with blocks.

playground equipment. • Indicates negatives by inserting "no" or "not" before a simple noun or verb phrase: "Not baby. simple animals. Hops on one foot. Likes to look at books and may pretend to "read" to others or explain pictures. Jumps over objects 12 to 15 cm (5 to 6 in) high. Four year old Physical Development • Head circumference is usually not measured after age three.Child development stages Cognitive development • • • • • • • Listens attentively to age-appropriate stories." • Answers "What are you doing?". turns corners. and "Where?" questions dealing with familiar objects and events. • Becomes more accurate at hitting nails and pegs with hammer. Throws a ball overhand. brown dog. Enjoys stories with riddles." Climbs ladders. uses "-s" to indicate more than one. starts. Motor Development • • • • • • • • • • • • Walks a straight line (tape or chalk line on the floor). and "suspense. trees. • Requires approximately 1. Holds a crayon or marker using a tripod grasp. and moves around obstacles with ease. Forms shapes and objects out of clay: cookies. guessing. • Can run in a circle 104 . Runs. especially those that relate to home and family events. but often has problems implementing it so calls the creation something else. "What is this?". • Threads small wooden beads on a string. by the child's appropriate responses to questions and instructions. often puts "-s" on already pluralized forms: geeses. Makes relevant comments during stories. Paints and draws with purpose. stops. lands with both feet together." Produces verbs with "ing" endings. avoids obstacles and oncoming "traffic. Pedals and steers a wheeled toy with confidence. Produces expanded noun phrases: "big.700 calories daily." Speech is understandable most of the time. mices. • Hearing acuity can be assessed by child's correct usage of sounds and *Language also. Reproduces some shapes and letters. distance and aim improving. Builds a tower with ten or more blocks. may have an idea in mind. snakes.

• Understands the sequence of daily events: "When we get up in the morning. • Delights in wordplay. but not always in order • follows two to three step directions given individually or in a group • may put the "ed" on the end of words such as "I goed outside and I played. • Imaginary playmates or companions are common. participates in group activities. exaggerates. have breakfast. not always able to take turns or to understand taking turns under some conditions." Refers to activities." Uses possessives consistently: "hers. • Counts 1 to 7 objects out loud." "same. Begins to correctly use the past tense of verbs: "Mommy closed the door. and "bends" the truth with made-up stories or claims of boldness." and "more". • Often appears selfish. Writes several letters and sometimes their name. and "How many?" Produces elaborate sentence structures: "The cat ran under the house before I could see what color it was. 105 . • Answers appropriately when asked what to do if tired. animal)." "theirs. selects the picture that has the "most houses" or the "biggest dogs. • Insists on trying to do things independently." • Rote counts to 20 or more. "Who?". and sometimes own telephone number. objects. laughing one minute. cold. "Did the baby drink all of his milk?" • States first and last name. can recognize and identify missing puzzle parts (of person. car. siblings' names. and people that are not present. • Likes stories about how things grow and how things operate. or hungry." "baby's. • Shows pride in accomplishments. • Moods change rapidly and unpredictably." "in. • Enjoys role-playing and make-believe activities." "Daddy went to work. creating silly Language. seeks frequent adult approval. but may get so frustrated as to verge on tantrums when problems arise: paint that drips. • Very good storytellers. Social development • Outgoing. we get dressed. overly enthusiastic at times. sulk over being left out. "Milk gone?" To Mother. tests the limits with "bathroom" talk." and "under. events. Changes tone of voice and sentence structure to adapt to listener's level of under-standing: To baby brother.Child development stages Cognitive • Can recognize that certain words sound similar • Names eighteen to twenty uppercase letters." • When looking at pictures." Language • • • • • • • • Uses the prepositions "on. tattles on other children." Answers "Whose?"." "biggest. may throw tantrum over minor frustrations (a block structure that will not balance). • A few children are beginning to read simple books. • Understands the concepts of "tallest. • Cooperates with others. paper airplane that will not fold right. gender. such as alphabet books with only a few words per page and many pictures." Speech is almost entirely intelligible. crying the next. friendly. holds conversations and shares strong emotions with this invisible friend. Recites and sings simple songs and rhymes. • Boasts. "Why?". brush our teeth. and go to school.

500 J (1. Understands concept of same shape. Understands the concepts of smallest and shortest. • Walks unassisted up and down stairs. and early: "I got up early. triangle. Rote counts to 20 and above. light. last. Balances on either foot with good control for ten seconds. such as color and form. Sorts a variety of objects so that all things in the group have a single common feature (classification skill: all are food items or boats or animals). Identifies objects with specified serial position: first. Motor development • Walks backwards.3 ft) away. Walks a balance beam. Learns to skip using alternative feet. Can touch toes without flexing knees." 106 . may yell angrily rather than hit to make a point. Demonstrates fair control of pencil or marker. • • • • • • • • • • • • • May learn to turn somersaults (should be taught the right way in order to avoid injury). C. places objects in order from shortest to tallest. A. Recognizes numerals from 1 to 10. beginning to have "best" friends. alternating feet. smallest to largest. Hand dominance is fairly well established. some children learning to ride bicycles. H. O. toe to heel. • Establishes close relationships with playmates. Body is adult-like in proportion. may begin to color within the lines. T. It was still dark. Reproduces many shapes and letters: square.Child development stages • Relies (most of the time) on verbal rather than Physical aggression. Builds steps with set of small blocks. Sorts objects on the basis of two dimensions. Rides a tricycle or wheeled toy with speed and skillful steering. many children count to 100. Jumps or hops forward ten times in a row without falling. before anyone else. I. Catches a ball thrown from 1 m (3. Five year old Physical • • • • • Head size is approximately that of an adult's. Requires approximately 7. L. Cognitive • • • • • • • • • • Forms rectangle from two triangular cuts. May begin to lose "baby" (deciduous) teeth. threatens: "You can't come to my birthday party" • Name-calling and taunting are often used as ways of excluding other children. second. same size. Understands the concepts of less than: "Which bowl has less water?" • Understands the terms dark. Cuts on the line with scissors (not perfectly). Builds three-dimensional structures with small cubes by copying from a picture or model. U." • Relates clock time to daily schedule: "Time to turn on TV when the little hand points to 5. usually with training wheels.800 calories) daily Visual tracking and binocular vision are well developed.

" "washed. birthday. Has better self-control over swings of emotions." Social development • • • • • • • • • Enjoys and often has one or two focus friendships.700 J to 7. Plays cooperatively (can lapse). shares toys. Uses 6.700 calories) a day. Identifies and names four to eight colours.500 words plus. Boasts about accomplishments. takes turns. Uses past tense of irregular verbs consistently: "went. can say how many pieces an object has when it's been cut in half. States the name of own city or town." "caught. a bed is to sleep in. 107 . (Berk. Heart rate and respiratory rates are close to adults. Asks innumerable questions: Why? What? Where? When? Eager to learn new things." "rained. Recognizes and identifies coins. Answers telephone appropriately. Shows affection and caring towards others especially those “below” them or in pain Generally subservient to parent or caregiver requests. Participates in group play and shared activities with other children.Child development stages • • • • • • • Some children can tell time on the hour: five o'clock. Knows what a calendar is for. suggests imaginative and elaborate play ideas.and lowercase letters. Six year old Physical • • • • • • • Weight gains reflect significant increases in muscle mass. Baby teeth beginning to be replaced by permanent ones. beginning to count and save money. Language development • • • • • • • • Vocabulary of 1. two o'clock. calls person to phone or takes a brief message • • • • Speech is almost entirely grammatically correct. if below 20/40 should see a professional. Recognizes the humor in simple jokes. is generous. Body may appear lanky as through period of rapid growth. starting with the two lower front teeth 20/20 eyesight." "swam. Many children know the alphabet and names of upper. The most common vision problem during middle childhood is myopia. Likes entertaining people and making them laugh. or nearsightedness. 2007). Defines simple words by function: a ball is to bounce." Uses past-tense inflection (-ed) appropriately to mark regular verbs: "jumped. Uses "would" and "could" appropriately. Produces sentences with five to seven words. and parents' names. much longer sentences are not unusual. Understands the concept of half.100 J (1. Tells a familiar story while looking at pictures in a book. Needs comfort and reassurance from adults but is less open to comfort.600 to 1. makes up jokes and riddles.

Uses appropriate verb tenses. • Has trouble staying still. • Understands time (today. Experiments with slang and profanity and finds it funny. may complain excessively about minor hurts to gain more attention. though • Can concentrate effort but not always consistently. you dummy.000.000–14. Holds onto positive beliefs involving the unexplainable (magic or fantasy) Arrives at some understanding about death and dying. • Span of attention increases. attempts to sound out words • In some cases the child may be reading well. Able to carry on adult-like conversations. g/q. Language • • • • • • • • • • Can identify right and left hands fairly consistently. • Can't handle things not going their own way • Does not understand ethical behavior or moral standards especially when doing things that have not been given rules 108 . or kick a ball. • Can Tie Laces. puzzles and mazes • Enjoys the challenge of puzzles. tomorrow. works at tasks for longer periods of time. • Folds and cuts paper into simple shapes. and sentence structure. swing a bat.Child development stages Motor development • Gains greater control over large and fine motor skills. • Recognizes seasons and major activities done in the times. swim." • Talks self through steps required in simple problem-solving situations (though the "logic" may be unclear to adults). • Recognizes some words by sight. word order. • Enjoys vigorous running. asks many questions. and praise. • functioning which facilitates learning to ride a bicycle. counting and sorting activities. paper-and-pencil mazes. and throwing est. • Making things is enjoyed. the humor is far from subtle. often. • Often can't view the world from another’s point of view • Self-perceived failure can make the child easily disappointed and frustrated. though some clumsiness persists. p/g. needs and seeks adult approval. Learns 5 to 10 words a day. jumping. movements are more precise and deliberate. • Anxious to please. • Reverses or confuse certain letters: b/d. Loves telling jokes and riddles. Social and emotional • Uses language rather than tantrums or physical aggression to express displeasure: "That's mine! Give it back. climbing. and games that involve matching letters and words with pictures. Talks a lot. vocabulary of 10. • Has fun with problem solving and sorting activities like stacking. • Has mood swings towards primary caregiver depending on the day • Friendship with parent is less depended on but still needs closeness and nurturing. expresses fear that parents may die. Enthusiastic and inquisitive about surroundings and everyday events. string (like shoes). reassurance. t/f. yesterday) and simple motion (things go faster than others). • Able to trace objects.

External links • CDC's "Learn the Signs. 27. & Vandenberg. Gowers. gov/ ERICWebPortal/ custom/ portlets/ recordDetails/ detailmini. Simon G. 4. gpnotebook. tsbvi. Fein. Hetherington (Ed. B. including milestones for speech and language development in children 109 . M.cdc. ISBN 1-55704-337-X.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/index. NICHCY • YourChild: Developmental Milestones (http://www.aspx) National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. New York: Newmarket Press.uk) – Information for parents and people that work with children. and social development (4th ed. Handbook of child psychology: Vol.). 292.htm) University of Michigan Health System • Talking Point (http://www.nichcy. (1983). eric. values are based on others enforced values.. pp. co. Socialization. noises. personality.umich.med. Your Child At Play: Three to Five Years (http:/ / www. edu/ Education/ infant/ page3.” campaign (http://www. 243–269. Marilyn (1998).org. jsp?_nfpb=true& _& ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED425832& ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no& accno=ED425832). (1932).693–744).edu/yourchild/topics/devmile. • May be increasingly fearful of the unknown like things in the dark..Child development stages • Understands when he or she has been thought to be "bad". cfm?ID=-919273423 [3] http:/ / www.org/Disabilities/Milestones/Pages/Default. New York: Wiley. G. and animals. pp. K. In E. uk/ simplepage. Act Early. Play. Segal. [5] Ruben.. htm [4] Parten. References [1] Seminars in child and adolescent psychiatry (second edition) Ed. ed. H. G.talkingpoint. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology.html) – Information for parents on early childhood development and developmental disabilities • Developmental Milestones (http://www. Royal College of Psychiatrists (2005) ISBN 1-904671-13-6 [2] http:/ / www. Social participation among preschool children. M.

[4] He recommended the development of a new science. but.g. neurobiology. Etymology The term ethology derives from the Greek word èthos (ήθος). Ethologists are typically interested in a behavioral process rather than in a particular animal group. and a sub-topic of zoology. "the study of") is the scientific study of animal behavior. Although many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behavior throughout history. meaning character. New fields have developed. learning. as opposed to ethology. Since the turn of the 21st century. early comparative psychologists concentrated on the study of learning and tended to research behaviour in artificial situations.[3] An earlier. sometimes. joint winners of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. 110 . Despite the historical divergence. Ethologists were more interested in understanding behaviour in a wide range of species to facilitate principled comparisons across taxonomic groups. the modern discipline of ethology is generally considered to have begun during the 1930s with the work of Dutch biologist Nikolaas Tinbergen and Austrian biologists Konrad Lorenz and Karl von Frisch. animal culture. Historically. most ethologists. "character". and often study one type of behavior (e. teach in psychology departments. A practical difference is that early comparative psychologists concentrated on gaining extensive knowledge of the behaviour of very few species. Ethologists have made much more use of a truly comparative method than comparative psychologists have. and even sexual conduct that experts long thought they understood. physiology. is construed as a sub-topic of psychology rather than as one of biology.[1] Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science. This use of the word was never adopted. It is a strong belief among scientists that the mechanisms on which behavioural processes are based are the same that cause the evolution of the living species: there is therefore a strong association between these two fields. and phylogenetic history. aggression) in a number of unrelated animals. Other words that derive from ethos" include ethics[2] and ethical. slightly different sense of the term was proposed by John Stuart Mill in his 1843 System of Logic. such as neuroethology. at least in North America. ecology. conflicts of opinion about matters of substance. Relationship with comparative psychology Comparative psychology also studies animal behaviour. The two approaches are complementary rather than competitive. with a strong relation to certain other disciplines such as neuroanatomy.Ethology Ethology Ethology (from Greek: ἦθος. and -λογία. ethos. In addition. "ethology. animal emotions. have been reexamined. where comparative psychology researches animal behaviour in the context of what is known about human psychology. The term was first popularized by American myrmecologist William Morton Wheeler in 1902. on the basis of associationistic psychology. tending to describe it as instinctive. and evolution. -logia. whereas early ethologists concentrated on behaviour in natural situations. while ethology was stronger in Europe." the purpose of which would be explanation of individual and national differences in character. ethology researches animal behaviour in the context of what is known about animal anatomy. The desire to understand animals has made ethology a rapidly growing field. Furthermore. many aspects of animal communication. comparative psychology developed most strongly in North America. and new conclusions reached. but they do result in different perspectives and. for most of the twentieth century.

Their beginning for studying the behaviour of a new species was to construct an ethogram (a description of the main types of natural behaviour with their frequencies of occurrence).[3] Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744 .1829) was the first biologist to describe a complex theory of evolution. tends to reach a greater level of perfection. His theory substantially comprised two statements: first. as this seemed the only possible explanation for the incredible variety of living beings and their surprising adaptation to their habitats. with complexity increasing progressively toward the top. people believed animal species were eternal and immutable. In the Western world of the time. that those characteristics can transmit from one generation to the next (the example of the giraffe whose neck becomes longer while trying to reach the upper leaves of a tree is well-known). who investigated animal learning and intelligence using an anthropomorphic method. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) Theory of evolution by natural selection and the beginnings of ethology Because ethology is considered a topic of biology. whose book. In one sense. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. that animal organs and behaviour can change according to the way they are used. He pursued his Charles Darwin (1809–1882) interest in behaviour by encouraging his protégé George Romanes. and second. ethologists have been concerned particularly with the evolution of behaviour and the understanding of behaviour in terms of the theory of natural selection. the first modern ethologist was Charles Darwin. The second statement is that every living organism. which subsequent researchers could check and supplement. or natural. cumulative base of data about behaviour. instead concentrated on behaviours that can be called instinctive. Other early ethologists. the most common theory among scientists was still the concept of scala naturae. anecdotal cognitivism. created with a specific purpose. According to this theory. in that they occur in all members of a species under specified circumstances. . proposed by Aristotle.Ethology 111 Scala naturae and Lamarck's theories Until the 19th century.[3] This provided an objective. that did not gain scientific support. occupied by human beings. When Charles Darwin went to the Galapagos Islands. humans included. living beings were classified on an ideal pyramid that represented the simplest animals on the lower levels. such as Oskar Heinroth and Julian Huxley. influenced many ethologists. he was well aware of Lamarck's theories and was influenced by them.

nurturing. so that the goose ignores its own displaced egg in favor of the giant dummy egg. These FAPs could then be compared across species.[9] Tinbergen found he could produce supernormal stimuli for most instincts in animals—such as cardboard butterflies that male butterflies preferred to mate with if they had darker stripes than a real female. If the egg is taken away. so the learning process has great importance. as does the ability to change the individual's responses based on its experience. which stimulates the beak to stimulate regurgitating reflex. A notable example of a releaser is the beak movements in Kelp Gull chicks peck at red spot on mother's many bird species performed by the newborns. Lorenz popularized FAPs as instinctive responses that would occur reliably in the presence of identifiable stimuli (called sign stimuli or releasing stimuli). or even a volleyball back into the nest. the goose rolls a displaced egg near its nest back to the others with its beak. The sight of the displaced egg triggers this mechanism. a behaviour only made of fixed action patterns would be particularly rigid and inefficient. or dummy fish that a territorial male stickleback fish fought more violently than a real invading male if the dummy had a brighter-colored underside. when they exaggerate the releasers found in natural objects. Such objects. mother's regurgitating process to feed her offspring. Such schemes are only acted when a precise stimulating signal is present. It can be said that the more the brain is complex and the life of the individual long. and they were able to prove how important forms of animal communication could be mediated by a few simple FAPs. An important and much quoted study of the Anatidae (ducks and geese) by Heinroth used this technique. These exaggerated releasers for instincts were named supernormal stimuli by Tinbergen.Ethology Fixed action patterns and animal communication An important development. Like similar waterfowl. they are known as releasers. Ethologists noted that the stimuli that released FAPs were commonly features of the appearance or behaviour of other members of the animal's own species. Oskar Heinroth. instinct means a series of predictable behaviors for fixed action patterns. Instinct The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines instinct as a largely inheritable and unalterable tendency of an organism to make a complex and specific response to environmental stimuli without involving reason. and social instincts.[6] For ethologists. The most sophisticated investigation of this kind was the study by Karl von Frisch of the so-called "dance language" related to bee communication.[8] However. pulling its head back as if an imaginary egg is still being maneuvered by the underside of its beak. feeding. door knob. 112 . such as a giant plaster egg. Harvard psychologist Deirdre Barrett has done research pointing out how easily humans also respond to supernormal stimuli for sexual. reducing the probability of survival and reproduction. associated with the name of Konrad Lorenz though probably due more to his teacher. can elicit a stronger version of the behavior than the natural object.[5] Lorenz developed an interesting theory of the evolution of animal communication based on his observations of the nature of fixed action patterns and the circumstances in which animals emit them. the animal continues with the behaviour. the more its behaviour is "intelligent" (in the sense of being guided by experience rather than stereotyped FAPs). and the similarities and differences between behaviour could be easily compared with the similarities and differences in morphology. When such signals act as communication among members of the same species.[7] Another well-known case is the classic experiments by Tinbergen on the Graylag Goose. it also attempts to move other egg-shaped objects.[10] However. was the identification of fixed action patterns (FAPs).

picking the potatoes from the sand. This kind of learning is called imprinting. Her behaviour was soon imitated by the individuals living in contact with her. or the excitement of a dog whenever it sees a collar as a prelude for a walk. they started venturing onto the beach.[15] The National Institutes of Health reported that capuchin monkeys preferred the company of researchers who imitated them to that of researchers who did not. A well-documented example of imitative learning occurred in a group of macaques on Hachijojima Island. and cleaning and eating them. when they gave birth. However. The monkeys not only spent more time with their imitators but also preferred to engage in a simple task with them even when provided with the option of performing the same task with a non-imitator. Lorenz observed that the young of birds such as geese and chickens followed their mothers spontaneously from almost the first day after they were hatched.Ethology 113 Learning Learning occurs in many ways. based on the experience.[13] and was a second important finding of Lorenz. The first studies of associative learning were made by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov.[16] . when a group of researchers started giving them potatoes on the beach: soon. if the signal comes from an individual that has caused many false alarms. The macaques lived in the inland forest until the 1960s. Example of imprinting in a moose Imitation Imitation is often an important type of learning. the others hear its signal and go to the nearest refuge. Another common way of learning is by association. this important type of learning only takes place in a very limited period of time. Such discrimination can be based on a number of factors. linked to another one that may not have anything to do with the first one. and cleaning it with the other. and he discovered that this response could be imitated by an arbitrary stimulus if the eggs were incubated artificially and the stimulus were presented during a critical period that continued for a few days after hatching. However.[11] This process consists of ignoring persistent or useless stimuli. the other squirrels ignore the signal. where a stimulus is.[12] An example of associative behaviour is observed when a common goldfish goes close to the water surface whenever a human is going to feed it. one of the most elementary being habituation. Imprinting Being able to discriminate the members of one's own species is also of fundamental importance for reproductive success. an individual was observed bringing a potato to the sea.[14] About one year later. Japan. they taught this practice to their young. An example of learning by habituation is the one observed in squirrels: When one of them feels threatened. putting it into the water with one hand.

It may be regarded as a sort of symbiosis among individuals of the same species: a society is composed of a group of individuals belonging to the same species living within well-defined rules on food management. Higher level chickens are easily distinguished by their well-cured aspect.[17] Of course. A second chicken can peck all the others except the first. an individual would risk its own life to save the rest of the group. as opposed to lower level chickens. amongst animals living in small groups like squirrels.[19] Classification of social behaviours Type of behaviour Effect on the donor Effect on the receiver Egoistic Increases fitness Decreases fitness Cooperative Increases fitness Increases fitness Altruistic Decreases fitness Increases fitness Revengeful Decreases fitness Decreases fitness The existence of egoism through natural selection does not pose any question to evolution theory and is. A common example of fighting for social and sexual supremacy is the so-called pecking order among poultry. Often in social life. in which case the pecking order re-establishes from scratch. These behaviours may be examples of altruism. role assignments and reciprocal dependence. Every time a group of poultry cohabitate for a certain time length. It is more difficult to understand the mechanism through which altruistic behaviour initially developed. there exist complex mating rituals. revengeful behaviour was at one point claimed to have been observed exclusively in Homo sapiens. which can be very complex even if they are often regarded as fixed action patterns (FAPs). frequent and violent fights can happen.Ethology 114 Mating and the fight for supremacy Individual reproduction is the most important phase in the proliferation of individuals or genes within a species: for this reason. In these groups. For example. Living in groups Several animal species. or why. However. it is broken only when other individuals enter the group. . they establish a pecking order. one chicken dominates the others and can peck without being pecked. While the pecking order is establishing. such as how the birth of sterile castes. some apparently unanswerable questions arose. as is cooperative behaviour. on the contrary. When biologists interested in evolution theory first started examining social behaviour. tend to live in groups. including humans. like in bees. but once established. Social life is probably a complex and effective survival strategy. The Stickleback's complex mating ritual was studied by Niko Tinbergen and is regarded as a notable example of a FAP. fully predicted by it. could be explained through an evolving mechanism that emphasizes the reproductive success of as many individuals as possible. as indicated by the table below. including reports of vengeful camels[18] and chimpanzees. other species have been reported to be vengeful. not all behaviours are altruistic. Group size is a major aspect of their social environment. animals fight for the right to reproduce. and so on. as well as social supremacy.

Tinbergen moved to the University of Oxford. ethologist Peter Verbeek introduced the term "Peace Ethology" as a sub-discipline of Human Ethology that is concerned with issues of human conflict. primatologists. and Patrick Bateson at the Sub-department of Animal Behaviour of the University of Cambridge. the International Society for Human Ethology was founded to promote exchange of knowledge and opinions concerning human behavior gained by applying ethological principles and methods and published their journal. Lorenz. the study of animal social groups. but the immediate cause of eating is hunger (causation). Tinbergen. in a paper published in the journal Behaviour. and peacekeeping behavior. In 2008. anthropologists. and animal cognition. and von Frisch were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973 for their work of developing ethology. and physicians study ethology and other related fields such as animal psychology. Some research has begun to study atypical or disordered animal behavior. war. and how might it have begun through the process of phylogeny? These explanations are complementary rather than mutually exclusive—all instances of behaviour require an explanation at each of these four levels. with the additional influence of William Thorpe. zoologists.[22] Ethology is now a well-recognised scientific discipline. and develop early within an organism's lifespan (development).[21] In this period.[20] Growth of the field Due to the work of Lorenz and Tinbergen. The Human Ethology Bulletin. For example. Robert Hinde. and has a number of journals covering developments in the subject. the function of eating is to acquire nutrients (which ultimately aids survival and reproduction). peacemaking. and ethology became stronger in the UK. argued that ethology always needed to include four kinds of explanation in any instance of behaviour: • Function — How does the behaviour affect the animal's chances of survival and reproduction? Why does the animal respond that way instead of some other way? • Causation — What are the stimuli that elicit the response.[23] Today. 115 . ethology developed strongly in continental Europe during the years prior to World War II. too. such as the Ethology Journal.Ethology Tinbergen's four questions for ethologists Lorenz's collaborator. Niko Tinbergen. Hunger and eating are evolutionarily ancient and are found in many species (evolutionary history). along with actual ethologists. veterinarians. and what early experiences are necessary for the animal to display the behaviour? • Evolutionary history — How does the behaviour compare with similar behaviour in related species.[3] After the war. ethology began to develop strongly in North America. Most researchers in the field have some sort of advanced degree and specialty and subspecialty training in the aforementioned fields. many biologists. reconciliation. and how has it been modified by recent learning? • Development — How does the behaviour change with age. It is easy to confuse such questions—for example. to argue that people eat because they're hungry and not to acquire nutrients—without realizing that the reason people experience hunger is because it causes them to acquire nutrients. located in the village of Madingley. conflict resolution. In 1972.

[3] Matthews. 13. and since that time. Skinner • Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt • Lynne Isbell • Barbara Smuts • John Endler • Julian Jaynes • William Homan Thorpe • Jean-Henri Fabre • Erich Klinghammer • Niko Tinbergen • Dian Fossey • John Krebs • Jakob von Uexküll • Karl von Frisch • Konrad Lorenz • Frans de Waal • Douglas P. Fry • Aubrey Manning • William Morton Wheeler • Jane Goodall • Eugene Marais • E.Ethology 116 Social ethology and recent developments In 1970. Also in 1970. ISBN 9780595479085. 105. a substantial rapprochement with comparative psychology has occurred. From revolution to ethics: May 1968 and contemporary French thought. Janice R. p. (2009). Jones & Bartlett Learning. ethology. Community health nursing: caring for the public's health. O. Wilson • James L. Karen Saucier Lundy (2009). and behavioural ecology. Lorenz. Stephen (2006).MQUP. Honey. and argued that much of the ethology that had existed so far was really comparative ethology—examining animals as individuals—whereas. Sharyn. Darwinism associated with Wilson. p. Springer. ISBN 9780773531994. org/ nobel_prizes/ medicine/ laureates/ 1973/ index. F. E. Letters from the Hive: An Intimate History of Bees. Gould • Patricia McConnell • Amotz Zahavi [26] [25] References [1] Nobel Prize page (http:/ / nobelprize. Walking the Way of the Horse: Exploring the Power of the Horse-Human Relationship. and von Frisch for contributions in ethology [2] Janes. and Humankind. Leif (2008). html) for 1973 Medicine Award to Tinbergen. p. [4] Bourg. It has also been driven by the stronger. iUniverse.[24] The book and study investigated animal behaviour and then compared human behaviour to it as a similar phenomenon. Furthermore. so the modern scientific study of behaviour offers a more or less seamless spectrum of approaches: from animal cognition to more traditional comparative psychology. Robert Trivers. but more sophisticated. List of ethologists People who have made notable contributions to ethology (many are comparative psychologists): • Robert Ardrey • Judith Hand • Desmond Morris • John C Angel • Clarence Ellis Harbison • Martin Moynihan • Adrian Simpson • Heini Hediger • Caitlin O'Connell-Rodwell • Patrick Bateson • Oskar Heinroth • Manny Puig • John Bowlby • Robert Hinde • Irene Pepperberg • Donald Broom • Bernard Hollander • George Romanes • Marian Stamp Dawkins • Sarah Hrdy • Thomas A. the study of behaviour has been much more concerned with social aspects. Wilson's book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis appeared in 1975. ethologists would need to concentrate on the behaviour of social groups of animals and the social structure within them. sociobiology. 251. Robert Ardrey's book The Social Contract: A Personal Inquiry into the Evolutionary Sources of Order and Disorder was published. [5] Buchmann. ISBN 9789048123889. ISBN 9780763717865. O. Random House of Canada. Sebeok • Richard Dawkins • Julian Huxley • B. Julian (2007). and William Hamilton. Crook published an important paper in which he distinguished comparative ethology from social ethology. McGill-Queen's Press . 155. ISBN 9780553382662. the English ethologist John H. The related development of behavioural ecology has also helped transform ethology. Insect Behaviour. . 113. p. [6] Hallberg. Sociobiology has more recently developed into evolutionary psychology. in the future. p.

 35. 19. [15] "Japanese Macaque . Deirdre. edu/ lynneisbell/ index. 81.pdf). gov/ news/ health/ aug2009/ nichd-13.com. Karnac Books.com. . The Development and integration of behaviour: essays in honour of Robert Hinde. Cambridge University Press. Mice Giggle: Revealing the Secret Lives of Animals. [20] Barrett et al. Atheneum. Retrieved 2011-11-08. and emotional development. anthro.htm) Applied Ethology (http://www. [25] http:/ / www. 184. [22] Encyclopaedia Britannica (1975). Jean (2006). Retrieved 2011-11-08. [17] Cummings.ac.usask.M1). blueplanetbiomes. Harvard University Press. 2009-08-13. htm).W. External links • • • • • Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognitive Research (http://www.pdf) 117 . [13] Mercer. anthro. Understanding attachment: parenting. Cambridge University Press.edu/~nesse/fourquestions. NY NY: W. ISBN 9780521407090. ISBN 9780521423670. edu/ becCaitlin/ [26] http:/ / www. Z. Neuroendocrinology Letters (21): 477–481.com. ISBN 9780791086384.at/~c720126/humanethologie/ ws/medicus/block1/4BQ_E.at/ishe/) — aims at promoting ethological perspectives in the scientific study of humans worldwide • Abstracts of the XXIX Ethological Conference (http://www. [11] Keil. Supernormal Stimuli: How Primal Urges Overran Their Evolutionary Purpose.edu/tietjen/Ethology/introduction_to_ethology. (2008) "Peace Ethology. Paul Patrick Gordon (1991).Macaca fuscata" (http:/ / www. Alan Bond) Diagrams on Tinbergen's four questions • The Four Areas of Biology (http://www-personal. 'Accessible to the lay reader and acceptable to the scientific community' (The Daily Telegraph). [8] Tinbergen. . org/ japanese_macaque. . ISBN 9781855758094. Blueplanetbiomes. Nih. August 13. Collins [9] Tinbergen. [21] Bateson. [14] Wilson.ac.php/) • Center for Avian Cognition (http://digitalcommons. 170.London.google. Yearbook of science and the future. Infobase Publishing." Behaviour 145.kli. A Basic Theory of Neuropsychoanalysis. [10] "Barrett. W M (2011). . p. nih. Retrieved 2011-11-08.org/IEC/default. New York. ISBN 9780275982171. p. (2002) Human Evolutionary Psychology.National Institutes of Health (NIH)" (http:/ / www.org. google.behav. htm). [18] "The Ape and the Sushi Master" (http:/ / books. [12] Hudmon.bellarmine. ISBN 9780262731447.ac.unl. Frank C. 2010" (http:/ / www. Books. The Social Contract: A Personal Inquiry into the Evolutionary Sources of Order and Disorder. Niko 1953 The Herring Gull's World . . Norton. Retrieved 2011-11-08. 2009 News Release .at/) Center for the Integrative Study of Animal behaviour (http://www.uibk.google.ca/wcvm/herdmed/applied-ethology/) The International Society for Human Ethology (http://evolution. html Further reading • Klein.nel. Peter. p. Princeton University Press. Robert Andrew Wilson (2001). Icon (2009).edu/~animal/) Introduction to ethology (http://cas. google. 7. 10 October 2009.univie.edu/21_6/ NEL21062000X001_Klein_. Andrew (2005). (2000).anthro. N.indiana. [19] "Beyond Revenge" (http:/ / books. [23] Verbeek. Edward O. • Karen Shanor and Jagmeet Kanwal: Bats Sing. p. p. (1951) The Study of Instinct. p. Learning and memory. The MIT encyclopedia of the cognitive sciences.umich. [16] "Imitation Promotes Social Bonding in Primates. MIT Press. "The ethological approach to the study of human behavior" (http://www. amazon. (2000). Altruism and aggression: biological and social origins.gov. Books. Mark. com/ s?url=search-alias=stripbooks& field-keywords=supernormal+ stimuli& sprefix=supernorm). Sociobiology: the new synthesis.edu/biosciaviancog/) University of Nebraska (Alan Kamil.. ISBN 9780674000896. 248. com/ books?id=eJFlGdPEBfYC& printsec=frontcover#PPA338. ucdavis. child care. p.pdf) • The Four Areas of Biology AND levels of inquiry (http://homepage. Amazon. p. Carolyn Zahn-Waxler and Ronald Iannotti (1991).M1). Robert (1970). ucla. Oxford University Press. Greenwood Publishing Group. 479. 1497-1524 [24] Ardrey.Ethology [7] Bernstein. Retrieved 2011-11-08. com/ books?id=daomTGYZuW4C& printsec=frontcover#PPA79.

References [1] http:/ / books. google. but are ruled out due to various issues. medical records. a criminal background check of the prospective parents. com/ books?id=p7ReHKEYbiMC& pg=PA20& vq=%22home+ study%22& dq=%22home+ study%22adoption& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html& source=gbs_search_s& cad=0 [5] http:/ / books. it may be required by an adoption agency. and the well-being of the neighborhood where the home is located. com/ [3] http:/ / books. examines the dwelling of the prospective parents. com/ od/ adopting/ a/ homestudy. the prospective adoptive parents are responsible to cover the cost. as its name implies. which is usually several hundred to several thousand US dollars. adoption. not the parents. their understanding of the relationship between adoptive parents and children. In most cases. A home study can be used both to aid the prospective parents in preparing to raise an adoptive child.[1] [2] Even where it is not legally mandated. and an examination of the home. or who feel that there may be discrimination against certain people who are perfectly capable of parenting. employment history. fire safety.[5] [6] A home study. Therefore. family background. google. about.Adoption home study Adoption home study A home study or homestudy is a screening of the home and life of prospective adoptive parents prior to allowing an adoption to take place. Information The types of information that may be sought from a home study include the determination if there is abuse in the past. screeners are instructed to be thorough in their examinations.[3] The ultimate purpose of a home study is for the benefit of the child. google. and in all international adoptions. com/ books?id=uJnRIt_XsjsC& pg=PA54& dq=%22home+ study%22adoption& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html [4] http:/ / books. Depending on the location and agency. com/ books?id=rIA0BAyVLTgC& pg=PA20& vq=%22home+ study%22& dq=%22home+ study%22adoption& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html& source=gbs_search_s& cad=0 [6] http:/ / adoption. different information may be sought during a home study. a credit check. google. com/ books?id=PGuRz2i5y1sC& pg=PA144& dq=%22home+ study%22adoption& lr=& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html [2] http:/ / home-study. Factors pertaining to the people may include their desire to adopt.[4] There is typically a cost to a home study. and their willingness to share with an adopted child the fact that they are adopted. htm 118 . Factors that may be taken into account include the cleanliness and condition of the home. a home study is required by law. Criticism of home studies Home studies are criticized by many who feel they are intrusive. and to rule out those who are not fit to be parents. In some places. sanitation.

adoption services. Most children who come to the attention of the child welfare system do so because of any of the following situations. abuse and exploitation.760 children died as the result of child abuse and neglect. 8. while an estimated 872. There is some consistency in the nature of laws. adding a section specifically to children in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “Recognizing that the child.5 million children were involved in investigations of alleged abuse or neglect in the US.3 children per 1000 were victims of child abuse and neglect and 10.490 children died that year because of abuse or neglect. The United Nations has addressed child abuse as a human rights issue. department of children's services. department of child and family services.Child protection Child protection Child protection is used to describe a set of usually government-run services designed to protect children and young people who are underage and to encourage family stability. for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality. The agency that manages these services has various names in different provinces and states. In 2007. and then they will accuse their own ill-luck and not the rulers."[4] Provincial or state governments child protection legislation which empowers the government department or agency to provide services in the area and to intervene into families where child abuse or other problems are suspected..” 119 . Plato theorised that the interests of the child could be served by removing children from the care of their parents and placing them into state custody. to develop to the fullest. to protection from harmful influences.000 children were determined to have been abused or neglected and an estimated 1.g.2 children per 1000 were in out of home placement. in an atmosphere of happiness. and to participate fully in family. These typically include foster care. which are often collectively termed child abuse: • Child sexual abuse • Neglect including the failure to take adequate measures to safeguard a child from harm and/or gross negligence in providing for a child's basic needs: • Physical abuse • Psychological abuse The United States government's Administration for Children and Families reported that in 2004 approximately 3. love and understanding… should be afforded the right to survival. e. children's aid. and investigation of alleged child abuse. services aimed at supporting at-risk families so they can remain intact.[3] History The concept of a state sanctioned child welfare system dates back to Plato's Republic. 1.[2] In 2008.[1] Child abuse impacts the most vulnerable populations with children under age five years accounting for 76% of fatalities. though the application of the laws varies across the country. should grow up in a family environment. To prevent an uprising from dispossessed parents: "We shall have to invent some ingenious kind of lots which the less worthy may draw on each occasion of our bringing them together. cultural and social life.

[12] This legislation not only opened the door for consideration of cultural issues while stressing ideas that children should be with their families.[7] In addition to family preservation services. the medical profession began to take notice of what they believed to be intentional injuries. The 1994 Multi Ethnic Placement Act. also attempted to promote permanency through adoption.[6] [7] In 1874. President Roosevelt convened the White House Conference on Child Dependency. Rather than allow these children to become institutionalized or continue to live on the streets. Changes in the Adoptions and Safe Families Act showed a interest in both protecting children’s safety and developing permanency. 18 states had some version of county child welfare boards whose purpose was to coordinate public and private child related work. which provided funding for intervention for “neglected and dependent children in danger of becoming delinquent. but also shortened time lines required for permanence.[7] Issues of abuse and neglect were addressed in the Social Security Act in 1930.[7] In 1973. which provided funding to private agencies to provide intensive family preservation services. 1992 Child Abuse.[13] This led to the introduction of the home visitation models. in 1978. much of which guides current practice. Domestic Violence and Adoption and Family Services Act [16] .[17] All of these policies led up to the 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act(ASFA). the first case of child abuse was criminally prosecuted in what has come to be known as the “case of Mary Ellen. fueled in part by the civil rights movement. the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) was passed. which created a publicly funded volunteer organization to “establish and publicize standards of child care.[9] In 1961. there were also changing views about the role of the child in society.” [8] In the 1940s and 1950s. History In 1853. but to have a back-up plan so as not to delay permanency for children (Michell. but typically with the intention of helping these families work their farms. the children were placed in the first “foster” homes. leading to termination of parental rights should these efforts fail. This act was passed in response to concerns that large numbers of Native American Children were being separated from their tribes and placed in foster care. Dr. et al. which was revised in 1996 to add the Interethnic Placement Provisions. the focus of federal child welfare policy changed to try to address permanence for the large numbers of foster children care. creating regulations that adoptions could not be delayed or denied due to issues of race.[17] This law requires counties to provide “reasonable efforts” (treatment) to preserve or reunify families. 2005).[7] [17] ASFA introduced the idea of “concurrent planning” which demonstrated attempts to reunify families as the first plan. congress took the first steps toward enacting federal legislature to address the issue of child abuse. Kempe[10] began to further research this issue. eventually coining the term “battered child syndrome.Child protection U.[7] Although this legislation addressed some of the complaints from earlier pieces of legislation around ensuring due process for parents. the Adoption Assistance Act[14] was introduced as a way to manage the high numbers of children in placement.”[9] At this same time. which required states “to prevent. these changes did not alleviate the high numbers of children in placement or continuing delays in permanence.[13] In 1980.[15] 1988 Child Abuse and Prevention and Adoption and Family Services Act.” Outrage over this case started an organized effort against child maltreatment [8] In 1909. color or national origin of the child or the adoptive parent. 120 .”[6] By 1926.[13] Several pieces of federal legislation attempted to ease the process of adoption including Adoption Assistance Act. leading to the beginnings of family preservation programs. due to improved technology in diagnostic radiology. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act[11] was passed in 1974.” [8] Shortly thereafter.S. the Children's Aid Society[5] was founded in response to the problem of orphaned or abandoned children living in New York. identify and treat child abuse and neglect.

family members. In the event of the death or serious injury of a child. However both the Children Act 1989 and 2004 makes clear a statutory obligation on all professionals to report suspected child abuse. This officer is responsible for managing allegations of abuse against adults who work with children (Teachers.GIRFEC was established in Scotland in 2008. The role of Independent Visitor. Lack of information sharing had been identified as a failing in numerous high profile child death cases. The basic legal principle in all public and private proceedings concerning children. Youth Workers etc. social work good practice requires a minimal number of moves and the 1989 Children Act enshrines the principle that delay is inimical to a child's welfare. has been halted by the newly elected coalition government (May 2010). This covers provision of advice and services. In recognition of attachment issues. under the Children Act 1989. The final Care Plan put forward by the Local Authority is required to provide a plan for permanence. including the formation of the Every Child Matters programme in 2003. was created in the United Kingdom under the 1989 Children Act to befriend and assist children and young people in care. 'drift' and multiple placements still occur as many older children are difficult to place or maintain in placements.Church leaders. Social Workers. under which information on children is shared between professionals. there never has been a statutory obligation to report alleged child abuse to the Police. In appropriate cases the Care Plan before the Court will be for adoption. LSCB's can initiate a 'Serious Case Review' aimed at identifying agency failings and improving future practice. 121 . whether with parents. The criteria for the latter is 'significant harm' which covers physical. long-term foster parents or adopters.Child protection Worldwide United Kingdom The United Kingdom has a comprehensive child welfare system under which Local Authorities have duties and responsibilities towards children in need in their area.[18] A child in suitable cases can be made a ward of court and no decisions about the child or changes in its life can be made without the leave of the High Court. Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006 (updated in 2010) and the subsequent 'The Protection of Children in England: A Progress Report' (Laming. Critics of the scheme claimed it was evidence of a 'big brother state' and too expensive to introduce. In England.in their area.Getting it Right for Every Child . Care proceedings have a time frame of 40 weeks and concurrent planning is required. In England the Murder of Victoria Climbié was largely responsible for various changes in child protection in England. The planned ContactPoint database. sexual and emotional abuse and neglect. Nevertheless. A similar programme . The database was aimed at improving information sharing across agencies. Local Safeguarding Children Boards (LSCB's) are responsible ensuring agencies and professionals. "LADO". and also the capacity to initiate proceedings for the removal of children from their parents care/care proceedings. accommodation and care of children who become uncared for. Wales and Scotland. 2009) continue to promote the sharing of data between those working with vulnerable children. The Local Authorities also run adoption services both for children put up for adoption voluntarily and those becoming available for adoption through Court proceedings. a voluntary post.effectivley safeguard and promote the welfare of children. The statutory guidance Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006 created the role of Local Authority Designated Officer.). is that the welfare of the child is paramount.

with the aid of medical expertise and technology. when there is clear evidence of danger to the physical health & safety of the child. Here.[30] Criticism Despite the benefits of the services of the CPS. Humanistic discourse encompasses sympathy or feelings of pity that the Child Protection worker might have towards people who are responsible for the situation in which the victim is in. This can result in significantly different responses from the affected family and the child protection service workers.[28] [29] Ideology of Child Protection When a case of child abuse is reported. services are provided by independent Children's Aid Societies. and pathology. A notable recent case is the family of Gary and Melissa Gates in Texas. 122 . The school called the local CPS and requested the Child Protective Services forcibly remove all thirteen of the Gates children and take them to foster homes under a court order which allowed an Emergency Removal. the media might be used as a tool for moral crusades. The purpose is to treat and cure the parent. physical abuse. including dissociative symptoms. Bureaucratic procedures engage all the steps which an organization like Child Protection Service has undertake. and acting-out symptoms. medical.[19] The societies receive funding from. and the need to cope with the situation. such as physical and psychological neglect. The CPS has been accused of prejudging parents before proper investigations were done. anxiety. The penal discourse implies the legal actions that follow the act of depravity or abuse punishing the offender. quote. CPS continues to classify the Gates as child abusers. the purpose is to avoid criticism.g. bureaucratic. which are people’s communication practices at an intersubjective level. responsible in case something bad happens to the child. penal. From the medical perspective. and technocratic. Gates was uncooperative and his uncooperativeness with us put the children at risk. [21] Effects of early maltreatment on children in child welfare Children with histories of maltreatment. The technocratic discourse involves risk assessment gadgets in order to solve the situation. Ideology associated with child protection involve distinct discourses. The local CPS gave the explanation that they felt. and are under the supervision of the Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services. These ideological discourses are blame. The blame discourse involves people holding others. syndromes.[20] However. anxiety. The Child and Family Services Review Board exists to investigate complaints against CAS and maintains authority to act against the societies. in the last two decades. The best outcome for the child occurs if the congruence between professional and family perspectives is high. etc. the offender is viewed as an individual with a medical history." Even though the court ordered the children to be returned. reviews. the CPS has come under intense private and public scrutiny as an institution than can and has caused great harm in the name of protection. an investigation begins. humanistic. registers. Some have accused the CPS of having too much immediate power leaving the parents feeling lost and aggravated.Child protection Canada In Ontario. they are regarded as a Non-governmental organization (NGO) which allows the CAS a large degree of autonomy from interference or direction in the day to day running of CAS by the Ministry. there has been an increase in the amount of cases where critics believe CPS have reacted out of their bounds.[24] [25] [26] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems. Hereby. a mechanical classification and processing of the client is thought to be useful. and sexual abuse. Here. whereas the professional has to stick to procedures to avoid blame in case something goes wrong. Although child welfare agencies are generally viewed positively. e. The family experiences fear.[22] [23] Such children are at risk of developing a disorganized attachment. are at risk of developing psychiatric problems. case conferences. "Mr. like the parent or social worker.[27] as well as depressive.

CPS threatened some MHMR workers with arrest. CPS performance was questioned by workers from the Hill Country Community Mental Health-Mental Retardation Center. The Texas Family and Protective Services Crisis Management Team was created by executive order after the critical report Forgotten Children[37] of 2004.474 in Fiscal 2005. parents claim that their ethnic and religious rights have been violated . The system. has received an intervention from the Serbia government. 123 . Trial is set for January 26. not to mention their civil rights being disregarded in this manner" after assisting at the emergency shelter. Children were taken away from their parents after their naked photos were found on the father's computer. In 2004. Furthermore. [31] [32] [33] Brenda Scott. Investigations would result in criminal charges against some men in the community."[34] Further to that information. releasing most children back to their families. Polygraph showed that father did not abuse children. well-behaved children. Removal is the first resort." Workers believed poor sanitary conditions at the shelter allowed respiratory infections and chicken pox to spread. several former CPS workers retired from the service. due to increasing circumstances and practices carried out by the organization. Compared to the general population. One wrote "I have never seen women and children treated this poorly. and the entire mental health support was dismissed the second week due to being "too compassionate. and disregarding rights of mothers who appeared to be good parents of healthy. Children have suffered psychological traumas due to their separation from parents. the largest child protection action in American history raised questions as the CPS in Texas removed hundreds of minor children. At the core of the problem is the anti-family mindset of CPS. Gene Grounds of Victim Relief Ministries commended CPS workers in the Texas operation as exhibiting compassion. The state supreme court disagreed. Such photos are common in Serbia culture. Strayhorn's report was not scientifically researched. had itself been an object of reports of unusual numbers of poisonings. while the number of deaths increased 60 percent.[38] In Fiscal 2003. the system that was designed to protect children has become the greatest perpetrator of harm. including supervisor Angie Voss convinced a judge that all of the children were at risk of child abuse because they were all being groomed for under-age marriage. With insufficient checks and balances.children are not permitted to speak Serbian. Texas 2008 Raid of YFZ Ranch In April 2008. Children were taken from their family 7 months ago. FBI started an investigation against the CPS. in her study of CPS concluded. a child is four times more likely to die in the Texas foster care system. about 100 children were treated for poisoning from medications. If children are to be protected in their homes and in the system. radical new guidelines must be adopted. as it operates today. The number of foster children in the state's care increased 24 percent to 32. and that major reforms need to be put in place to assure that children in the conservatorship of the state get as much attention as those at risk in their homes. respectively 30. nor to meet with their parents for orthodox Christmas. infants. Texas Comptroller Carole Keeton Strayhorn made a statement in 2006 about the Texas foster care system. They can meet only mother once a week. 63 were treated for rape that occurred while under state care including four-year old twin boys. though others believe Ms. and women incorrectly believed to be children from the YFZ Ranch polygamist community. should be scrapped. "Child Protective Services is out of control. with the assistance of heavily armed police with an armored personnel carrier. as with other states. Investigators. not the last. 38 and 48 foster children died in the state's care. professionalism and caring concern. and 142 children gave birth. Psychologists from Serbia stated that few hours of conversation with children are enough to see whether they have been abused.[36] CPS problem reports The Texas Department of Family and Protective Services. rapes and pregnancies of children under its care since 2004.S. death. Others who were previously forbidden to discuss conditions working with CPS later produced unsigned written reports expressed anger at the CPS traumatizing the children.[35] However. 2004 and 2005.Child protection An ongoing case about Nastic family living in U.

[43] Research has shown that there is no difference in the rate of abuse and neglect among minority populations when compared to Caucasian children that would account for the disparity. cfsrb.[41] National data in the United States provides evidence that disproportionality may vary throughout the course of a child's involvement with the child welfare system. Retrieved 19 April 2011. 1279-1289 [13] Mitchell. liberty.org (http:/ / datacenter. L. & Webb. or property. ac. Biemer. e-laws. & Resher.B. (2004). cfm?event=federalLegislation. S. Differing rates of disproportionality are seen at key decision points including the reporting of abuse. & Leighninger.org (http:/ / www. dcsf. html) Kidscount. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect.P. gov/ pubs/ otherpubs/ majorfedlegis. Boston: Allyn& Bacon. mdx. data suggests that a disproportionate number of minority children. T. G. ca/ htdocs/ English/ topics/ childrensaid/ childrensaidsocieties/ index. R. ca/ html/ statutes/ english/ elaws_statutes_90c11_e. D. Retrieved 17 April 2011. H (1997) Social Welfare. Y. E. childrensaidsociety. Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services.. on. org/ ) MDX.[42] Additionally. Ellett. A history of the American Response to Need 4th ed. cfm?event=federalLegislation. ca/ en/ cfsrb/ about/ history). Child and Family Services Review Board.org (http:/ / www.uk (http:/ / www." Title 42 United States Code Section 1983[40] states that citizens can sue a person that deprives them of their rights under the pretext of a regulation of a state.gov (http:/ / www.. White Plains. Journal of Public Child Welfare. 84(1). (1978) Child Abuse: An emerging social priority.uk (http:/ / www. L. Child Welfare. childwelfare.org (http:/ / www. 28(12). Wall. COUNTY OF SAN JOAQUIN. it is likely that this phenomenon within multiple systems may be related.ac. The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution says that a state may not make a law that abridges "abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States" and no state may "deprive any person of life. A. gov/ pubs/ otherpubs/ majorfedlegis. viewLegis& id=22) [15] 1980 Childwelfare.Child protection Responsibility for misconduct In May 2007. org/ pdf/ 2007CANFactSheet. htm) Childrensaidsociety. particularly African American and Native American children. gov. Social Work.org (http:/ / preventchildabuseny. [9] Antler. Child welfare reform in the United States: Findings form a local agency survey. childwelfare. Green. 05-16071[39] that a CPS social worker acting without due process and without exigency (emergency conditions) violated the 14th Amendment and Title 42 United State Code Section 1983.. 124 . M. and placement into foster care. cfm) [16] http:/ / www. americanhumane. J. org/ about/ history) Axin. [8] Crosson-Tower.gov (http:/ / www. Disproportionality & Disparity in the Child Welfare System In the United States.. 23. without due process of law. gov/ systemwide/ laws_policies/ federal/ index. enter the foster care system. gov. 5-24 [14] Childwelfare. A.gov. 3-24. 1(1).[44] The Juvenile Justice system has also been challenged by disproportionate negative contact of minority children. cfm [17] Lincroft. viewLegis& id=2) [12] Limb. NY: Longman. J. & Chance. R. kidscount. Child Abuse and Neglect. [20] http:/ / www. gov. research suggests that they are likely to remain in care longer. Report to the Annie E. children. Undercounted and underserved: Immigrant and refugee families in the child welfare system. J. once they enter foster care.. substantiation of abuse. What happened? An historical perspective of the deprofessionalization of child welfare practice with implications for policy and practice. J & Levin. (2005). childwelfare.gov (http:/ / www. uk/ everychildmatters/ strategy/ deliveringservices1/ informationsharing/ informationsharing/ ) [19] "About Ontario's children's aid societies" (http:/ / www. htm#BK10 [21] "Complaints Against a Children's Aid Society" (http:/ / www. (2006). B. on. Berrick. P. . (2007)... No. 4th Ed. the United States 9th Circuit Court of Appeals found in ROGERS v. Barth. Casey Foundation: Balitmore. 58-61 [10] Kempe.[45] Because of the overlap in these systems. uk/ WWW/ STUDY/ xpla5. gov/ systemwide/ laws_policies/ federal/ index. MD [18] DCSF. kempe. nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. (1999). aspx)... childwelfare. . An empirical examination of the Indian child welfare act and its impact on cultural and familial preservation for American Indian children. C. org/ ) [11] Childwelfare. org/ about-us/ newsroom/ fact-sheets/ fatalities-due-to-child-abuse-neglect. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Preventchildabuseny. pdf) Americanhumane.

org/ 2011/ 01/ 04/ united-states-serbian-couple-struggles-to-get-children-back/ [32] http:/ / www. rs/ sr/ vesti/ u_fokusu/ story/ 146886/ Otac+ na+ poligrafu+ dokazao+ da+ nije+ zlostavljao+ decu. J. 41.. Psychological Bulletin 114.Child protection [22] Gauthier. • "CCPAS Website" (http://www. us/ forgottenchildren/ in) [38] Comptroller Strayhorn Statement On Foster Care Abuse June 23. September 2009.com (http://www. html [34] Scott. "Mental health workers rip CPS over sect" (http:/ / www. (2005). pdf?openelement) [40] Cornell. & Repacholi.S. (1996).php/Child_well-being) (accessed 21/07/11) • A Report Card on Child Protection (http://www. U. 64-73 [29] Lyons-Ruth. L. and Intervention (pp161-184).childwelfare.hhs. 2006 (http:/ / www. NY: Guilford Press [25] Solomon. training and resources in all areas of safeguarding children and for those affected by abuse. net/ eng/ news/ society-article.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm04) (accessed 8/4/06) • HHS. com/ news/ state/ stories/ 041808kvuejanetpolygamy-cb. CRB checks. In M. & Hesse.resist. php?yyyy=2010& mm=12& dd=21& nav_id=71657 [33] http:/ / www.. html).uk) The Churches’ Child Protection Advisory Service (CCPAS) . E. bad or sad? Ideology.org/index.) Child welfare revisited (pp.org (http://www. uscourts. C. F.acf.acf. kvue. cornell. support. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64. Casey-CSSP Alliance for Racial Equity in Child Welfare.htm) (accessed 8/4/06) • Childwelfare. Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory. G. K. Stollak. James / WFAA-TV [36] Crotea. Greenberg. & George. A prospective longitudinal study of disorganized/disoriented attachment. 227-246. Brenda (1994) Out of Control. Ciccehetti. C. [42] Hill. A. Chapin Hall Discussion Paper. Cummings (Eds).ca (http://users. Child Abuse and Neglect 20. html). • Resist.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/afcars/tar/report11. D. D. us/ news/ 60623statement. Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom. 68-69 [24] Lyons-Ruth K. B (2006) Synthesis of research on disproportionality in child welfare: An update. S. Leashore (Eds.edu (http:/ / www. mpl/ headline/ metro/ 5770183. & Arnoff. (PDF-File. (2004) Institutional racism in child welfare.gov/) (accessed 10/19/06) • Wikichild.us (http:/ / www. R. distorted communication and child abuse prevention. window. (Eds. San Antonio Express-news . Attachment Disorganization. Messe. Administration for Children & Families. DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention External links • NCCPR Website (http://nccpr.gov (http:/ / www. Alpern. T. Roger (10 May 2008). NY: Guilford Press [26] Main.. B. 2008 by Janet St.co. Recall of childhood neglect and physical abuse as differential predictors of current psychological functioning.. & E. 8_EN_081309(1). (1995) Minorities and the Juvenile Justice System Research Symmary.org (http://www. [44] National Incidence Study (NIS). (2006) Entry and Exit Disparities in the Tennessee Foster Care System. In J. Haight. 179 [35] KVUE.org/protection/files/Progress_for_Children-No. Chicago: University of Chicago Press [27] Carlson. [31] http:/ / globalvoicesonline. (1999) Attachment disorganization: unresolved loss. [43] Wulczyn. relational violence and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategies.J. Everett. 1107-1128 [28] Lyons-Ruth. J. Lery. M. nsf/ 2DA8C6954EA9C8A3882572EA00532815/ $file/ 0516071. state.B. (1993). E. Mad. gov/ ca9/ newopinions. Graduate History Student. (1993) Long term consequences of childhood physical abuse. Shaver (Eds. b92.. (1988).. tx. The Australian Sociological Association. In J. state.unicef.state. Number 8.tx. 572-585 [30] Sinclair.html) (History of Child Protection in America by Kirsten Anderberg.) Handbook of Attachment. window. D. T.wikiprogress. Who's Watching Our Child Protection Agencies? p. html) [39] UScourts. (pp.ca/~kirstena/machallinstitutionhistory. Cassidy & P. & Jacobvitz. 57-76). 991 KB) — United Nations Children’s Fund: Progress for Children. J.. html) [41] Hill R. . Child Development 64. 779df065.gov (http://www. L. Chipungu & B.com (http:/ / www.info/) NCCPR provides reports and information on how (US) child protection systems are performing and how to make them perform better for children. chron. ca9. Department of Health & Human Services.) (1999). Attachment relationships among children with aggressive behavior problems: The role of disorganized early attachment patterns. NJ: Rutgers University Press. (1990) Parents’ Unresolved Traumatic Experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status. K. [37] Window. Research. (1996) [45] Pope. Washington.the only independent Christian charity providing professional advice. com/ disp/ story. tx. New Brunswick. law. (1996). pressonline. B. L. & Hansen. Child Development 69. W. edu/ uscode/ 42/ usc_sec_42_00001983----000-.E. 2009) • HHS. 549-559 [23] Malinosky-Rummell. & Feyerherm. Richardson group: Polygamists' children are OK April 18.pdf).ccpas. 520-554). 125 .hhs. R. M.

burning. including physical (not providing adequate food. altered breathing.[4] Types Child abuse can take several forms:[5] The four main types are physical. bulging or tense fontanels.[1] In the United States.[7] The continuous refusal of a child's basic needs is considered chronic neglect. an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm".txstate. which can lead to intracranial pressure. and oxygen deprivation.[9] Some human-service professionals claim that cultural norms that sanction physical punishment are one of the causes of child abuse. Texas State University Paper 332. which leads to patterns such as failure to thrive. 2004 Child abuse Child abuse is the physical. such as children not being able to interact with other children around them.edu (http://ecommons. kicking. diffuse axonal injury.ipu.[10] 126 . TXstate. clothing. child abuse is "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death. Most nations with child-abuse laws consider the infliction of physical injuries or actions that place the child in obvious risk of serious injury or death to be illegal. Cultural norms about what constitutes abuse vary widely: among professionals as well as the wider public. schools or communities the child interacts with. It can involve punching. and dilated pupils. sexual. shoving. pulling ears or hair. and neglect.pdf) UNICEF. Non-Profit Foster Care Agency".[2] Child abuse can occur in a child's home. or in the organizations. vomiting. choking. physical abuse."Historical Analysis and Contemporary Assessment of Foster Care in Texas: Perceptions of Social Workers in a Private.[8] Physical abuse Physical abuse is physical aggression directed at a child by an adult.org/PDF/publications/childprotection_en. seizures. educational (not providing an adequate education). The transmission of toxins to a child through its mother (such as with fetal alcohol syndrome) can also be considered physical abuse in some jurisdictions. or neglect of a child.edu/arp/332) • Handbook: Child protection (http://www. Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge. According to the Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect.Child protection Further reading • McCutcheon. Shaking a child can cause shaken baby syndrome. lethargy. belting or shaking a child. There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect. serious physical or emotional harm. 2010. emotional mistreatment. psychological/emotional abuse. James. The distinction between child discipline and abuse is often poorly defined. psychological. sexual abuse or exploitation. IPU. bruising. and have undertaken campaigns to redefine such norms. Applied Research Projects. there is considerable variation. striking. or hygiene). the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department of Children And Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm. Beyond this. emotional (not providing nurturing or affection).[6] Neglect Child neglect is where the responsible adult does not provide adequately for various needs.[3] A person who feels the need to abuse or neglect a child may be described as a "pedopath". slapping. There are many effects of child neglect. people do not agree on what behaviors constitute abuse. or threat of harm to a child. or medical (not medicating the child or taking him or her to the doctor). swelling of the brain. stabbing. sexual. and child sexual abuse. potential for harm.

[21] physical injury to the child.[23] Psychological/emotional abuse Out of all the possible forms of abuse. withholding communication.[20] bulimia nervosa. strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases. It could include name-calling. physical abuse 22%. mothers. insomnia. In the USA.[23] [24] [25] [26] [27] Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims. sexual abuse 8%. destruction of personal belongings. food and access to medical care. smells. It also found that child neglect and child abuse were far more common in single-parent families than in families where both parents are present. flashbacks. or neighbours.[31] The U. sexual dysfunction. fathers. and other forms of maltreatment 12%.[18] other mental illnesses (including borderline personality disorder[19] and dissociative identity disorder. inappropriate or excessive demands. a tendency for victims to blame themselves (self-blame) for the abuse. babysitters.[19] propensity to re-victimization in adulthood. etc. around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family. nightmares. places.[28] Victims of emotional abuse may react by distancing themselves from the abuser.[16] post-traumatic stress disorder. displaying pornography to a child. emotional abuse is the hardest to define. fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects. or fighting back by insulting the abuser.Child abuse Child sexual abuse Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation. neglect is defined as the failure to meet the basic needs of children including housing. clothing. Researchers found over 91.000 cases of neglect in one year (from October 2005 to 30 September 2006) using information from a database of cases verified by protective services agencies.[11] [13] [14] Selling the sexual services of children may be viewed and treated as child abuse with services offered to the child rather than simple incarceration.[17] anxiety. degradation. self-injury.S.[32] 127 .[29] A UNICEF report on child wellbeing[30] stated that the United States and the United Kingdom ranked lowest among industrial nations with respect to the wellbeing of children. in 1997 neglect represented 54% of confirmed cases of child abuse. internalizing the abusive words. most often brothers.[15] Effects of child sexual abuse include guilt and self-blame. actual sexual contact against a child. emotional maltreatment 4%. suicidal ideation. depression. indecent exposure of the genitals to a child.[22] Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children. Emotional abuse can result in abnormal or disrupted attachment development. torture or destruction of a pet. among other problems. viewing of the child's genitalia without physical contact.[2] Neglect could also take the form of financial abuse by not buying the child adequate materials for survival. and overly passive behavior. self-esteem issues.). ridicule. doctor's visits. and routine labeling or humiliation. or using a child to produce child pornography. Department of Health and Human Services reports that for each year between 2000 and 2005.[28] Prevalence According to the (American) National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse. approximately 30% are relatives of the child. learned helplessness. chronic pain. addiction. physical contact with the child's genitals. uncles or cousins.[11] [12] Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome). "female parents acting alone" were most likely to be perpetrators of child abuse. somatic complaints. excessive criticism.

however. One U. this is a rate of 2.000 U. children. or when abuse and/or neglect are contributing factors to a child’s death. and specifically mothers.[44] In 2009 CBS News reported that child abuse in the United States had increased during the economic recession. 128 . training for investigators. Girls and boys. than anyone else.[45] Studies have found that not biologically related parents (like stepparents) are up to a hundred times more likely to kill a child than biological parents. relatives. having non-family members living in the household.[43] Unemployment and financial difficulties are associated with increased rates of child abuse.[41] and lower mother-child relationship quality. are killed at similar rates. as are African Americans.[37] However. Caregivers. the children began to come in with injuries. Younger children are at a much higher risk for being killed. stepchildren have a much higher risk of being abused which is sometimes referred to as the Cinderella effect. and non-relative caregivers [source needed]. 1. and heroin. Family situations which place children at risk include moving. study found that parents with documented substance abuse.[41] They also result in poorer maternal mental health. and between cocaine and sexual abuse. shaken baby syndrome prevention programs. most commonly alcohol.[40] and there is an increased risk of physical violence during pregnancy.730 children died in 2008 due to factors related to abuse. or if both the marital strife and the abuse are caused by tendencies in the abuser. In the United States.[33] Child abuse fatalities are widely recognized as being under-counted.[36] Parents who physically abuse their spouses are more likely than others to physically abuse their children.[37] Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to be abused or neglected. unemployment.33 per 100. it is impossible to know whether marital strife is a cause of child abuse.[46] See also Infanticide (zoology). An evolutionary psychology explanation for this is that using resources in order to take care of another person's biological child is likely not a good strategy for increasing reproductive success. It gave the example of a father who had never been the primary care-taker of the children. it is estimated that between 60-85% of child fatalities due to maltreatment are not recorded as such on death certificates.Child abuse Fatalities A child abuse fatality: when a child’s death is the result of abuse or neglect. A number of policies and programs have been put into place to try to better understand and to prevent child abuse fatalities. were much more likely to mistreat their children. including strangers.S. and were also much more likely to reject court-ordered services and treatments. are more likely to be the perpetrators of a child abuse fatality. including: safe-haven laws.S. child fatality review teams. and child abuse death laws which mandate harsher sentencing for taking the life of a child. cocaine.[38] [39] In addition.[35] Understanding the causes of abuse is crucial to addressing the problem of child abuse.[42] Another study found that over two thirds of cases of child maltreatment involved parents with substance abuse problems. This study specifically found relationships between alcohol and physical abuse. unintended pregnancies are more likely than intended pregnancies to be associated with abusive relationships. Now that the father was in that role.[34] History Also known as Tardieu's Syndrome in homage to the French medical doctor Auguste Ambroise Tardieu Causes Child abuse is a complex phenomenon with multiple causes.[41] Substance abuse can be a major contributing factor to child abuse. More generally.

[55] [56] A study by Dante Cicchetti found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants exhibited symptoms of disorganized attachment. Child abuse is a major life stressor that has consequences involving the mental health of an adult but.[57] [58] When some of these children become parents. Some reportedly suffer from some type of chronic head. adults with a history of some form of child abuse. psychosocial intervention can be effective.[47] A recent publication. whether sexual abuse. physical abuse. or muscular pain with no identifiable reason. Research shows that abused children often develop deficits with language. For example. in changing the ways maltreated parents think about their young children. It has been identified that childhood sexual abuse is a risk factor for the development of substance-related problems during adolescence and adulthood. also suffer from different types of physical health problems later in life.[49] [50] or a disorganized attachment style. especially if they suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). abdominal. and other sequelae of child abuse.[48] makes the case that such exposure represents a serious and costly public-health issue that should be addressed by the healthcare system.[59] [60] Despite these potential difficulties. depressive. dissociative symptoms. Effects There are strong associations between exposure to child abuse in all its forms and higher rates of many chronic conditions.[61] Victims of childhood abuse. at least in some cases. and acting out symptoms. for the great majority their abuse was not directly associated . Child abuse can also cause problems with the neurodevelopment of a child. Hidden Costs in Health Care: The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse.[51] [52] [53] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems. the cause of different health problems in their adult life. such as anxiety and depression. the majority of studies examining the negative consequences of abuse have been focused on adolescences and young adults.[62] Even though the majority of childhood abuse victims know or believe that their abuse is. including dissociative symptoms. a group of sculptures by Mikhail Chemiakin in Moscow. or can be. it is claimed. high-risk health behaviors and shortened lifespan.Child abuse 129 Children are the Victims of Adult Vices. The strongest evidence comes from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE's) series of studies which show correlations between exposure to abuse or neglect and higher rates in adulthood of chronic conditions. The early experiences of child abuse can trigger the development of an internalizing disorder. Psychological effects Children with a history of neglect or physical abuse are at risk of developing psychiatric problems. These risks are elevated when child abuse is combined with traumatic events and/or fetal alcohol exposure. they may encounter difficulty when faced with their infant and young children's needs and normative distress. or neglect. deregulation of mood. have more chances of developing depression then an adult who has never been abused.[54] as well as anxiety. pelvic. behaviour and also social/emotional disturbances. which may in turn lead to adverse consequences for their child's social-emotional development.

and limbic irritability. Hooper. 28% more likely to be arrested as adults. hemorrhage. and rib or bone fractures (Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. the French sociologist who found out these correlations by studying health inequalities. Child abuse and neglect have been shown.[63] According to Georges Menahem.[67] Damage results from intracranial hypertension (increased pressure in the skull) after bleeding in the brain. Poor physical health. For depression. 2007). resulting in impaired development (De Bellis & Thomas. the pain and suffering they cause a child should not be discounted. and was second only to emotional abuse in its relationship with dissociative symptoms.. & De Bellis. as opposed to less than half of children in a control sample (ACF/OPRE. dissociation. for symptoms of depression. Physical effects Children who are physically abused are likely to receive bone fractures. Sexual abuse was particularly deleterious in its intrafamilial form. and 30% more likely to commit violent crime. instead of their childhood abuse. however.Child abuse 130 with those problems. language. depending on the type of abuse. 2002). where it is associated with the degrees of lasting affective problems (lack of affection. particularly rib fractures.[66] The immediate physical effects of abuse or neglect can be relatively minor (bruises or cuts) or severe (broken bones. arthritis. The long-term effects can be: Rib fractures in an infant secondary to child abuse Shaken baby syndrome. Adults who experienced abuse or neglect during childhood are more likely to suffer from physical ailments such as allergies. 2004a). Gibler. Meanwhile. Health inequality also has its origins in the family. In some cases the physical effects are temporary. 2006). and academic abilities (Watts-English. some statistically significant correlations were found between repeated illness and family traumas encountered by the child before the age of 18 years. while exposure to verbal abuse and witnessing of domestic violence had a moderately strong association. parental discord. anxiety. indicating that sufferers were most likely diagnosed with other possible causes for their health problems. More generally. and ulcers (Springer. 2003). These alterations in brain maturation have long-term consequences for cognitive. to cause important regions of the brain to fail to form or grow properly. high blood pressure. 2006. NSCAW found more than three-quarters of foster children between 1 and 2 years of age to be at medium to high risk for problems with brain development. Felitti. Fortson. Childhood verbal abuse had a stronger association with anger-hostility than any other type of abuse studied. asthma. experiencing more than two kinds of abuse exerted synergetically stronger symptoms. & Carnes. these relationships show that inequalities in illness and suffering are not only social. Several studies have shown a relationship between various forms of household dysfunction (including childhood abuse) and poor health (Flaherty et al. the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on physical health is just beginning to be explored. bronchitis. Kuo. Impaired brain development. A 2006 study found that childhood emotional and sexual abuse were strongly related to adult depressive symptoms. in some cases. the prolonged absence of a parent.[62] The effects of child abuse vary.[65] Children who experience child abuse & neglect are 59% more likely to be arrested as juveniles. and physical abuse a moderate one. or a serious illness affecting either the mother or father) that individuals report having experienced in childhood. or even death). damage to the spinal cord and neck.[68] . 2007). Shaking a baby is a common form of child abuse that often results in permanent neurological damage (80% of cases) or death (30% of cases).[64] and may have a higher risk of developing cancer. in the case of 23 of the 27 illnesses listed in the questionnaire of a French INSEE survey. Sheridan.

[73] One way the Federal government of the United States provides funding for child-abuse prevention is through Community-Based Grants for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CBCAP). The design of a child's artwork can be a symbolic representation of what they are feeling.Child abuse On the other hand.[77] Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. and large family size increases the risk of child neglect. including PTSD.[77] Other forms of treatment include group therapy. It also includes a component for non-offending parents. toddlers. Such children have been termed dandelion children. It targets trauma-related symptoms in children including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Offending parents are included in the treatment. clinical depression and anxiety. Play therapy and art therapy are ways to get children more comfortable with therapy by working on something that they enjoy (coloring. as inspired from the way that dandelions seem to prosper irrespective of soil.[77] Child-parent psychotherapy was designed to improve the child-parent relationship following the experience of domestic violence. to improve parenting skills/practices. is now used for victims of any kind of trauma.[76] Treatment A number of treatments are available to victims of child abuse.[72] U.[69] Such children (or currently grown-ups) are of high interest in finding factors that mitigate the effects of child abuse. etc. According to Hosin (2007). Being able to discuss and analyze a child's artwork can allow a professional to get a better insight of the child.[39] [70] "The starting point for effective child abuse programming is pregnancy planning. and more. defiance. It targets externalizing behaviors and strengthens prosocial behaviors." according to an analysis for US Surgeon General C.[39] Thus a comprehensive study for the National Academy of Sciences concluded that affordable contraceptive services should form the basis for child abuse prevention. drought.[74] Resources for child-protection services are sometimes limited. play therapy. It targets trauma-related symptoms in infants.[77] Abuse-focused cognitive behavioral therapy was designed for children who have experienced physical abuse. and preschoolers. President Barack Obama continued that tradition by declaring April 2009 Child Abuse Prevention Month.S. It is supported by two studies of one sample. or rain.[78] 131 . Prevention Unintended conception increases the risk of subsequent child abuse. relationships with friends or family. Everett Koop. aggression.). drawing. and art therapy."[75] Briere (1992) argues that only when "lower-level violence" of children ceases to be culturally tolerated will there be changes in the victimization and police protection of children. depending on the form of abuse they have experienced. first developed to treat sexually abused children. Several studies have found that sexually abused children undergoing TF-CBT improved more than children undergoing certain other therapies. painting. there are some children who are raised in child abuse. sun. but who manage to do unexpectedly well later in life regarding the preconditions. "a considerable number of traumatized abused children do not gain access to protective child-protection strategies. It is supported by one randomized study. Data on the effects of TF-CBT for children who experienced only non-sexual abuse was not available as of 2006. Each of these types of treatment can be used to better assist the client.[39] [71] April has been designated Child Abuse Prevention Month in the United States since 1983. and anxiety.

[79] In the United States.[83] Organizations There are organizations at national. 132 . Bedner. Alabama by District Attorney Robert "Bud" Cramer these multi-disciplinary teams have met to coordinate their efforts so that cases of child abuse can be investigated quickly and efficiently. ultimately reducing trauma to the child and garnering better convictions. and other mental health workers typically owe a duty of confidentiality to their patients and clients.[79] [82] Child abuse also poses ethical concerns related to confidentiality. accused of severely injuring his infant daughter. state.Child abuse Ethics One of the most challenging ethical dilemmas arising from child abuse relates to the parental rights of abusive parents or caretakers with regard to their children. which would have prevented a murder charge. sued for the right to determine whether or not she remain on life support. Accordingly. either by law and/or the standards of professional ethics. in separate articles. The National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome focuses its efforts on the specific issue of preventing child abuse that is manifested as shaken baby syndrome. and cannot disclose personal information without the consent of the individual concerned.[79] [80] [81] Bioethicists Jacob M. many jurisdictions and professional bodies have made exceptions to standard requirements for confidentiality and legal privileges in instances of child abuse. This exception allows professionals to breach confidentiality and make a report even when the child or his/her parent or guardian has specifically instructed to the contrary. Started over 25 years ago at what is now known as the National Children's Advocacy Center[84] in Huntsville. Child abuse is also a common exception to Physician–patient privilege: a medical professional may be called upon to testify in court as to otherwise privileged evidence about suspected child abuse despite the wishes of the child and his/her family. including doctors. as victims may be physically or psychologically unable to report abuse to authorities. and county levels in the United States that provide community leadership in preventing child abuse and neglect. Accordingly.[87] Other organizations focus on specific prevention strategies. This duty conflicts with an ethical obligation to protect children from preventable harm.[85] [86] These Child Advocacy Centers (known as CACs) have standards set by the National Children's Alliance. Many investigations into child abuse are handled on the local level by Child Advocacy Centers. The National Alliance of Children's Trust Funds and Prevent Child Abuse America are two national organizations with member organizations at the state level. therapists. created a motive for Bedner to act that conflicted with the apparent interests of his child. the 2008 New Hampshire case of Andrew Bedner drew attention to this legal and moral conundrum. confidentiality is often waived when these professionals have a good faith suspicion that child abuse or neglect has occurred or is likely to occur and make a report to local child protection authorities. Medical professionals. that such cases justify the replacement of the accused parent with an alternative decision-maker. Mandated reporter training is a program used to prevent ongoing child abuse. particularly in medical settings. Appel and Thaddeus Mason Pope recently argued. keeping her alive.

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Forensic Taphonomy: the Postmortem Fate of Human Remains.antipedophil. • Finkelhor.org) • Study on Child Abuse: India 2007 (http://wcd. 244. Child Abuse: Law and Policy Across Boundaries. ISBN 9780195342857. Boca Raton: CRC Press..Maryland Lawyer article about using a facility service dog to aid child abuse victims (http:/ /www. Crime. ISBN 0205503268. I. 319–336..in) • Prevent Child Abuse France (http://www. "Cranial Bone Displacement as a Taphonomic Process in Potential Child Abuse Cases".. ISBN 0415365058.org (http:/ / nationalcac. org/ ncac/ history. (1997). OCLC 162501989. 161. A.preventchildabuse. In Haglund. Oxford University Press.nic. Jill E.com/watch?v=u2JXCFWcIeE) • Child abuse (http://www. p. (2007). W. Gender. • Hoyano. • Turton.com/pdf/KellyBaltimoreCAC. L.google. nationalchildrensalliance.Award-winning short film about child abuse (http://www. ISBN 019829946X. Oxford University Press. T. • Prevent Child Abuse America (http://www..nic. Hickey.dmoz. External links • Cold-nosed Comfort . A. (2008).youtube. M. Park. pp. org/ professionals/ model/ cac_model. J. M. Child Abuse.google._Youth_and_Family/Child_abuse/) at the Open Directory Project • "What is child abuse and neglect?" (http://www. p. Boston. Hood. (1983). D. (2008-02-19). Oregon Department of Human Services. Child abuse and neglect: cross-cultural perspectives.com/?id=FDGaTSUXpdsC& printsec=frontcover). D. org/ ) Further reading • Crist. MA: Pearson Education. C. OCLC 150902303.fr) 136 .pdf) Ministry of Women and Child Development. New York: Routledge.courthousedogs. and Society (http://books. html) [87] Nationalchildrensalliance. & Sorg. CA: University of California Press. OCLC 144570871..gov/DHS/children/abuse/abuse_neglect.org (http:/ / www. OCLC 79004390.shtml). • Korbin.org (http:/ / nationalcac.. and Abuse in the Lives of Young People (http://books.in/childabuse. A. Berkeley. OCLC 144570871.Child abuse [85] Nationalcac. Jackie (2008). Childhood Victimization: Violence. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. H. Washburn. • Crosson-Tower. Keenan C. Government of India (http://wcd.org/Society/Issues/Children. A. html) [86] Nationalcac. ISBN 0520050703.pdf) • Pete .com/?id=IOOgAFQdRPwC&printsec=frontcover).oregon.

or parents and children. in every case it is the higher form of love that brings harmony and cleaves toward the good. Pair bonding The term pair bond originated in 1940 in reference to mated pairs of birds. Any two people who spend time together may form a bond.[2] Etymology The term comes from the 12th century. they are in harmony with one another . But when the sort of Love that is crude and impulsive controls the seasons. occurs in a variety of primate species. The term is commonly used in sociobiology and evolutionary psychology.. but refers to the formation of close personal relationships between women. Early views In the 4th century BC. in his Ethics of Human Bondage or the Strength of the Emotions. Humans in passionate relationships. or restrains." In 1809 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. bondwoman. It is a generic term signifying a monogamous or relatively monogamous relationship in either humans or animals. Plato concludes that the highest form of love is the greatest. that the term bondage relates to the human infirmity in moderating and checking the emotions. the Dutch philosopher Spinoza wrote. and is different from simple liking. concord with the gods above—all these are among his gifts" (188d). a bondsman is a person who provides bonds or surety for someone). Bonding typically refers to the process of attachment that develops between romantic partners. "when a man is prey to his emotions. which refers to something that binds. in his classic novella Elective Affinities. according to Spinoza.[3] Pair bonding. a bondman. When love "is directed.Human bonding Human bonding Human bonding is the process of development of a close. usually of a fairly short duration. In his Symposium. Bonding is a mutual. That is. whereas the impulsive vulgar love creates disharmony. one of the narrators in the dialog. Middle English word band. wrote of the "marriage tie. ties.. according to Goethe. states that love goes far beyond simple attraction to human beauty. This bond is characterized by emotions such as affection and trust. he is not his own master. towards the good. are analogous to reactive substances in a chemical equation. as well as throughout the universe.[4] 137 . In early usage. the bonds of human society. he brings death and destruction" (188a). or bondservant was a feudal serf that was obligated to work for his or her lord without pay (in modern usage. interpersonal relationship. Eryximachus reasons that when various opposing elements such as wet and dry are "animated by the proper species of Love. but lies at the mercy of fortune.[1] but can also develop among groups such as sporting teams and whenever people spend time together. In the 1660s. the Greek philosopher Plato argued that love directs the bonds of human society. Male bonding refers to the establishment of relationships between men through shared activities that often exclude females. close friends. The term female bonding is less frequently used. It most commonly takes place between family members or friends. whether in heaven or on earth: happiness and good fortune. in the realm of the gods as well as that of humans (186a–b). Because it is love that guides the relations between these sets of opposites throughout existence." and by analogy shows how strong marriage unions are similar in character to that by which the particles of quicksilver find a unity together through the process of chemical affinity. in temperance and justice. Eryximachus. Love directs everything that occurs. He states that it occurs throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. interactive process. Some scientists speculate that prolonged bonds developed in humans along with increased sharing of food.

i. a certain percentage of couples may go through what is called a limerent reaction. Much of the early research on attachment in humans was done by John Bowlby and his associates. sometimes referred to as the emotional bond. He A mother breast feeding—a process that facilitates mother–infant bonding. but found she could not avoid eye-to-eye contact with infant and mother.e. in ways that may either increase or decrease the intensity of the limerence. Limerent–Nonlimerent bond: define relationships in which one partner is limerent. This motivation accounts for curiosity and intellectual growth of language. but is also based on observations of children who had missed typical experiences of adult care. Many developmental specialists elaborated Bowlby's ethological observations. all of which have an emotional base of security.[8] 138 . because this increases the chances of survival by ensuring that they receive the care they need. 2. Bowlby proposed that babies have an inbuilt need from birth to make emotional attachments. neither Bowlby's proximity seeking (not possible for human infants prior to walking) nor subsequent descriptions of caregiver–infant mutuality with emotional availability and synchrony with emotional modulation include the enduring motivation of attachment into adult life. in which one or both of the pair may experience a state of passion mixed with continuous intrusive thinking. fear of rejection. This included the development of the concept of the affectional bond. is that based on her research and interviews with over 500 people. in relation to the experience or non-experience of limerence: 1.[5] [6] [7] Bowlby did not describe mutuality in attachment. all human bonded relationships can be divided into three varieties being defined by the amount of limerence or non-limerence each partner contributes to the relationship." in which the precursory concepts of "attachment theory" were developed. bonds. She was not successful in the use of infant gaze because she did not differentiate frightened hyper-alert states from affectionate interaction. with all human romantic relationships.e. Parental bonding Attachment In 1958. i. However. which is based on the universal tendency for humans to attach. Limerent–Limerent bond: define relationships in which both partners are limerent. Hence. Affectional bond: define relationships in which neither partner is limerent. The enduring motivation is the desire to control a pleasantly surprising transformation that is the route of belief in effectiveness by humans. The basis and interesting characteristic of this delineation made by Tennov. and hope. mathematics and logic. to seek closeness to another person and to feel secure when that person is present. Attachment theory has some of its origins in the observation of and experiments with animals. posited in 1979 by psychologist Dorothy Tennov. one of three varieties of bonds may form. defined over a set duration of time. 3. Ainsworth attempted to follow this amazing tunnel vision. The constitution of these bonds may vary over the course of the relationship. stated that attachment by mother was a pathological inversion and described only behaviors of the infant.Human bonding Limerent bond According to limerence theory. British developmental psychologist John Bowlby published the ground-breaking paper "the Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother.

such as the varied reasons families choose different feeding methods. the production of oxytocin during lactation increases parasympathetic activity. It is difficult to determine the extent of causality due to a number of confounding variables. they found that a lack of progesterone reduced aggressive behavior in male mice and stimulated them to act in a fatherly way towards their offspring. a researcher from Northwestern University in Illinois found that progesterone. many children now grow up in fatherless households and do not experience a paternal bond at all. and mutual gazing. may also control the way men react towards their children.Human bonding 139 Maternal bonding Of all human bonds."[10] but were challenged by others. Many believe that early bonding ideally increases response and sensitivity to the child's needs. via touch. such as with premature infants who may lack the necessary sucking strength to successfully breastfeed. the maternal bond (mother–infant relationship) is one of the strongest.[12] In 2003. response. thus reducing anxiety and theoretically fostering bonding. even though early breastfeeding did not occur. paternal bonding is more dominant later in a child's life after language develops. . It is generally understood that maternal oxytocin circulation can predispose some mammals to show caregiving behavior in response to young of their species. Father–child bonds also tend to develop with respect to topics such as political views or money. Breastfeeding has been reported to foster the early post-partum maternal bond. Fathers may be more influential in play interactions as opposed to nurturance interactions. In general. bolstering the quality of the mother–baby relationship—however. and bottle-feeding mothers are generally appropriately concerned with their babies. In fact. a hormone more usually associated with pregnancy and maternal bonding. paternal bonds tend to vary over the span of a child's development in terms of both strength and stability. many exceptions can be found of highly successful mother–baby bonds.[13] Father playing with his young daughter—an activity that tends to strengthen the father–child bond. whereas mother–child bonds tend to develop in relation to topics such as religious views or general outlooks on life.[11] The claimed effect is not universal. Paternal bonding In contrast to the maternal bond. following pregnancy. a champion of "infant rights. Specifically.[9] Extensive claims for the effect of breastfeeding were made in the 1930s by Margaret Ribble. The maternal bond begins to develop during pregnancy.

social isolation leads to stress. In 1980.[14] Neurobiology There is evidence in a variety of species that the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin are involved in the bonding process. Positive . Today. Germany. there is evidence that oxytocin and vasopressin are released during labor and breastfeeding.[14] Historically. Currently. By having patients care for the many farm animals on the estate.2 billion animals are kept as pets. heart rate. anxiety. 1. England. lowered levels of blood pressure. as of 1995 there were over 30 research institutions looking into the potential benefits of the human–animal bond. domestic or wild. in the US.[14] Human–animal bond: human to animal contact is known to reduce the physiological characteristics of stress. dogs for herding and tracking. and in other forms of prosocial and reproductive behavior. a French surgeon had patients with neurological disorders ride horses. for example. be it a cat as a pet or birds outside one's window. specifically. in the past the majority of cats were kept outside (barn cats) whereas today most cats are kept indoors (housecats) and considered Human bonding with an emu in Australia. The contact with the animals was found to reduce the occurrence of seizures. In humans.[15] Moreover. and that these events are associated with maternal bonding. For example. epileptic patients were given the prescription to spend time each day taking care of cats and dogs. and tension were all found to correlate positively with human–pet bonding. primarily for bonding purposes. a team of scientists at the University of Pennsylvania found that human to animal contact was found to reduce the physiological characteristics of stress. Both chemicals facilitate pair bonding and maternal behavior in experiments on laboratory animals. which is associated with activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the release of cortisol. either in or on the bed. current studies show that 60–80% of dogs sleep with their owners at night in the bedroom.[15] In addition. In the 19th century.Human bonding 140 Human–animal bonding The human–animal bond can be defined as a connection between people and animals. society officials theorized that the combination of animal contact plus productive work would facilitate the patients' rehabilitation. animals were domesticated for functional use. According to one model. in York. Research into the nature and merit of the human–animal bond began in the late 18th century when. in Western societies. The patients were found to have improved their motor control and balance and were less likely to suffer bouts of depression. respiratory rate. In the 1870s in Paris. in Bielefeld. for example. part of the family. the Society of Friends established The Retreat to provide humane treatment for the mentally ill. their function is primarily bonding. and cats for killing mice or rats.

There were no differences for most of the hormones measured. by contrast.[17] In the reward centers of the limbic system. One team of researchers has argued that oxytocin only plays a secondary role in affiliation. Weak social bonds are believed to be responsible for the majority of the embeddedness and structure of social networks in society as well as the transmission of information through these networks. know people that we do not. Mark Granovetter became enamored of the concepts underlying the classic chemistry lecture in which "weak" hydrogen bonds hold huge numbers of water molecules together. including LH. which is also associated with higher levels of oxytocin and vasopressin. and there was also a difference in blood cortisol for both sexes. This model was the stimulus behind his famous 1973 paper The Strength of Weak Ties. which themselves are held together by "strong" covalent bonds. and androstenedione. while a freshman history major at Harvard. affiliation is a function of the brain systems underlying reward and memory formation. Specifically. which is now considered a classic paper in sociology. the neurotransmitter dopamine may interact with oxytocin and further increase the likelihood of bonding. estradiol. Because our close friends tend to move in the same circles that we do. Testosterone and FSH were lower in men who had recently fallen in love. It has been called the "cuddle chemical" for its role in facilitating trust and attachment.[19] Weak ties In 1962. the information they receive overlaps considerably with what we already know. and thus receive more novel information.[20] . and reduced stress and stress-related hormones. One of the few studies that looked at the influence of hormones on human bonding compared participants who had recently fallen in love with a control group. more novel information flows to individuals through weak than through strong ties.[18] A small child bonding with a cat. Because the vast majority of this research has been done on animals—and the majority of that on rodents—these findings must be taken with caution when applied to humans.[16] Oxytocin is associated with higher levels of trust in laboratory studies on humans. and that endogenous opiates play the central role. According to this model. These differences disappeared after 12–28 months and may reflect the temporary stress and arousal of a new relationship. This leads to bonding. progesterone. Acquaintances. DHEAS.Human bonding 141 social interaction is associated with increased oxytocin. with higher levels in the group that was in love.

sometimes for a number of years. McLaughlin. "Engageance. P. [12] Rossi. Bowlby. (2006)." (http://www. The Free Dictionary (http:/ / www. [20] Granovetter. C. Smith. A Natural History of Love. BBC News. php?search=pair-bond& searchmode=none) – Search: "pair bond" Microsoft Encarta 2006. "Human Bonding: Parents and Their Offspring in Early Modern England. Attachment and Loss. W. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Webster’s New World College Dictionary © 1996. 21(4). Further reading Books • Miller. New York: Springer. during the dynamics of relationship breakup. bbc. Child Development.V. [14] Latter. Glenn. animalwelfaresociety. D. Psychoneuroendocrinology. but holds on to it for an extended period. A. 313–395. Bowlby.M. (2001). (2004).si. uk/ 2/ low/ health/ 2793551. 29. I. (1998). [18] Depue. co. & Rossi. a grief response may occur. All rights reserved." only noted in hindsight. pp. 931–936.L. 779–818. • Brown. Diane (1986).H. B.. etymonline. S." Journal of Economic Perspectives (Vol 19 Number 1. Premium Edition © 1993–2005 Microsoft Corporation. and Psychological Manifestations. Cas Lek. R. [19] Marazziti. censhare. (1995). Neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love. (1939). ISBN 0-202-30361-6 [13] "Secret of paternal bond" (http:/ / news.pdf) Discussion Papers in Economic and Social History – Oxford University. htm). com/ Content/ detail. [17] Ackerman. Oxford University Press. 17.ox. 25 February 2003. Psychoneuroendocrinology. (1990). & Canale. there exists a "turning point. [16] Carter.K. Of Human Bonding: Parent Child Relations Across the Life Course. (2005). [11] Pinneau. 1–29. [15] Article: "The Changing Status of Human–Animal Bonds" (http:/ / www. Chris (2001). R. a practical elaboration of attachment in mothers of at-risk infants". & Brown. ISBN 1-901250-54-7. " Development of the Maternal Bond during Pregnancy (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-679-73002-8. asp?ContentDetailID=990). ISBN 0-7923-7478-9 Articles • Ben-Amos. International Journal of Family Psychiatry 4 (3): 229–245 [9] Cesk.[21] When a person to which one has become bonded is lost. (2000). Source: University of Minnesota. Source: Animal Welfare Society – Southeastern Michigan. J. [21] Vaughan. 23. The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds.umich. M. Vintage Books. John (1969)." where. thefreedictionary. html). followed by a transition period in which one partner unconsciously knows the relationship is going to end.S. Routledge. leader-values. Chicago: Aldine. L. [8] See R.D. John (1990). (1950). The Ontogeny of Human Bonding Systems: Evolutionary Origins. A neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding: Implications for conceptualizing a human trait of affiliation. Uncoupling – Turning Points in Intimate Relationships. " The Impact of Social Structures on Economic Development (http:/ / www. net/ pethumanbonding. Grief is the process of accepting the loss and adjusting to the changed situation. Diane (1994).uk/economics/history/paper17/17www. & Morrone-Strupinsky. . edu/ spotlight02. The Science of Love.ac. 28. 139(1): 5–8.pdf) Psychological Inquiry. & Rodgers.Human bonding Debonding and loss In 1976. Fusion Press. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. findarticles. ISBN 0415043263." Jan 19 .R. [10] Ribble. com) Online Etymology Dictionary (http:/ / www. 33–50). 90. M.A. 455–463. A critique on the articles by Margaret Ribble.. (1997).edu/ICOS/Brown-Stephanie. Ostfeld (1983). Grief may take longer than the initial development of the bond. D.M. 203–228. Neural Bases. nuff. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3749/ is_200310/ ai_n9302754). Wilson. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. (http://www. Basic Books. ISBN 0-679-76183-7. The significance of infantile sucking for the psychic development of the individual. Article: "Human Pet Bonding" (http:/ / www. Selective investment theory: Recasting the functional significance of close relationships. stm).B. Hormonal changes when falling in love. J. com/ index. umn. sociologist Diane Vaughan proposed an "uncoupling theory. The grief process varies with culture. (2004). S. – a 142 .L.

com • Equine Bonding Concepts (http://www.Human bonding theoretical proposal that "human social bonds evolved as overarching. " Of Human Bonding (http://www. & Mackey.osu.aican. htm) – Research News.html) Evolutionary Psychology.babyreference. emotion regulating mechanisms designed to promote reliable. high-cost altruism among individuals who depend on one another for survival and reproduction" (From the abstract) • Immerman.org/) Human–animal bonding • Parrot–Human Bonding (http://www.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/ 04/AR2006080400332.com/cs/felinehumanbond/a/bonding_bubba. 07) • Author (2006).com/love7. 1.com/ep/articles/ep01138154. Express (Washingtonpost.com/ebc/) 143 . (Aug.uk/content/view/34/11/) – British Society for Neuroendocrinology Baby bonding • Bonding With Your Baby (http://kidshealth.com/BondingMatters. L.com • Researchers Map the Sexual Network of an Entire High School (http://researchnews.edu/archive/chains.org • Bonding Period (http://www.html). R. Aug.com).htm?iam=metaresults& terms=shannon+swallow) source: About. 138–154.. 25 External links Relationships • Chemical Bonding and Love (http://people.org. Perspectives on Human Attachment (Pair Bonding): Eve's unique legacy of canine analogue (http://human-nature.uk/ doc_WTX033638. Ohio State University • The Neurobiology of Social Bonds (http://www.net/barp/bonding.html) – Parent/Infant Bonding • Bonding Matters – the Chemistry of Attachment (http://www.htm) Adoption bonding • Adoption bonding (http://www.html) – Encyclopedia of Adoption (use cautiously with section on "attachment disorders") • AICAN – Australian Intercountry Adoption Network (http://www.html)" – Condo Dwellers Find Cool Ways to Connect With the Neighbors.wellcome.org/parent/pregnancy_newborn/communicating/bonding.washingtonpost.quakerville.ac. (2006).html) source: kidshealth.adoptivefamilies.htm) – HowStuffWorks." Wellcome Trust.com/entry/bonding-and-attachment/72/1. Mon. W.adoption.birthingnaturally.S.C.rosecreekvillage.about. " Falling in Love: Insights into Human Bonding (http://www. (2003).neuroendo.asp) – Progressive Steps in the Bonding Process • Feline–Human Bond (http://cats.com/qic/bonding.com/bonding/) – Adoptive Families Magazine • Bonding and Attachment (http://encyclopedia. ISSN 1474-7049 • Thorne.howstuffworks.

com/security_and_attachment/default. 3. 4.[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] Bowlby. "the Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother. The individual wishes to maintain proximity or contact with the person with whom he or she has an affectional tie. (1958).[1] The term was coined and subsequently developed over the course of four decades. J. according to Bowlby. "The Nature of the Childs Tie to his Mother. J. ISBN 0-415-35481-1.fu-berlin. The central features of the concept of affectional bonding can be traced to Bowlby's 1958 paper. The individual feels sadness or distress at involuntary separation from the person.pdf) • Attachment Security in Infancy and its Consequences for Development of the Individual (http://www. http:/ / www.[1] typically a caregiver for her or his child. an affectional bond is a type of attachment behavior one individual has for another individual. from the early 1940s to the late 1970s. 44. She established five criteria for affectional bonds between individuals. Ainsworth. (2005). Reference for the entire section "Five criteria" External links • Universality of Human Social Attachment as an Adaptive Process (http://web. An attachment bond has an additional criterion: the person seeks security and comfort in the relationship. Attachments beyond infancy.S. The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. html Bowlby. org/ papers/ pendry.D. is the attraction one individual has for another individual."[3] Five criteria Bowlby referred to attachment bonds as a specific type of "affectional" bond. An affectional bond involves a relationship that is emotionally significant. The core of the term affectional bond. 2. Routledge Classics.de/dahlem/DWR 92_Attachment/Chapter 10. and a sixth criterion for attachment bonds: 1. M.Affectional bond Affectional bond In psychology. An affectional bond is persistent. (1989). by psychologist John Bowlby in his work on attachment theory. American Psychologist. personalityresearch. An affectional bond involves a particular person who is not interchangeable with anyone else. turnertoys." International Journal of Psychoanalysis 39: 350–373.htm) 144 . 5. not transitory.[2] in which the two partners tend to remain in proximity to one another. 709716. as described by him and developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth.

Cambridge. "If the child is maladjusted. While still in medical school he enrolled himself in the Institute for Psychoanalysis. psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. In 1937. it will be possible for some of them to develop more favorable attitudes toward their children during the remainder. Sir Anthony Alfred Bowlby. He was the fourth of six children and was brought up by a nanny in the British fashion of his class at that time. Bowlby saw his mother only one hour a day after teatime. as was common for boys of his social status. notable for his interest in child development and for his pioneering work in attachment theory. his beloved nanny. she considered that parental attention and affection would lead to dangerous spoiling of the children. he displayed a sensitivity to children’s suffering throughout his life. who was actually his primary caretaker in his early years. by relieving the parents of the children for part of the year. left the family. (John's grandfather) was killed while serving as a war correspondent in the Opium Wars. he was to describe this as tragic as the loss of a mother. Family background Bowlby was born in London to an upper-middle-class family. At the age of seven. then at the age of twenty-two enrolled at University College Hospital in London. Moreover. At the age of twenty-six. The boarding school has the advantage of preserving the child's all-important home ties. he revealed that he regarded it as a terrible time for him. with his characteristic attentiveness to the effects of age differences. and. Scotland. Thomas William Bowlby. even if in slightly attenuated form. who succeeded his uncle as third Baronet. After Cambridge. However. on April 16. His father.[2] Because of such experiences as a child. Later. it may be useful for him to be away for part of the year from the tensions which produced his difficulties. 1938."[3] He married Ursula Longstaff. Sir Anthony's own father. He later said. herself the daughter of a surgeon. Bowlby did consider boarding schools appropriate for children aged eight and older. he qualified in medicine. with a tragic history: at age five. winning prizes for outstanding intellectual performance. In his work Separation: Anxiety and Anger. since it forms part of the ordinary social pattern of most Western communities today [1951]. Like many other mothers of her social class. Normally.[1] When Bowlby was almost four years old. including (Sir) Richard Bowlby. he worked with maladjusted and delinquent children. "I wouldn't send a dog away to boarding school at age seven". aged 30. . though during the summer she was more available. and if the home is bad in other ways the same is true. was surgeon to the King's Household. he was sent off to boarding school.John Bowlby 145 John Bowlby Edward John Mostyn Bowlby Full name Edward John Mostyn Bowlby Born 26 February 1907 Died 2 September 1990 (aged 83) Edward John Mostyn "John" Bowlby (26 February 1907 – 2 September 1990) was a British psychologist. Career Bowlby studied psychology and pre-clinical sciences at Trinity College. he trained in adult psychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital. Following medical school. and they had four children. first Baronet. Bowlby died at his summer home on the Isle of Skye. and wrote. Bowlby was lucky in that the nanny in his family was present throughout his childhood. he qualified as a psychoanalyst. the child who goes to boarding-school will not feel different from other children.

that “the infant and young child should experience a warm. Mental Health Consultant to the World Health Organization. He focused on how attachment difficulties were transmitted from one generation to the next. The three most important experiences for Bowlby’s future work and the development of attachment theory were his work with: • Maladapted and delinquent children. further extended and tested his ideas. He broke with psychoanalytic theories which saw infants' internal life as being determined by fantasy rather than real life events. however they had different views about the role of the mother in the treatment of a three-year-old boy. and the use of group nurseries to allow mothers of young children to contribute to the war effort.[5] The result was Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951.[2] Maternal deprivation In 1949. Mary Ainsworth. he became interested in the development of children and began work at the Child Guidance Clinic in London.[2] • Melanie Klein during his psychoanalytic training. She was his supervisor. and from 1950. and Bowlby was effectively ostracized by the psychoanalytic community.[4] Bowlby was interested from the beginning of his career in the problem of separation and the wartime work of Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham on evacuees and Rene Spitz on orphans. He later expressed the view that his interest in real-life experiences and situations was "alien to the Kleinian outlook". The 1951 WHO publication was highly influential in causing widespread changes in the practices and prevalence of institutional care for infants and children. In 1952 when he and Robertson presented their film A Two Year Old Goes to Hospital to the British Psychoanalytical Society. The documentary illustrated the impact of loss and suffering experienced by young children separated from their primary caretakers. This interest was probably increased by a variety of wartime events involving separation of young children from familiar people. these included the rescue of Jewish children by the Kindertransport arrangements. which was one of the films about ”young children in brief separation“. and in fact played the primary role in suggesting that several attachment styles existed. By the late 1950s he had accumulated a body of observational and theoretical work to indicate the fundamental importance for human development of attachment from birth. were both controversial and influential.John Bowlby During World War II. Specifically and importantly.[2] Bowlby was interested in finding out the actual patterns of family interaction involved in both healthy and pathological development. he was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Royal Army Medical Corps. and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment” and that not to do so may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences. After the war. the evacuation of children from London to keep them safe from air raids. Because of his previous work with maladapted and delinquent children. psychoanalysts did not accept that a child would mourn or experience grief on separation but instead saw the child's distress as caused by elements of unconscious fantasies (in the film because the mother was pregnant). Bowlby's earlier work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospitalised and institutionalised care lead to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organization's report on the mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe. but Bowlby emphasized the actual history of the relationship. a student of Bowlby’s. Klein stressed the role of the child's fantasies about his mother. Some critics 146 . This film was instrumental in a campaign to alter hospital restrictions on visiting by parents. In his development of attachment theory he propounded the idea that attachment behaviour was essentially an evolutionary survival strategy for protecting the infant from predators. Bowlby's views—that children were responding to real life events and not unconscious fantasies—were rejected by psychoanalysts. he was Deputy Director of the Tavistock Clinic. intimate. The theoretical basis was controversial in many ways. and in changing practices relating to the visiting of infants and small children in hospitals by parents. His main conclusions.[6] Bowlby drew together such limited empirical evidence as existed at the time from across Europe and the USA. • James Robertson (in 1952) in making the documentary film A Two-Year Old Goes to the Hospital.

at the time of the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health.[7] or that the formation of an ongoing relationship with a child was an important part of parenting. cognitive science and control systems theory and drew upon them to formulate the innovative proposition that the mechanisms underlying an infants tie emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure. and inspired students of animal behaviour such as Tinbergen. p. Van der Veer & Van IJzendoorn. and Harry Harlow. built on up-to-date science rather than the outdated psychic energy model espoused by Freud. Hinde. He also introduced the concepts of environmentally stable or labile human behaviour allowing for the revolutionary combination of the idea of a species-specific genetic bias to become attached and the concept of individual differences in attachment security as environmentally labile strategies for adaptation to a specific childrearing niche. contributed with his approval. In particular.[11] Because he was dissatisfied with traditional theories.[9] The monograph was also used for political purposes to claim any separation from the mother was deleterious in order to discourage women from working and leaving their children in daycare by governments concerned about maximising employment for returned and returning servicemen. 2007. developmental psychology. He then went on to describe the subsequent development of attachment theory. a failure to distinguish between the effects of the lack of a primary attachment figure and the other forms of deprivation and understimulation that may affect children in institutions. Konrad Lorenz.John Bowlby profoundly disagreed with the necessity for maternal (or equivalent) love in order to function normally.[9] In 1962 WHO published Deprivation of maternal care: A Reassessment of its Effects to which Mary Ainsworth. and in general emphasized the importance of evolutionary thinking about human development that foreshadowed the new interdisciplinary approach of evolutionary psychology.[10] This publication also attempted to address the previous lack of evidence on the effects of paternal deprivation. Alternatively.[14] [15] 147 . Bowlby’s thinking about the nature and function of the caregiver-child relationship influenced ethological research. "accommodated by any theory then current and in the brief time of my employment by the World Health Organization there was no possibility of developing a new one". to present the recent research and developments and to address misapprehensions. Bowlby spurred Hinde to start his ground breaking work on attachment and separation in primates (monkeys and humans). Bowlby developed new explanatory hypotheses for what is now known as human attachment behaviour. 321). ethology. Obviously."[5] Bowlby expressed himself as having made good the "deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect" in Maternal Care and Mental Health in his later work Attachment and Loss published in 1969. on the basis of ethological evidence he was able to reject the dominant Cupboard Love theory of attachment prevailing in psychoanalysis and learning theory of the 1940s and 1950s. Using the viewpoints of this emerging science and reading extensively in the ethology literature.[13] Ethology and evolutionary concepts "From the 1950s Bowlby was in personal and scientific contact with leading European scientists in the field of ethology.[8] Development of attachment theory Bowlby himself explained in his 1988 work "A Secure Base" that the data were not. There was criticism of the confusion of the effects of privation (no primary attachment figure) and deprivation (loss of the primary attachment figure) and in particular. According to Rutter the importance of Bowlby's initial writings on 'maternal deprivation' lay in his emphasis that children's experiences of interpersonal relationships were crucial to their psychological development. Bowlby's close colleague. the encounter of ethology and attachment theory led to a genuine cross-fertilization" (Van der Horst.[12] "Bowlby realised that he had to develop a new theory of motivation and behaviour control.[8] Others questioned the extent to which his hypothesis was supported by the evidence. Bowlby sought new understanding from such fields as evolutionary biology. and especially the rising star of ethology Robert Hinde. namely Niko Tinbergen.

148 . psychoanalysts rejected his theory. and the type of behaviour toward familiar adults shown by toddlers has some continuity with the social behaviours they will show later in life. especially if the adults are sensitive and responsive to child communications.[5] In Bowlby's approach. 2. the human infant is considered to have a need for a secure relationship with adult caregivers. Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment which in turn lead to 'internal working models' which will guide the individual's feelings. At about the same time. their tendency to seek proximity to those people. and their ability to use the familiar adults as a secure base from which to explore the environment. building on concepts from ethology and developmental psychology.[16] The second and third volumes. The formation of emotional attachments contributes to the foundation of later emotional and personality development. The emotional attachments of young children are shown behaviourally in their preferences for particular familiar people. As the toddler grows. Attachment was revised in 1982 to incorporate recent research. and in return. Her results in this and other studies contributed greatly to the subsequent evidence base of attachment theory as presented in 1969 in Attachment the first volume of the Attachment and Loss trilogy. According to attachment theory. 1972 and 1980. [17] Bowlby's legacy Although not without its critics. it uses its attachment figure or figures as a "secure base" from which to explore. Separation Anxiety (1959). The quality of the social engagement appears to be more influential than amount of time spent. and who remain as consistent caregivers for some months during the period from about 6 months to two years of age. The attachment process is not gender specific as infants will form attachments to any consistent caregiver who is sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant. is a biography of Charles Darwin. Children between 6 and about 30 months are very likely to form emotional attachments to familiar caregivers. Bowlby's attachment theory stresses the following important tenets:[19] 1. thoughts. especially in times of distress. to develop a research tool called the "Strange Situation Procedure" for developing and classifying different attachment styles. other features of attachment behaviour. 3.[16] Darwin biography Bowlby's last work. and Grief and Mourning in Infancy and Early Childhood (1960). attachment in infants is primarily a process of proximity seeking to an identified attachment figure in situations of perceived distress or alarm for the purpose of survival. were presented to the British Psychoanalytical Society in London in three now classic papers: The Nature of the Child’s Tie to His Mother (1958). Bowlby's former colleague. Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant. which discusses Darwin's "mysterious illness" and whether it was psychosomatic. Mary Ainsworth was completing extensive observational studies on the nature of infant attachments in Uganda with Bowlby's ethological theories in mind. published posthumously. Separation: Anxiety and Anger and Loss: Sadness and Depression followed in 1972 and 1980 respectively. the main tenets of attachment theory.[18] As it is presently formulated and used for research purposes.John Bowlby The "Attachment and Loss" trilogy Before the publication of the trilogy in 1969. Mary Ainsworth used this feature plus "stranger wariness" and reunion behaviours. attachment theory has been described as the dominant approach to understanding early social development and to have given rise to a great surge of empirical research into the formation of children's close relationships. Bowlby rejected psychoanalyst explanations for attachment. and expectations in later relationships. without which normal social and emotional development will not occur.

255-266 [8] Rutter. OCLC 42913724. New York: Basic Books. in Handbook of Attachment. LCCN 00266879. Cassandra's Daughter: A History of Psychoanalysis. Attachment. ed (Report.). OCLC 59246032. OCLC 11442968 [17] Bowlby.1080/14616730601149809. Selected bibliography • Bowlby J (1995) [1950]. Attachment & Human Development 9 (4): 321–335. Maternal Care and Mental Health. ISBN 0712666214 (pbk). such as abrupt separation of the toddler from familiar people or the significant inability of carers to be sensitive. Tavistock professional book. No.). (1962). ISBN 9780393309300. J. Fry M (abridged & ed. LeRoy HA. Geneva: World Health Organization. 3]. OCLC 8353942. Monograph series no.1007/s12124-008-9079-2.CT:Praeger. ISBN 0-465-00543-8 (pbk). Pelican books. Maternal Care and Mental Health (http:/ / www. LCCN 00266879.) (2nd edn. "A Social Scientist's Approach to Maternal Deprivation. 2). OCLC 33105354. "Clinical Implications of Attachment Concepts: Retrospect and Prospect". London. PMID 18766423. A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. Geneva: World Health Organization. J (1951) Maternal Care and Mental Health. Second edition. 9781855753853.John Bowlby 4. Attachment. (1991). Retrieved 2007-11-30.95).1995. Blackwell. CT: Praeger. doi:10. Harmondsworth. World Health Organisation WHO [7] Wootton. Notes [1] Bowlby R and King P (2004).). 2007. NLM 8412414. Cassidy J and Shaver PR. New York: Norton. Understanding Attachment. PMID 7650083. (1951). Attachment and Loss (vol. Maternal Care and Mental Health. ch. Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 42 (4): 370. Van der Veer R. Karnac Books. M (1995). London: Penguin Books. 'Understanding attachment. responsive or consistent in their interactions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 36 (4): 549–571." In Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects. library. Viking/Allen Lane. London: Hogarth Press. Routledge. pdf) [14] Van der Horst FCP.tb02314. ed. OCLC 154150053. London: Jason Aronson. The master work series (2nd ed. Attachment and Loss (vol. Child Care and the Growth of Love. Public Health Papers. [18] Schaffer R. Attachment and Loss (vol. ISBN 0-465-00543-8 (pbk). • Bowlby J (1976) [1965].28. Events that interfere with attachment. J. [9] Rutter (1981) Maternal Deprivation Reassessed. upenn. Ainsworth MD (2 add. com/ content/ 47012q360531r664/ fulltext. . OCLC 11442968. 3). J. ISBN 0-465-04238-4 (pbk). London: Hogarth Press.x. [15] Van der Horst FCP. ISBN 0-14-013458-1. [11] Bowlby J (1988) "A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory". Attachment and Loss (vol. [13] Bowlby J(1986) Citation Classic.P. 225. [5] Bretherton I. Guilford press. Van IJzendoorn MH (2007). ""When strangers meet": John Bowlby and Harry Harlow on attachment behavior" (http:/ / www. Northvale. [3] Bowlby. World Health Organization. New York: Norton.). Van der Veer R (2008). [10] Ainsworth M et al. "The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth" (1992) Developmental Psychology vol. • Bowlby J (1991). 149 . pdf) (PDF). • Bowlby J (1980). London: Routledge. ISBN 1855753855. (2006).1111/j. B. 14. Public Health Papers. Retrieved 2008-09-11. doi:10. com/ smpp/ content~content=a773405215). 17. [16] Bowlby J [1969] (1999). Separation: Anxiety & Anger. New York: Basic Books. NLM 8412414. springerlink. . Eds. Penguin. have short-term and possible long-term negative impacts on the child's emotional and cognitive life.New York: Schocken. World Health Organisation. 14. 1). No. p.109).89. J. [2] Schwartz J (1999). • Bowlby J (1999) [1969]. Introducing Child Psychology.. informaworld. garfield. doi:10. ISBN 0422622303 (pbk). 1953 (above)). PMID 17852051. pp.(1962 ) Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects. Westport. 1) (2nd ed. (2006). edu/ classics1986/ A1986F063100001. Loss: Sadness & Depression. pp. 2nd edition.1469-7610. • Bowlby J (1973). Charles Darwin: A New Life. ISBN 1-56821-757-9. ISBN 0670886238. [Geneva. (1999) "The Nature of a Childs Ties". Charles Darwin: A New Life. [4] Mercer. ISBN 0-415-00640-6 (pbk) [12] Cassidy J. (International psycho-analytical library no. 759-775 [6] Bowlby. p. "John Bowlby and ethology: An annotated interview with Robert Hinde" (http:/ / www. Fifty Years of Attachment Theory: Recollections of Donald Winnicott and John Bowlby. • Bowlby J (1988). (International psycho-analytical library no. [19] Mercer. NJ.' Westport.

google. ISBN 9780470683644.1080/14616730601149809. PMID 17852051. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Attachment & Human Development 9 (4): 321–335. OCLC 27266442.Rediscovering a systems scientist (http://isss. • Van Dijken S. Van IJzendoorn MH. doi:10.interscience.informaworld.From Psychoanalysis to Ethology. John Bowlby: His Early Life: A Biographical Journey into the Roots of Attachment Theory.28. Retrieved 2007-09-01.5.html) • John Bowlby: Attachment Theory Across Generations (http://video. • Van Dijken S (1998). Developmental Psychology 28 (5): 759–775.amazon. John Bowlby . Unraveling the Roots of Attachment Theory (http://www. London. Van IJzendoorn MH (2007).com/ videoplay?docid=-6894776599072526990) 4-minute clip from a documentary film used primarily in higher education. John Bowlby and Attachment Theory. Van der Veer R (2008).1177/0952695106069666. "Bowlby before Bowlby: The sources of an intellectual departure in psychoanalysis and psychology" (http://www3. • Van der Horst FCP. New York: Routledge.pdf) (PDF).springerlink.CO. "Between love and aggression: The politics of John Bowlby". ISBN 1853433934 (pbk).co.2-N.com/smpp/content~content=a773405215).org/world/the-work-of-john-bowlby) A research report by the International Society for the Systems Sciences authored by Gary Metcalf in 2010 150 .1007/s12124-008-9079-2.com/John-Bowlby-Psychoanalysis-Unravelling-Attachment/dp/0470683643). doi:10. • Van der Horst FCP (2011). doi:10. "John Bowlby and ethology: An annotated interview with Robert Hinde" (http://www. "The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth".1002/(SICI)1520-6696(199822)34:3<247::AID-JHBS2>3.richardatkins.com/content/47012q360531r664/fulltext. Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences 34 (3): 247–269.John Bowlby • Bretherton I (September 1992). • John Bowlby . Van der Veer R. Van der Veer R. London. doi:10. doi:10.1037/0012-1649. ISBN 0-415-07730-3 (pbk).0.com/ cgi-bin/abstract/76082/ABSTRACT). Makers of modern psychotherapy. New York: Free Association Books. • Mayhew B (November 2006). Retrieved 2008-09-11. ""When strangers meet": John Bowlby and Harry Harlow on attachment behavior" (http://www. Kuipers HJ (Summer 1998). • Van der Horst FCP. PMID 18766423. External links • Summaries and links to full-text or articles and books by John Bowlby (http://www.759. • Holmes J (1993). Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 42 (4): 370. LeRoy HA.wiley. History of the Human Sciences 19 (4): 19–35.uk/atws/ person/8. Retrieved 2007-11-30. OCLC 1566542. OCLC 39982501.

A. Ohio Died March 21. in 1935. in 1936. She married Leonard Ainsworth in 1950 and moved to London with him to allow him to finish his graduate degree at University College. her M. insecurely attached . all from the University of Toronto. She earned her B. including the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Child Development in 1985 and the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the APA in 1989.avoidant and ambivalent children Mary Dinsmore Salter Ainsworth (December 1. Ohio in 1913.A. it was William McDougall's book Character and the Conduct of Life that inspired her interest in psychology. Life Ainsworth was born in Glendale. 1999)[1] was a Canadian developmental psychologist known for her work in early emotional attachment with "The Strange Situation" as well as her work in the development of Attachment Theory. she eventually settled at the University of Virginia in 1975. reaching the rank of Major in 1945. parents both graduated from Dickinson College. While her parents always put a strong emphasis on education. 1999 (aged 85) Era 20th century philosophy Region Western Philosophy School Psychoanalysis Main interests Attachment theory Notable ideas Finding of securely attached. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1992.Mary Ainsworth 151 Mary Ainsworth Mary Ainsworth Full name Mary Ainsworth Born December 1. eldest of three sisters. 1913 Glendale. Her father earned his Master's in History and was transferred to a manufacturing firm in Canada when Ainsworth was five. where she remained the rest of her academic career. 1913 – March 21.[2] . After many other academic positions. and her Ph.D in 1939. She returned to Toronto to continue teaching personality psychology and conduct research. She stayed to teach for a few years before joining the Canadian Women's Army Corp in 1942 in World War II. Ainsworth enrolled in honors program in psychology at the University of Toronto in the fall of 1929. Ainsworth received many honors.

Therefore. she left Tavistock Clinic to do research in Africa. and picks up infant. 4." In 1954. The child's reunion behaviour with its caregiver.Mary Ainsworth Early work While in England. called A Strange Situation. Four aspects of the child's behaviour are observed: 1. the children were categorized into three groups. Parent and infant are alone. (See Attachment theory. The child experiences the following situations: 1. Securely attached children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need (also known as "rapprochement. Continuation of second separation episode: Stranger enters and gears behaviour to that of infant. Stranger enters. Ainsworth joined the research team at Tavistock Clinic investigating the effects of maternal separation on child development. First separation episode: Stranger's behaviour is geared to that of infant. 4.g. the child will not engage with a stranger if their mother is not in the room. with a fourth added later. to observe attachment relationships between a caregiver and child. secure attachment can be seen as the most adaptive attachment style. where she carried out her longitudinal field study of mother-infant interaction. The situation varies in stressfulness and the child's responses are observed. However. recreating the flow of the familiar and unfamiliar presence in most children's lives. The amount of exploration (e.) Strange Situation In the 1970s. Second reunion episode: Parent enters. Each of these groups reflects a different kind of attachment relationship with the caregiver. The child's reactions to the departure of its caregiver. When assistance is given. First reunion episode: Parent greets and comforts infant. Parent does not participate while infant explores. stranger leaves inconspicuously. 3. 152 . playing with new toys) the child engages in throughout. 7. greets infant. educates the child in how to cope with the same problem in the future. 2." meaning in French "bring together"). The stranger anxiety (when the baby is alone with the stranger). She and her colleagues developed the Strange Situation Procedure. 3. and that behavior of the parent may in turn be influenced by the child's behavior. then leaves again. which is a widely used. 6. converses with parent. Secure attachment A child who is securely attached to its mother will explore freely while the mother is present. well researched and validated. Second separation episode: Infant is alone. will be visibly upset when the mother departs and happy to see the mother return. Parent and infant are introduced to the experimental room. 8. On the basis of their behaviors. 2. Comparison of disrupted mother-child bonds to normal mother-child relationship showed that a child's lack of a mother figure leads to "adverse development effects. According to some psychological researchers. Others have pointed out that there are also other determinants of the child's attachment. Ainsworth devised a procedure. In this procedure of the strange situation the child is observed playing for 20 minutes while caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room. method of assessing an infant's pattern and style of attachment to a caregiver. a child becomes securely attached when the mother is available and able to meet the needs of the child in a responsive and appropriate manner. this bolsters the sense of security and also. will engage with strangers. then approaches infant. 5. assuming the mother's assistance is helpful. Parent leaves inconspicuously.

 552–553.. 1985). even when the mother is present. The child may run away from the caregiver when s/he approaches and fail to cling to her/him when picked up. Some show stereotyped behaviour. and also resistant when the mother initiates attention. it is very dependent on brief separations and reunions having the same meaning for all children. This maybe a major constraint when applying the procedure in cultures. When the mother departs. This is now more commonly known as amibivalent/resistant attachment as the child can't make up his mind about what he wants. separation may not provide the same stress for them. Strangers will not be treated much differently from the caregiver.. this style develops from a mothering style which is engaged but on the mother's own terms.[5] In fact. Both ambivalent attachments and avoidant attachments are types of insecure attachments which are less desirable than secure attachments. The child's needs are frequently not met and the child comes to believe that communication of needs has no influence on the caregiver. Also. Volume 36 No 4.[7] "It is by no means free of limitations (see Lamb. Also.[9] where infants are rarely separated from their mothers in ordinary circumstances. Main and Hesse[6] found that most of the mothers of these children had suffered major losses or other trauma shortly before or after the birth of the infant and had reacted by becoming severely depressed.[5] A child may cry during separation but avoid the mother when she returns or may approach the mother. the child is extremely distressed.seeking to remain close to the mother but resentful. rocking to and fro or repeatedly hitting themselves. There is not much emotional range regardless of who is in the room or if it is empty.[6] Critique of the Strange Situation Protocol Michael Rutter describes the procedure in the following terms in 'The Clinical Implications of Attachment Concepts' from the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1994. then freeze or fall to the floor.[8] To begin with. 1984).Mary Ainsworth Anxious-resistant insecure attachment A child with an anxious-resistant attachment style is anxious of exploration and of strangers. Greenberg et al. That is. Thompson.[3] but ambivalent attachment tends to be indicative of more maladaptive parenting and indicates a greater likelihood for attachment problems in the future. This bad boy of attachment develops from a care-giving style which is more disengaged. When reunited with the mother. Modified procedures based on the Strange Situation have been developed for older preschool children (see Belsky et al.. 56% of mothers who had lost a parent by death before they completed high school subsequently had children with disorganised attachments. Gardener. such as that in Japan (see Miyake et al. sometimes the child's needs are ignored until some other activity is completed and that attention is sometimes given to the child more through the needs of the parent than from the child's initiation.. the baby may also hit or push his mother when she approaches and fail to cling to her when she picks him up. because older children have a cognitive capacity to maintain relationships when the older person is not present. Anxious-avoidant insecure attachment A child with a problem of the mental health attachment style will avoid or ignore the caregiver . when he is held he wants to be left alone and when he is left he clings to the mother. 1990)[10] [11] but it is much more dubious whether the same approach can be used in middle childhood. Charnov & Estes. The child will be ambivalent when she returns . According to some psychological researchers.showing little emotion when the caregiver departs or returns. the procedure is based on just 20 minutes 153 . pp. The child will not explore very much regardless of who is there. despite its manifest strengths. Disorganized/disoriented attachment A fourth category was added by Ainsworth's colleague Mary Main[4] and Ainsworth accepted the validity of this modification.

Cummings. Japan [15] where more resistant (C) infants were found. Attachment measurement: discrete or continuous? Regarding the issue of whether the breadth of infant attachment functioning can be captured by a categorical classification scheme. A. a meta-analysis of 2.'s (1978) original attachment classification distributions. two studies diverged from the global distributions of attachment classifications noted above. In a recent study conducted in Sapporo. controversy has been raised over a few cultural differences in these rates of 'global' attachment classification distributions. 154 . Of these two studies. Cassidy. 1990). Behrens. the Japanese findings have sparked the most controversy as to the meaning of individual differences in attachment behavior as originally identified by Ainsworth et al. (1998) scale is strongly related to secure versus insecure classifications.[12] A further constraint is that the coding procedure results in discrete categories rather than continuously distributed dimensions. 1990).[19] ] The original Richter’s et al. One study was conducted in North Germany [14] in which more avoidant (A) infants were found than global norms would suggest.. it should be noted that continuous measures of attachment security have been developed which have demonstrated adequate psychometric properties. and C (14%) [13] This global distribution was generally consistent with Ainsworth et al. correctly predicting about 90% of cases. 2007.Mary Ainsworth of behavior.[18] Van IJzendoorn et al. also discuss the Japanese concept of amae and its relevance to questions concerning whether the insecure-resistant (C) style of interaction may be engendered in Japanese infants as a result of the cultural practice of amae. Q-sort procedures based on much longer naturalistic observations in the home. It seems much more likely that infants vary in their degree of security and there is need for a measurement systems that can quantify individual variation".[19] Readers further interested in the categorical versus continuous nature of attachment classifications (and the debate surrounding this issue) should consult the paper by Fraley and Spieker [20] and the rejoinders in the same issue by many prominent attachment researchers including J.[17] In addition to these findings supporting the global distributions of attachment classifications in Sapporo. Behrens et al. Not only is this likely to provide boundary problems. 1998. (1978).. In particular. et al. and the other in Sapporo. E. B (65%). but also it is not at all obvious that discrete categories best represent the concepts that are inherent in attachment security. Ecological validity and universality of Strange Situation attachment classification distributions With respect to the ecological validity of the Strange Situation. These have been used either individually or in conjunction with discrete attachment classifications in many published reports [see Richters et al.000 infant-parent dyads. However.[16] found attachment distributions consistent with global norms using the six-year Main & Cassidy scoring system for attachment classification. Beauchaine. It can be scarcely expected to tap all the relevant qualities of a child's attachment relationships. and interviews with the mothers have developed in order to extend the data base (see Vaughn & Waters. and M. Sroufe.. including several from studies with non-Western language and/or cultural bases found the global distribution of attachment categorizations to be A (21%). Waters & T.

(2003). Cross-cultural consistency of coding the strange situation. 127-147 [9] Miyake..M. [13] Van IJzendoorn.M. H. 1780-2010: Chapter A" (http:/ / www. German children's behavior toward their mothers at 12 months and their fathers at 18 months in Ainsworth's strange situation. Cummings (eds) Attachment in the Preschool Years. Developmental Psychology. Growing points of attachment theory and research. Security of Infantile attachment as assessed in the 'Strange Situation'.. (1965). • Ainsworth. University of Chicago Press. & Wartner. Waters. Grossmann. J. B.T. (1995). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins.T. pp. (1988). K. K. Attachment Theory and Evidence. M. Examining the Strange-Situation procedure with Japanese mothers and 12-month old infants. [5] Colin Murray Parkes (2006). P.. R. americanancestors. & Campos (1985). & Wall. Mason: Cengage Learning [4] Main. Chen. "Procedures for identifying infants as disorganised/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation". B. Main. [18] Richters.(1984). J. Developmental Psychology. D. 1553–1567. [16] Behrens. Clinical implications of attachment concepts: Retrospect and Prospect. Attachment in the preschool years. 39. 512-522. Blehar. 155 . M. Rutter & D. & Kroonenberg. 147-156. pdf). M. Mothers’ Attachment Status as Determined by the Adult Attachment Interview Predicts Their 6-Year-Olds’ Reunion Responses: A Study Conducted in Japan. & Kroonenberg. M. Love and Loss. 276-297.. & Hesse. Chicago. [19] Van IJzendoorn. . F. J (1990).. 121–160.. In I. & Waters. 415-426. (2009) Psych. M. D. Serial No 209. P. NJ: Erlbaum. [2] "Book of Members. A Handbook For Clinicians (pp. org/ publications/ BookofMembers/ ChapterA. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 157-184. Cicchetti and E.. 387-404. & Cassidy. Infant Behavior and Development. 1965-1973.Mary Ainsworth Major works • Ainsworth. [7] Rutter.. Greenberg. (1978). (1988). 469-485. 13. 43. Infant temperament and mother's mode of interaction and attachment in Japan. Hay (Eds) Development Through Life. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.M. E. E. Y. M. M. [3] Rathus. International Journal of Behavioral Development. (1967). (1994). Retrieved 7 April 2011. 4. [15] Takahashi. 265-270. Child Care and the Growth of Love. aspx?recordId=81821039). (2007). 549-571.. J... Infancy in Uganda. 121–160. Child Development. [6] Main. Charnov & Estes. M. E (1990).E. 36. S. Developmental Psychology. its study and biological interpretations. K. [14] Grossmann. M and Solomon. E. K. [8] Lamb. [20] Fraley. 59. [11] Greenberg. (1990). M. theory research and intervention. Social Security Death Index. Greenberg. Patterns of Attachment. E. 59. & Spieker. Cicchetti and E. C. Oxford. Child Development. Chicago. University of Chicago Press. org/ PageDetail. J. Chicago. Huber. M.. (1990). & Cummings. Cicchetti. M. [12] Vaughn. 24. (1990). In M. Routledge. University of Chicago Press. U. M. an interim report.. M. Bretherton & E Waters (Eds). Hillsdale. (Eds). . Thompson. and Bowlby. "Parents' unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganised attachment status". S. 13.H. E. (1986). 22. amacad. A. 61. & Vaughn. Are Infant Attachment Patterns Continuously or Categorically Distributed? A Taxometric Analysis of Strange Situation Behavior. Cummings (eds) Attachment in the Preschool Years. (1988). Developmental Psychology. E. [17] Main. Waters. J. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. Retrieved 6 April 2011. Attachment behavior at home and in the laboratory. M and Hesse. J. Child Development. [10] Belsky. D. Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period. Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: A meta-analysis of the strange-situation. T. Empirical classification of infant-mother relationships from interactive behavior and crying during reunion. pp. S. E. References [1] "Mary D. London and New York. London: Penguin Books. Blackwell Scientific Publications. M.. Ainsworth" (http:/ / www. 7. 50. • Ainsworth. (1981). 373-402).. & Cassidy. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Gardener. p.

including childhood and adult experiences and conditions.htm) • Women's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society (http://www. He was the European Editor for Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders from 1974 till 1994. He was Deputy Chairman of the Wellcome Trust from 1999 to 2004. Michael Rutter For the motorcycle racer.edu/~woolflm/ ainsworth. see Michael Rutter (motorcycle racer) Sir Michael L. influences of families and schools. Rutter (born 1934) is the first consultant of child psychiatry in the United Kingdom. including DNA study and neuroimaging. Career Rutter set up the Medical Research Council (UK) Child Psychiatry Research Unit in 1984 and the Social.richardatkins. biological and social.html) • Articles by Mary Ainsworth including summaries and links to full-text (http://www. stress. Early life Rutter was the oldest child born to Alice (née Rudman) & Frank Rutter. King's College London and consultant psychiatrist at the Maudsley Hospital.google.F. & Rusoo. interactions of biological and social factors. a post he has held since 1966. being honorary director of both until October 1998. External links • Mary Ainsworth on The Psi Cafe (http://www. New York: Columbia University Press. He has been described as the "father of child psychology". studies of autism involving a wide range of scientific techniques and disciplines. Models of achievement: Reflections of eminent women in psychology. reading disorders.. Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre 10 years later. (1983). and continuities and discontinuities in normal and pathological development. protective and risk factors. The British Journal of Psychiatry credits him with a number of "breakthroughs"[2] in these areas. N.co.html) • Mary Ainsworth: Attachment and the Growth of Love (http://video. 156 . genetics. Rutter's work includes: early epidemiologic studies (Isle of Wight and Inner London). A. links between research and practice.edu/PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Ainsworth. longitudinal as well as epidemiologic studies.N. deprivation. Rutter is also recognized as contributing centrally to the establishment of child psychiatry as a medical and biopsychosocial specialty with a solid scientific base.[1] Currently he is Professor of Developmental Psychopathology at the Institute of Psychiatry. and has been a Trustee of the Nuffield Foundation since 1992.Mary Ainsworth Further reading • O'Connell.[3] He has published over 400 scientific papers and chapters and some 40 books.uk/atws/ person/1.pdx.psy.webster.com/ videoplay?docid=-3634664472704568591) 4-minute clip from a documentary film used primarily in higher education.

(http:/ / ajp.160:196-197. 00115. Jyväskylä. uk/ ~e. Jan. "Nature. [8] http:/ / www. x) [2] Kolvin. doi:10. 1111/ j. East Anglia. Edinburgh. M (Jan/Feb 2002). Rutter led the English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. pp. World Health Organisation WHO [6] Holmes J. Harmondsworth. gelenbe/ AEInformatics. University of London. uk/ html 157 . He is a Founding Fellow of the Academia Europaea [8] and the Academy of Medical Sciences [9] and was knighted in 1992. html [9] http:/ / www. J (1951) Maternal Care and Mental Health. com/ doi/ abs/ 10. based at Maudsley Hospital. References [1] Pearce. intimate. his 1981 monograph and other papers (Rutter 1972. PMID 14717240.[7] Awards and honors Rutter has honorary degrees from the Universities of Leiden. Birmingham. Am J Psychiatry. ISSN 0009-3920. Institute of Psychiatry. psychiatryonline. [5] Bowlby. Louvain. The citation for his knighthood reads: Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.Michael Rutter In 1972 Rutter published 'Maternal Deprivation Reassessed'. ee. nurture. The results yielded some reason for optimism. 49-53. 1475-3588. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 160/ 1/ 196) [4] Rutter. The importance of these refinements of the maternal deprivation hypothesis was to reposition it as a "vulnerability factor" rather than a causative agent.00388. I (1999). and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment” and that not to do so may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences.[4] which New Society describes as "a classic in the field of child care". Warwick. [3] Hartman. (http:/ / www. ac. with a number of varied influences determining which path a child will take. Chicago. Rutter is an honorary member of the British Academy and is an elected Fellow of the Royal Society.Feb. London.[4] in which he evaluated the maternal deprivation hypothesis propounded by Dr John Bowlby in 1951. acmedsci. He has remained in practice until late into his career and the Michael Rutter Centre for Children and Adolescents. The contribution of Michael Rutter. following many of the orphans adopted into Western families into their teens in a series of substantial studies on the effects of early privation and deprivation across multiple domains affecting child development including attachment and the development of new relationships. Routledge. addressed the many different underlying social and psychological mechanisms and showed that Bowlby was only partially right and often for the wrong reasons. Cambridge and Yale. Minnesota. Eric Taylor: The cheerful pessimist. Jun. Research and Innovation on the Road to Modern Child Psychiatry. Penguin. ic. Rutter 1979) comprising the definitive empirical evaluation and update of Bowlby's early work on maternal deprivation. Ghent. the complexity of separation distress and suggested that anti-social behaviour was not linked to maternal deprivation as such but to family discord. (1993) John Bowlby & Attachment Theory. British Journal of Psychiatry. He amassed further evidence. J (2005). iis.10(1):40–41. This theory was both influential and controversial.[4] [6] After the end of the Ceasescu regime in Romania in 1989.[5] Bowlby had proposed that “the infant and young child should experience a warm. L (2003). M (1981) Maternal Deprivation Reassessed. ac. Child Development 73 (1): 1–21. Review of Green & Yule.1111/1467-8624. Second edition. ISBN 0-415-07729-X [7] Rutter. and development: From evangelism through science toward policy and practice". Rutter highlighted the other forms of deprivation found in institutional care. 2005.174:471-475. is named after him. blackwell-synergy. Children playing Rutter made a significant contribution.

control systems theory. Attachment theory has been significantly modified as a result of empirical research. Later he went on to formulate attachment theory. these include peer relationships at all ages. and ethological theory.[8] however.[2] Separation anxiety or grief following the loss of an attachment figure is considered to be a normal and adaptive response for an attached infant. In the early days of the theory. and the fields of ethology and cognitive psychology. object relations theory (a branch of psychoanalysis). Research by developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth in the 1960s and 70s reinforced the basic concepts. introduced the concept of the "secure base"[5] and developed a theory of a number of attachment patterns in infants: secure attachment. Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with them. Bowlby explored a range of fields.[6] In the 1980s. Its most important tenet is that an infant needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for social and emotional development to occur normally.[1] and psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby was asked by the UN to write a pamphlet on the matter.[4] After preliminary papers from 1958 onwards. attachment theory has since become "the dominant approach to understanding early social development. but the concepts have become generally accepted. the theory was extended to attachment in adults. Attachment theory is an interdisciplinary study encompassing the fields of psychological. these. and the psychoanalytic community ostracised him for his departure from psychoanalytical tenets. academic psychologists criticized Bowlby.[7] Other interactions may be construed as including components of attachment behaviour. Bowlby published a complete study in 3 volumes Attachment and Loss (1969–82). and the limitations of discrete patterns for classifications. the complexity of social relationships. For infants and toddlers. thoughts and expectations in later relationships. Immediately after WWII. romantic and sexual attraction and responses to the care needs of infants or the sick and elderly.[9] Later criticisms of attachment theory relate to temperament. usually the parents. When an infant begins to crawl and walk they begin to use attachment figures (familiar people) as a secure base to explore from and return to. emotions. including evolutionary biology. insecure-avoidant attachment and insecure-ambivalent attachment. To formulate a comprehensive theory of the nature of early attachments. in turn. and who remain as consistent caregivers for some months during the period from about six months to two years of age.[3] Infant behaviour associated with attachment is primarily the seeking of proximity to an attachment figure. and has given rise to a great surge of empirical research into the formation of children's close relationships".Attachment theory 158 Attachment theory Attachment theory describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans. Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment. homeless and orphaned children presented many difficulties. A fourth pattern.[8] Attachment theory has formed the basis of new therapies and informed existing ones. was identified later. disorganized attachment. These behaviours may have evolved because they increase the probability of survival of the child. lead to internal working models which will guide the individual's perceptions. the "set-goal" of the attachment behavioural system is to maintain or achieve proximity to attachment figures. evolutionary. and its .

nor is it synonymous with love and affection. separation distress occurs.[16] "Alarm" is the term used for activation of the attachment behavioural system caused by fear of danger. attachment means an affectional bond or tie between an individual and an attachment figure (usually a caregiver). "Anxiety" is the anticipation or fear of being cut off from the attachment figure. These figures are arranged hierarchically. physical separation can cause anxiety and anger. ultimately.[9] Attachment theory is not an exhaustive description of human relationships. with the principal attachment figure at the top.[14] Some infants direct attachment behaviour (proximity seeking) towards more than one attachment figure almost as soon as they start to show discrimination between caregivers. physical separation is no longer such a threat to the child's bond with the attachment figure.[12] The biological aim is survival and the psychological aim is security. this means a set of responsive in social interactions with them. emotional unavailability or signs of rejection or abandonment. In attachment theory. If the figure is unavailable or unresponsive.[15] The set-goal of the attachment behavioural system is to maintain a bond with an accessible and available attachment figure.[13] Nothing in the theory suggests that fathers are not equally likely to become principal attachment figures if they provide most of the child care and related social interaction. paramount in infancy and childhood. followed by sadness and despair. the child's tie is called the "attachment" and the caregiver's reciprocal equivalent is referred to as the "care-giving bond". The biological mother is the usual principal attachment figure.[12] Infants form attachments to any consistent caregiver who is sensitive and responsive in social interactions with them. although these may indicate that bonds exist. behaviours that involves engaging in lively social interaction with the infant and responding readily to signals and approaches.[16] 159 . breakdowns in communication. but the Although it is usual for the mother to be the primary attachment figure.[17] In infants. most come to do so during their second year. Threats to security in older children and adults arise from prolonged absence. genetic replication. but between a child and a caregiver these bonds are based on the child's need for safety. The theory proposes that children attach to carers instinctively. infants will form role can be taken by anyone who consistently behaves in a "mothering" attachments to any caregiver who is sensitive and way over a period of time.[11] for the purpose of survival and.[10] Attachment Within attachment theory. In child-to-adult relationships. security and protection. By age three or four. Such bonds may be reciprocal between two adults.Attachment theory concepts have been used in the formulation of social and childcare policies to support the early attachment relationships of children. The quality of the social engagement is more influential than the amount of time spent.

plus behaviours which solicit their attention and care. between the ages of six months and two years. The infant's behaviour towards the caregiver becomes organised Insecure attachment patterns can compromise exploration and the achievement of on a goal-directed basis to achieve the conditions that make it feel [19] self-confidence.Attachment theory Behaviours The attachment behavioural system serves to maintain or achieve closer proximity to the attachment figure. even in far less than ideal circumstances. are developed over a considerable period of time. fear.[23] Children begin to notice others' goals and feelings and plan their actions accordingly.[22] After the second year. shout or follow. Bowlby saw the environment of early adaptation as similar to current hunter-gatherer societies. By the end of the first year. These manifest as protesting the caregiver's departure.[20] With the development of locomotion. During the first phase (the first eight weeks). greeting the caregiver's return.[9] Tenets Common human attachment behaviours and emotions are adaptive.[25] When an infant is upset by separation from their caregiver. and if that does not work. For example.[21] Anxiety.[9] 160 . a more complex and goal-corrected partnership is formed. Preferences for certain people. the infant is able to display a to concentrate on her or his environment. babble and cry to attract the attention of caregivers. but is of an enduring nature. clinging when frightened and following when able. whereas babies cry because of pain. range of attachment behaviours designed to maintain proximity. as the child begins to see the carer as an independent person. According to Bowlby. cry louder. A securely attached baby is free secure. becoming more responsive towards the caregiver. The commonly observed attachment behaviour of toddlers staying near familiar people would have had safety advantages in the environment of early adaptation.[25] Infants in their first months have no preference for their biological parents over strangers. two-year-olds cry to summon their caregiver. these behaviours are directed at anyone in the vicinity. If the caregiver is inaccessible or unresponsive.[19] Infant exploration is greater when the caregiver is present because the infant's attachment system is relaxed and it is free to explore. Although infants of this age learn to discriminate between caregivers. illness and fatigue will cause a child to increase attachment behaviours. Human evolution has involved selection for social behaviours that make individual or group survival more likely. being alone or rapid approach.[18] Pre-attachment behaviours occur in the first six months of life. following and clinging are added to the range of behaviours. the infant increasingly discriminates between familiar and unfamiliar adults. infants smile. Clear-cut attachment develops in the third phase. attachment behaviour is more strongly exhibited.[17] The attachment system is very robust and young humans form attachments easily. proximity-seeking to the attachment figure in the face of threat is the "set-goal" of the attachment behavioural system.[24] There is a survival advantage in the capacity to sense possibly dangerous conditions such as unfamiliarity. and has such advantages today. the infant begins to use the caregiver or caregivers as a safe base from which to explore. this indicates that the bond no longer depends on the presence of the caregiver. During the second phase (two to six months).[25] In spite of this robustness. significant separation from a familiar caregiver—or frequent changes of caregiver that prevent the development of attachment—may result in psychopathology at some point in later life.

Attachment theory

Early experiences with caregivers gradually give
rise to a system of thoughts, memories, beliefs,
expectations, emotions and behaviours about the
self and others.

Bowlby's original sensitivity period of between six months and two to
three years has been modified to a less "all or nothing" approach. There
is a sensitive period during which it is highly desirable that selective
attachments develop, but the time frame is broader and the effect less
fixed and irreversible than first proposed. With further research,
authors discussing attachment theory have come to appreciate that
social development is affected by later as well as earlier
relationships.[8] Early steps in attachment take place most easily if the
infant has one caregiver, or the occasional care of a small number of
other people.[25] According to Bowlby, almost from the first many
children have more than one figure towards whom they direct
attachment behaviour. These figures are not treated alike; there is a
strong bias for a child to direct attachment behaviour mainly towards
one particular person. Bowlby used the term "monotropy" to describe
this bias.[26] Researchers and theorists have abandoned this concept
insofar as it may be taken to mean that the relationship with the special
figure differs qualitatively from that of other figures. Rather, current
thinking postulates definite hierarchies of relationships.[8] [27]

Early experiences with caregivers gradually give rise to a system of
thoughts, memories, beliefs, expectations, emotions, and behaviours about the self and others. This system, called
the "internal working model of social relationships", continues to develop with time and experience.[28] Internal
models regulate, interpret and predict attachment-related behaviour in the self and the attachment figure. As they
develop in line with environmental and developmental changes, they incorporate the capacity to reflect and
communicate about past and future attachment relationships.[2] They enable the child to handle new types of social
interactions; knowing, for example, that an infant should be treated differently from an older child, or that
interactions with teachers and parents share characteristics. This internal working model continues to develop
through adulthood, helping cope with friendships, marriage and parenthood, all of which involve different
behaviours and feelings.[28] [29] The development of attachment is a transactional process. Specific attachment
behaviours begin with predictable, apparently innate, behaviours in infancy. They change with age in ways that are
determined partly by experiences and partly by situational factors.[30] As attachment behaviours change with age,
they do so in ways shaped by relationships. A child's behaviour when reunited with a caregiver is determined not
only by how the caregiver has treated the child before, but on the history of effects the child has had on the
caregiver.[31] [32]

Changes in attachment during childhood and adolescence
Age, cognitive growth and continued social experience advance the development and complexity of the internal
working model. Attachment-related behaviours lose some characteristics typical of the infant-toddler period and take
on age-related tendencies. The preschool period involves the use of negotiation and bargaining.[33] For example,
four-year-olds are not distressed by separation if they and their caregiver have already negotiated a shared plan for
the separation and reunion.[34]

Attachment theory

Ideally, these social skills become incorporated into the internal
working model to be used with other children and later with adult
peers. As children move into the school years at about six years old,
most develop a goal-corrected partnership with parents, in which each
partner is willing to compromise in order to maintain a gratifying
relationship.[33] By middle childhood, the goal of the attachment
behavioural system has changed from proximity to the attachment
figure to availability. Generally, a child is content with longer
separations, provided contact—or the possibility of physically
reuniting, if needed—is available. Attachment behaviours such as
clinging and following decline and self-reliance increases.[35] By
middle childhood (ages 7–11), there may be a shift towards mutual
coregulation of secure-base contact in which caregiver and child
negotiate methods of maintaining communication and supervision as
the child moves towards a greater degree of independence.[33]


Peers become important in middle childhood and
have an influence distinct from that of parents.

In early childhood, parental figures remain the centre of a child's social world, even if they spend substantial periods
of time in alternative care. This gradually lessens, particularly during the child's entrance into formal schooling.[35]
The attachment models of young children are typically assessed in relation to particular figures, such as parents or
other caregivers. There appear to be limitations in their thinking that restrict their ability to integrate relationship
experiences into a single general model. Children usually begin to develop a single general model of attachment
relationships during adolescence, although this may occur in middle childhood.[35]
Relationships with peers have an influence on the child that is distinct from that of parent-child relationships, though
the latter can influence the peer relationships children form.[9] Although peers become important in middle
childhood, the evidence suggests peers do not become attachment figures, though children may direct attachment
behaviours at peers if parental figures are unavailable. Attachments to peers tend to emerge in adolescence, although
parents continue to be attachment figures.[35] With adolescents, the role of the parental figures is to be available
when needed while the adolescent makes excursions into the outside world.[36]

Attachment patterns
Much of attachment theory was informed by Mary Ainsworth's innovative methodology and observational studies,
particularly those undertaken in Scotland and Uganda. Ainsworth's work expanded the theory's concepts and enabled
empirical testing of its tenets.[5] Using Bowlby's early formulation, she conducted observational research on
infant-parent pairs (or dyads) during the child's first year, combining extensive home visits with the study of
behaviours in particular situations. This early research was published in 1967 in a book titled Infancy in Uganda.[5]
Ainsworth identified three attachment styles, or patterns, that a child may have with attachment figures: secure,
anxious-avoidant (insecure) and anxious-ambivalent or resistant (insecure). She devised a procedure known as the
Strange Situation Protocol as the laboratory portion of her larger study, to assess separation and reunion
behaviour.[37] This is a standardised research tool used to assess attachment patterns in infants and toddlers. By
creating stresses designed to activate attachment behaviour, the procedure reveals how very young children use their
caregiver as a source of security.[9] Carer and child are placed in an unfamiliar playroom while a researcher records
specific behaviours, observing through a one-way mirror. In eight different episodes, the child experiences
separation from/reunion with the carer and the presence of an unfamiliar stranger.[37]
Ainsworth's work in the United States attracted many scholars into the field, inspiring research and challenging the
dominance of behaviourism.[38] Further research by Mary Main and colleagues at the University of California,
Berkeley identified a fourth attachment pattern, called disorganized/disoriented attachment. The name reflects these

Attachment theory


children's lack of a coherent coping strategy.[39]
The type of attachment developed by infants depends on the quality of care they have received.[40] Each of the
attachment patterns is associated with certain characteristic patterns of behaviour, as described in the following table:
[37] [39]

Child and caregiver behaviour patterns before the age of 18 months




Uses caregiver as a secure base for exploration. Protests
Responds appropriately, promptly
caregiver's departure and seeks proximity and is comforted
and consistently to needs. Caregiver
on return, returning to exploration. May be comforted by the has successfully formed a secure
stranger but shows clear preference for the caregiver.
parental attachment bond to the


Little affective sharing in play. Little or no distress on
departure, little or no visible response to return, ignoring or
turning away with no effort to maintain contact if picked up.
Treats the stranger similarly to the caregiver. The child feels
that there is no attachment; therefore, the child is rebellious
and has a lower self-image and self-esteem.

Little or no response to distressed
child. Discourages crying and
encourages independence.

Ambivalent/Resistant Unable to use caregiver as a secure base, seeking proximity
Inconsistent between appropriate
before separation occurs. Distressed on separation with
and neglectful responses. Generally
ambivalence, anger, reluctance to warm to caregiver and
will only respond after increased
return to play on return. Preoccupied with caregiver's
attachment behavior from the infant.
availability, seeking contact but resisting angrily when it is
achieved. Not easily calmed by stranger. In this relationship,
the child always feels anxious because the caregiver's
availability is never consistent.

Stereotypies on return such as freezing or rocking. Lack of
coherent attachment strategy shown by contradictory,
disoriented behaviours such as approaching but with the
back turned.

Frightened or frightening behaviour,
intrusiveness, withdrawal, negativity,
role confusion, affective
communication errors and
maltreatment. Very often associated
with many forms of abuse towards
the child.

The presence of an attachment is distinct from its quality. Infants form attachments if there is someone to interact
with, even if mistreated. Individual differences in the relationships reflect the history of care, as infants begin to
predict the behaviour of caregivers through repeated interactions.[41] The focus is the organisation (pattern) rather
than quantity of attachment behaviours. Insecure attachment patterns are non-optimal as they can compromise
exploration, self-confidence and mastery of the environment. However, insecure patterns are also adaptive, as they
are suitable responses to caregiver unresponsiveness. For example, in the avoidant pattern, minimising expressions
of attachment even in conditions of mild threat may forestall alienating caregivers who are already rejecting, thus
leaving open the possibility of responsiveness should a more serious threat arise.[41]
Around 65% of children in the general population may be classified as having a secure pattern of attachment, with
the remaining 35% being divided between the insecure classifications.[42] Recent research has sought to ascertain the
extent to which a parent's attachment classification is predictive of their children's classification. Parents' perceptions
of their own childhood attachments were found to predict their children's classifications 75% of the time.[43] [44] [45]
Over the short term, the stability of attachment classifications is high, but becomes less so over the long term.[9] It
appears that stability of classification is linked to stability in caregiving conditions. Social stressors or negative life
events—such as illness, death, abuse or divorce—are associated with instability of attachment patterns from infancy
to early adulthood, particularly from secure to insecure.[46] Conversely, these difficulties sometimes reflect particular

Attachment theory
upheavals in people's lives, which may change. Sometimes, parents' responses change as the child develops,
changing classification from insecure to secure. Fundamental changes can and do take place after the critical early
period.[47] Physically abused and neglected children are less likely to develop secure attachments, and their insecure
classifications tend to persist through the pre-school years. Neglect alone is associated with insecure attachment
organisations, and rates of disorganized attachment are markedly elevated in maltreated infants.[40]
This situation is complicated by difficulties in assessing attachment classification in older age groups. The Strange
Situation procedure is for ages 12 to 18 months only;[9] adapted versions exist for pre-school children.[48]
Techniques have been developed to allow verbal ascertainment of the child's state of mind with respect to
attachment. An example is the "stem story", in which a child is given the beginning of a story that raises attachment
issues and asked to complete it. For older children, adolescents and adults, semi-structured interviews are used in
which the manner of relaying content may be as significant as the content itself.[9] However, there are no
substantially validated measures of attachment for middle childhood or early adolescence (approximately 7 to 13
years of age).[48]
Some authors have questioned the idea that a taxonomy of categories representing a qualitative difference in
attachment relationships can be developed. Examination of data from 1,139 15-month-olds showed that variation in
attachment patterns was continuous rather than grouped.[49] This criticism introduces important questions for
attachment typologies and the mechanisms behind apparent types. However, it has relatively little relevance for
attachment theory itself, which "neither requires nor predicts discrete patterns of attachment".[50]

Significance of attachment patterns
There is an extensive body of research demonstrating a significant association between attachment organisations and
children's functioning across multiple domains.[40] Early insecure attachment does not necessarily predict
difficulties, but it is a liability for the child, particularly if similar parental behaviours continue throughout
childhood.[47] Compared to that of securely attached children, the adjustment of insecure children in many spheres of
life is not as soundly based, putting their future relationships in jeopardy. Although the link is not fully established
by research and there are other influences besides attachment, secure infants are more likely to become socially
competent than their insecure peers. Relationships formed with peers influence the acquisition of social skills,
intellectual development and the formation of social identity. Classification of children's peer status (popular,
neglected or rejected) has been found to predict subsequent adjustment.[9] Insecure children, particularly avoidant
children, are especially vulnerable to family risk. Their social and behavioural problems increase or decline with
deterioration or improvement in parenting. However, an early secure attachment appears to have a lasting protective
function.[51] As with attachment to parental figures, subsequent experiences may alter the course of development.[9]
The most concerning pattern is disorganized attachment. About 80% of maltreated infants are likely to be classified
as disorganized, as opposed to about 12% found in non-maltreated samples. Only about 15% of maltreated infants
are likely to be classified as secure. Children with a disorganized pattern in infancy tend to show markedly disturbed
patterns of relationships. Subsequently their relationships with peers can often be characterised by a "fight or flight"
pattern of alternate aggression and withdrawal. Affected maltreated children are also more likely to become
maltreating parents. A minority of maltreated children do not, instead achieving secure attachments, good
relationships with peers and non-abusive parenting styles.[9] The link between insecure attachment, particularly the
disorganized classification, and the emergence of childhood psychopathology is well-established, although it is a
non-specific risk factor for future problems, not a pathology or a direct cause of pathology in itself.[40] In the
classroom, it appears that ambivalent children are at an elevated risk for internalising disorders, and avoidant and
disorganized children, for externalising disorders.[51]
One explanation for the effects of early attachment classifications may lie in the internal working model mechanism.
Internal models are not just "pictures" but refer to the feelings aroused. They enable a person to anticipate and
interpret another's behaviour and plan a response. If an infant experiences their caregiver as a source of security and


Attachment theory


support, they are more likely to develop a positive self-image and expect positive reactions from others. Conversely,
a child from an abusive relationship with the caregiver may internalise a negative self-image and generalise negative
expectations into other relationships. The internal working models on which attachment behaviour is based show a
degree of continuity and stability. Children are likely to fall into the same categories as their primary caregivers
indicating that the caregivers' internal working models affect the way they relate to their child. This effect has been
observed to continue across three generations. Bowlby believed that the earliest models formed were the most likely
to persist because they existed in the subconscious. Such models are not, however, impervious to change given
further relationship experiences; a minority of children have different attachment classifications with different
There is some evidence that gender differences in attachment patterns of adaptive significance begin to emerge in
middle childhood. Insecure attachment and early psychosocial stress indicate the presence of environmental risk (for
example poverty, mental illness, instability, minority status, violence). This can tend to favour the development of
strategies for earlier reproduction. However, different patterns have different adaptive values for males and females.
Insecure males tend to adopt avoidant strategies, whereas insecure females tend to adopt anxious/ambivalent
strategies, unless they are in a very high risk environment. Adrenarche is proposed as the endocrine mechanism
underlying the reorganisation of insecure attachment in middle childhood.[46]

Attachment in adults
Attachment theory was extended to adult romantic relationships in the late 1980s by Cindy Hazan and Phillip
Shaver. Four styles of attachment have been identified in adults: secure, anxious-preoccupied, dismissive-avoidant
and fearful-avoidant. These roughly correspond to infant classifications: secure, insecure-ambivalent,
insecure-avoidant and disorganized/disoriented.
Securely attached adults tend to have positive views of themselves, their partners and their relationships. They feel
comfortable with intimacy and independence, balancing the two. Anxious-preoccupied adults seek high levels of
intimacy, approval and responsiveness from partners, becoming overly dependent. They tend to be less trusting, have
less positive views about themselves and their partners, and may exhibit high levels of emotional expressiveness,
worry and impulsiveness in their relationships. Dismissive-avoidant adults desire a high level of independence, often
appearing to avoid attachment altogether. They view themselves as self-sufficient, invulnerable to attachment
feelings and not needing close relationships. They tend to suppress their feelings, dealing with rejection by
distancing themselves from partners of whom they often have a poor opinion. Fearful-avoidant adults have mixed
feelings about close relationships, both desiring and feeling uncomfortable with emotional closeness. They tend to
mistrust their partners and view themselves as unworthy. Like dismissive-avoidant adults, fearful-avoidant adults
tend to seek less intimacy, suppressing their feelings.[7] [52] [53] [54]
Two main aspects of adult attachment have been studied. The
organisation and stability of the mental working models that underlie
the attachment styles is explored by social psychologists interested in
romantic attachment.[55] [56] Developmental psychologists interested in
the individual's state of mind with respect to attachment generally
explore how attachment functions in relationship dynamics and
impacts relationship outcomes. The organisation of mental working
models is more stable while the individual's state of mind with respect
to attachment fluctuates more. Some authors have suggested that adults
do not hold a single set of working models. Instead, on one level they
have a set of rules and assumptions about attachment relationships in

Attachment styles in adult romantic relationships
roughly correspond to attachment styles in infants
but adults can hold different internal working
models for different relationships.

Attachment theory
general. On another level they hold information about specific relationships or relationship events. Information at
different levels need not be consistent. Individuals can therefore hold different internal working models for different
relationships.[56] [57]
There are a number of different measures of adult attachment, the most common being self report questionnaires and
coded interviews based on the Adult Attachment Interview. The various measures were developed primarily as
research tools, for different purposes and addressing different domains, for example romantic relationships, parental
relationships or peer relationships. Some classify an adult's state of mind with respect to attachment and attachment
patterns by reference to childhood experiences, while others assess relationship behaviours and security regarding
parents and peers.[58]

Earlier theories
The concept of infants' emotional attachment to caregivers has been known anecdotally for hundreds of years. From
the late 19th century onward, psychologists and psychiatrists suggested theories about the existence or nature of
early relationships.[59] Early Freudian theory had little to say about a child's relationship with the mother, postulating
only that the breast was the love object.[60] Freudians attributed the infant's attempts to stay near the familiar person
to motivation learned through feeding and gratification of libidinal drives. In the 1930s, British developmental
psychologist Ian Suttie suggested that the child's need for affection was a primary one, not based on hunger or other
physical gratifications.[61] William Blatz, a Canadian psychologist and teacher of Mary Ainsworth, also stressed the
importance of social relationships for development. Blatz proposed that the need for security was a normal part of
personality, as was the use of others as a secure base.[62] Observers from the 1940s onward focused on anxiety
displayed by infants and toddlers threatened with separation from a familiar caregiver.[63] [64]
Another theory prevalent at the time of Bowlby's development of attachment theory was "dependency". This
proposed that infants were dependent on adult caregivers but outgrew it in the course of early childhood; attachment
behaviour in older children would thus be seen as regressive. Attachment theory assumes older children and adults
retain attachment behaviour, displaying it in stressful situations. Indeed, a secure attachment is associated with
independent exploratory behaviour rather than dependence.[65] Bowlby developed attachment theory as a
consequence of his dissatisfaction with existing theories of early relationships.[1]


Attachment theory


Maternal deprivation
The early thinking of the object relations school of psychoanalysis, particularly Melanie Klein, influenced Bowlby.
However, he profoundly disagreed with the prevalent psychoanalytic belief that infants' responses relate to their
internal fantasy life rather than real-life events. As Bowlby formulated his concepts, he was influenced by case
studies on disturbed and delinquent children, such as those of William Goldfarb published in 1943 and 1945.[66] [67]
Bowlby's contemporary René Spitz observed
separated children's grief, proposing that
"psychotoxic" results were brought about by
inappropriate experiences of early care.[68] [69] A
strong influence was the work of social worker
and psychoanalyst James Robertson who filmed
the effects of separation on children in hospital.
He and Bowlby collaborated in making the 1952
documentary film A Two-Year Old Goes to the
Hospital which was instrumental in a campaign
to alter hospital restrictions on visits by

Prayer time in the Five Points House of Industry residential nursery, 1888.
The maternal deprivation hypothesis published in 1951 caused a revolution in
the use of residential nurseries.

In his 1951 monograph for the World Health
Organisation, Maternal Care and Mental Health,
Bowlby put forward the hypothesis that "the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and
continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and
enjoyment", the lack of which may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences. This was also
published as Child Care and the Growth of Love for public consumption. The central proposition was influential but
highly controversial.[71] At the time there was limited empirical data and no comprehensive theory to account for
such a conclusion.[72] Nevertheless, Bowlby's theory sparked considerable interest in the nature of early
relationships, giving a strong impetus to, (in the words of Mary Ainsworth), a "great body of research" in an
extremely difficult, complex area.[71] Bowlby's work (and Robertson's films) caused a virtual revolution in hospital
visiting by parents, hospital provision for children's play, educational and social needs and the use of residential
nurseries. Over time, orphanages were abandoned in favour of foster care or family-style homes in most developed

Formulation of the theory
Following the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health, Bowlby sought new understanding from the fields
of evolutionary biology, ethology, developmental psychology, cognitive science and control systems theory. He
formulated the innovative proposition that mechanisms underlying an infant's emotional tie to the
caregiver(s)emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure.[1] He set out to develop a theory of motivation and
behaviour control built on science rather than Freud's psychic energy model.[5] Bowlby argued that with attachment
theory he had made good the "deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect" of
Maternal Care and Mental Health.[74]

Attachment was revised in 1982 to incorporate later research.[25] [75] [76] Bowlby followed up his first paper with two more. the first volume of the Attachment and Loss trilogy.[89] Observational studies of young children in natural settings provided other . Ethologists expressed concern about the adequacy of some research on which attachment theory was based.[86] [87] Schur.[85] Over time it became apparent there were more differences than similarities between attachment theory and imprinting so the analogy was dropped. was explore. Thus lack of proper nurturing of children was blamed on mothers despite societal organisation that left them overburdened. with Bowlby's ethological theories in mind. he considered that attachment behaviour was best explained as instinctive. of a conspecific or comparable object. Attachment theory was finally presented in 1969 in Attachment.[8] This bottle-fed young moose has developed an attachment to its carer. cloth surrogate mothers that offered no food but not with wire surrogate mothers that provided a food source but were less pleasant to touch.[77] [78] At the same time.[84] Konrad Lorenz had examined the phenomenon of "imprinting". The second was Harry Harlow's "The Nature of Love". and to pursue the rich vein of research which this union suggests". and "Grief and Mourning in Infancy and Early present. Bowlby's colleague attachment system is relaxed and he is free to Mary Ainsworth.[81] Other important influences were ethologists Nikolaas Tinbergen and Robert Hinde. The latter was based on experiments which showed that infant rhesus monkeys appeared to form an affectional bond with soft. particularly the generalisation to humans from animal studies.[80] Ethology Bowlby's attention was first drawn to ethology when he read Konrad Lorenz's 1952 publication in draft form (although Lorenz had published earlier work). The learning is possible only within a limited age range known as a critical period. "Separation Infant exploration is greater when the caregiver is Anxiety" (1960a). Attachment theory itself is not gender specific but in Western society it was largely mothers who bore responsibility for early child care. a behaviour characteristic of some birds and mammals which involves rapid learning of recognition by the young. He did not apply the imprinting concept in its entirety to human attachment. discussing Bowlby's use of ethological concepts (pre-1960) commented that concepts used in attachment theory had not kept up with changes in ethology itself.[79] Feminists had already criticised the assumption that anatomy is destiny which they saw as implicit in the maternal deprivation hypothesis. combined with the effect of experience.[88] Ethologists and others writing in the 1960s and 1970s questioned and expanded the types of behaviour used as indications of attachment. the infant's Childhood" (1960b). stressing the readiness the child brings to social interactions. The second and third volumes. Opposition to attachment theory coalesced around this issue.Attachment theory 168 The formal origin of the theory began with the publication of two papers in 1958. the first being Bowlby's "The Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother".[82] Bowlby subsequently collaborated with Hinde. Bowlby's concepts included the idea that attachment involved learning from experience during a limited age period. Attachment theory came at a time when women were asserting their right to equality and independence. giving mothers new cause for anxiety. completing her extensive observational studies on the nature of infant [5] attachments in Uganda. After recognition comes a tendency to follow.[83] In 1953 Bowlby stated "the time is ripe for a unification of psychoanalytic concepts with those of ethology. in which the precursory concepts of "attachment" were introduced. Separation: Anxiety and Anger and Loss: Sadness and Depression followed in 1972 and 1980 respectively. However. influenced by adult behaviour. with the caregiver present.

existing over and above the observable measures. In his view it failed to see attachment as a psychological bond in its own right rather than an instinct derived from feeding or sexuality. bringing them to the mother but not to others. The actual distance maintained by the child would vary as the balance of needs changed.Attachment theory behaviours that might indicate attachment. (Bowlby compared this process to physiological homeostasis whereby. blood pressure is kept within limits). At about the same time Bowlby was applying Craik's ideas to attachment. the observations by Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham of young children separated from familiar caregivers during World War II.[1] 169 . For example. Bowlby's decisions left him open to criticism from well-established thinkers working on similar problems.[96] [97] [98] Bowlby was effectively ostracized from the psychoanalytic community."[92] Psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic concepts influenced Bowlby's view of attachment. developing during the 1930s and '40s.[99] Cybernetics The theory of visible systems (cybernetics). maintenance of the desired distance from the caregiver depending on circumstances.[95] From early in the development of attachment theory there was criticism of the theory's lack of congruence with various branches of psychoanalysis. Firstly the overemphasis of internal dangers rather than external threat."[91] Robert Hinde considered "attachment behaviour system" to be an appropriate term which did not offer the same problems "because it refers to postulated control systems that determine the relations between different kinds of behaviour.[8] Internal working model Bowlby adopted the important concept of the internal working model of social relationships from the work of the philosopher Kenneth Craik. they pressed for more data. would cause the child exploring at a distance to seek proximity. staying within a predictable distance of the mother without effort on her part and picking up small objects. objecting to psychologists writing as if there was an "entity which is 'attachment'. for example. or an injury. the nature of those attachments depends on the environment to which the child is exposed. other psychologists were applying these concepts to adult perception and cognition.[90] Although ethologists tended to be in agreement with Bowlby. influenced Bowlby's thinking. the outcome of which depended on the interaction between the organism and the environment.[100] The young child's need for proximity to the attachment figure was seen as balancing homeostatically with the need for exploration. He stressed the survival value of and natural selection for this ability. the approach of a stranger. in particular.[94] Based on ideas of Evacuation of smiling Japanese school children in primary attachment and neo-Darwinism. Bowlby identified what he World War II from the book Road to Catastrophe saw as fundamental flaws in psychoanalysis. He called this the "cupboard-love" theory of relationships. prediction occurs when a "small-scale model" consisting of brain events is used to represent not only the external environment. Instead he posited that several lines of development were possible. Craik had noted the adaptiveness of the ability of thought to predict events. According to Craik. In attachment this would mean that although a developing child has a propensity to form attachments. Bowlby rejected psychoanalytical explanations for early infant bonds including "drive theory" in which the motivation for attachment derives from gratification of hunger and libidinal drives. Secondly the view of the development of personality via linear "phases" with "regression" to fixed points accounting for psychological distress. This model allows a person to try out alternatives mentally. The child's goal is not an object (the caregiver) but a state. but the individual's own possible actions. using knowledge of the past in responding to the present and future. for example.[93] However.

This explanation would make it unnecessary to posit innate human characteristics fostering attachment. This added significantly to the understanding of the complexity of infant/caregiver interactions as an integral part of a baby's emotional and social development. Behaviourists saw behaviours like crying as a random activity meaning nothing until reinforced by a caregiver's response. Patterson's group has shown that in uncertain environments the lack of contingent relationships can account for problems in attachment and the sensitivity to contingencies. The "separation anxiety" resulting from such interactions is seen as learned behaviour. it has been noted that the understanding of mental representation has advanced so much since Bowlby's day that present views can be more specific than those of Bowlby's time.[108] Developments As the formulation of attachment theory progressed. unless there were biological or genetic risk factors. the baby ceases to protest and engages in play behaviour.[109] Some of Bowlby's interpretations of James Robertson's data were rejected by the researcher when he reported data from 13 young children cared for in ideal rather than institutional circumstances on separation from their mothers. thereby learning to stay close together. He concluded there was an excellent prognosis for children with this background. crying is an inborn attachment behaviour to which the caregiver must respond if the infant is to develop emotional security. they maintain that behaviours like separation protest in infants result mainly from operant learning experiences. To attachment theorists.[113] 170 .[102] Behaviourism In 1969. These behaviour analytic models have received some support from research.[112] Bowlby's arguments that even very young babies were social creatures and primary actors in creating relationships with parents took some time to be accepted.[110] In the second volume of the trilogy. Bowlby acknowledged Robertson's study had caused him to modify his views on the traumatic consequences of separation in which insufficient weight had been given to the influence of skilled care from a familiar substitute. Such misplaced contingencies may represent the ambivalence on the part of the parent. When a mother is instructed to ignore crying and respond only to play behaviour. To behaviourists. An infant's ability to discriminate strangers and react to the mother's absence seemed to occur months earlier than Piaget suggested would be cognitively possible. In the 1970s Daniel Stern undertook research on the concept of attunement between very young infants and caregivers. resulting from misplaced contingencies. Possible alternative explanations for results of empirical research were proposed. Conscientious responses produce security which enhances autonomy and results in less crying. Gerwitz discussed how mother and child could provide each other with positive reinforcement experiences through their mutual attention. So did Ainsworth's emphasis on the importance and primacy of maternal attunement for psychological development (a point also argued by Donald Winnicott).[101] More recently.[107] and meta-analytic reviews. (behaviorism). Ainsworth's research in Baltimore supported the attachment theorists' view.[105] Behaviourists see attachment more as a systems phenomena then a biological predisposition.Attachment theory Cognitive development Bowlby's reliance on Piaget's theory of cognitive development gave rise to questions about object permanence (the ability to remember an object that is temporarily absent) in early attachment behaviours.[106] In the last decade.[111] In 1984 Skuse based criticism on the work of Anna Freud with children from Theresienstadt who had apparently developed relatively normally despite serious deprivation in their early years. using micro-analysis of video evidence. Though they use a different analysis scale.[104] Behaviourists generally disagree with this interpretation. saw attachment as a remnant of dependency with the quality of attachment being merely a response to the caregiver's cues. behaviour analysts have constructed models of attachment based on the importance of contingent relationships.[103] Learning theory. frequent responses would result in more crying. there was criticism of the empirical support for the theory. which is then is played out in the operant interaction. Separation.

He argued that heredity was far more important than the transient effects of early environment.[116] The research showed that though there were cultural differences. coherence and status as an organizational construct. The biggest challenge to the notion of the universality of attachment theory came from studies conducted in Japan where the concept of amae plays a prominent role in describing family relationships. Ultimately research tended to confirm the universality hypothesis of attachment theory.[125] Recent developments Whereas Bowlby was inspired by Piaget's insights into children's thinking.[126] Psychoanalyst/psychologists Peter Fonagy and Mary Target have attempted to bring attachment theory and psychoanalysis into a closer relationship through cognitive science as mentalization. problems with viewing attachment as a trait (stable characteristic of an individual) rather than as a type of behaviour with organising functions and outcomes.Attachment theory 171 In the 1970s. led some authors to the conclusion that attachment behaviours were best understood in terms of their functions in the child's life. avoidant and ambivalent. secure.[118] [119] Critics in the 1990s such as J.[115] Following this argument. broadly demonstrating that it is the caregiver's behaviours that form the child's attachment style. the three basic patterns. Steven Pinker and Jerome Kagan were generally concerned with the concept of infant determinism (nature versus nurture). can be found in every culture in which studies have been undertaken. the assumption that attachment is expressed identically in all humans cross-culturally was examined.[124] Harris and Pinker put forward the notion that the influence of parents had been much exaggerated. although the manner in which attachment is expressed may differ.[123] Subsequent research has not borne out Kagan's argument. fulfilling distinctive roles in children's development. even where communal sleeping arrangements are the norm. R.[120] [121] [122] Building on the work on temperament of Stella Chess. logic. H. Kagan rejected almost every assumption on which attachment theory etiology was based. is the capacity of human beings to guess with some accuracy what thoughts.[127] This connection between theory of mind and the internal working model may open new areas of study. leading to alterations in attachment theory. Harris. arguing that socialisation took place primarily in peer groups. Arguments revolved around the appropriateness of the use of the Strange Situation procedure where amae is practiced.[100] Mentalization. selecting optimal behavioural strategies. although how this style is expressed may differ with temperament. This follows logically from the fact that attachment theory provides for infants to adapt to changes in the environment.[117] How attachment is expressed shows cultural variations which need to be ascertained before studies can be undertaken.[128] Since the late 1980s.[117] Research indicates that attachment pattern distributions are consistent across cultures. For example a child with an inherently difficult temperament would not elicit sensitive behavioural responses from a caregiver.[117] Most recently a 2007 study conducted in Sapporo in Japan found attachment distributions consistent with global norms using the six-year Main and Cassidy scoring system for attachment classification. theory of mind. stressing the effects of later experience on personality. based on . there has been a developing rapprochement between attachment theory and psychoanalysis. Selection of the secure pattern is found in the majority of children across cultures studied. Rudolph Schaffer concluded that parents and peers had different functions. The debate spawned considerable research and analysis of data from the growing number of longitudinal studies. current attachment scholars utilise insights from contemporary literature on implicit knowledge.[114] This way of thinking saw the secure base concept as central to attachment theory's. Securely attached Gusii infants anticipate and seek this contact. autobiographical memory and social representation. There are also differences in the distribution of insecure patterns based on cultural differences in child-rearing practices. emotions and intentions lie behind behaviours as subtle as facial expression. for example Gusii infants are greeted with a handshake rather than a hug. or theory of mind.

[136] . There has been an increase in the number of older-child adoptions and adoptions from third-world sources in first-world countries.[131] Another significant area of research and development has been the connection between problematic attachment patterns. Adoptions and births to same-sex couples have increased in number and gained legal protection. new relationships. more infants in child care receive attachment-friendly care than in the past. physical problems and medical issues associated with their early lives. Concern with the effects of child care was intense during the so-called "day care wars" of the late 20th century. This social change has made it more difficult for childless people to adopt infants in their own countries. training of child care professionals has come to stress attachment issues.[132] Although higher rates of atypical insecure attachment patterns were found compared to native-born or early-adopted samples. A psychoanalytically based exploration of the attachment system and an accompanying clinical approach has emerged together with a recognition of the need for measurement of outcomes of interventions. yielded reason for optimism as many of the children developed quite well. A natural experiment permitted extensive study of attachment issues as researchers followed thousands of Romanian orphans adopted into Authors considering attachment in non-western Western families after the end of the Nicolae Ceauşescu regime. attempting to unravel patterns characteristic of Bowlby's time. changes in attitudes toward female sexuality have greatly increased the numbers of children living with their never-married mothers or being cared for outside the home while the mothers work. the effects of poor attachment. Although only high-quality child care settings are likely to provide this. The cultures have noted the connection of attachment English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team.Attachment theory 172 common ground as elaborated by attachment theorists and researchers. compared to their status in Bowlby's time.[135] It is suggested these multiple relationships influence one another reciprocally. including those with extensive non-parental child care experiences. Psychoanalysis has recognised the formative nature of a childs early environment including the issue of childhood trauma. including the need for relationship-building by the assignment of a child to a specific carer. and a change in what psychoanalysts consider to be central to psychoanalysis. Object relations models which emphasise the autonomous need for a relationship have become dominant and are linked to a growing recognition within psychoanalysis of the importance of infant development in the context of relationships and internalised representations. Researchers noted that separation from familiar people is only one of many factors that help to determine the quality of development. Studies of these adoptees. during which some authors stressed the deleterious effects of day care. led by Michael Rutter. and the risk of later psychopathology. whose initial conditions were shocking. 70% of later-adopted children exhibited no marked or severe attachment disorder behaviours. so may attachment-related experiences.[129] One focus of attachment research has been the difficulties of children whose attachment history was poor. theory with Western family and child care followed some of the children into their teens. particularly disorganized attachment. at least within a family. For example.[130] As a result of this controversy.[133] As children's experience of care changes. as infants often have multiple relationships within the family and in child care settings.[126] A third has been the effect on development of children having little or no opportunity to form attachments at all in their early years.[134] Issues have been raised to the effect that the dyadic model characteristic of attachment theory cannot address the complexity of real-life social experiences.[40] Authors considering attachment in non-Western cultures have noted the connection of attachment theory with Western family and child care patterns characteristic of Bowlby's time. adoption.

particularly in group settings. thus focusing on the quality and continuity of caregiver relationships 173 . group coalitions. Attachment theory and research have generated important findings concerning early child development and spurred the creation of programs to support early child-parent relationships". the main theoretical framework was psychoanalysis. and those in poor quality daycare. attachment theory had significant policy implications for hospitalised or institutionalised children. but aspects of both contribute to a range of interpersonal and intrapersonal developmental outcomes. Zeanah and colleagues stated. Child care policies Social policies concerning the care of children were the driving force in Bowlby's development of attachment theory. community based service providers and policy makers .[123] In addition to longitudinal studies. including mating.[137] Those explanations have been used to design parental care training. attachment theory has implications and practical applications in social policy.[141] In psychophysiological research on attachment.[143] Attachment theory has implications in residence and contact disputes.[142] This suggests that the influence of maternal care on attachment security is not the same for all children. and have been particularly successful in the design of child abuse prevention programmes.H.[144] In 2008 C. individualised care in group settings. has deleterious effects on social development.[124] Some types of temperament may make some individuals susceptible to the stress of unpredictable or hostile relationships with caregivers in the early years. and the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.[138] Biology of attachment Attachment theory proposes that the quality of caregiving from at least the primary carer is key to attachment security or insecurity. It is plain from research that poor quality care carries risks but that those who experience good quality alternative care cope well although it is difficult to provide good quality. particularly in North America.[10] Historically.[139] Research has begun to include behaviour genetics and temperament concepts.. Infants' physiological responses have been measured during the Strange Situation procedure looking at individual differences in infant temperament and the extent to which attachment acts as a moderator..[145] and applications by foster parents to adopt foster children. decisions about the care and welfare of children and mental health. social dominance and hierarchical power structures. One theoretical basis for this is that it makes biological sense for children to vary in their susceptibility to rearing influence.[124] Generally temperament and attachment constitute separate developmental domains. Increasingly attachment theory has replaced it. "Supporting early child-parent relationships is an increasingly prominent goal of mental health practitioners. the two main areas studied have been autonomic responses. there has been psychophysiological research on the biology of attachment.Attachment theory Principles of attachment theory have been used to explain adult social behaviours.[139] Another issue is the role of inherited genetic factors in shaping attachments: for example one type of polymorphism of the DRD2 dopamine receptor gene has been linked to anxious attachment and another in the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor gene with avoidant attachment.[145] Controversy remains over whether non-maternal care. and negotiation of reciprocity and justice.[143] This is because the theory emphasises the importance of continuity and sensitivity in caregiving relationships rather than a behavioural approach on stimulation or reinforcement of child behaviours. such as heart rate or respiration.[140] In the absence of available and responsive caregivers it appears that some children are particularly vulnerable to developing attachment disorders. The difficulty lies in applying attachment concepts to policy and practice. In the past. There is some evidence that the quality of caregiving shapes the development of the neurological systems which regulate stress.[130] Practical applications As a theory of socioemotional development.

[151] 174 .[143] Clinical practice in children Although attachment theory has become a major scientific theory of socioemotional development with one of the broadest.[149] attachment behaviours towards anyone in the [150] vicinity. Rutter noted that in the UK. been less used in clinical practice than theories with far less empirical support. so does An assessment of the attachment status or caregiving responses of age-appropriate stranger wariness. For infants and younger children.[147] Prevention and treatment In 1988.[148] Ongoing research has led to a number of individual treatments and prevention and intervention programmes.Attachment theory rather than economic well-being or automatic precedence of any one party. As attachment develops. family courts have shifted considerably to recognize the complications of attachment relationships. babies will direct if that is not possible. This may be partly due to lack of attention paid to clinical application by Bowlby himself and partly due to broader meanings of the word 'attachment' used amongst practitioners. Judgements need to take this into account along with the impact of step-families. It may also be partly due to the mistaken association of attachment theory with the pseudoscientific interventions misleadingly known as "attachment therapy". Some programmes are aimed at foster carers because the attachment behaviours of infants or children with attachment difficulties often do not elicit appropriate caregiver responses.[143] Attachment theory can also inform decisions made in social work and court processes about foster care or other placements. Many researchers in the field were strongly influenced by it. Modern prevention and intervention programmes are mostly in the process of being evaluated. or In the early months of life. arguments tend to focus on whether children are "attached" or "bonded" to the disputing adults rather than the quality of attachments.[148] They range from individual therapy to public health programmes to interventions designed for foster carers.[146] Within adoption. However. since 1980. it has. Attachment theory has been crucial in highlighting the importance of social relationships in dynamic rather than fixed terms. placing the child with a different caregiver. the shift from "closed" to "open" adoptions and the importance of the search for biological parents would be expected on the basis of attachment theory. parenting behaviours and the parents' relationship with the therapeutic intervenor. until recently. the caregiver is invariably included. His focus for bringing about change was the parents' internal working models. Considering the child's attachment needs can help determine the level of risk posed by placement options. Bowlby published a series of lectures indicating how attachment theory and research could be used in understanding and treating child and family disorders. such as the biological mother.[144] Children tend to have security-providing relationships with both parents and often grandparents or other relatives. as attachment is a two-way process involving attachment behaviour and caregiver response. deepest research lines in modern psychology. the focus is on increasing the responsiveness and sensitivity of the caregiver.

Oxford: Blackwell. In Cassidy J.1037/0022-3514. [3] Prior and Glaser p.28. 89–114.759. pp.511. "The Nature of a Child's Ties". 83–121.[152] Although the term "reactive attachment disorder" is now popularly applied to perceived behavioural difficulties that fall outside the DSM or ICD criteria. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. Michael (1995). far-reaching view of human functioning.[156] [157] In the first decade of the 21st century. Research and Clinical Applications. absence or distortion in psychopathology. multidimensional family therapy and couple and family therapy. New York: Guilford Press. Salkind: Child Development 2002. known as reactive attachment disorder or RAD. New York: Guilford Press. Specifically attachment-centred interventions have been developed. New York and London: Guilford Press. the other an inhibited pattern. [6] N. 17.[154] and is used within attachment therapy as a form of unvalidated diagnosis. "The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth". it denotes a lack of age-appropriate attachment behaviours that amounts to a clinical disorder. PMID 7650083.J. RAD is not a description of insecure attachment styles. pp. associated with gross pathological care. it can enrich a therapist's understanding of patients and the therapeutic relationship rather than dictate a particular form of treatment. doi:10. Research and Clinical Applications. Research and Clinical Applications.[155] Clinical practice in adults and families As attachment theory offers a broad. pp. Lieberman AF (2008). which may be used to refer to reactive attachment disorder or to the more problematical insecure attachment styles (although none of these are clinical disorders). ISBN 9781606230282. one reflecting a disinhibited attachment pattern. Developmental Psychology 28 (5): 759.[153] "Attachment disorder" is an ambiguous term. 115–40. In Cassidy J. Munholland KA (1999). Zeanah CH. [5] Bretherton I (1992). It may also be used to refer to proposed new classification systems put forward by theorists in the field. In Cassidy J. "Prevention and Intervention Programs for Supporting Early Attachment Security".[156] Some forms of psychoanalysis-based therapy for adults—within relational psychoanalysis and other approaches—also incorporate attachment theory and patterns. ISBN 0-631-21628-6. [2] Bretherton I. The essential feature of reactive attachment disorder is markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness in most contexts that begins before age five years. "secure base distortion" has been found to be associated with caregiver traumatization. doi:10. 745–61.5.89). particularly on the Web and in connection with the pseudo-scientific attachment therapy. Shaver PR (March 1987).x. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52 (3): 511–24.1469-7610. however problematic those styles may be. "[Bowlby] begins by noting that organisms at different levels of the phylogenetic scale regulate instinctive behavior in distinct ways. New York: Guilford Press. Shaver PR. PMID 3572722. [10] Berlin L. "Internal Working Models in Attachment Relationships: A Construct Revisited".1995.tb02314. Introducing Child Psychology. 3–20.3. [8] Rutter. key concepts of attachment were incorporated into existing models of behavioural couple therapy. [9] Schaffer R (2007). "Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process". "true" RAD is thought to be rare. ISBN 1572300876. ranging from primitive reflex-like "fixed action 175 . page 34 [7] Hazan C. [4] Simpson JA (1999). The dynamics of an individual's attachment organization and their capacity for mentalization can play a crucial role in the capacity to be helped by treatment. Handbook of Attachment: Theory.Attachment theory Reactive attachment disorder and attachment disorder One atypical attachment pattern is considered to be an actual disorder.[156] [160] Notes [1] Cassidy J (1999). The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. In Cassidy J. pp. such as attachment-based family therapy and emotionally focused therapy. doi:10.[153] One of the proposed new classifications.1/2 and DSM-IV-TR 313. "Attachment Theory in Modern Evolutionary Perspective". Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 36 (4): 549–71.52. Shaver PR. [11] Bretherton I (1992). ISBN 1572300876.1111/j. Shaver PR. "Clinical Implications of Attachment Concepts: Retrospect and Prospect". ISBN 1572300876.1037/0012-1649. pp.[158] [159] Attachment theory and research laid the foundation for the development of the understanding of "mentalization" or reflective functioning and its presence. Shaver PR. instead. which is a recognized psychiatric diagnosis (ICD-10 F94. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. There are two subtypes. Research and Clinical Applications.

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Wanlass J (2004). LCCN 00-266879.195. "Separation and Reunification: Using Attachment Theory and Research to Inform Decisions Affecting the Placements of Children in Foster Care" (http:/ / www.2. [153] Chaffin M. ISBN 9781606230282. PMID 12696839. Shaver PR. Shaver PR. New York and London: Guilford Press. [141] Prior and Glaser p. (page numbers refer to Pelican edition 1971) • Bowlby J (1999) [1982]. Dozier M (2000). Research and Clinical Applications.1177/0146167208321484. Infancy in Uganda. Research and Clinical Applications. • Bowlby J (1979). Research and Clinical Applications.00128. Duke series in child development and public policy.chc. [148] Berlin LJ. [146] Goldsmith DF. A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory. org/ site/ DocServer/ AttachmentandFosterCare.001. ISBN 978-1-59385-165-1. ISBN 9780470015612. pp. ISBN 1593854706. Child Development 71 (1): 145–52. [158] Johnson SM (2008). doi:10. Attachment and Loss. NLM 8412414. New York and London: Guilford Press. [149] Prior and Glaser pp. Infant Behavior and Development 28 (4): 492–502. [143] Rutter M (2008). Attachment & Adult Psychotherapy. PMID 18687882. New York: Guilford Press. Baek JM.1016/j. London: Penguin Books. In Cassidy J. 180 . "Attachment-Based Intervention programs: Implications for Attachment Theory and Research". "The development of attachment in new relationships: single subject analyses for 10 foster infants".infbeh. In Cassidy J. ISBN 978-0-14-020271-7. [142] Gillath O. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. New York: Guilford Press. New York and London: Guilford Press.129. O'Connor TG (1999). "Handbook of Mentalization-Based Treatment". 219. ISBN 978-0-7657-0284-5. 823–44.Attachment theory [140] Marshall PJ. Attachment. Zeanah CH. [145] Karen pp. 252–58. [151] Stovall KC. London: Tavistock Publications. Psychological Bulletin 129 (2): 195–215. [144] Rutter M. zerotothree. PMID 10847621. 745–61. • Bowlby J (1988). New York: Basic Books. Fonagy P. reactive attachment disorder. Enhancing Early Attachments: Theory.

uk/atws) • Richard Karen: 'Becoming Attached (http://www. and Psychological Manifestations. New York: Guilford Press. External links • Attachment Theory and Research at Stony Brook (http://www.pdf) • Rene Spitz's film "Psychogenic Disease in Infancy" (1957) (http://www. • Review of Richard Karen. ISBN 978-1-903615-42-3. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-1-84392-498-2.edu/~lerman/etc/BecomingAttached. • Karen R (1998). Oxford: Oxford University Press. • Crittenden PM (2008). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7391-4352-0. The Dynamics of Connection: How Evolution and Biology Create Caregiving and Attachment. Attachment from infancy to adulthood: The major longitudinal studies.From Psychoanalysis to Ethology. ISBN 978-1-59385-381-5.parentaldeficit. Van IJzendoorn MH (2008). ISBN 0-19-511501-5. ISBN 978-0-470-68364-4. • Prior V. RCPRTU. Raising parents: attachment. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. The study of instinct. Understanding Attachment: Parenting.archive. The Atlantic Monthly February 1990. Understanding Attachment and Attachment Disorders: Theory. Makers of modern psychotherapy. Further reading • Grossmann KE. ISSN 1097–0355.isi. ISBN 13: 978-0-8058-6352-9.edu/attachment/index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. John Bowlby . London: Routledge.Attachment theory • Craik K (1943). ISBN 0-7923-7478-9. Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love (http://www. • Infant Mental Health Journal. • Van der Horst FCP (2011). New York/London: Taylor and Francis Group.pdf)'. Waters E (2005). parenting and child safety. • Tinbergen N (1951). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. ISSN 1469–2988. ISBN 978-0-19-857722-5. html) • The Attachment Theory Website (http://www.org/details/PsychogenicD) • The Parental Deficit Website (http://www. John Bowlby & Attachment Theory. CT: Praeger Publishers. OCLC 61115448. Neural Bases.sunysb. ISSN B0007J4QKE. • Bell DC (2010).it/default. • Mercer J (2006). Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 978-0-521-09445-0. WAIMH.edu/attachment/online/karen.sunysb. • Goodall J (1971). The Ontogeny of Human Bonding Sysytems: Evolutionary Origins. In the Shadow of Man.aspx) 181 . New York: Springer.psychology. Unraveling the Roots of Attachment Theory. ISBN 9781843102458 (pbk). • Attachment & Human Development. • Barrett H (2006). • Juffer F. Westport. Glaser D (2006). London: National Family and Parenting Institute.co. ISBN 0-415-07729-X..psychology. child care. ISBN 978-0-618-05676-7. Rodgers JL (2001). The Nature of Explanation. LCCN 2005-19272.richardatkins. • Miller WB. and emotional development. ISBN 0-275-98217-3. Promoting positive parenting: An attachment-based intervention. Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ. Attachment and the perils of parenting: A commentary and a critique. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Lanham MD: Lexington. • Holmes J (1993). Devon and Oregon: Willan Publishing. Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love. Evidence and Practice.

Childhood attachment can define characteristics that will shape the child’s sense of self and how they carry out relationships with others. the foundation on which all other close. eye contact.[1] Attachment in childhood can also be described as the considerable closeness a child feels to an authority figure. Attachment theory and children Attachment theory (Bowlby 1969. and this proximity-seeking behavior is naturally selected. See discussion page. Mother and child Attachment theory studies and describes this first relationship. An infant may have different patterns of attachment with different care-givers. anxious-avoidant attachment. Attachment is found in all mammals to some degree. and facial expressions. and will not thrive without other types of support as well. Children develop different styles of attachment based on experiences and interactions with their caregivers.Attachment in children 182 Attachment in children Newborn humans infants cannot survive without a caregiver to provide food and protection. Parents can bond with their baby by touching. cuddling. and disorganized attachment. Four different attachment styles or patterns have been identified in children: secure attachment. and related fields. especially nonhuman primates. Attachment theory has become the dominant theory used today in the study of infant and toddler behavior and in the fields of infant mental health. a haven of safety to which the child can return when he or she is afraid or fearful. While infants have relatively few inborn behaviors—such as crying. it's an interdisciplinary study that includes developmental psychology and ethology (behavioral biology). It also describes the function of availability. In their first year babies brains double in volume and their experiences will be hardwired in as a foundation on which to build their lives. By around age five years. 1980) is rooted in the ethological notion that a newborn child is biologically programmed to seek proximity with caregivers.[3] [4] [5] Through repeated attempts to seek physical and emotional closeness with a caregiver and the responses the child gets. rooting.[6] .[2] Attachment theory has led to a new understanding of child development. treatment of children. long-term relationships will be built. The deep bond which babies form with their primary caregiver is called Attachment. Attachment in children is a theory of attachment between children and their caregivers specifically addressing the behaviors and emotions that children direct toward familiar adults. the child develops an internal working model (IWM) of the self and others that reflects the response of the caregiver to the child. According to Bowlby. and sucking—they also come with many behavioral systems ready to be activated through interaction with another person. 1973. this "crystalizes" into one pattern of attachment that is generally exhibited within most relationships. anxious-ambivalent attachment. attachment provides a secure base from which the child can explore the environment. which is the degree to which the authoritative figure is responsive to the child's needs and shares communication with them. etc. listening. It is primarily an evolutionary and ethological theory postulating that infants seek proximity to a specified attachment figure in situations of distress or alarm for the purpose of survival.

Baby (3 mins) Episode 5: Mother.[7] The protocol is conducted in the following format unless modifications are otherwise noted by a particular researcher: Episode 1: Mother (or other familiar caregiver). Attachment style is thus not so much a part of the child's thinking. 1978. infants can be categorized into three 'organized' attachment categories: Secure (Group B). However.' While the procedure may be used to supplement clinical impressions. not accurate and leads to ambiguity when formally discussing attachment theory as it has evolved in the research literature. Baby (3 mins) Episode 6: Baby Alone (3 mins or less) Episode 7: Stranger. Stranger (3 mins or less) Episode 4: Stranger. not a diagnostic. Experimenter (30 seconds) Episode 2: Mother. after about age four the child exhibits one primary consistent pattern of attachment in relationships. termed Disorganized (D). Avoidant (Group A). Baby (3 mins or less) Episode 8: Mother. can also be assigned to an infant assessed in the Strange Situation although a primary 'organized' classification is always given for an infant judged to be disorganized. Baby. in fact. A fourth category. A child may have a different type of attachment to each parent as well as to unrelated caregivers. Baby (3 mins) Episode 3: Mother.[8] 183 . This is not to suggest that the concept of RAD is without merit. Baby. the mother and infant are placed in an unfamiliar playroom equipped with toys while a researcher observes/records the procedure through a one-way mirror.[7] The Strange Situation Protocol is a research. and Anxious/Resistant (Group C). but is characteristic of a specific relationship. developed by Mary Ainsworth as a result of her careful in-depth observations of infants with their mothers in Uganda(see below). In the procedure. but rather that the clinical and research conceptualizations of insecure attachment and attachment disorder are not synonymous. the resulting classifications should not be confused with the clinically diagnosed 'Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD). Baby (3 mins) On the basis of predominately their reunion behaviours (although other behaviors are taken into account) in the Strange Situation Paradigm (Ainsworth et al. tool and the resulting attachment classifications are not 'clinical diagnoses.Attachment in children Attachment classification in children: The Strange Situation Protocol The most common and empirically supported method for assessing attachment in infants (12months-20months) is the Strange Situation Protocol. see below). The 'Strange Situation' is a laboratory procedure used to assess infant patterns of attachment to their caregiver. Each of these groups reflects a different kind of attachment relationship with the mother.' The clinical concept of RAD differs in a number of fundamental ways from the theory and research driven attachment classifications based on the Strange Situation Procedure. The idea that insecure attachments are synonymous with RAD is. There are subclassifications for each group (see below). The procedure consists of eight sequential episodes in which the child experiences both separation from and reunion with the mother as well as the presence of an unfamiliar stranger..

and protest against being put down rather than actively resisting release. B1's have been referred to as 'secure-reserved'. Anxious-resistant insecure attachment In general. the stranger will not be treated much differently from the parent.[7] Although these subgroupings refer to different stylistic responses to the comings and goings of the caregiver. Others have pointed out that there are also other determinants of the child's attachment. As Ainsworth et al. B3. The child is generally ambivalent when she returns. B2. B2's as 'secure-inhibited'. According to some psychological researchers. Securely attached children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need.[7] A1 infants are so judged when there is: 184 . is often visibly upset when the caregiver departs. and B4. a child with an anxious-resistant attachment style will typically explore little (in the Strange Situation) and is often wary of strangers. In the traditional Ainsworth et al. (1978) originally noted: "Perhaps the most conspicuous characteristic of C2 infants is their passivity. When assistance is given. anxious-avoidant infants are denoted as "Group A" infants and they are further subclassified into A1 and A2 infants. The extent of exploration and of distress are affected by the child's temperamental make-up and by situational factors as well as by attachment status.. In the traditional Ainsworth et al.' and B4's as 'secure-reactive. When the mother departs. (1978) coding of the Strange Situation. Therefore. typically engages with strangers. and is generally happy to see the caregiver return."[7] Anxious-avoidant insecure attachment In general.. even when the parent is present. this bolsters the sense of security and also. secure infants are denoted as "Group B" infants and they are further subclassified as B1.. however. a child with an anxious-avoidant attachment style will avoid or ignore the parent when he or she returns (in the Strange Situation) . and that behavior of the parent may in turn be influenced by the child's behavior. the child is often highly distressed.. Nevertheless. B3's as 'secure-balanced. The mixture of seeking and yet resisting contact and interaction has an unmistakeablely angry quality and indeed an angry tone may characterize behavior in the preseparation episodes. Often."[7] C2 infants are often seen as demonstrating 'passive' resistance. a child becomes securely attached when the parent is available and able to meet the needs of the child in a responsive and appropriate manner. although their descriptive behaviors led others (including students of Ainsworth) to devise a relatively 'loose' terminology for these subgroups..Attachment in children Attachment patterns Secure attachment A toddler who is securely attached to its parent (or other familiar caregiver) will explore freely while the caregiver is present. the classification of infants (if subgroups are denoted) is typically simply "B1" or "B2" although more theoretical and review-oriented papers surrounding attachment theory may use the above terminology. (1978) coding of the Strange Situation.resistant behavior is particularly conspicuous. (1978) coding of the Strange Situation..' In academic publications however. educates the child in how to cope with the same problem in the future. secure attachment can be seen as the most adaptive attachment style. even though they tend to use signalling rather than active approach. they were not given specific labels by Ainsworth and colleagues. anxious-resistant infants are denoted as "Group C" infants and they are further subclassified into C1 and C2 infants.In general the C2 baby is not as conspicuously angry as the C1 baby. Their exploratory behavior is limited throughout the SS and their interactive behaviors are relatively lacking in active initiation.showing little overt indications of an emotional response. In the traditional Ainsworth et al.[7] C1 infants are so judged when: ". in the reunion episodes they obviously want proximity to and contact with their mothers. assuming the parent's assistance is helpful.

ambivalent. the disorganized child is looking into a mirror broken into a thousand pieces.[13] [14] 185 .[the A2 infant] shows a mixed response to mother on reunion.. Human interactions are experienced as erratic..e. secure. if put down. he tends not to cuddle in.conspicuous avoidance of the mother in the reunion episodes which is likely to consist of ignoring her altogether. in fact.Attachment in children ". has suggested that children with disorganized attachment may experience their caregivers as either frightening or frightened.. he may protest or resist momentarily. Evidence from Main et al. who uses social referencing techniques such as checking the adult's facial expression to ascertain whether a situation is safe. avoidant) classification as well. A frightening caregiver is usually so via aggressive behaviors towards the child (either mild or direct physical/sexual behaviors) and puts the child in a dilemma which Main and colleagues have called 'fear without solution. or it tends to only occur after much coaxing. but there is also a tendency to squirm to be put down. although there may be some pointed looking away. resistance/ambivalence].there may be moderate proximity-seeking. and the comings and goings of the caregiver) of the Strange Situation Procedure.If picked up. though not always. A2 infants are judged Disorganized (D).Either the baby does not approach his mother upon reunion.e. may be one explanation for some of the 'stilling' and 'freezing' behaviors observed in children judged to be disorganized.. or ignore her.. Through parental behaviors that are frightening.."[7] A2 infants are often seen as demonstrating a mixture of both some avoidance and resistance. or moving away. 1990) was subsequently identified and empiricized when a sizeable number of infants defied classification in terms of Ainsworth's original tripartite classification scheme.. This reflects the fact that attachment disorganization is thought to be a breakdown of an inchoate organized attachment strategy. the baby may cling momentarily.If picked up.[11] [12] The disorganized style is a risk factor for a range of psychological disorders although it is not in itself considered an attachment disorder under the current classification. If the child uses the caregiver as a mirror to understand the self. As Ainsworth et al. he or she is given a secondary best-fitting 'organized' (i.. organized interactive template.[9] It can be conceptualized as the lack of a coherent 'organized' behavioral strategy for dealing with the stresses (i. It is important to note that when a child is judged disorganized.. to turn the face away when being held and other signs of mixed feelings [i... combined with strong proximity-avoiding.' In other words.. it tends to be a mere look or a smile. move past her. the baby shows little or no contact-maintaining behavior. The degree to which the organized strategy is fragmented however is often different in degree across infants judged to receive a primary 'disorganized' classification. It is more severe than learned helplessness as it is the model of the self rather than of a situation.. with some tendency to greet and approach..If there is a greeting when the mother enters. he looks away and he may squirm to get down. the stranger. thus children cannot form a coherent. Often. A frightened caregiver is alarming to the child. the caregiver is both the source of the child's alarm as well as the child's haven of safety. disorganized attachment and risks for later psychopathologies. the caregiver puts the child in an irresolvable paradox of approach-avoidance. turning away.. This paradox. (1978) originally noted: ".[10] Abuse is associated with disorganized attachment..e. or they approach in 'abortive' fashions with the baby going past the mother. the strange room."[7] Disorganized attachment A fourth category termed disorganized attachment (Main & Solomon. avert the gaze from her. intermingled with a marked tendency to move or turn away from her.. There is a growing body of research on the links between abnormal parenting.

Insecure children tend to be followers rather than leaders.However. Charnov & Estes.[15] Behavioural problems and social competence in insecure children increase or decline with deterioration or improvement in quality of parenting and the degree of risk in the family environment. such as that in Japan (see Miyake et al. 186 . Avoidant children are especially vulnerable to family risk.[16] Criticism Michael Rutter describes the procedure in the following terms:[17] "It is by no means free of limitations (see Lamb. Q-sort procedures based on much longer naturalistic observations in the home.. separation may not provide the same stress for them. Modified procedures based on the Strange Situation Father and child have been developed for older preschool children (see Belsky et al. There is no established direct association between early experience and a comprehensive measure of social functioning in early adulthood but early experience significantly predicts early childhood representations of relationships. where infants are rarely separated from their mothers in ordinary circumstances.. because older children have a cognitive capacity to maintain relationships when the older person is not present.[19] Also. Not only is this likely to provide boundary problems. Insecure-ambivalent children have a tendency to anxiously but unsuccessfully seek positive peer interaction whereas insecure-avoidant children appear aggressive and hostile and may actively repudiate positive peer interaction. 1984). it is very dependent on brief separations and reunions having the same meaning for all children. which in turn predicts later self and relationship representations and social behaviour. the procedure is based on just 20 minutes of behaviour. despite its manifest strengths. Greenberg et al. Thompson. 1994. It seems much more likely that infants vary in their degree of security and there is need for a measurement systems that can quantify individual variation".Attachment in children Significance of patterns Research based on data from longitudinal studies. It can be scarcely expected to tap all the relevant qualities of a child's attachment relationships. consistently shows associations between early attachment classifications and peer relationships as to both quantity and quality. Secure children have more positive and fewer negative peer reactions and establish more and better friendships. This maybe a major constraint when applying the procedure in cultures. 1985). studies have suggested that infants with a high-risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may express attachment security differently from infants with a low-risk for ASD. 1990) but it is much more dubious whether the same approach can be used in middle childhood. such as the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and the Minnesota Study of Risk and Adaption from Birth to Adulthood. and from cross-sectional studies.[22] A further constraint is that the coding procedure results in discrete categories rather than continuously distributed dimensions. However an early secure attachment appears to have a lasting protective function. 1990). Predictions are stronger for close relationships than for less intimate ones..[18] To begin with.[20] [21] Also. Gardener. but also it is not at all obvious that discrete categories best represent the concepts that are inherent in attachment security. and interviews with the mothers have developed in order to extend the data base (see Vaughn & Waters.

p. secure. the UK and the USA using the Strange Situation. E. Supporters of the CCC model generally recognize that the infant and caregiver are able to adjust to a range of conditions. where more resistant (C) infants were found. including Japan. The CCC model developed from the writings of Spitz. selecting optimal behavioural strategies. We have labeled this dominant view the continuous care and contact model (CCC.. (1998) scale is strongly related to secure versus insecure classifications. Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg conducted a meta-analysis of various countries. Morelli. avoidant and ambivalent.568..Attachment in children Ecological validity and universality of Strange Situation attachment classification distributions With respect to the ecological validity of the Strange Situation. Cassidy.. 568). Bowlby.[31] References [1] Tronick. "Until recently.. and Provence and Lipton.. A... but they consider the adjustments observed to reflect biological variation.. Germany.. correctly predicting about 90% of cases. controversy has been raised over a few cultural differences in these rates of 'global' attachment classification distributions." (Tronick. and M. hierarchical view of social development. to relationships with a growing number of people. B (65%). Bangalore:Elsevier B.[23] This global distribution was generally consistent with Ainsworth et al. In a recent study conducted in Sapporo. even where communal sleeping arrangements are the norm. The research showed that though there were cultural differences... Waters & T. the three basic patterns. China.. on institutionalized children and is represented in the psychological views of Bowlby. of the infant's early social experiences converged on the view that the infant progresses from a primary relationship with one individual. Cummings. & Ivey. Security of attachment in children and adolescents... These have been used either individually or in conjunction with discrete attachment classifications in many published reports (see Richters et al. However.[26] [27] In addition to these findings supporting the global distributions of attachment classifications in Sapporo. Selection of the secure pattern is found in the majority of children across cultures studied. Van IJzendoorn et al.000 infant-parent dyads. more extreme views (e. and the other in Sapporo.. (2007) found attachment distributions consistent with global norms using the six-year Main & Cassidy scoring system for attachment classification. However..[28] Attachment measurement: discrete or continuous? Regarding the issue of whether the breadth of infant attachment functioning can be captured by a categorical classification scheme.[28] How attachment is expressed shows cultural variations which need to be ascertained before studies can be undertaken. can be found in every culture in which studies have been undertaken. Bowlby's concept of monotropism is an exemplar of the CCC perspective. Morelli.[29] [30] The original Richter’s et al.. Japan.. Common to the different conceptual frameworks is the belief that parenting practices and the infant's capacity for social engagement are biologically based and conform to a prototypical form. 1992. 1998. 1992. (1978).[30] Readers further interested in the categorical versus continuous nature of attachment classifications (and the debate surrounding this issue) should consult a paper by Fraley and Spieker and the rejoinders in the same issue by many prominent attachment researchers including J.. This follows logically from the fact that attachment theory provides for infants to adapt to changes in the environment. maternal bonding) consider certain variants as nonadaptive and as compromising the child's psychological development.. the Japanese findings have sparked the most controversy as to the meaning of individual differences in attachment behavior as originally identified by Ainsworth et al. scientific accounts .). Sroufe.[24] [25] Of these two studies. p. it should be noted that continuous measures of attachment security have been developed which have demonstrated adequate psychometric properties. a meta-analysis of 2. Beauchaine. In particular. (2010). & Ivey. Israel. Behrens et al. two studies diverged from the global distributions of attachment classifications noted above.'s (1978) original attachment classification distributions.g. 1990). [2] Kayastha.. P.V 187 .[and others]. One study was conducted in North Germany in which more avoidant (A) infants were found than global norms would suggest. This is an epigenetic. also discuss the Japanese concept of amae and its relevance to questions concerning whether the insecure-resistant (C) style of interaction may be engendered in Japanese infants as a result of the cultural practice of amae. including several from studies with non-Western language and/or cultural bases found the global distribution of attachment categorizations to be A (21%)... Behrens et al. and C (14%).

[21] Greenberg. "Mothers' Attachment Status as Determined by the Adult Attachment Interview Predicts Their 6-Year-Olds' Reunion Responses: A Study Conducted in Japan". Cassidy & P. (2007).1037/0012-1649. Atwood G (2005). Settles L (2003). Serial No 209. Retrieved 1 December 2011. NY. I: Attachment. Barnett. Rutter & D. et al. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Developmental Psychology 22 (2): 265–270. M. Yellin C.) Handbook of Attachment: Theory. [29] Richters. (1999).. The Influence of Early Attachments on Other Relationshipsencyclopedia=Handbook of Attachment: Theory. "German children's behavior toward their mothers at 12 months and their fathers at 18 months in Ainsworth's strange situation". 333–47.4.525. Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors. University of Chicago Press. research. "Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: A meta-analysis of the strange-situation". Chicago. its study and biological interpretations.1177/016502548100400202. doi:10. Research and Clinical Applications". D. [22] Vaughn. 880–905. [15] Haltigan. Bakermans Kranenburg M.24. Child Development 61 (6): 1965–1973. Sagi-Schwartz A (2008). [16] Berlin LJ. Research and Clinical Applications. "Clinical implications of attachment concepts: Retrospect and Prospect".. Schuengel C. Shaver. Acad. 1008 (1): 22–30. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago. "The Influence of Early Attachments on Other Relationshipsencyclopedia=Handbook of Attachment: Theory. [12] Carlson. (1988). In M. Huber. Attachment and loss: Vol. Attachment security in infants at-risk for autism spectrum disorders 41 (7): 962-967. Attachment and loss: Vol. S. J. . 127-147 [19] Miyake.. Ekas NV. 7.. Behavioural and Brain Sciences. & Campos (1985). PMC 1857275.. New York: Basic Books. doi:10.M. Cassidy. 89—111. T. J. (1989). (1990). JSTOR 1130329. In Cassidy J and Shaver PR (Eds. Growing points of attachment theory and research. In Cassidy J. Grossmann. Sci. com/ ehost/ detail?vid=3& hid=7& sid=4ee26e89-71a6-4d34-930d-cfd04877e6fa@sessionmgr11& bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==#db=cmedm& AN=20859669). (Eds. doi:10. Hay (Eds) Development Through Life... M & Solomon. JD. Oxford. "Disorganized/disoriented attachment relationships in maltreated infants". NJ: Earlbaum. (1988). In Greenberg. Gardener.. (1995). M. M.1037/0012-1649. Shaver PR. M. Wartner. 121-160). [13] Lyons-Ruth K. J. New York: Basic Books. III: Loss. Dev Psychopathol 17 (1): 1–23.E. doi:10. J. [25] Takahashi. E. D. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. (1990)." (http:/ / web. Waters.3. 188 . Hillsdale. II: Separation: Anxiety and anger. D. et al.003. Kroonenberg. [8] J. In I.D. Helnick S. Y. Waters. D. International Journal of Behavioral Development 4: 157–184. PMID 3359869. PMID 2083508. Bretherton & E Waters (Eds). M. doi:10. Development and Psychopathology. "Attachment relationship experiences and childhood psychopathology"..1017/S0954579405050017. K. V. Relational Violence.25. Y. T. "Attachment behaviour at home and in the laboratory". doi:10. N. New York and London: Guilford Press. "Cross-Cultural Patterns of Attachment. Infant temperament and mother's mode of interaction and attachment in Japan. Universal and Contextual Dimensions". E. (1988). (1986). Research and Clinical Applications. [11] Van IJzendoorn M.22. and Lapses in Behavioral and Attentional Strategies". "Expanding the concept of unresolved mental states: Hostile/Helpless states of mind on the Adult Attachment Interview are associated with disrupted mother-infant communication and infant disorganization". Guilford Press. pp. theory research and intervention. Research and Clinical Applications. [17] Rutter. Vaughn.6. Chen.1301. Seifer R. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 36: 549–571. K. Attachment Theory and Evidence. K. Ann. M. [24] Grossmann... pp.1037/0012-1649. [27] Main. F. Child Development 59 (2): 512–522. M.. Thompson. concomitants. 276-297. 11. pp. [14] Lyons-Ruth K.43. Attachment in the preschool years: Theory.1037/0012-1649. Bowlby.. and sequelae. (1981). Guilford Press ISBN 1-57230-087-6. Developmental Psychology 43 (6): 1553–1567. M. doi:10. Ainsworth.2. PMID 14998869.(1984). Jacobvitz C (1999) "Attachment Disorganization: Unresolved Loss. 50. (Eds). Keyes A. (1999) Handbook of Attachment. U. (1994). [18] Lamb. C. In Cassidy J. ISBN 9781593858742. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Bowlby. & Cummings. H. & Wall..2307/1130329. J. Charnov & Estes. (1980).415. P.. Attachment and loss: Vol. [20] Belsky.. J. ISBN 9781593858742. New York and London: Guilford Press. Shaver PR.. [28] van IJzendoorn MH. Cicchetti.. [26] Behrens. "Examining the Strange-Situation procedure with Japanese mothers and 12-month old infants".265. PMID 18020832. M.1553. Braunwald. "Attachment security in infants at-risk for autism spectrum disorders. J. "Empirical classification of infant-mother relationships from interactive behavior and crying during reunion". Handbook of Attachment. Waters. [23] Van IJzendoorn. K. NY:Guilford [9] Main. Security of Infantile attachment as assessed in the 'Strange Situation'. [10] Zeanah CH.. B. E.. doi:10. Messinger DS (July 2011). "Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period". & Cummings. E. 373-402). Hesse. Main..S. an interim report. 2009. M. B. K. Child Development 59: 147–156. Blehar.. edited by Shaver and Cassidy. New York: Basic Books.. (1978).H. Appleyard K. Attachment in the preschool years. Cicchetti. (1990). Cicchetti. Developmental Psychology 25 (4): 525–531. E. E. and intervention (pp. ebscohost. E. (1973). 225-249. J. J. PMID 15971757. & Cassidy.1196/annals. Cassidy J. Handbook of Attachment: Theory.Attachment in children [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Bowlby. (1969). A Handbook For Clinicians (pp. Developmental Psychology 24 (3): 415–426.).

New York: Worth. & Shaver. NY. • Greenberg. Research and Intervention University of Chicago. (1999) Handbook of Attachment: Theory. M. The First Years Last Forever (2005) [DVD]. Madison. doi:10. J. MT. • Zeanah. PMID 12760508. (1993) Handbook of Infant Mental Health.1016/0163-6383(90)90017-3. P. (1990).C. Praeger 2005..39. & Eisenberg. CT: International Universities Press. J.3. (Eds.. Recommended Reading • Cassidy. J. ISBN 0-415-05651-9 • Siegler R. • Bausch. J. ISBN 1-57259-249-4. • Holmes. 189 . Kroonenberg. Research. Karl Heinz (2002) Treating Attachment Disorders NY: Guilford Press.. NY. C. (2001) The Search for the Secure Base: Attachment Theory and Psychotherapy. "Are Infant Attachment Patterns Continuously or Categorically Distributed? A Taxometric Analysis of Strange Situation Behavior". Spieker. EM. (2003).. M..) (1991) Attachment Across The Life Cycle Routledge. London: Brunner-Routledge. NY. Guilford Press. (Eds) (1990) Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory. (2003) How Children develop. D.. R. CM. • Mercer.. Stevenson-Hinde. S. • Holmes. D. (Eds). C. Oxford University Press. and Clinical Applications. doi:10. Cicchetti. Guilford. S. N. DeLoache. ISBN 0-19-511501-5. 32. P.Attachment in children [30] Van IJzendoorn. & Cummings. J. • Greenspan. J. "Cross-cultural consistency of coding the strange situation". : Parents' Action for Children. Chicago.. [31] Fraley.1037/0012-1649. (1993) Infancy and Early Childhood.387. Infant Behavior and Development 13 (4): 469–485. (1993) John Bowlby and Attachment Theory. Routledge. ISBN 0-8236-2633-4. • Karen R (1998) Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love. H. P. ISBN 1-58391-152-9. Developmental Psychology 39 (3): 387–404. Marris. ISBN 0-415-07730-3. Understanding Attachment. Washington... J. • Parkes.

the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System. suitable for older children. The disorganized/controlling attachment classification is thought to represent a break-down in the attachment-caregiving partnerhip such that the child does not have an organized behavioral or representational strategy to achieve protection and care from the attachment figure. and disorganized/disoriented. 6. Attachment in adults is commonly measured using the Adult Attachment Interview. anxious-avoidant and anxious-ambivalent. anxious-ambivalent. 5.Attachment measures Attachment measures Attachment measures refer to the various procedures used to assess attachment in children and adults. are based on asking children to complete "attachment story stems.[2] [3] In this procedure the child is observed playing for 20 minutes while caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room. The stranger comes back and repeats episode 3." draw a picture of their family. 2. The mother leaves the room. This episode is curtailed if the infant appears to be distressed. The stranger leaves quietly and the mother waits until the baby settles. It was developed by Mary Ainsworth. or describe their relationships. The infant is alone. a personality dimension that describes attitudes about relationships with romantic partners. Avoidant (Group A) and Disorganized/Controlling (Group D). recreating the flow of the familiar and unfamiliar presence in most children's lives. preoccupied. Anxious/Resistant (Group C). 7. Mother (or other familiar caregiver) and baby enter room. although there is to date no research that links how childhood attachment patterns are related to attachment personality dimensions with romantic partners. These patterns are also referred to as Secure (Group B). responding if the infant seeks attention. If the infant becomes distressed this episode is ended. Another approach defines four adult attachment style categories: secure. A stranger enters. Each pattern group is further broken down into several sub-categories. and self-report questionnaires. Other methods. Mother sits quietly on a chair. The Strange Situation The Strange Situation procedure was formulated to observe attachment relationships between a caregiver and children between the age of nine and 18 months. Measuring attachment in children Some methods are based on observation of infants and toddlers either in natural or 'arranged' situations. 190 . As research accumulated and atypical patterns of attachment became more apparent it was further developed by Main and Solomon in 1986 and 1990 to include the new category of disorganized/disoriented attachment. 4. Researchers have developed various ways of assessing patterns of attachment in children. Self-report questionnaires assess attachment style. The situation varies in stressfulness and the child's responses are observed. anxious-avoidant. and the other dimension dealing with avoidance in the relationship. and fearful-avoidant. dismissive-avoidant. Attachment style is thought to be similar to childhood attachment patterns. talks to the mother then gradually approaches infant with a toy. One dimension deals with anxiety about the relationship. The stranger leaves the infant playing unless he/she is inactive and then tries to interest the infant in toys. Mother enters and waits to see how the infant greets her. A variety of methods allow children to be classified into four attachment pattern groups: secure. or assess disorders of attachment. A child classified with the disorganized/controlling attachment will be given a "next best fit" organized classification. 3. a developmental psychologist[1] Originally it was devised to enable children to be classified into the attachment styles known as secure. The child experiences the following situations: 1. The most common approach to defining attachment style is a two-dimension approach in defining attachment style. and then she leaves again.

emotional regulation. willingness to go off with relative strangers. They also need to include ways of guarding against "coder drift".g. (1999). The three basic strategies for negotiating interpersonal relationships are modified to fit preschoolers and the patterns are renamed secure/balanced.Attachment measures 8. Like the SSP it involves an observation which is then coded. It is aimed at 6 year olds and classifies their attachment status. It can rate a child along a continuum from secure to insecure but does not classify the type of insecurity. self endangering behavior. Marvin and the MacArthur Working group. utilises Q-Sort methodology. Attachment Q-set This method. The classifications include all the SSP categories plus patterns that develop during the second year of life. but has been modified for preschool and elementary-school aged children. devised in 1988. responding to comfort when offered. seeking comfort when distressed. as some items to be assessed require interpretation reliability (e. these techniques need to be "lean" enough to carry out fairly quickly. As such. This method is designed to pick up not only reactive attachment disorder but also Zeannah et al. Reunion behaviour is noted and then the situation is ended. It is also intended to be able to distinguish the unendangered from the endangered compulsive and obsessive subpatterns that may have implications for emotional and behavioral development. playing with new toys) the child engages in throughout. vigilance/hypercompliance and role reversal. not as diagnostic techniques for individual children. It covers 12 items. namely having a discriminated. and there is an ongoing effort to develop assessment methods that are suitable for older toddlers and preschoolers. the tendency of evaluators to change their criteria as they assess more and more children over long periods of time.[4] Preschool strange situation A version of the Strange Situation procedure designed for an older age group of between 3 and 4 years by Cassidy. Two aspects of the child's behaviour are observed: • The amount of exploration (e.[7] Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI) More recent research uses the Disturbances of Attachment Interview or "DAI" developed by Smyke and Zeanah. analyses the reunion of child and parent after a 1 hour separation. devised by Waters and Deane in 1985.'s (1993) suggested new alternative categories of disorders of 191 . reticence with unfamiliar adults. child is "suddenly aggressive toward mother for no reason"). Effective training of evaluators is essential.[5] The current version is Attachment Q-set Version 3. The mother returns and the stranger goes. as described below. or Type A and coercive or Type C.0. It is based on a set period of observation of children aged 1 – 5 in a number of environments. excessive clinging. affective response and social cognition. and • The child's reactions to the departure and return of its caregiver.[6] Preschool Assessment of Attachment (PAA) The PAA was devised by P. preferred adult.. checking back after venturing away from the care giver. It consists of nearly 100 items intended to cover the spectrum of attachment related behaviors including secure base and exploratory behaviors. Developing methods for older toddlers and children The Strange Situation is not designed for children older than about 18 months.g. or Type B. The methods in development are intended as research measures. defended. Main & Cassidy attachment classification system This system. This is a semi-structured interview designed to be administered by clinicians to caregivers.Crittenden for the purpose of assessing patterns of attachment in 18-month to 5 year old children. social and emotional reciprocity. 1987.

These techniques are designed to access the childs internal working models of their attachment relationships. three different techniques to determine their state of mind with respect to attachment are used. questionable measures of attachment in school-age children have been presented. The classifications of dismissing.5-11.. For example. secure. developed in 1990 for children between the age of 3 to 8 years. "Behavioral observation is a natural starting point for assessing attachment disorders because behavioral descriptions.[9] Attachment Interview for Childhood and Adolescence (AICA) This again is a version of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) rendered age appropriate for adolescents. preoccupied and unresolved are the same as under the AAI described below. Methods include the MacArthur Story Stem Battery (MSSB) and the Attachment Story Completion Test. 192 . the Attachment Doll Play Assessment developed in 1995 for children age 4. the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST) developed in 2000 for children aged 4. The child is shown attachment related pictures and asked to respond. Scores are based on both verbal and non-verbal communications. Unfortunately.8.5.7 year olds. and teens. despite the fact that observations have figured prominently. these techniques are designed to access the childs internal working models of attachment relationships. that was itself poorly validated and that is based on a nonconventional view of attachment. Methods include the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT) developed in 1972 for children aged between 11 and 17. Revised versions have been produced for 4 . children. Criticism Existing measures have not necessarily been developed to a useful level. Picture response techniques Like the stem stories.[8] Other approaches With older toddlers. a protocol for establishing attachment status was described by Sheperis and his colleagues [11] .5 . no established observational protocol has been established" [10] Also... adapted for children by focussing on representations of relationships with parents and attachment related events. It is based on the Adult Attachment Interview. The dolls represent family members. Direct interview techniques Child Attachment Interview (CAI) This is a semi-structured interview designed by Target et al. the Randolph Attachment Disorder Questionnaire. The interviewer enacts the beginning of the story and then hands the dolls over for the child to complete it with varying degrees of prompting and encouragement. have been central to the development of the concept. (2003) for children aged 7 to 11. The third involves asking children actual questions about their attachment relationships. Narrative story stem techniques This method uses dolls and narrative to enact a story. the Story Stem Assessment Profile (SSAP) developed in 1990 for children aged 4 – 8.. The second method asks children to respond to pictures. this protocol was validated against another technique. The first is the Story Stem in which children are asked to complete and describe stories having been given the 'stem' or beginning...Attachment measures attachment.

. but also it is not at all obvious that discrete categories best represent the concepts that are inherent in attachment security. 1990)[15] [16] but it is much more dubious whether the same approach can be used in middle childhood. separation may not provide the same stress for them.. 1990)[17] . 1994. et al. because older children have a cognitive capacity to maintain relationships when the older person is not present. 1985)[14] . such as that in Japan (see Miyake et al. Not only is this likely to provide boundary problems. a meta-analysis of 2. (1978). where infants are rarely separated from their mothers in ordinary circumstances. Modified procedures based on the Strange Situation have been Mother and child developed for older preschool children (see Belsky et al. Gardener. Q-sort procedures based on much longer naturalistic observations in the home. Behrens et al. controversy has been raised over a few cultural differences in these rates of 'global' attachment classification distributions.[22] In addition to these findings supporting the global distributions of attachment classifications in Sapporo. Charnov & Estes. This maybe a major constraint when applying the procedure in cultures. the Japanese findings have sparked the most controversy as to the meaning of individual differences in attachment behavior as originally identified by Ainsworth et al.[12] "It is by no means free of limitations (see Lamb. In particular.[21] found attachment distributions consistent with global norms using the six-year Main & Cassidy scoring system for attachment classification. Also. Behrens. it is very dependent on brief separations and reunions having the same meaning for all children. It can be scarcely expected to tap all the relevant qualities of a child's attachment relationships.. the procedure is based on just 20 minutes of behaviour. In a recent study conducted in Sapporo.000 infant-parent dyads.'s (1978) original attachment classification distributions. Ecological validity and universality of Strange Situation attachment classification distributions With respect to the ecological validity of the Strange Situation. Thompson. Greenberg et al. Japan [20] where more resistant (C) infants were found.Attachment measures Reception and development of SSP Psychiatrist Michael Rutter describe the limitations of the procedure in the following terms. and C (14%) [18] This global distribution was generally consistent with Ainsworth et al. 1984)[13] . also discuss the Japanese concept of amae and its relevance to questions concerning whether the insecure-resistant (C) style of interaction may be engendered in Japanese infants as a result of the cultural practice of amae. and interviews with the mothers have developed in order to extend the data base (see Vaughn & Waters. Also. To begin with... A further constraint is that the coding procedure results in discrete categories rather than continuously distributed dimensions. B (65%). and the other in Sapporo. 2007. Of these two studies. despite its manifest strengths. 193 . It seems much more likely that infants vary in their degree of security and there is need for a measurement systems that can quantify individual variation". including several from studies with non-Western language and/or cultural bases found the global distribution of attachment categorizations to be A (21%). two studies diverged from the global distributions of attachment classifications noted above. One study was conducted in North Germany [19] in which more avoidant (A) infants were found than global norms would suggest. However.

2004) [26] The AAI and the self-report questionnaires offer distinct. and Mary Main in 1984. Readers further interested in the categorical versus continuous nature of attachment classifications (and the debate surrounding this issue) should consult the paper by Fraley and Spieker [25] and the rejoinders in the same issue by many prominent attachment researchers including J. Beauchaine. NY. The discourse is defensive. AAP. although a few studies have found the AAI to be related to marital relationship quality and a few have found self-report romantic attachment measures to be related to parenting. describe them in a balanced way and as influential. The interview is coded based on quality of discourse (especially coherence) and content. Their positive descriptions are often contradicted or unsupported. • Preoccupied: Experience continuing preoccupation with their own parents. internally consistent. In principle.. The interview taps into adult representation of attachment (i. it should be noted that continuous measures of attachment security have been developed which have demonstrated adequate psychometric properties. Minimize negative aspects and deny personal impact on relationships. Sroufe. the other from prediction of a person's child's behavior in Ainsworth's Strange Situation. Cassidy. Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) Developed by Carol George. this is a quasi-clinical semi-structured interview that takes about one hour to administer. Categories are designed to predict parental stances on Berkeley infant data." and is written by E. A good description can be found in Chapter 25 of Attachment Theory. Measuring attachment in adults The three main ways of measuring attachment in adults include the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI).e. Cassidy and P. Incoherent discourse. correctly predicting about 90% of cases [24] . Nancy Kaplan. It involves about twenty questions and has extensive research validation to support it.[23] Van IJzendoorn et al. and non-defensive in nature. Parental AAI Attachment status includes: • Autonomous: They value attachment relationships. but in fact they seem to be only moderately related--at least as currently assessed. A. R. the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Correlations of the two kinds of measures with other variables are likely to differ. 2008. Guilford Press.Attachment measures Attachment measurement: discrete or continuous? Regarding the issue of whether the breadth of infant attachment functioning can be captured by a categorical classification scheme. and self-report questionnaires. 194 . what is most important for you to know is that self-report measures of romantic attachment and the AAI were initially developed completely independently and for quite different purposes. and M. These have been used either individually or in conjunction with discrete attachment classifications in many published reports [see Richters et al. Have angry or ambivalent representations of the past. and the self-report questionnaires were created with somewhat different aims in mind. E.[24] ] The original Richter’s et al. Hesse.). It's therefore worthwhile to become familiar with both approaches. The chapter title is "The Adult Attachment Interview: Historical and Current Perspectives. One asks about a person's feelings and behaviors in the context of romantic or other close relationships. Waters & T. edited by J. internal working models) by assessing general and specific recollections from their childhood. the other is used to make inferences about the defenses associated with an adult's current state of mind regarding childhood relationships with parents. Cummings. The AAI. (1998) scale is strongly related to secure versus insecure classifications. but equally valid. Shaver. Their discourse is coherent. 1990). • Dismissing: They show memory lapses. Shaver and Fraley note: "If you are a novice in this research area." (Shaver & Fraley. these might have been substantially associated.. perspectives on adult attachment. One kind of measure receives its construct validity mostly from studies of romantic relationships. Research and Clinical Applications (2nd ed. 1998.

A good description can be found in George and West's 1999 paper in the journal Attachment and Human Development. (2000). and often. [28] Their questionnaire was designed to classify adults into the three attachment styles identified by Ainsworth.I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others. this is a free response task that involved telling stories in response to eight picture stimuli (1 warm-up & 7 attachment scenes). I find it difficult to trust them completely. and this desire sometimes scares people away. Later versions of this questionnaire presented scales so people could rate how well each set of statements described their feelings.[27] However. One important advance in the development of attachment questionnaires was the addition of a fourth style of attachment. Some of the strongest external validation of the measures involves its demonstrated ability to predict interviewees' children's classifications in the Strange Situation. difficult to allow myself to depend on them. attachment styles depended on whether or not people judge their partners to be generally accessible and responsive to requests for support.Attachment measures • Unresolved/Disorganized:Show trauma resulting from unresolved loss or abuse. each set of statements describing an attachment style: • Secure .. 195 . as described above. [29] Their model was based on the idea attachment styles reflected people's thoughts about their partners and thought about themselves. I am nervous when anyone gets too close. A. and personal agency. I don't often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me. Specifically. & Brennan. • Anxious/Ambivalent . Bartholomew and Horowitz presented a model that identified four categories or styles of adult attachment. the AAP is also used to code attachment defensive processing patterns. • Avoidant . it taps primarily into a person's state of mind regarding their attachment in their family of origin (nuclear family).I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. attachment synchrony. I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. there are important differences in what is measured by the AAI—rather than being a measure of romantic attachment. The questionnaire consisted of three sets of statements.. P. The AAP is demonstrated to be increasingly useful in clinical and neurobiological settings. Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) Developed by Carol George and Malcolm West in 1999. R. They proposed four categories based on positive or negative thoughts about partners and on positive or negative thoughts about self. I want to merge completely with another person. K. The AAP is being used to assess attachment in adults and adolescents. Belsky. J. Self-report questionnaires Hazan and Shaver created the first questionnaire to measure attachment in adults. love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. The measure also has been shown to have some overlap with attachment constructs measured by the less time-intensive measures of the peer/romantic attachment tradition (Hazan & Shaver. The strongest concurrent validation of the measure is the correspondence between AAP and AAI classification agreement. A book describing the measure is forthcoming from Guilford Press in spring 2011. The chosen set of statements indicated their attachment style. as reported by Shaver.I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. People participating in their study were asked to choose which set of statements best described their feelings. and whether or not people judge themselves to be the kind of individuals towards which others want to respond and lend help. Bartholomew). The AAP identifies the same adult attachment groups as the AAI. In addition to providing adult group classifications.

and Brennan in 2000. A second important advance in attachment questionnaires was the use of independent items to assess attachment. I don't worry about being alone or having others not accept me. I want emotionally close relationships.Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire.I am comfortable without close emotional relationships. The four attachment styles had somewhat different meanings across cultures.I want to be completely emotionally intimate with others. validated the attachment questionnaire created by Bartholomew and Horowitz in 62 cultures. but I often find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. However. It is very important to me to feel independent and self-sufficient. • Fearful . the way these two kinds of thoughts interacted to form attachment styles varied somewhat across cultures. The ratings for the individual statements were combined to provide an attachment score. I am uncomfortable being without close relationships. Clark. [31] The ECR-R was created by Fraley. David Schmitt. Instead of asking people to choose between three or four sets of statements. • Dismissive . Tests demonstrated the four attachment styles were distinct in how they related to other kinds of psychological variables. or to depend on them. [30] The distinction of thoughts about self and thoughts about partners proved valid in nearly all cultures. each describing a category or style of attachment: • Secure . Adults indeed appeared to have four styles of attachment instead of three attachment styles.Attachment measures Bartholomew and Horowitz used this model to create the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ-CV). together with a large number of colleagues. people rated how strongly they agreed with dozens of individual statements. and I prefer not to depend on others or have others depend on me. Investigators have created several questionnaires using this strategy to measure adult attachment. Two popular questionnaires of this type are the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) questionnaire and the Experiences in Close Relationships .It is relatively easy for me to become emotionally close to others. Waller. The RQ-CV consisted of four sets of statements. but I find it difficult to trust others completely. and Shaver in 1998. 196 . I sometimes worry that I will be hurt if I allow myself to become too close to others. but I sometimes worry that others don't value me as much as I value them. I am comfortable depending on others and having others depend on me. • Preoccupied . The ECR was created by Brennan.I am somewhat uncomfortable getting close to others. [32] Readers who wish to take the ECR-R and learn their attachment style can find an online version of the questionnaire at http:/ / www.

The anxiety scale in the ECR and ECR-R reflect thoughts about self. Combinations of anxiety and avoidance can thus be used to define the four attachment styles. and the fearful avoidant style of attachment is characterized by high anxiety and high avoidance. the preoccupied style of attachment is characterized by high anxiety and low avoidance. the dismissive avoidant style of attachment is characterized by low anxiety and high avoidance. The remaining items deal with how avoidant a person is in their relationship. Attachment anxiety relates to beliefs about self-worth and whether or not one will be accepted or rejected by others. [31] [33] [34] The four styles of attachment defined in Bartholomew and Horowitz's model were based on thoughts about self and thoughts about partners. One group of questionnaire items deal with how anxious a person is about their relationship. Many researchers now use scores from the anxiety and avoidance scales to perform statistical analyses and test hypotheses. Scores on the anxiety and avoidance scales can still be used to classify people into the four adult attachment styles.net/cgi-bin/crq/crq. The avoidance scale in the ECR and ECR-R relates to thoughts about partners. Attachment avoidance relates to beliefs about taking risks in approaching or avoiding other people. Analysis of the ECR and ECR-R reveal that the questionnaire items can be grouped into two dimensions of attachment. These items serve as a scale for anxiety.Attachment measures web-research-design. These items serve as a scale for avoidance.pl. The secure style of attachment is characterized by low anxiety and low avoidance. 197 .

M. 7. & Hesse..C. and Solomon.. & Wartner. 147-156. (1988). H. Infant Mental Health Journal." Attachment & Human Development. 511-524. (2007). & Cassidy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Examining the Strange-Situation procedure with Japanese mothers and 12-month old infants. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.H. Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period. Hoda. Attachment in the preschool years. 387-404. [15] Belsky. Child Development..Yogman (eds) Affective development in infancy. 415-426. 25(4):291-310 [12] "The Clinical Implications of Attachment Concepts". html). (1994). [18] Van IJzendoorn. and deane. html . (1986) 'Discovery of an insecure disorganized/dioriented attachment pattern:procedures. P. (2003) 'Attachment representations in school-age children: the development of the Child Attachment Interview (CAI). Mary D. Attachment Theory and Evidence. B. Developmental Psychology. (2000). Developmental Psychology. Child Development. Norwood.P. Charnov & Estes. 7. 127-147 [14] Miyake.Doggett. "The development of an assessment protocol for Reactive Attachment Disorder.. M. & Kroonenberg. Gardener. 2006. Hay (Eds) Development Through Life. R. [28] Hazan. University of Chicago Press.Y.' In t.(1984). D. Self-report measures of adult attachment. 39. doi:10. S. and Schmueli-Goetz. Blanchard. (1990).K (1985) 'Defining and assessing individual differences in attachment relationships: Q-methodology and the organization of behavior in infancy and early childhood. Cicchetti and E. Serial No 209. C. K."Journal of Mental Health Counseling. Grossmann. 50.. 627-646. [2] Main. T. Child Development. Developmental Psychology. T. K.E. (2007). 13. International Journal of Behavioral Development.J. (2003). M. (1987). In M. (1988). 1965-1973. 469-485. E.. & Cassidy.1017/S0954579400000110. & West. Chen. Developmental Psychology 24. Cross-cultural consistency of coding the strange situation..Greenberg.. Rutter & D. & Cummings. T. . [16] Greenberg.E. 415-426. Huber. Available on the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry website at www. J. Cummings (eds) Attachment in the preschool years: Theory. 59.. Infant temperament and mother's mode of interaction and attachment in Japan. (1986). M. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 36 (4): 552–553 [13] Lamb. E. (1990). an interim report. 4. Measuring socioemotional functioning in a national birth cohort study. [7] Crittenden PM (1992). & Waters. J. psych.com [9] Target. & Campos (1985).J. 2. 28(6). F. findings and implications for the classification of behavior.jaacap. 157-184. edu/ ~rcfraley/ measures/ measures. & Brennan.C..' Journal of Child Psychotherapy 29. Waters. Empirical classification of infant-mother relationships from interactive behavior and crying during reunion.. 198 . and Solomon. E. K. (1990). 265-270. [22] Main. P. Main. Belsky. its study and biological interpretations. [4] Andreassen. Serial No. P. Growing points of attachment theory and research. com/ Preschool-assesment. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. D. & Schlagheck. A Handbook For Clinicians (pp. 41-65 [6] Main. Renfro-Michael. & Vaughn. ISBN 0-89859-461-8.J. R. Developmental Psychology. P. Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: A meta-analysis of the strange-situation.A. Chicago. C. A.L. Attachment behaviour at home and in the laboratory. J. J.m. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (1988). & Fraley.M. K. J. Bretherton & E Waters (Eds). [19] Grossmann. N.. 43. U. Are Infant Attachment Patterns Continuously or Categorically Distributed? A Taxometric Analysis of Strange Situation Behavior. M. theory research and intervention. [26] Shaver. (1999)'Disturbances of Attachment Interview'. 24. [25] Fraley. (Eds). C. M. S. [8] Smyke. p. 5(3):223-244.. In I. E. E. E."Attachment disorders: Assessment strategies and treatment approaches. 229 [11] Sheperis. (2003).Attachment measures References [1] Ainsworth. (1988) "Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period.A.H. (1990) 'Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation' In M. Fonagy. "Quality of attachment in the preschool years" (http:/ / www. Oxford..M. from http:/ / www. & Zeanah. [5] Waters Waters.. Personal Relationships. & Kroonenberg. 373-402). [21] Behrens. research and intervention. (2003). and Zeanah.. & Spieker. E. Mothers’ Attachment Status as Determined by the Adult Attachment Interview Predicts Their 6-Year-Olds’ Reunion Responses: A Study Conducted in Japan. Blackwell Scientific Publications. R. 22. Online article. K. [20] Takahashi.. R. Romantic love conceptualized as an attachmenpt process. Y. 25-43. Retrieved 2008-01-06. 52. J. (1978) Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Cicchetti. (2004). NJ: Ablex [3] Main. patcrittenden. 512-522. & Shaver.. C. 1553–1567..H.A.E. Holdiness.Bretherton and E.. Infant Behavior and Development. 276-297. (1981). 59. Retrieved June 20. The adult attachment interview and self-reports of romantic attachment: Associations across domains and methods. M. Braxelton and M. B.M. J. German children's behavior toward their mothers at 12 months and their fathers at 18 months in Ainsworth's strange situation. Development and Psychopathology 4 (02): 209–41.. [23] Richters. [27] Shaver. Waters (eds) Growing pains of attachment theory and research: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 50. 171-186 [10] O'Connor.' In I. R. [24] Van IJzendoorn. M. Behavioural and Brain Sciences. Thompson. 61. J. Security of Infantile attachment as assessed in the 'Strange Situation'. 209 (1-2). uiuc.. [17] Vaughn. C.. & Cassidy. P..

Chicago. ISBN 1-57259-249-4..P. (1993) Infancy and Early Childhood. External links • AICAN .. Clark. CM. & Shaver.).Australian Intercountry Adoption Network (http://www.aican.org/mental/ relationship_advice_adult_attachment. & Shaver.. NY. • Holmes. J.htm) • Attachment Questionnaire (http://www.L.web-research-design. pp.. CT: International Universities Press.. K. Mashek & A. • Holmes. In D. K.A.R. (2004). Cicchetti. NY: Guilford Press. Mahwah. richardatkins. & Horowitz. Methods of assessing adult attachment. J.G. A. Routledge. DeLoache.html) 199 . L. J. (1993) John Bowlby and Attachment Theory.L. Further reading • Cassidy. Waller. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.A. (2001) The Search for the Secure Base: Attachment Theory and Psychotherapy. (2000). • Parkes. ISBN 0-19-511501-5.. (1999) Handbook of Attachment: Theory..M. Guilford Press. P. [33] Bartholomew. 367-402. N. 25-45. Stevenson-Hinde. • Greenberg. D. 35. Attachment theory and close relationships. 61. An Attachment Theory Perspective on Closeness and Intimacy. (Eds). & Brennan.pl) • Articles on attachment measures including 11 self-report measures with scoring instructions (http://www. In J. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Madison. (Eds) (1990) Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory. R.C. Aron (Eds.R. Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. Rholes (Eds. (1998).J.. Simpson & W. B. N. (1991). Self-report measurement of adult romantic attachment: An integrative overview.org/) • Relationship Advice: How Understanding Adult Attachment Can Help (http://www.S. & Eisenberg. An item-response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. 46-76). Marris. & Cummings. Oxford University Press. • Greenspan. S.helpguide. New York. EM. (Eds. [34] Collins. ISBN 0-415-07730-3. P.). ISBN 0-8236-2633-4. In J.. [31] Brennan. [32] Fraley. Research and Intervention University of Chicago. Research. Handbook of Closeness and Intimacy..Attachment measures [29] Bartholomew. London: Brunner-Routledge.. NY. 226-244. (1998). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.) (1991) Attachment Across The Life Cycle Routledge. pp.co. (2003) How Children develop. P. ISBN 1-58391-152-9. New York: Worth. ISBN 0-415-05651-9 • Siegler R. New York: Guilford Press. Rholes (Eds. J. Simpson & W. Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. (2004). D. • Karen R (1998) Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love. et al. & Freeney.uk/atws/page/55. and Clinical Applications. & Shaver. K. C.). 163-188.A.C. 78. Patterns and universals of adult romantic attachment across 62 cultural regions. [30] Schmitt. N. 350-365. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. S. K..net/cgi-bin/crq/crq. P. J. MT.

Following the associated publicity. on attachment theory. or claiming to be based.[4] [5] It is primarily based on Robert Zaslow's rage-reduction therapy from the 1960s and '70s and on psychoanalytic theories about suppressed rage. the form of rebirthing sometimes used within attachment therapy differs from Rebirthing-Breathwork. one of the founders.[2] These techniques have been implicated in several child deaths and other harmful effects. These accompanying parenting techniques are based on the belief that a properly attached child should comply with parental demands "fast. promoting instead newer techniques of attunement. bottle feeding and enforced eye contact. in which a child is firmly held (or lain upon) by therapists or parents. 200 . "compression therapy". Through this process of restraint and confrontation. ATTACh. "holding time". Further. sometimes severe. Martha Welch and other early proponents used it as a treatment for autism.[6] Since the 1990s there have been a number of prosecutions for deaths or serious maltreatment of children at the hands of "attachment therapists" or parents following their instructions. Tinbergen. particularly outside the USA. including diagnosis and accompanying parenting techniques. Other names or particular techniques include "the Evergreen model".[1] The term generally includes accompanying parenting techniques. breaking down of resistance and defence mechanisms. Two of the most well-known cases are those of Candace Newmaker in 2000 and the Gravelles in 2003. "rage-reduction".[1] It is found primarily but not exclusively in the United States and much of it is centered in about a dozen clinics in Evergreen. but including disobedience and perceived lack of gratitude or affection for their caregivers. based on the now discredited belief that autism was the result of failures in the attachment relationship with the mother. The children's problems are ascribed to an inability to attach to their new parents because of suppressed rage due to past maltreatment and abandonment. Attachment therapy is a treatment used primarily with fostered or adopted children who have behavioral difficulties. snappy and right the first time" and should be "fun to be around".[8] Some leading attachement therapists have also specifically moved away from coercive practices. regression. including at least six documented child fatalities. The aim is to promote attachment with the new caregivers. when the child's resistance is overcome and the rage is released.[7] In April 2007. rocking.Attachment therapy Attachment therapy Attachment therapy is the most commonly used term for a controversial category of alternative child mental health interventions intended to treat attachment disorders. "corrective attachment therapy" and Coercive Restraint Therapy. with which it is considered incompatible. the child is reduced to an infantile state in which he or she can be "re-parented" by methods such as cradling. This change may have been hastened by the publication of a Task Force Report on the subject in January 2006. established his clinic in the 1970s. some advocates of attachment therapy began to alter views and practices to be less potentially dangerous to children. sensitivity and regulation. The common form of attachment therapy is holding therapy. "rebirthing". an organization originally set up by attachment therapists. to be based on attachment theory. catharsis. commissioned by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) which was largely critical of attachment therapy. despite its name. In theory. Colorado where Foster Cline. talking psychotherapies such as attachment-based psychotherapy and relational psychoanalysis or the form of attachment parenting advocated by the pediatrician William Sears. Zaslow. therapists seek to produce in the child a range of responses such as rage and despair with the goal of achieving catharsis. This form of treatment differs significantly from evidence-based attachment-based therapies. It has been described as a potentially abusive and pseudoscientific intervention that has resulted in tragic outcomes for children. Control over the children is usually considered essential and the therapy is often accompanied by parenting techniques which emphasize obedience. formally adopted a White Paper stating its unequivocal opposition to the use of coercive practices in therapy and parenting. This article describes this particular set of interventions although in clinical literature the term "attachment therapy" is sometimes used loosely to mean any intervention based.[3] This form of therapy. is scientifically unvalidated and is not considered to be part of mainstream psychology or.

1989). The Center induces rage by physically restraining the child and forcing eye contact with the therapist (the child must lie across the laps of two therapists. a variety of coercive techniques are used. These include deep tissue massage. and/or licking.. restraining. "holding time". pinching.[11] It is this form of treatment for attachment difficulties or disorders which is popularly known as "attachment therapy". or aggressive means to provoke the child to catharsis. If the child is well-behaved outside the home this is seen as successful manipulation of outsiders. this is explained to the child as a consequence of not choosing to be a 'family boy or girl.[13] Matthew Speltz of the University of Washington School of Medicine describes a typical treatment taken from The Center's material (apparently a replication of the program at the Attachment Center. (4) this new trust allows the child to accept 'control' by the therapist and eventually the parent. as outlined in the 2006 American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) Task Force Report. protests of distress from the child are considered 201 . punishments related to food and water intake.e."[2] The APSAC Task Force describes how the conceptual focus of these treatments is the child's individual internal pathology and past caregivers rather than current parent-child relationships or current environment. "corrective attachment therapy".[7] has broadly centered around "holding therapy"[9] and coercive. attachment parenting. or their faces may be held so they can be forced to engage in prolonged eye contact. looking up at one of them). refuses to comply).Attachment therapy Treatment characteristics The controversy. Sessions may last from 3 to 5 hours. rib cage stimulation (e. the following sequence of events is described: (1) therapist 'forces control' by holding (which produces child 'rage'). "rage-reduction therapy"[1] or "prolonged parent-child embrace therapy". or techniques designed to provoke cathartic emotional discharge. encouraging children to regress to infant status. as indicated by the child breaking down emotionally ('sobbing'). binding. (2) rage leads to child 'capitulation' to the therapist. or other sorts of acute emotional discharge.g.[12] They also provide a list of additional therapies used by attachment therapists which they consider to be unvalidated. "A central feature of many of these therapies is the use of psychological. a group that campaigns against attachment therapy. Proponents emphasize the child's resistance to attachment and the need to break it down.' If the child is actually placed in foster care. enforced eye contact. Similar but less physically coercive approaches may involve holding the child and psychologically encouraging the child to vent anger toward her or his biological parent. knuckling). the child is then required to 'earn the way back to therapy' and a chance to resume living with the adoptive family. In a workshop handout prepared by two therapists at The Center. Variants of these treatments have carried various labels that change frequently. They believe this is because children with attachment problems actively avoid forming genuine relationships. "the Evergreen model". barring normal social relationships outside the primary caretaker. with some sessions reportedly lasting longer. Children may be held down. To do this. reparenting. According to The Center's treatment protocol. Evergreen) as follows: "Like Welsh (sic)(1984. or aversive procedures. may have several adults lie on top of them. "compression therapy".. They may be known as "rebirthing therapy". if the child 'shuts down' (i. In rebirthing and similar approaches. physical. (3) the therapist takes advantage of the child's capitulation by showing nurturance and warmth. The APSAC Task Force noted that this perspective has its attractions because it relieves the caregivers of responsibility to change aspects of their own behavior and aspirations.. he or she may be threatened with detainment for the day at the clinic or forced placement in a temporary foster home. requiring children to submit totally to adult control over all their needs.[1] Advocates for Children in Therapy. give a list of therapies they state are attachment therapy by another name. ventilation of rage. Proponents believe that traditional therapies fail to help children with attachment problems because it is impossible to establish a trusting relationship with them. tickling."[14] According to the APSAC Task Force. including scheduled holding. aversive tickling. rather than as evidence of a problem in the current home or current parent-child relationship..[10] Some authors critical of this therapeutic approach have used the term Coercive Restraint Therapy.

[4] According to Advocates for Children in Therapy. such as scheduled or enforced holding. Attachment parenting may include keeping the child at home with no social contacts. is interpreted as a sign of attachment disorder that must be forcibly eradicated. fight against it and seek to control others to avoid attaching. parenting a child with an attachment disorder is a battle. According to O'Connor and Zeanah. using force or coercion on traumatised children simply re-traumatizes them and far from producing love and affection.. Children may be encouraged to regress to an earlier age where trauma was experienced or be reparented through holding sessions.Attachment therapy to be resistance that must be overcome by more coercion. home schooling. such as not finishing chores or arguing.[22] Attachment parenting expert Nancy Thomas states that attachment-disordered children act worse when given information about what is going to occur because they will use the information to manipulate their environment and everyone in it. Establishing total adult control. and the use of "therapeutic foster parents" with whom the child stays whilst undergoing therapy. Similarly. to force the children into loving (attaching to) their parents. Typically. early 1990s. "Attachment Therapy almost always involves extremely confrontational. because it is believed children with attachment problems resist attachment. .. the child is put in a lap hold with the arms pinned down. demonstrating to the child that he or she has no control. Children described as attachment-disordered are expected by attachment therapists[21] to comply with parental commands "fast and snappy and right the first time". the "holding" approach would be viewed as intrusive and therefore non-sensitive and countertherapeutic." The purported correction is described as ".[2] [18] Earlier authors sometimes referred to this as "German Shepherd training". Restraint of the child by more powerful adult(s) is considered an essential part of the confrontation.[20] According to the APSAC Task Force. and information.."[16] Psychiatrist Bruce Perry cites the use of holding therapy techniques by caseworkers and foster parents investigating a Satanic Ritual Abuse case in the late 1980s. many controversial treatments hold that children described as attachment–disordered must be pushed to revisit and relive early trauma.[15] Coercive techniques. and to always be "fun to be around" for their parents. may also serve the intended purpose of demonstrating dominance over the child. in contrast with accepted theories of attachment. Attachment Therapy is the imposition of boundary violations – most often coercive restraint – and verbal abuse on a child. for example obedience-training techniques such as "strong sitting" (frequent periods of required silence and immobility) and withholding or limiting food.[2] Deviation from this standard. hard labor or meaningless repetitive chores throughout the day. the child's character flaws must be broken before attachment can occur.[15] Other features of attachment therapy are the "two week intensive" course of therapy. produces obedience based on fear. as in the trauma bond known as Stockholm syndrome. motionless sitting for prolonged periods of time. In his opinion.. there is a hands-on treatment involving physical restraint and discomfort. often hostile confrontation of a child by a therapist or parent (sometimes both).[19] In some programmes children undergoing the two-week intensive stay with "therapeutic foster parents" for the duration or beyond and the adoptive parents are trained in their techniques.[18] 202 . as instrumental in obtaining lengthy and detailed alleged "disclosures" from children. usually for hours at a time..[17] Parenting techniques Therapists often instruct parents to follow programs of treatment at home.. or alternatively an adult lies on top of a child lying prone on the floor. is a central tenet of many controversial attachment therapies. and winning the battle by defeating the child is paramount. From this perspective. such as how long a child will be with therapeutic foster parents or what will happen to him or her next. is deliberately withheld. and demonstrating that all of the child's needs are met through the adult. and control of all food and water intake and bathroom needs.[2] Proper appreciation of total adult control is also considered vital. .

[23] Contrasting attachment theory based methods In contrast. If the child is separated from the mother after birth. even though they are more antithetical to than consistent with attachment theory. the child again feels distress and rage that will block attachment to a foster or adoptive caregiver. If the child reaches the toddler period safely. According to attachment therapist Elizabeth Randolph.[24] [25] [26] All mainstream interventions with an existing or developing evidential foundation focus on enhancing caregiver sensitivity. and antisocial behaviors if left untreated. especially if she considers abortion. to not trust others. Attachment therapists believe that reenactments of aspects of infant care have the power to rebuild damaged aspects of early development such as emotional attachment. but is not treated with strict authority during the second year. support the development of healthy attachment.g. during which the unborn child is aware of the mother's thoughts and emotions. These sessions are carried out at the caregiver's wish and not upon the child's request.[31] [32] Critics say holding therapies have been promoted as "attachment" therapies. attachment will again be blocked. frequent changes in child care.Attachment therapy In addition to restrictive behavior.[18] The child is held in the caregiver's lap. attachment problems will result. attachment theory's fundamental and evidence-based statement that security is promoted by 203 . criminal. and to engage in endless power struggles.[33] and not based on attachment theory or research. If the mother is distressed by the pregnancy. creating positive interactions with caregivers. the theory of attachment described by attachment therapy proponents is that young children who experience adversity (including maltreatment. and fed with a bottle and given sweets.[15] The tone in which the attributes of these children are described has been characterized as "demonizing". the child responds with distress and anger that continue through postnatal life. to resist the authority of caregivers.[4] There are many ways in which holding therapy/attachment therapy contradicts Bowlby's attachment theory. attachment therapy is based on some assumptions that differ strongly from the theoretical foundations of other attachment based therapies. predictable. adoption. rocked. no matter how early this occurs. responsiveness to children's physical and emotional needs and consistency. according to the so-called "attachment cycle". parents are advised to provide daily sessions in which older children are treated as if they were babies to create attachment.[27] [28] Some interventions focus specifically on increasing caregiver sensitivity in foster parents. as attachment patterns develop within relationships. methods to correct problems with attachment focus on improving the stability and positive qualities of the caregiver-child interactions and relationship. or change of caregiver if that is not possible with existing caregivers.[6] Indeed they are considered incompatible. but these may not be revealed until the child is much older. sensitive. but after birth suffers pain or ungratified needs during the first year.[15] In contrast to traditional attachment theory. non-threatening. attachment problems can be diagnosed even in an asymptomatic child through observation of the child's inability to crawl backward on command. traditional attachment theory holds that the provision of a safe and predictable environment and caregiver qualities such as sensitivity.[27] [28] Theoretical principles Like a number of other alternative mental health treatments for children. Therapy based on this viewpoint emphasizes providing a stable environment and taking a calm. They are seen as highly manipulative and as trying to avoid true attachments while simultaneously striving to control those around them through manipulation and superficial sociability.[15] This results in a lack of ability to attach or to be genuinely affectionate to others. Suppressed or unconscious rage is theorized to prevent the child from forming bonds with caregivers and leads to behavior problems when the rage erupts into unchecked aggression. loss. separations. colic or even frequent ear infections) become enraged at a very deep and primitive level. Further. and nurturing approach toward children. Such children are said to be at risk of becoming psychopaths who will go on to engage in very serious delinquent. e.[29] Advocates of this treatment also believe that emotional attachment of a child to a caregiver begins during the prenatal period. patient. Failure of attachment results in a lengthy list of mood and behavior problems. hugged and kissed. to seek control rather than closeness. non-intrusive. Such children are said to fail to develop a conscience.[30] If the child has had a peaceful gestation.

Descriptions of children are frequently highly pejorative and "demonizing". Tizard.Attachment therapy sensitivity.[43] It is largely based on the earlier Attachment Disorder Symptom Checklist which itself shows considerable overlap with even earlier checklists for indicators of sexual abuse.[34] According to Mary Dozier "holding therapy does not emanate in any logical way from attachment theory or from attachment research".[35] Diagnosis and attachment disorder Attachment therapists claim to diagnose attachment disorder.[37] However. Chisholm. non-academic literature and on the Internet where claims are made which have no basis in attachment theory and for which there is no empirical evidence. food related issues (such as gorging or hoarding). enuresis and language disorders. blood. Examples given from lists of attachment disorder symptoms found on the internet include lying. caseworkers. For example.[39] The APSAC Task Force describes the relationship between the proponents of attachment therapy and mainstream therapies as polarized. like Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder or are not related to attachment difficulties. many of which either overlap with other disorders. that are not in accord with either DSM or ICD classifications and which are partly based on the unsubstantiated views of Zaslow and Menta[40] and Cline. persistent nonsense questions or incessant chatter. Hodges. Ainsworth.[42] It is presented not as an assessment of reactive attachment disorder but rather attachment disorder. and "Parents feel more angry and frustrated with this child than with other children". the diagnoses of attachment disorder and reactive attachment disorder are used in a manner not recognised in mainstream practice. They list Bowlby. "This polarization is compounded by the fact that attachment therapy has largely developed outside the mainstream scientific and professional community and flourishes within its own networks of attachment therapists. and parent support groups. Indeed. stealing. They also give an example from the Evergreen Consultants in Human Behavior which offers a 45-symptom checklist including bossiness. O'Connor and Zeanah and colleagues as respected attachment theorists and researchers in the field. international classifications and evidence. proponents and critics of the controversial attachment therapies appear to move in different worlds. particularly on the Internet. In particular unfounded claims are made as to efficacy of treatments. The checklist includes 93 discrete behaviors. Posting these types of lists on internet sites that also serve as marketing tools may lead many parents or others to conclude inaccurately that their children have attachment disorders. avoiding eye contact except when lying. Prior and Glaser describe two discourses on attachment disorder. "These types of lists are so nonspecific that high rates of false-positive diagnoses are virtually certain. The compiler of the RADQ claims validity by reference to the Attachment Disorder Symptom Checklist."[15] Diagnosis lists and questionnaires Both the APSAC Task Force and Prior and Glaser describe the proliferation of alternative "lists" and diagnoses.[36] and reactive attachment disorder. fascination with fire. treatment centers. within attachment therapy.[38] One is science-based. which originated at the Institute for Attachment in Evergreen. The child's behavior is referred to in such statements as "Child has a grandiose sense of self-importance" and "Child 'forgets' parental instructions or directives".[38] The Internet is considered essential to the popularization of holding therapy as an "attachment" therapy. parental feelings are evaluated through responses to such statements as "Parent feels used" and "is wary of the child's motives if affection is expressed".[29] A commonly used diagnostic checklist in attachment therapy is the Randolph Attachment Disorder Questionnaire or "RADQ". The Attachment Disorder Symptom Checklist includes statements about the parent's feelings toward the child as well as statements about the child's behavior."[41] Prior and Glaser describe the lists as "wildly inclusive" and state that many of the behaviors in the lists are likely to be the consequences of neglect and abuse rather than located within the attachment paradigm. found in academic journals and books with careful reference to theory.[7] [19] [29] According to the Task Force. by proponents of attachment therapy. cruelty to animals and lack of conscience. It also purports to diagnose 204 . gore and evil. The other discourse is found in clinical practice.

Institutionalized or abused children often do not conform to adopters conceptualizations of family behaviours and roles. The Evergreen model pathologizes the childs behaviour by a medical diagnosis. Adolf Hitler.[2] Problematical or less desirable styles such as insecure or disorganized attachment are conflated with attachment disorder.[45] Patient recruitment In addition to concerns about the use of non-specific diagnostic checklists on the Internet being used as a marketing tool.[20] Contrasting mainstream position Within mainstream practice. without conscience and dangerous.[2] They are seen as manipulative. offering renewed hope of "normal" family life.[2] A sense of urgency is created which serves to justify the application of aggressive and unconventional techniques.[44] A critic has stated that a major problem of the RADQ is that it has not been validated against any established objective measure of emotional disturbance. attachment therapy also offers the idea of attachment as a negotiable social contract that can be enforced in order to convert the unsatisfactory adoptee into the "emotional asset" the family requires. and Jeffrey Dahmer. the question of whether attachment disorders can be reliably diagnosed in older children and adults has not been resolved. Where the therapy fails to achieve this the fault is attributed to the child's conscious choice to not be a family member. because it legitimises and reanimates the same ideas about family and domesticity as does the adoption process itself.[46] Rachel Stryker in her anthropological study "The Road to Evergreen" argues that adoptive families of institutionalized children who have difficulties transitioning to a nuclear family are attracted to the Evergreen model despite the controversy. dishonest. or the child's inability to perform as family material. the Task Force also noted the extreme claims made by proponents as to both the prevalence and effect of attachment disorders.[2] Some attachment therapy sites predict that attachment-disordered children will grow up to become violent predators or psychopaths unless they receive the treatment proposed. Children are labeled as "RADs".Attachment therapy attachment disorder for which there is no classification. "RAD-kids" or "RADishes".[2] One site was noted to contain the argument that Saddam Hussein.[2] Foster Cline in his seminal work on attachment therapy Hope for high risk and rage filled children uses the example of Ted Bundy. There are no substantially validated measures of attachment in middle childhood or early adolescence.[28] 205 . Statistics on the prevalence of maltreatment are wrongly used to estimate the prevalence of RAD. Both classification systems warn against automatic diagnosis based on abuse or neglect. thus legitimising the family. By the use of confrontation the model offers the means to condition children to comply with parental expectations. disorders of attachment are classified in DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 as reactive attachment disorder (generally known as RAD).[47] According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) practice parameter published in 2005. Many symptoms are present in a variety of other more common and more easily treatable disorders. They set out recommendations for the better dissemination of both understanding of attachment theory and knowledge of the more recent evidence-based treatment options available. and Disinhibited attachment disorder. Some proponents suggest most or a high proportion of adopted children are likely to suffer attachment disorder. As well as the promise of working where traditional therapies fail. O'Connor and Nilson cite the use of the Internet to publicize attachment therapy and the lack of knowledgeable mainstream professionals or appropriate mainstream treatments or interventions. were examples of children who were attachment-disordered who "did not get help in time". There is as yet no other accepted definition of attachment disorders. Attachment behaviors used for the diagnosis of RAD change markedly with development and defining analogous behaviors in older children is difficult.[19] In answering the question posed as to how a treatment widely regarded by attachment clinicians and researchers as destructive and unethical came to be linked with attachment theory and to be seen as a viable and useful treatment.

have outlawed rebirthing. there are controversies within the attachment therapy community about coercive practices. (BAAF).[15] According to the APSAC Task Force. Kelly and Popper. respectful and nurturing. these therapies are sufficiently prevalent to have prompted position statements or specific prohibitions against using coercion or restraint as a treatment by mainstream professional societies such as: American Psychological Association (Division on Child Maltreatment).[20] The practice of holding therapy is not confined to the US. The Association for the Treatment and Training in the Attachment of Children. A number of therapies are quite different from those that have led to the abuse and deaths of children in much publicized court cases. points out that all the therapies. She cites the large number of formerly institutionalized domestic and foreign adoptees in the USA and the apparently higher risk of disruption of foreign adoptions. The Task Force. the treatments appear to be continuing among networks of attachment therapists. including those using frankly coercive practices.[54] However. There has been a move away from coercive and confrontational models towards attunement and emotional regulation amongst some leaders in the field."[13] Rachel Stryker in her anthropological study "The Road to Evergreen" states that attachment therapies "of all stripes" are increasingly popular in the USA and that the number of therapists associated with the Evergreen model registering with ATTACh grows each year. of which there were 216.000 between 1998 and 2008. an organization for professionals and families associated with attachment therapy. underground movement for the 'treatment' of children who pose disciplinary problems to their parents or caregivers. or misunderstanding by parents.[7] American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Their evidence for this is primarily clinical experience and testimonials. Colorado and North Carolina. attachment therapy centers. cathartic approaches are necessary to help children with attachment disorders.[52] There have been professional licensure sanctions against some leading proponents and successful criminal prosecutions and imprisonment of therapists and parents using attachment therapy techniques. Proponents argue that their therapies present no physical risk if undertaken properly and that critics' concerns are based on unrepresentative occurrences and misapplications of techniques. and adoptive or foster parents. American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. (ATTACh).[48] According to the APSAC Task Force. caseworkers.[15] Others have taken a public stand 206 . "Attachment Therapy is a growing. Prior and Glaser cite at least one clinic in the UK.[28] and American Psychiatric Association. notably Hughes.[56] Some practitioners condemn the most dangerous techniques but continue to practice other coercive techniques.Attachment therapy Prevalence Attachment therapy prospered during the 1980s and '90s as a consequence of both the influx of older adopted orphans from Eastern European and third world countries and the inclusion of reactive attachment disorder in the 1980 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders which attachment therapists adopted as an alternative name for their existing unvalidated diagnosis of attachment disorder.[20] The British Association for Adoption and Fostering. however. present themselves as humane. has also issued statements against coercive practices.[55] Developments The APSAC Task Force stated that proponents of attachment therapy correctly point out that most critics have never actually observed any of the treatments they criticize or visited any of the centers where the controversial therapies are practiced. therefore caution is advised.[50] [51] Two American states.[15] The advocacy group ACT states. Despite this. therapists calling themselves "attachment therapists" practicing in the UK tend to be practicing conventional forms of psychotherapy based on attachment theory.[53] Attachment therapists from the USA have conducted conferences in the UK. National Association of Social Workers [49] (and its Utah Chapter). Holding is described as gentle or nurturing and it is maintained that intense. has issued an extensive position statement on the subject which covers not only physical coercion but also the underlying theoretical principles.

long after the normal age for such developments.. learned defensive responses to profoundly overwhelming experiences of fear and terror. an organization set up by Foster Cline and associates. among other overtly coercive techniques (and indeed continue to offer for sale books by controversial proponents) but state that the organization has evolved significantly away from earlier positions. an influx of members practicing other techniques such as attunement and a "fundamental shift . The intervention was not described as "holding therapy" but as using a degree of holding in the course of therapy. He believed this would lead to a breakdown in their defense mechanisms. and intense confrontation. temperature. making them more receptive to others. The "breaking through" metaphor was then applied to children whose 207 .. The authors call for research and a debate on issues of what constitutes "coercion" and the distinctions between the different variants of "holding" in therapy.[14] [40] Zaslow attempted to force attachment in those suffering from autism by creating rage while holding them against their will. influenced Foster Cline (known as the "father of attachment therapy") and associates at his clinic in Evergreen[61] A key tenet of Zaslow's approach was the notion of "breaking through" a child's defenses—based on the model of ego defenses borrowed from psychoanalytic theory.[14] In 1971."[8] [51] While being of the view that authoritative practices are necessary. If an infant did not experience this cycle of events by having his fear and rage relieved." They acknowledge ATTACh's historical links with catharsis. Although recipients were generally positive about the therapy received.[60] Zaslow's ideas on the use of the Z-process and holding for autism have been dispelled by research on the genetic/biologic causes of autism. which critics state has been misapplied. issued a series of statements in which they progressively changed their stance on coercive practices. "unequivocally state(s) our opposition to the use of coercive practices in therapy and parenting.[59] The holding is not used for safety purposes but is initiated for the purpose of provoking strong negative emotions such as fear and anger. ATTACh. after the death of Candace Newmaker they stated "The child will never be restrained or have pressure put on them in such a manner that would interfere with their basic life functions such as breathing."[57] A White Paper. away from viewing these children as driven by a conscious need for control toward an understanding that their often controlling and aggressive behaviors are automatic. The intervention also used a degree of intrusiveness. reports generally positive effects of the overall therapeutic process and calls for further consideration of the use of this type of intervention.[8] A modest social work study and "invitation to a debate". and then made eye contact with the carer who relieved those feelings.Attachment therapy against coercion. circulation. the infant would not form an attachment and would not make eye contact with other people. a physically rough version of holding therapy.[58] Holding therapies derive from these "rage-reduction" techniques applied by Zaslow. and that nurturing touch and treatment aimed at the perceived developmental rather than chronological age are an integral part of the therapy. etc.[56] In 2001. In 2001. The Task Force was of the view that all could benefit from more transparency and specificity as to how the therapy is behaviorally delivered. Zaslow surrendered his California psychology license following an injury to a patient during rage-reduction therapy. the White Paper promotes the techniques of attunement. They state that their recent evolution is due to a number of factors including tragic events resulting from such techniques. The child's release typically depends upon his or her compliance with the therapist's clinical agenda or goals. the holding aspect was the least liked. fear and rage. based on interviews with the deliverers and recipients of a therapeutic intervention incorporating non-coercive holding at one centre in the UK.[14] Zaslow and his "Z-process". formally accepted in April 2007. provocation of rage.[58] Zaslow believed that creating pain and rage and combining them with eye contact would cause attachment to occur. based on the idea that the recipients need this as they have no basis on which to build a reciprocal relationship. 2003 and 2006.[55] History Matthew Speltz of the University of Washington School of Medicine states that the roots of attachment therapy are traceable to psychologist Robert Zaslow and his "Z-process" in the 1970s. sensitivity and regulation and deprecates coercive practices such as enforced holding or enforced eye contact.[14] Zaslow thought attachment arose when an infant experienced feelings of pain.

[59] Practitioners of holding therapy also added some components of Bowlby's attachment theory and the therapy came to be known as attachment therapy. This was replicated elsewhere such as at "The Center" in the Pacific Northwest. Erickson advised the mother to sit on the child for hours at a time and to feed him only on cold oatmeal while she and a daughter ate appetizing food."[53] Cline's privately-published work Hope for high risk and rage filled children also cites family therapist and hypnotherapist Milton Erickson as a source.[63] Tinbergen's interpretations of autism were without scientific rigor and were contrary to the then growing acceptance that autism had a genetic cause. 2) the child's expression of rage. Parents were advised to hold their autistic children despite resistance and to endeavor to maintain eye contact and share emotions.[64] Speltz cites child psychiatrist Martha Welch and her 1988 book. 3) relaxation and the development of bonding. Welch recommended holding therapy as a treatment for autism.[69] Some. Watkins was one of the therapists convicted in the Candace Newmaker case in 2001 in which a child was asphyxiated during a rebirthing process in the course of a two-week attachment therapy "intensive". was subsequently renamed the Attachment Center at Evergreen. Like Zaslow and Tinbergen. The concept of suppressed rage has. abuse or neglect on the child's ability to form relationships. continued to be a central focus explaining the children's behavior. until such time as the child ceased to resist.[9] Like Tinbergen. These included the idea of the child's development being "frozen" and treatment being required to "unfreeze" development. originally called the Youth Behavior Program. Language from attachment theory is used but descriptions of the practices contain ideas and techniques based on misapplied metaphors deriving from Zaslow and psychoanalysis. nevertheless. cradling. set up by those involved in or trained at the Attachment Center at Evergreen (renamed the Institute for Attachment and Development in about 2002). rocking and eye contact. with apparent approval. and.[62] In addition to the notion of "breaking through" defence mechanisms. and reprints parts of a case of Erickson's published in 1961. According to Cline. proponents believed that holding induced age regression. formerly an associate of Foster Cline at the Attachment Center and its clinical director.[59] The clinic.[9] Foster Cline and associates at the Attachment Center at Evergreen.[19] [68] The report describes the case of a divorced mother with a non-compliant son. breaking down the child's resistance by confrontational techniques is thought to reduce the child to an infantile state. thus making the child receptive to forming attachment by the application of early parenting behaviors such as bottle feeding. maltreated children who were said to have an "attachment disorder".[62] In 1983.[19] In addition. Welch believed autism was caused by the failure of the attachment relationship between mother and child. not attachment theory.Attachment therapy attachments were thought to be impaired. Colorado began to promote the use of the same or similar holding techniques with adopted. Colorado. Despite the lack of a sound theoretical or scientific base.[66] Foster Cline gave up his license and moved to another state following an investigation of a separate attachment therapy related incident. at which point a bonding process was believed to begin. Tinbergen based his ideas on his methods of observational study of birds. that he trembled when his mother looked at him.[14] A number of other clinics arose in Evergreen. Holding Time. that in his opinion all bonds were trauma bonds.[9] as the next significant development. enabling a child to make up for physical affection missed earlier in life. it illustrates the three essential components of 1) taking control.[34] In attachment therapy. ethologist Nikolas Tinbergen published a book recommending the use of holding therapy by parents as a treatment or "cure" for autistic children. but by no means all.[63] Tinbergen believed that autism related to a failure in the bond between mother and child caused by "traumatic influences" and that enforced holding and eye contact could establish such a relationship and rescue the child from autism. other metaphors were adopted by practitioners relating to the supposed effects of early deprivation. notably Europe.[65] Mothers were instructed to hold their defiant child. attachment therapists have used rebirthing 208 .[62] These included one set up by Connell Watkins. provoking anger and rage. Cline commented.[67] According to Prior and Glaser "there is no empirical evidence to support Zaslow's theory. holding therapy as a treatment for autism is still practiced in some parts of the world. The child did increase in compliance. with respect to this and other cases. and Erickson noted.[59] Regression is key to the holding therapy approach.

when the Task Force found no credible evidence base for any such therapy so advertised.[34] Dyadic developmental psychotherapy was developed by psychologist Daniel Hughes. beliefs. the controversy also extends to the theories. the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) Task Force reported on the subjects of attachment therapy.[80] [81] Two studies on 209 ."[79] Prior and Glaser state that although the Myeroff study claims it is based on attachment theory.[73] A mistaken association between attachment therapy and attachment theory may have resulted in a relatively unenthusiastic view towards the latter among some practitioners despite its relatively profound lines of research in the field of socioemotional development.[76] Each of these non-randomized studies concluded that the treatment method studied was effective.[15] The APSAC Task Force expressed concern over claims by therapies to be "evidence-based". diagnostic practices. and social group norms supporting these techniques. reactive attachment disorder. an issue of Attachment & Human Development was devoted to the subject of attachment therapy with articles by well-known experts in the field of attachment. another therapy based on beliefs in very early trauma and the transformational nature of age regression. theoretically flawed and clinically unethical. Mary Dozier and Michael Rutter consider it critical to differentiate it from treatments derived from attachment theory. and to the patient recruitment and advertising practices used by their proponents. described as "not restraint" by Howe and Fearnley but "being held whilst unable to gain release. Scott Lilienfeld included holding therapy as one of the potentially harmful therapies (PHT's) at level 1 in his Psychological Science review. the theoretical basis for the treatment is in fact Zaslow."[3] In 2007. claims that traditional treatments do not work and dire predictions for the future of children who do not receive attachment therapy. Both the APSAC Task Force and Prior and Glaser cite and criticize the one published study on holding therapy undertaken by Myeroff et al.[5] Claims According to the APSAC Task Force.[71] Attachment researchers and authors condemned it as empirically unfounded. They also considered the lack of available and suitable interventions from mainstream professionals as essential to the popularization of holding therapy as an attachment therapy.[74] Nor did it accept more recent claims to evidence base in its November 2006 Reply. or the only evidence-based therapy. non-specific symptoms lists published on the internet. and attachment problems and laid down guidelines for the future diagnosis and treatment of attachment disorders."[53] [70] According to O'Connor and Nilsen. diagnoses.[72] Describing it as "unfortunately" referred to as "attachment therapy"..Attachment therapy techniques to aid regression.[33] In 2003.[6] In 2006. described by the Task Force as a "leading attachment therapist". which he stated do not or should not form part of dyadic developmental psychotherapy. that has resulted in tragic outcomes for children including at least six documented child fatalities. "Although focused primarily on specific attachment therapy techniques. not based on attachment theory or research. which "purports to be an evaluation of holding therapy".[4] It has also been described as potentially abusive and a pseudoscientific intervention. although other aspects of treatment are applied. proponents of attachment therapy commonly assert that their therapies alone are effective for attachment-disordered children and that traditional treatments are ineffective or harmful. The roots of the form of rebirthing used within attachment therapy lie in primal therapy (sometimes known as primal scream therapy). which the Task Force took as a description of attachment therapy techniques. the holding component has attracted most attention because proponents believe it is an essential ingredient.[56] Two approaches on which published studies have been undertaken are holding therapy[75] and dyadic developmental psychotherapy. repeated by the APSAC Task Force from an earlier website.[75] [77] [78] This study covers the "across the lap" approach.[48] Bowlby explicitly rejected the notion of regression stating "present knowledge of infant and child development requires that a theory of developmental pathways should replace theories that invoke specific phases of development in which it is held a person may become fixated and/or to which he may regress. practices.[1] The APSAC Task Force was largely critical of Attachment Therapy's theoretical base. Hughes' website gave a list of attachment therapy techniques. claims to an evidence base.

a seven-year-old adopted boy who was starved. took an overdose of aspirin. but the advocacy group ACT and the Task Force place Hughes within the attachment therapy paradigm. Foster Cline gave evidence for both parents claiming Lucas suffered from reactive attachment disorder and that living with such a child was like living "in a situation with the same psychic pressures as those experienced in a concentration camp or cult" and that the parents were in no way responsible for the genesis of Lucas' alleged difficult behaviors. attachment therapy was placed on a list of treatments that have the potential to cause harm to clients in the APS journal.[86] They considered both dyadic developmental psychotherapy and holding therapy. 1996. Foster Cline gave evidence for the mother claiming David suffered from reactive attachment disorder. Andrea. supported by attachment therapists practising the Evergreen model. on Welch's "prolonged parent-child embrace therapy" was conducted on children with a range of diagnoses for behavioral disorders and claimed to show significant improvement.[75] [87] They placed both in Category 3 as "Supported and acceptable". The suit was settled out of court. beaten. Perspectives on Psychological Science.[88] a point to which Craven and Lee responded by arguments in support of holding therapy. A nonrandomized. the second being a four-year follow up of the first. Berliner & Hanson system. She was violently ill during the night and was incoherent. a 13-year-old adopted girl undergoing attachment therapy at The Attachment Center. The adoptive mother was convicted as the abuser and the adoptive father of being aware but doing nothing to prevent it or seek help.[89] Both Myeroff et al.[56] Some studies are still being undertaken on coercive therapies. 1995. claimed he had beaten himself to death as a consequence of his attachment disorder.[56] [82] [83] In 2004. A visitor found her dead in the hallway. Berliner and Hanson developed a system of categories for social work interventions which has proved somewhat controversial. leaving her alone. the adoptive parents were asked to allow the foster parents to adopt Andrea so that a fresh claim could be made.[4] [90] • Andrea Swenson.'s study and Becker-Weidman's first study (published after the main Report) were examined in the Task Force's November 2006 Reply to Letters and were criticized as to their methodology. and the lack of randomized. In 2006 Craven and Lee classified 18 studies in a literature review under the Saunders. She was placed with "therapeutic foster parents". At the post-mortem he was found to have 200 bruises and five old broken ribs. Saunders.[72] Cases There have been a number of cases of serious harm to children in which controversial attachment therapy techniques.Attachment therapy dyadic developmental psychotherapy have been published by Dr.[20] (She subsequently claimed he had attacked her and she had acted in self defense). The adoptive mother. bitten and forced to sleep in a stripped bathroom. breathing heavily and still vomiting in the morning.[93] [94] • David Polreis. 1990.[91] [92] • Lucas Ciambrone. though with "little application of attachment theory". theories or belief systems have been implicated. This categorization by Craven and Lee has been criticized as unduly favorable. David had been diagnosed with attachment disorder by an attachment therapist and was undergoing 210 . Becker-Weidman's study was described by the Task Force as "an important first step toward learning the facts about DDP outcomes" but falling far short of the criteria necessary to constitute an evidence base. Concern was expressed about methods that involve holding and restraint. An estimated six children have died as a consequence of the more coercive forms of such treatments or the application of the accompanying parenting techniques. before-and-after 2006 pilot study by Welch (the progenitor of "holding time") et al. and been told she would die. Evergreen.[10] In March 2007. holding therapy was placed in Category 6 as a "Concerning treatment". having asked her foster parents what would happen if she took an overdose of drugs or slit her wrist. When the insurance company refused to continue to pay for her treatment. Nevertheless the foster parents went bowling. No violent or angry behaviors were reported at school.[84] [85] In their first analysis. a two-year-old adopted boy who was beaten to death by his adoptive mother.[76] Prior and Glaser state Hughes' therapy reads as good therapy for abused and neglected children. Becker-Weidman. controlled experiments showing the effectiveness of the treatment.

com/ openurl?genre=article& doi=10. While having a tantrum. Amaya-Jackson L. in Berlin LJ.[101] • Logan Marr. Some of the children underwent holding therapy from their attachment therapist and the adoptive parents used accompanying attachment therapy parenting techniques at home.[112] [113] Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] Task Force Report. Enhancing Early Attachments. xvii. 2002. pp. the screaming girl was buckled into a highchair. and permitted only primitive sanitary facilities. 2001. Evergreen) and Julie Ponder were each sentenced to 16 years imprisonment for their part in the therapy during which Candace was wrapped in blankets and required to struggle to be reborn. 1080/ 14616730310001593974& magic=pubmed). Chaffin et al. 2007: four adopted children. This was denied by the therapist and the adoptive mother.[95] [96] [97] • Krystal Tibbets. It appears this was a punishment for having drunk some of her sister's drink. Her adoptive mother and the "therapeutic foster parents" with whom she had been placed received lesser penalties. Zeanah CH (2003). including over her mouth.[108] [109] [110] [111] • Vasquez.[102] [103] • Cassandra Killpack. Connell Watkins (formerly of The Attachment Center. wrapped with duct tape. Guilford Press. 2000. Amaya-Jackson L. Research. Research. Mourners at the funeral were asked to contribute to The Attachment Center. informaworld. 83 Task Force Report. "Attachment disorders: assessment strategies and treatment approaches" (http:/ / www. and pushed his fist into her abdomen to release "visceral rage" and to enforce bonding. "Preface". Attach Hum Dev 5 (3): 223–44. [5] Ziv Y (2005). (2005). Chaffin et al. Intervention and Policy. PMID 12944216. doi:10. Duke series in child development and public policy. ISBN 1-59385-470-6 [6] Berlin LJ et al. After his release from a five-year prison sentence the adoptive father campaigned to have attachment therapy banned. Chaffin et al. p.[66] [100] Watkins was released on parole in August 2008 after serving approximately 7 years of her sentence. Many of the 11 children slept in cages. in Berlin LJ. a technique known as "compression therapy". The fourth child. a ten-year-old adopted girl who was killed by asphyxiation during a rebirthing session used as part of a two week attachment therapy "intensive". Intervention and Policy. 11 special needs children adopted by Michael and Sharon Gravelle. 2003. 1997. a four-year-old adopted child who died from complications of hyponatremia secondary to water intoxication. He lay on top of Krystal. Greenberg MT.[104] [105] [106] [107] • Gravelles. The adoptive mother received a prison sentence of less than a year and her parental rights were terminated in 2007. a five-year-old child who had been fostered by a caseworker.Attachment therapy treatment and accompanying attachment parenting techniques. a three-year-old adopted child who was killed by her adoptive father using holding therapy techniques he claimed had been taught to him by an attachment therapy center. Duke series in child development and public policy. 63. "Attachment-Based Intervention programs: Implications for Attachment Theory and Research". The two attachment therapists. This apparently occurred when she was restrained in a chair and forced to drink excessive amounts of water by her adoptive parents as part of an "attachment-based" treatment using techniques they claimed had been taught to them at the attachment therapy center where Cassandra was undergoing treatment. 211 . There was no therapist in this case but the adoptive mother claimed that three of her four adopted children had reactive attachment disorder. fed limited diets. Enhancing Early Attachments: Theory.[98] [99] • Candace Newmaker. against the weight of several adults. Her inability to struggle out was interpreted as "resistance". 77 O'Connor TG. Greenberg MT. p. pp. three of whom were kept in cages. When she stopped screaming and struggling he believed she had "shut down" as a form of "resistance". 79 Task Force Report. The case also involved allegations of extreme control over food and toileting and severe punishments for disobedience. The adoptive parents and therapist were prosecuted and convicted in 2003. Theory. p. Ziv Y. Guilford Press. was given medication to delay puberty. The foster mother claimed to have used some attachment therapy ideas and techniques she had picked up when working as a caseworker. the favorite.1080/14616730310001593974. and left in a basement where she suffocated. Ziv Y. Chaffin et al. The children were home-schooled. ISBN 1-59385-470-6 [7] Task Force Report.

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Family Process 1 (2): 294–303. "Forty years on: Uta Frith's contribution to research on autism and dyslexia. Randolph Attachment Disorder Questionnaire. fighting for control over everything. Tinbergen EA. html). Saunders BE (2006). ATTACh.00294.x 213 . . Scientific American.1111/j. [72] Lilienfeld SO (2007). 2003. Zeanah CH (1999). persistent nonsense questions or incessant chatter. 75 [59] O'Connor and Nilsen p. retrieved 2008-10-19 [57] Fowler KA (Spring/Summer 2004). retrieved 2008-10-19 [55] Sudbery J. retrieved 2008-02-12 [70] Bowlby J (1998). pdf). baaf. cfm?articleID=000490DD-702D-10A9-A47783414B7F0000). skepticreport. . Shumate S (February 2005). com/ cgi/ reprint/ 11/ 4/ 381). 1966-2006". "Book Review". doi:10. com/ pseudoscience/ attachmenttherapy. "prefers dad to mom" or "wants to hold the bottle as soon as possible" are indicative of attachment problems (Buenning. London: Allen & Unwin [64] Bishop DVM (January 2008). London: Allen & Unwin [66] (PDF) Affirmation of judgement and sentence on appeal by Watkins (http:/ / www. PMID 12944214. retrieved 2008-09-17 [53] Prior and Glaser p. Skeptic Report. sagepub. html#nasw [50] (PDF) ATTACh White paper on coercion (http:/ / www. lying. retrieved 2008-10-19 [61] Mercer et al. "Special Issue: Current perspectives on assessment and treatment of attachment disorders" (http:/ / www. 2006.1093/bjsw/bcp078 [56] Chaffin M. info/ msoAB8FC. childrenintherapy. Institute for Attachment. . informaworld. htm). Child Maltreat 11 (4): 381. Cline (http:/ / www. and hoarding or gorging on food. Appendix. Foster W. stealing. info/ zaslow. pdf). retrieved 2008-03-16 [52] Advocates for Children in Therapy. Attachment Disorders. lack of a conscience.

12. 10. Being put in a tent in the yard until s/he complies. 2. Pressing against "pressure points" to get a response. childrenintherapy. com/ openurl?genre=article& doi=10.1177/1049731505284863 [87] Becker-Weidman A (2004). Hughes (http:/ / www. SC: National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center. html). n. com/ news/ news0617d. food or sleep. Center for Family Development. 7.1080/14616730412331281539.85 [78] Prior and Glaser p. E. n. doi:10. 14. 264 [79] Howe D. Daniel A. Labeling the child as a "boarder" rather than as one's child. Saunders BE (2006). htm). doi:10. archive. 2002. Making a child repeatedly kick with his/her legs until s/he responds. sagepub. retrieved 2008-09-17 214 . Craven P (2007). Child Physical and Sexual Abuse: Guidelines for Treatment. Hanson R. Any actions that utilize shame and fear to elicit compliance.1177/1077559506292636. Research on Social Work Practice 16 (3): 287–304. . Fearnley S (2003). Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 23 (2): 147–171. Hanson RF (April 26. cit p. 17. doi:10. Category 2: Supported and probably efficacious.-b). "Disorders of attachment in adopted and fostered children: Recognition and treatment". Child Maltreat 11 (4): 381. 78 [75] Myeroff R. "Holding Therapy and Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy are not supported and acceptable social work interventions: A systematic research synthesis revisited".)" [81] Hughes D (2004). edu/ ncvc/ resources_prof/ ovc_guidelines04-26-04. Center4familyDevelop. p. "Therapeutic Interventions for Foster Children: A Systematic Research Synthesis". Research on Social Work Practice 17 (4): 520–521." Task Force Report. . 11. Attach Hum Dev 6 (3): 263–78. Poking a child on any part of his/her body to get a response. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. "Evidence-based practice and policy: Choices ahead". Covering a child's mouth/nose with one's hand to get a response. 20. Holding a child until s/he complies with a demand. denverpost. Hitting a child. . Mercer J (2007). retrieved 2005–05–10 [88] Pignotti M. Dyadic developmental psychotherapy: An effective treatment for children with trauma-attachment disorders (http:/ / www.d. doi:10. 9. .1023/A:1021349116429. Holding a child and confronting him/her with anger. ISBN 978-1-60623-028-2 [74] "Some proponents have claimed that research exists that supports their methods. Any actions based on power/submission. 4. Charleston. PMID 15513268. Gross J (1999). 2004) (PDF). Holding a child to provoke a negative emotional response. 1080/ 14616730412331281539& magic=pubmed). Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 29 (4): 303–13. Research and Clinical Applications (2nd ed. denverpost. 261 [83] Advocates for Children in Therapy. efficacious treatment.1177/1049731506297043 [90] Boris NW (2003). DenverPost. Category 5: Novel and experimental. Having to sit motionless until s/he complies. 16. pdf). Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 8 (3): 369–387. 3. informaworld. Research on Social Work Practice 17 (4): 513–519 [89] Lee RE. retrieved 2008-09-17 [84] Saunders BE. al. C. and Category 6: Concerning treatment" [85] Gambrill E (2006). done repeatedly. com/ cgi/ reprint/ 11/ 4/ 381). New York: London: Guilford Press. archived from the original (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20010309205804/ http:/ / www. . PMID 12944217 [91] Auge. or are even the sole evidence-based approach in existence. 15.p. retrieved 2008-06-25 [92] Advocates for Children in Therapy." which bases the relationship on total obedience. [82] Prior and Glaser p. musc. htm) on 2001-03-09. Wrapping a child in a blanket and lying on top of him/her. "Treatment for Children with Trauma-Attachment Disorders: Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy". "Challenges to the Development of Attachment Relationships Faced by Young Children in Foster and Adoptive Care". D. 19. "Alternative therapies not new in Evergreen" (http:/ / web. Interpreting the child's behaviors as meaning that "s/he does not want to be part of the family". retrieved 2008-10-19.1007/s10560-005-0039-0 [77] Task Force Report. Lee R (2006). Chaffin et al. "Reply to Letters" (http:/ / cmx. B. "An attachment-based treatment of maltreated children and young people.). "Comparative effectiveness of holding therapy with aggressive children". or that their methods are evidence based. until the child complies. 8. Having to live in his/her bedroom until s/he complies. . org/ victims/ swenson. doi:10. such as saying “sad for you”. Attach Hum Dev 5 (3): 245–7. Revised Report (http:/ / academicdepartments. 6. Category 4: Promising and acceptable. Having "peanut butter" meals until s/he complies. Punishing a child at home for being "fired" from treatment. org/ proponents/ hughes. op. which then elicits consequences such as: A. aggression and holding: a cautionary tale". childrenintherapy. for example.1177/1359104503008003007 [80] Chaffin M. Mertlich G. 5. "1. Research on Social Work Practice 16 (3): 338–357. yet these proponents provide no citations to credible scientific research sufficient to support these claims (Becker-Weidman. "Reply to Pignotti and Mercer: Holding Therapy and Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy are not supported and acceptable social work interventions". Chaffin et. Sarcasm. Being sent away to live until s/he complies.Attachment therapy [73] Dozier M and Rutter M (2008). Blaming the child for one's own rage at the child. let alone claims that these treatments are the only effective available approaches. "Firing" a child from treatment because s/he is not compliant.1177/1049731505284205 [86] Craven P. Laughing at a child over the consequences which are being given for his behavior. com). "Category 1: Well-supported. Victim of Attachment Therapy (http:/ / www. This Task Force was unable to locate any methodologically adequate clinical trials in the published peer-reviewed scientific literature to support any of these claims for effectiveness. Berliner L. doi:10. (Hughes. "Attachment. doi:10. PMID 10422354 [76] Becker-Weidman A (April 2006). doi:10. in Cassidy J and Shaver PR. com/ news/ news0617d. 13. html). Karen (2000).com. Having to eat in the basement/on the floor until s/he complies. Category 3: Supported and acceptable.1080/14616730310001593947. doi:10. 18." (http:/ / www. F. "German shepherd training. Depriving a child of any of the basic necessities. when the adult actually feels no empathy.

com/ local/ denver. Child Maltreat 11 (1): 76–89. Houston Press: 3–4. "Holding On" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0275976750 • O'Connor TG. Research. The Santa Barbara Independent. "Families struggle to bond with kids". cleveland. archive. html). "Report of the APSAC Task Force on attachment therapy. Ziv Y. archived from the original (http:/ / www. Miriam (14 July 1997). houstonpress. "Therapy or abuse? Controversial treatments may sink Cascade" (http:/ / deseretnews. co.". com/ usnews/ issue/ 970714/ 14atta. retrieved 2008-04-18 [113] Welsh. html). Greenberg MT. ISBN 1-59385-470-6 • Prior V and Glaser D (2006). et al. Deseret Morning News. Karen (27 July 2000). sanduskyregister. State of Utah . retrieved 2008-07-24 [108] Associated Press. html). rebirthing.595108087. dll/ article?AID=/ 20070517/ NEWS/ 705170460). 786701. . FRONTLINE report. . 2. Michael A (17 May 2007). retrieved 2008-04-18 [99] Grossman. html). . retrieved 2008-04-17 [110] Associated Press. utcourts. retrieved 2008-08-08 [102] "The Taking of Logan Marr" (http:/ / www.509588. retrieved 2008-09-17 [104] Adams B (29 September 2002). htm). independent. org/ victims/ gravelle.S. Intervention and Policy. html)..v. Herald Tribune. usnews.5143. txt). htm) on 1997-07-31. pdf). uk/ g2/ story/ 0. org/ wgbh/ pages/ frontline/ shows/ fostercare/ marr/ ). childrenintherapy. com/ gravelle/ ). Saunders BE. Rosa L (2003). Chaffin M. com/ news/ 2007/ may/ 03/ caged-kids-case-nears-end-vasquezs-fate-judges-han/ ). and attachment problems. Audrey (20 June 2001). retrieved 2008-04-18 [96] Bowers. retrieved 2008-04-18 [107] Supreme Court of the State of Utah (2008) (PDF). Deseret Morning news. com/ articles/ 2007/ 02/ 21/ front/ 181339.1249.".1249. 2. OCLC 70663735 215 . Nilsen WJ (2005). html). "Judge Brings Hammer Down in 'Caged Kids' Case" (http:/ / www. "Therapist In 'Rebirthing' Death In Halfway House" (http:/ / cbs4denver. ISBN 1-84310-245-5. (2006). com/ article/ 1. Nick (11 May 2007). a troubling defense" (http:/ / web. . retrieved 2008-06-24 [112] Welsh. . The Plain Dealer. "A dead child. "The Therapy That Killed" (http:/ / www. Enhancing Early Attachments: Theory. com/ apps/ pbcs. . org/ victims/ marr. .1 [98] "Timeline: Techniques blamed for several deaths" (http:/ / deseretnews.00. Peter S (17 April 1997). independent. retrieved 2008-06-18 [94] Advocates for Children in therapy. . retrieved 2008-06-20 [111] Harper. Nick (3 May 2007). gov/ opinions/ supopin/ Killpack071608. Jesse (26 September 2005). . usnews. "Adoption ends in death. com/ news/ pdf/ gravelleletter. org/ web/ 19970731005244/ http:/ / www. org/ victims/ ciambrone. Guilford Press. com/ 2002-09-19/ news/ holding-on/ ). retrieved 2008-04-18 [97] Canellos. in Berlin LJ. Understanding Attachment and Attachment Disorders: Theory. The Plain Dealer. Carol (21 February 2007). watkins. "Plea deal for Gravelle kids' therapist" (http:/ / www. Sarner L. retrieved 2008-10-25 [100] Gillan. Jennete Killpack (http:/ / www. . guardian. harmed himself. gets life" (http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF).00. cleveland. .com. . com/ dn/ view/ 0. com/ dn/ view/ 0. The Salt Lake Tribune [105] Hyde. . .615153274. reactive attachment disorder. com/ usnews/ issue/ 970714/ 14atta. . Denver Westword News. Evidence and Practice. Mass. childrenintherapy. "Special Report: Gravelle trial" (http:/ / www. retrieved 2008-04-18 [101] The Associated Press (3 August 2008). Deseret Morning News. Duke series in child development and public policy. retrieved 2008-04-18 [103] Advocates for Children in Therapy. PMID 16382093 • Mercer J. "'Caged Kids' Case Nears End. "Suffer-the-children" (http:/ / www. . Guardian. "Ciambrone convicted of murder. com/ 2000-07-27/ news/ suffer-the-children/ ). html). Parental Murder Victim (http:/ / www. 27 November 2004. Amaya-Jackson L. Advocates for Children in Therapy. "Models versus Metaphors in Translating Attachment Theory to the Clinic and Community".1177/1077559505283699. cbs4denver.Attachment therapy [93] Scarcella. Jesse (14 June 2005). heraldtribune. U. Vasquez's Fate in Judge's Hands" (http:/ / www. Wendy (19 September 2003). . html). uproar Mother's murder defense: Son. "Court Hears Taped Killpack Interview" (http:/ / deseretnews.): A.595108152. ISBN 0670491926. Boston Globe (Boston. . London: Jessica Kingsley.00. retrieved 2008-06-18 References • (APSAC Task Force report). Logan Lyn Marr (http:/ / www. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Series. doi:10. childrenintherapy. . pbs. Hanson R. Praeger. com/ news/ 2007/ may/ 11/ judge-brings-hammer-down-caged-kids-case/ ). Sandusky Register online. retrieved 2008-04-18 [109] "Gravelle Siblings" (http:/ / www. News online. Attachment Therapy on Trial: The Torture and Death of Candace Newmaker. westword. retrieved 2008-04-18 [106] Hyde. "Gravelle Daughter's Letter" (http:/ / www.00. The Santa Barbara Independent. retrieved 2008-09-17 [95] Horn.

pdf) Attachment disorder Attachment disorder is a broad term intended to describe disorders of mood.htm) • 2008 investigation into death of a foster child (http://www. and disinhibited attachment disorder.org/index. and a child's attachment-related behaviors may be very different with one familiar adult than with another.[1] No list of symptoms can legitimately be presented but generally the term attachment disorder refers to the absence or distortion of age appropriate social behaviors with adults.evidence-based medicine campaign group. resulting in problematic social expectations and behaviors. or "DAD" for the disinhibited form.com/?cat=67) .usatoday. is found in academic journals and books and pays close attention to attachment theory. It makes controversial claims relating to a basis in attachment theory. A problematic history of social relationships occurring after about age three may be distressing to a child. For example.ebm-first. abuse.[4] The use of these controversial diagnoses of attachment disorder is linked to the use of pseudoscientific attachment therapies to treat them.htm) Koch W. suggesting that the disorder is within the relationship and interactions of the two people rather than an aspect of one or the other personality. but does not result in attachment disorder.org) – Self-described as "an international coalition of professionals and families dedicated to helping those with attachment difficulties by sharing our knowledge. on websites and in books and publications. In DSM-IV-TR both comparable inhibited and disinhibited types are called reactive attachment disorder or "RAD". behavior. org/Attachment Disorder Main.caica. in a toddler.state. whereas in a six-year-old attachment-disordered behavior might involve excessive friendliness and inappropriate approaches to strangers. talents and resources" • (http://www.html) from Quackwatch – medical watchdog website • "Underground network moves children from home to home" (http://www.dleg. There are currently two main areas of theory and practice relating to the definition and diagnosis of attachment disorder. Such a failure would result from unusual early experiences of neglect.[2] The second area is controversial and considered pseudoscientific. • ebm-first. but is sometimes applied to school-age children or even to adults. • kidscomefirst (http://www. and considerable discussion about a broader definition altogether.[3] It is found in clinical practice.Attachment therapy External links • Association for Treatment and Training in the Attachment of Children (ATTACh) (http://www.html) – Child advocacy group opposing attachment therapy • "Be Wary of Attachment Therapy" (http://www. frequent change of caregivers or excessive numbers of caregivers.com/news/nation/ 2006-01-18-swapping-children_x. The specific difficulties implied depend on the age of the individual being assessed.[2] [3] 216 .us/fhs/brs/reports/ CP140201012_SIR_2008C0105024. The first main area is based on scientific enquiry.childrenintherapy. USAtoday article.attach.kidscomefirst. or "RAD" for the inhibited form.quackwatch. attachment-disordered behavior could include a failure to stay near familiar adults in a strange environment or to be comforted by contact with a familiar person. The term attachment disorder is most often used to describe emotional and behavioral problems of young children.com (http://www. but has little or no evidence base.org/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/at.mi. or lack of caregiver responsiveness to child communicative efforts.info/) anti-attachment therapy source site • Attachment therapy page from Coalition Against Institutionalized Child Abuse (CAICA) (http://www. abrupt separation from caregivers after about six months but before about three years. It is described in ICD-10 as reactive attachment disorder. and social relationships arising from a failure to form normal attachments to primary care giving figures in early childhood.

[10] Early intervention for disorganized attachment. a disorder is a condition requiring treatment as opposed to risk factors for subsequent disorders. culminating in actual disorders of thought. This spectrum would have at one end the characteristics called secure attachment. Current official classifications of RAD under DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 are largely based on this understanding of the nature of attachment. namely "no discriminated attachment figure".[8] In the clinical sense. or with repeated changes of caregiver. Discussion of the disorganized attachment style sometimes includes this style under the rubric of attachment disorders because disorganized attachment is seen as the beginning of a developmental trajectory that will take the individual ever further from the normal range. "secure base distortions" and "disrupted attachment disorder". and disorganized. although they are not disorders in the clinical sense. anxious-ambivalent.[11] 217 . Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment which in turn lead to 'internal working models' which will guide the individual's feelings. is directed toward changing the trajectory of development to provide a better outcome later in the person's life.[5] Agreement has not yet been reached with respect to diagnostic criteria. it primarily consists of proximity seeking to an attachment figure in the face of threat.[6] Finally. at the other extreme would be non-attachment. Some of these styles are more problematic than others. thoughts and expectations in later relationships. or from extremely neglectful primary caregivers who show persistent disregard for the child's basic attachment needs after the age of 6 months. or other problematic styles. Reactive attachment disorder indicates the absence of either or both the main aspects of proximity seeking to an identified attachment figure. as an aspect of emotional development. and.[7] Although an attachment is a "tie" it is not synonymous with love and affection although they often go together and a healthy attachment is considered to be an important foundation of all subsequent relationships. Attachment and attachment disorder Attachment theory is primarily an evolutionary and ethological theory. are sometimes discussed under the term 'attachment disorder'. is better assessed along a spectrum than considered to fall into two non-overlapping categories. called secure. or mood. These classifications consider that a disorder is a variation that requires treatment rather than an individual difference within the normal range. Zeanah and colleagues proposed an alternative set of criteria (see below) of three categories of attachment disorder. This can occur either in institutions. The words attachment style or pattern refer to the various types of attachment arising from early care experiences. In relation to infants. and who remain as consistent caregivers for some time. the term is also sometimes used to cover difficulties arising in relation to various attachment styles which may not be disorders in the clinical sense.[9] There is a lack of consensus about the precise meaning of the term 'attachment disorder' although there is general agreement that such disorders only arise following early adverse caregiving experiences. Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant. anxious-avoidant.Attachment disorder Some authors have suggested that attachment. behavior. midway along the range of disturbance would be insecure or other undesirable attachment styles. for the purpose of survival. (all organized).

There is as yet no official consensus on these criteria.Attachment disorder Classification ICD-10 describes Reactive Attachment Disorder of Childhood. whether familiar 218 . but responds to that person in an unpredictable and somewhat bizarre way. preferred attachment figure. The inhibited form is described as "a failure to initiate or respond. • onset before 5 years of age. • the disturbance is not accounted for solely by developmental delay and does not meet the criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder. not all children raised in these conditions develop an attachment disorder. The two classifications are similar and both include: • markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness in most contexts. Boris and Zeanah use the term "disorder of attachment" to indicate a situation in which a young child has no preferred adult caregiver. an essential element of attachment behavior. and those where an existing attachment has been abruptly disrupted. • requires a history of significant neglect. and • implicit lack of identifiable. It divides this into two subtypes. less well known as DAD. and set out recommendations for assessment. The APSAC Taskforce recognised in its recommendations that "attachment problems extending beyond RAD. the second basic element of attachment behavior. are a real and appropriate concern for professionals working with children". known as RAD. and Disinhibited Disorder of Childhood. as manifest by excessively inhibited responses" and such infants do not seek and accept comfort at times of threat.[14] Boris and Zeanah (1999). Inhibited Type and Disinhibited Type.. This would significantly extend the definition beyond the ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR definitions because those definitions are limited to situations where the child has no attachment or no attachment to a specified attachment figure.excessive familiarity with relative strangers" (DSM-IV-TR) and therefore a lack of 'specificity'. Abuse can occur alongside the required factors but on its own does not explain attachment disorder.. The inhibited form has a greater tendency to ameliorate with an appropriate caregiver whilst the disinhibited form is more enduring. have recognized the limitations of the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria and proposed broader diagnostic criteria. attachment disorganization is a risk factor but not in itself an attachment disorder. Such children may be indiscriminately sociable and approach all adults.[15] have offered an approach to attachment disorders that considers cases where children have had no opportunity to form an attachment. such as Zeanah and Leiberman. DSM-IV-TR also describes Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood. The disinhibited form shows "indiscriminate sociability.[13] Boris and Zeanah's typology Many leading attachment theorists..[12] While RAD is likely to occur following neglectful and abusive childcare. thus failing to maintain 'proximity'. Within official classifications. both known as RAD. Experiences of abuse are associated with the development of disorganised attachment.to most social interactions. ICD-10 includes in its diagnosis psychological and physical abuse and injury in addition to neglect. Further although attachment disorders tend to occur in the context of some institutions. This is somewhat controversial. The ICD-10 descriptions are comparable. repeated changes of primary caregiver or extremely neglectful identifiable primary caregivers who show persistent disregard for the child's basic attachment needs. alarm or distress. there should be no automatic diagnosis on this basis alone as children can form stable attachments and social relationships despite marked abuse and neglect. 'Disinhibited' and 'inhibited' are not opposites in terms of attachment disorder and can co-exist in the same child. being a commission rather than omission and because abuse of itself does not lead to attachment disorder. in which the child prefers a familiar caregiver. those where there is a distorted relationship..

Smaller numbers of children show less positive development at age 12 months. or may show role reversals in which they care for or punish the adult. These children also use familiar people as a "secure base" and return to them periodically when exploring a new situation. it may be appropriate to think of certain attachment styles as part of the range of attachment disorders. alternatively. The children may snub the returning caregiver. they appear to be on developmental trajectories that will end in poor social skills and relationships.Attachment disorder or not. or may go to the person but then resist being picked up. sadness. Because attachment styles may serve as predictors of later development.[17] Disorganized attachment has been considered a major risk factor for child psychopathology. which is not covered under other approaches to disordered attachment. may cling to the adult. These children are more likely to have later social problems with peers and teachers. they may be emotionally withdrawn and fail to seek comfort from anyone. and considerable research has demonstrated both within-the-child and environmental correlates of disorganized attachment.[19] 219 . In this situation. Such children are said to have a secure attachment style. hypervigilance.[16] Problems of attachment style The majority of 12-month-old children can tolerate brief separations from familiar caregivers and are quickly comforted when the caregivers return. Such children may endanger themselves. may be excessively compliant. and withdrawal from communication or play. separation anxiety. Called a disorganized/disoriented style. The young child's reaction to such a loss is parallel to the grief reaction of an older person. freezing in place.[18] Disorganized patterns of attachment have the strongest links to concurrent and subsequent psychopathology. but some of them spontaneously develop better ways of interacting with other people. and role-reversal. and finally detachment from the original relationship and recovery of social and play activities. This type of problem. A small group of toddlers show a distressing way of reuniting after a separation. Daniel Schechter and Erica Willheim have shown a relationship between maternal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder and secure base distortion (see above) which is characterized by child recklessness. This type of attachment problem is parallel to Reactive Attachment Disorder as defined in DSM and ICD in its inhibited and disinhibited forms as described above. Insecure attachment styles in toddlers involve unusual reunions after separation from a familiar person. or showing other behaviors that seem to imply fearfulness of the person who is being sought. as it appears to interfere with regulation or tolerance of negative emotions and may thus foster aggressive behavior. Boris and Zeanah also describe a condition they term "secure base distortion". this reunion pattern can involve looking dazed or frightened. with progressive changes from protest (crying and searching) to despair. results from an abrupt separation or loss of a familiar caregiver to whom attachment has developed. Although these children's behavior at 12 months is not a serious problem. backing toward the caregiver or approaching with head sharply averted. The third type of disorder discussed by Boris and Zeanah is termed "disrupted attachment". Their less desirable attachment styles may be predictors of poor later social development. and characteristically continue to develop well both cognitively and emotionally. the child has a preferred familiar caregiver. Most recently. but the relationship is such that the child cannot use the adult for safety while gradually exploring the environment.

play therapy. anxiety.[41] Other known treatment methods include Developmental. These must be designed to make sure the child has a safe environment to live in and to develop positive interactions with caregivers and improves their relationships with their peers. infants typically begin to respond with fear to unfamiliar or startling situations. emotional regulation. This developmental combination of social skills and the emergence of fear reactions results in attachment behavior such as proximity-seeking. reticence with unfamiliar adults.[37] the New Orleans Intervention. as children with poor attachment experiences often do not elicit appropriate caregiver responses from their attachment behaviors despite 'normative' care. This includes foster parents. although DIR is primarily directed to treatment of pervasive developmental disorders[42] Some of these approaches. there is no quick fix for treating reactive attachment disorder. responsive. It covers 12 items. (1999).'.'. Relationship-based therapy (DIR) (also referred to as Floor Time) by Stanley Greenspan. gestures and voice develops with social experience by seven to nine months.Attachment disorder Diagnosis Recognised assessment methods of attachment styles. a mix of family therapy. changing the caregiver. and to look to the faces of familiar caregivers for information that either justifies or soothes their fear. At about eight months. namely having a discriminated.[27] [28] [29] Such approaches include 'Watch. Further developments in attachment. or hyperactivity.[35] [36] Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC).[25] More recent research also uses the Disturbances of Attachment Interview or "DAI" developed by Smyke and Zeanah. Medication can be used as a way to treat similar conditions. individual psychological counseling. This makes it possible for an infant to interpret messages of calm or alarm from face or voice.[38] [39] [40] and Parent-Child psychotherapy. such as that suggested by Dozier. and cooperative adult is available.[37] Treatment for reactive attachment disorder for children usually involves a mix of therapy.[31] [32] modified 'Interaction Guidance. vigilance/hypercompliance and role reversal. For example. Treatment There are a variety of mainstream prevention programs and treatment approaches for attachment disorder. wait and wonder. counseling.[23] the Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment ("ORCE")[24] and the Attachment Q-sort ("AQ-sort"). if a familiar.'[30] manipulation of sensitive responsiveness. attachment problems and moods or behaviors considered to be potential problems within the context of attachment theory. or if that is not possible. Individual-difference. responding to comfort when offered. such as negotiation of separation in the toddler and preschool period. depend on factors such as the 220 .[33] 'Preschool Parent Psychotherapy. and parenting education. sensitive. difficulties or disorders include the Strange Situation procedure (Mary Ainsworth). however. special education services and parenting skills classes. checking back after venturing away from the care giver. The ability to send and receive social communications through facial expressions. like depression.[44] Another author has compared atypical social behavior in genetic conditions such as Williams syndrome with behaviors symptomatic of RAD. willingness to go off with relative strangers.[43] Possible mechanisms One study has reported a connection between a specific genetic marker and disorganized attachment (not RAD) associated with problems of parenting. . self endangering behavior.[34] 'Circle of Security'. All such approaches for infants and younger children concentrate on increasing the responsiveness and sensitivity of the caregiver. A pediatrician may recommend a treatment plan. social and emotional reciprocity.[26] This is a semi-structured interview designed to be administered by clinicians to caregivers. seeking comfort when distressed. consider the attachment status of the adult caregiver to play an important role in the development of the emotional connection between adult and child. excessive clinging.[45] Typical attachment development begins with unlearned infant reactions to social signals from caregivers.[20] [21] [22] the separation and reunion procedure and the Preschool Assessment of Attachment ("PAA"). preferred adult.

Although it is reported that very young infants respond differently to humans and objects. It is thought this process may lead to the disinhibited form. or the lack of experiences with caregivers who communicate in a predictable fashion.[54] Although there are no studies examining diagnostic accuracy.[56] [57] It has been described as potentially abusive and a pseudoscientific intervention.[51] Additionally. an infant may have few experiences that encourage proximity seeking to a familiar person. and beyond the ambit of the discourse on a broader set of criteria discussed above. However the innate capacity for attachment behavior cannot be lost. the two variations of RAD may develop from the same inability to develop "stranger-wariness" due to inadequate care. Some neurodevelopmental disorders. concern is expressed as to the potential for over-diagnosis based on broad checklists and 'snapshots'. the development of Theory of Mind may play a role in emotional development.Attachment disorder caregiver's interaction style and ability to understand the child's emotional communications.[52] [53] Pseudoscientific diagnoses and treatment In the absence of officially recognized diagnostic criteria. Faced with a swift succession of carers the child may have no opportunity to form a selective attachment until the possible biological-determined sensitive period for developing stranger-wariness has passed.[58] The APSAC Taskforce (2006) gives examples of such lists ranging across multiple domains from some elements within the DSM-IV criteria to entirely non-specific behavior such as developmental lags. the term attachment disorder has been increasingly used by some clinicians to refer to a broader set of children whose behavior may be affected by lack of a primary attachment figure. or not related to any clinical disorder at all.[3] A common feature of this form of diagnosis within attachment therapy is the use of extensive lists of "symptoms" which include many behaviours that are likely to be a consequence of neglect or abuse. with a constitutional tendency either to excessive or inadequate fear reactions. some ability of this kind must be in place before mutual communication through gaze or other gesture can occur.[51] In the inhibited form infants behave as if their attachment system has been "switched off". This may explain why children diagnosed with the inhibited form of RAD from institutions almost invariably go on to show formation of attachment behavior to good carers. but are not related to attachment. as it does by seven to nine months. is scientifically unvalidated and is not considered to be part of mainstream psychology or.[50] Alternatively. Appropriate fear responses may only be able to develop after an infant has first begun to form a selective attachment. have been attributed to the absence of the mental functions that underlie Theory of Mind. or frequent changes. It is possible that the congenital absence of this ability.[55] This form of therapy.[48] [49] Atypical development of fearfulness. that has resulted in tragic outcomes for children. destructive behaviors. These symptoms accord with the DSM criteria for reactive attachment disorder. or the seeking of proximity to all adults. An infant who experiences fear but who cannot find comforting information in an adult's face and voice may develop atypical ways of coping with fearfulness such as the maintenance of distance from adults. such as autism. including diagnosis and accompanying parenting techniques. with which it is considered incompatible.[46] With insensitive or unresponsive caregivers. might be necessary before an infant is vulnerable to the effects of poor attachment experiences. However. a seriously unhealthy attachment relationship with a primary caregiver. refusal to 221 . to be based on attachment theory.[47] Either of these behavior patterns may create a developmental trajectory leading ever farther from typical attachment processes such as the development of an internal working model of social relationships that facilitates both the giving and the receiving of care from others. despite its name. could underlie the development of reactive attachment disorder. Theory of Mind develops relatively gradually and possibly results from predictable interactions with adults. Theory of Mind is the ability to know that the experience of knowledge and intention lies behind human actions such as facial expressions. Such lists have been described as "wildly inclusive". An infant who is not in a position do this cannot afford not to show interest in any person as they may be potential attachment figures. or a disrupted attachment relationship. However children who suffer the inhibited form as a consequence of neglect and frequent changes of caregiver continue to show the inhibited form for far longer when placed in families.

lack of a conscience. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinics of North America."[59] There is also a considerable variety of treatments for alleged attachment disorders diagnosed on the controversial alternative basis outlined above. (2003) [6] Chaffin et al.[67] Notes [1] Zeanah. These therapies have little or no evidence base and vary from talking or play therapies to more extreme forms of physical and coercive techniques. an organisation originally set up by attachment therapists. Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood. Intervention and Policy. [4] Prior & Glaser p 183 [5] O'Connor & Zeanah. This change may have been hastened by the publication of a Task Force Report on the subject in January 2006.[60] The theoretical base is broadly a combination of regression and catharsis. popularly known as attachment therapy. poor peer relationships. p. ISBN 1-59385-470-6. 220-221. The APSAC Taskforce expresses concern that high rates of false positive diagnoses are virtually certain and that posting these types of lists on web sites that also serve as marketing tools may lead many parents or others to conclude inaccurately that their children have attachment disorders. (2006) [7] Bowlby (1970) p 181 [8] Bretherton & Munholland (1999) p 89 [9] AACAP 2005. (2005). Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health Issue. J (2006) p 107 [18] VanIJzendoorn & Bakermans-Kranenburg (2003) [19] Zeanah et al. “prefers dad to mom” or “wants to hold the bottle as soon as possible” are indicative of attachment problems. [17] Mercer. Willheim E (2009). Some checklists suggest that among infants. rebirthing. 121-160. Amaya-Jackson L. et al. In general these therapies are aimed at adopted or fostered children with a view to creating attachment in these children to their new caregivers. Greenberg MT. lying. Critics maintain these therapies are not based on an accepted version of attachment theory. formally adopted a White Paper stating its unequivocal opposition to the use of coercive practices in therapy and parenting. Enhancing Early Attachments: Theory. Ziv Y. (2005) [11] Prior & Glaser (2006) p 223 [12] Prior & Glaser 2006. Guilford Press.[62] An estimated six children have died as a consequence of the more coercive forms of such treatments and the application of the accompanying parenting techniques. blood and gore. [13] Prior & Glaser (2006) p218-219 [14] Chaffin (2006) p 86 [15] Boris & Zeannah (1999) [16] Schechter DS. preoccupation with fire. p1208 [10] Levy K.95-124. xvii. rage-reduction and the Evergreen model.N. and hoarding or gorging on food. pp. "Preface". persistent nonsense questions or incessant chatter.[61] These therapies concentrate on changing the child rather than the caregiver. [21] Main & Solomon (1986). Duke series in child development and public policy. lack of cause and effect thinking. [22] Main & Solomon (1990). of which the best known are holding therapy. ATTACh. (2003) [20] Ainsworth (1978). 2005 [2] Chaffin et al. pp. abnormal speech patterns. although these practices continue. some advocates of attachment therapy began to alter views and practices to be less potentially dangerous to children.[66] In April 2007. p. cruelty to animals and siblings. fighting for control over everything. stealing.[63] [64] [65] Two of the most well-known cases are those of Candace Newmaker in 2001 and the Gravelles in 2003 through 2005. 665-687. Following the associated publicity. accompanied by parenting methods which emphasise obedience and parental control. 222 . Research. In Berlin LJ. commissioned by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) which was largely critical of attachment therapy. pp.Attachment disorder make eye contact. 18(3). (2006) p78 [3] Berlin LJ et al. poor impulse control.

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pp. J. A. research and intervention. (2000).. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinics of North America. Disturbances of Attachment Interview. 432).. (pp. Bakermans-Kranenburg M.. 1457–1477. Silverman. • Health Child. The Circle of Security project: Attachment-based intervention with caregiver – pre-school child dyads (http://www.. and Zeanah. Cummings (eds) Attachment in the preschool years: Theory. & Rosa. A.1017/S095457940200411X.Yogman (eds) Affective development in infancy. NJ: Ablex ISBN 0893913456 Main. doi:10.com/produktedb/produkte. V. R.1016/S0885-2006(96)90009-5. B. Evidence and Practice (2006). L. (1986). "Characteristics of infant child care: Factors contributing to positive caregiving". C. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Series. doi:10. M.) Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed. Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. • Prior. Child Dev 66 (6): 1798–816. Volume 5.. "Attachment and borderline personality disorder: implications for psychotherapy" (http://content.jsessionid=H5QGQZ70p3VqMFJnGb5k207f5McynvWT1XQGv9hVxnDCPm4kp9Y1!901085598!181195628!8091!-1) • Toth S. J (2006) Understanding Attachment: Parenting. J. Mercer. 313–320(8) DOI: 10. • Van Ijzendoorn M. PMID 15802944.com/routledg/rahd/2003/00000005/ 00000003/art00016) . "Attachment disorders: assessment strategies and treatment approaches" (http:/ /www. K. D. Jr.informaworld.Attachment disorder • • • • • • 225 relationship problems (pp. (1994). Clarkin JF (2005).1159/000084813. Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood.1080/14616730310001593974.S. Development and psychopathology 14 (4): 877–908. Maughan A. Human (1996). (2002). htm.ingentaconnect. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 11 (3): 269–306.. E.H. Inc. • van den Boom. Number 3. Infant-parent psychotherapy. Reynoso J. CT: Praeger ISBN 0275982173 • Marvin. Braxelton and M. Hoffman. The influence of temperament and mothering on attachment and exploration: an experimental manipulation of sensitive responsiveness among lower-class mothers with irritable infants. J. "The relative efficacy of two in altering maltreated preschool children's representational models: implications for attachment theory". PMID 12944216. September 2003 . (1999). R. Understanding Attachment and Attachment Disorders: Theory.) (p. ISBN 0275976750 Mercer. Cicchetti and E. • Smyke. Westport.asp?typ=fulltext& file=PSP2005038002064). and Solomon. Zeanah. G. CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group. • O'Connor TG. D. doi:10. In C. child care and emotional development. Cooper.. J. doi:10. Attachment therapy on trial: The torture and death of Candace Newmaker. PMID 12549708. findings and implications for the classification of behavior.karger. Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health Issue.2307/1131911. Cicchetti D. (2003). Meehan KB.com/pt/re/jaacap/ home. "Do first-year intervention effects endure? Follow-up during toddlerhood of a sample of Dutch irritable infants". L. and Solomon.F. 121–160). Attachment & Human Development Vol 4 No 1 April 2002 107–124... Greenberg.. ISBN 0226306305. Sarner. doi:10. In T. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Norwood.H. Attach Hum Dev 5 (3): 223–44. 665-687. Psychopathology 38 (2): 64–74.com/openurl?genre=article&doi=10. (2009). Jessica Kingsley Publishers London ISBN 1843102455 OCLC 70663735 • Schechter. New York: Guilford Press ISBN 1593852452 Levy KN.1080/14616730310001593938 (http://www. Manly J. (pp. 18(3). Spagnola M. Zeanah CH (2003). Child Development 65.. Glaser. Weber M. (ed. Pawl. Willheim. Lieberman. and Powell.jaacap. 95–124). In M.doi:10.pdf). New York: Guilford Press. M. Available on the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry website at (http://www.1080/14616730310001593974&magic=pubmed). D. Westport.. Attachment disorders and disorganized attachment: Similar and different Attachment & Human Development. ISBN 1593851715 Main. PMID 8556900. Discovery of an insecure disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern: procedures. D. (1990).2307/1131277 • van den Boom DC (1995).circleofsecurity. 243–264).org/docs/languages/08 AHD final.

Defining and assessing individual differences in attachment relationships: Q-methodology and the organization of behavior in infancy and early childhood. CH (ed. Research. Serial No. J (1988). Shaver. ISBN 1583911529 • Cassidy. New York: Guilford Press. research. and Greenberg.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/ recordDetails/detailmini. PMID 12944216.. "Attachment relationship experiences and childhood psychopathology" (http://www.. ISBN 0-415-00640-6. P (eds.1080/14616730310001593974. A. and Clinical Applications. ISBN 1-57230-087-6. K (1985).Attachment disorder • Waters. "Building Attachment Relationships Following Maltreatment and Severe Deprivation" In Berlin. • Zeanah. C..L. doi:10. London: Routledge. E. J (2001). Y. Y.1301. Theory. Amaya-Jackson..003. 2005 pps 195-216 ISBN 1593854706 (pbk) Further reading • Holmes.ed. Waters (Eds) Growing pains of attachment theory and research: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 50. Ziv. T. and Deane. 226 .) (1999). Ann.J. Settles L (2003).. PMID 14998869.1196/annals. and Smyke. 1008: 22–30. ISBN 1593851715 • Bowlby. Attach Hum Dev 5 (3): 223–44. • Zeanah. Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge. The Search for the Secure Base.informaworld. Enhancing Early Attachments. New York: Guilford Press. Acad. Handbook of Infant Mental Health. In I. and policy The Guilford Press. M. "Attachment disorders: assessment strategies and treatment approaches" (http:/ /www.annalsnyas. 41–65 (http://www. 209 (1–2).eric.) (1993). H. New York: Basic Books. J. intervention. • Zeanah CH. A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. doi:10. Keyes A.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ334806& ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ334806) • O'Connor TG.. T. Zeanah CH (2003). N.1080/14616730310001593974&magic=pubmed).org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14998869). Handbook of Attachment: Theory. L.com/openurl?genre=article&doi=10. Bretherton and E. Sci.

"maternal deprivation" as a discrete syndrome is not a concept that is much in current use other than in relation to severe deprivation as in "failure to thrive". and sparked significant debate and research on the issue of children's early relationships.[2] The result was the monograph Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951. that "the infant and young child should experience a warm. amongst others.Maternal deprivation Maternal deprivation The term maternal deprivation is a catch-phrase summarising the early work of psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. and in changing practices relating to the stays of small children in hospitals so that parents were allowed more frequent and longer visits.[6] Bowlby claimed to have made good the "deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect" in Maternal Care and Mental Health in his later work Attachment and Loss published between 1969 and 1980. His main conclusions. psychologists and learning theorists. The 1951 WHO publication was highly influential in causing widespread changes in the practices and prevalence of institutional care for infants and children.[3] Bowlby drew together such empirical evidence as existed at the time from across Europe and the USA. and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment" and that not to do so might have significant and irreversible mental health consequences. Bowlby's work went beyond the suggestions of Otto Rank and Ian Suttie that mothering care was essential for development. Bowlby's work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospital and institutional care lead to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organisation's report on the Mother and child mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe whilst he was head of the Department for Children and Parents at the Tavistock Clinic in London after World War II. and focused on the potential outcomes for children deprived of such care. The publication was also highly controversial with. intimate. parental deficiencies are seen as a vulnerability factor for. The limited empirical data and lack of comprehensive theory to account for the conclusions in Maternal Care and Mental Health led to the subsequent formulation of attachment theory by Bowlby. developmental psychology. 1945). As a concept. discipline and child care—has become generally accepted. including Spitz (1946) and Goldfarb (1943.[4] The monograph was published in 14 different languages and sold over 400. ethology. psychoanalysts.[5] Following the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health Bowlby sought new understanding from such fields as evolutionary biology.[7] Although the central tenet of maternal deprivation theory—that children's experiences of interpersonal relationships are crucial to their psychological development and that the formation of an ongoing relationship with the child is as important a part of parenting as the provision of experiences. cognitive science and control systems theory and drew upon them to formulate the innovative proposition that the mechanisms underlying an infant's ties emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure. Although the monograph was primarily concerned with the removal of children from their homes it was also used for political purposes to discourage women from working and leaving their children in daycare by governments concerned about maximising employment for returned and returning servicemen. rather than a direct cause of.000 copies in the English version alone. In the area of early relationships it has largely been superseded by attachment theory and other theories relating to even earlier infant–parent interactions. In relation to 227 . John Bowlby on the effects of separating infants and young children from their mother (or mother substitute)[1] although the effect of loss of the mother on the developing child had been considered earlier by Freud and other theorists. which sets out the maternal deprivation hypothesis. later difficulties. were both controversial and influential.

psychologist Bill Goldfarb noted not only deficits in the ability to form relationships. These children. He questioned whether there could be a "deficiency disease of the emotional life. Otto Rank suggested a powerful role in personality development for birth trauma. but his concern was less with the actual experience of maternal care than with the anxiety the child might feel about the loss of the nourishing breast. Harold Skeels. anger. Following Freud's early speculations about infant experience with the mother. He called this reaction to total deprivation 228 . for instance. His investigation focused on infants who had experienced abrupt.[9] [10] In the 1930s. and apathy to partial emotional deprivation (the loss of a loved object) and proposed that when the love object is returned to the child within three to five months. rather than birth as an uncomfortable physical event. undertook research in the 1930s and '40s on the effects of maternal deprivation and hospitalism. Ian Suttie. The toddlers' IQ rose dramatically. Many traditions have stressed the grief of mothers over deprivation of their children but little has been said historically about young children's loss of their mothers.Maternal deprivation institutional care there has been a great deal of subsequent research on the individual elements of privation.[9] As little of Freud's theory was based on actual observations of infants. deprivation. a psychoanalyst. psychologists in the 1890s and paediatricians were also concerned by the high mortality rate in hospitals and institutions obsessed with sterility to the detriment of any human or nurturing contact with babies. long-term separation from the familiar caregiver. as. comparable to a deficiency of vital nutritional elements Sister Irene at her New York Foundling Hospital within the developing organism".[8] Sigmund Freud may have been among the first to stress the potential impact of loss of the mother on the developing child. noting the decline in IQ in young orphanage children. Skeels study was attacked for lack of scientific rigour though he achieved belated recognition decades later. understimulation and deficiencies that may arise from institutional care. History Bri. though often pleasant on the surface. when the mother was sent to prison. and his greatest anxiety is that such love will be lost. little effort was made to consider the effects of real experiences of loss. Not long after Rank's introduction of this idea.[12] In another study conducted in the 1930s. and no concern was evinced at the possible effect of this double separation on the child. a British physician whose early death limited his influence. removed toddlers from a sterile orphanage and gave them to "feeble-minded" institutionalised older girls to care for. These studies and conclusions were thus different from the investigations of institutional rearing. suggested that the child's basic need is for mother-love. returning to the biological family after weaning. they will show the symptoms of increasingly serious deterioration. this may have been because loss of the mother in infancy frequently meant death for a breast-fed infant. French society bureaucratised a system in which infants were breast-fed at the homes of foster mothers. One rare paediatrician went so far as to replace a sign saying "Wash your hands twice before entering this ward" with one saying "Do not enter this nursery without picking up a baby". Spitz adopted the term anaclitic depression to describe the child's reaction of grief. recovery is prompt but after five months. Rank stressed the traumatic experience of birth as a separation from the mother.[12] In a series of studies published in the 1930s. seemed indifferent underneath. In the 19th century. but also in the IQ of institutionalised children as compared to a matched group in foster care. David Levy noted a phenomenon he called "primary affect hunger" in children removed very early from their mothers and brought up in institutions and multiple foster homes.[13] Rene Spitz.[11] A few psychiatrists.

He stated. including the ability to cope by forming relationships with other children. and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both found satisfaction and enjoyment. He proposed that two environmental factors were paramount in early childhood. and Bowlby's own work. communicating with social workers.[20] Maternal Care and Mental Health Bowlby's work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospital and institutional care lead to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organisation's report on the mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe whilst he was head of the Department for Children and Parents at the Tavistock Clinic in London after World War II. but also policies of removing children from "unwed mothers" and untidy and physically neglected homes. that child psychiatrists and many others now believe to underlie the development of character and mental health. called for more investigation of children's early lives in a paper published in 1940. Bowlby tackled not only institutional and hospital care. Of these fourteen. Given this relationship. there was work from England undertaken by Dorothy Burlingham and Anna Freud on children separated from their families due to wartime disruption. "It is this complex rich and rewarding relationship with the mother in the early years. He was also one of the first to undertake direct observation of infants. The first was death of the mother. It was believed to be essential that the infant and young child should experience a warm. twelve had suffered prolonged maternal separations as opposed to only two of the control group. unlike most psychoanalysts. These authors were mainly unaware of each others' work and Bowlby was able to draw together the findings and highlight the similarities described despite the variety of methods used ranging from direct observation to retrospective analysis to comparison groups. intimate.[14] hotly disputed and there was no widespread acceptance.Maternal deprivation "hospitalism". namely prolonged early separations of child and mother."[4] .[22] Principal concepts of Bowlby's theory The quality of parental care was considered by Bowlby to be of vital importance to the child's development and future mental health. emotions of guilt and anxiety (characteristics of mental illness when in excess) would develop in an organised and moderate way. paediatricians and child psychiatrists including those who had already published literature on the issue. which sets out the maternal deprivation hypothesis. or prolonged separation from her.[21] The result was the monograph Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951. This book sold over half a million copies worldwide. Some of this material remained unpublished until the post-war period and only gradually contributed to understanding of young children's reactions to loss. evacuated and orphaned children were the subjects of studies that outlined their reactions to separation. The second was the mother's emotional attitude towards her child.[16] 229 [15] The conclusions were During the years of World War II. and lack of support for families in difficulties.[3] The WHO report was followed by the publication of an abridged version for public consumption called Child Care and the Growth of Love. fourteen fell into the category which Bowlby characterised as being of an "affectionless character". There were many problematic parental behaviours in the samples but Bowlby was looking at one environmental factor that was easy to document. Of the forty-four thieves.[17] [18] Bowlby. who. varied in countless ways by relations with the father and with siblings.[2] Bowlby travelled on the Continent and in America. In a range of areas Bowlby cited the lack of adequate research and suggested the direction this could take. In addition. Naturally extreme emotions would be moderated and become amenable to the control of the child's developing personality. had direct experience of working with deprived children through his work at the London Child Guidance Clinic.[19] This was followed by a study on forty–four juvenile thieves collected through the Clinic.

... has received scant attention . as the following statement by Mary Ainsworth in 1962 indicates: "Although in the early months of life it is the mother who almost invariably interacts most with the child . soonest mended" approach.. The point that children were loyal to and loved even the worst of parents. the main focus of the monograph was on the more extreme forms of deprivation. "children thrive better in bad homes than in good institutions". Also "husbandless" mothers of children under 3 should be supported to care for the child at home rather than the child be left in inadequate care whilst the mother sought work. to mild deprivation where the child was removed from the mother's care but was looked after by someone familiar whom he trusted. a consistent caregiving adult of any gender or relationship to the child. Bowlby emphasised the strength of the tie that children feel towards their parents and discussed the reason why. was strongly made. the term maternal deprivation is ambiguous as it is unclear whether the deprivation is that of the biological mother.[25] and frank. and 'distortion' instead. The focus was the child's developing relationships with his mother and father and disturbed parent–child relationships in the context of almost complete deprivation rather than the earlier concept of the "broken home" as such. for the child has been .. Partial deprivation could result in acute anxiety. 230 .. the term 'parental deprivation' would have been more accurate. neither the word "maternal" nor the word "deprivation" seems to be a literally correct definition of the phenomenon under consideration. of an emotional relationship. or of the experience of the type of care called "mothering" in many cultures.[24] Other proposals included the proper payment of foster homes and careful selection of foster carers... [It may be better to] discourage the use of [the term 'deprivation'] and encourage the substitution of the terms 'insufficiency'.[27] "Maternal" Bowlby used the phrase "mother (or permanent mother substitute)".. neediness and powerful emotions which the child could not regulate.[23] However. [In the case of] institutionalization . deprived of interaction with a father-figure as well as a mother-figure .. was unable to give the loving care a small child needs. especially the father..[3] In terms of social policy. 'discontinuity'. He was strongly in favour of support being provided to parents and extended families to improve the situation and provide care within the family rather than removal if possible. is acknowledged to be significant . [P]aternal deprivation . Bowlby advised that parents should be supported by society as parents are dependent on a greater society for economic provision and "if a community values its children it must cherish its parents". informative discussions with children about their parents and why they ended up in care and how they felt about it rather than the "least said. Fathers left with infants or small children on their hands without the mother should be provided with "housekeepers" so that the children could remain at home.[4] As it is commonly used. depression. This term covered a range from almost complete deprivation. Questions about the exact meaning of this term are by no means new.. of an adoptive or foster mother.. or mother substitute. not uncommon in institutions..Maternal deprivation The state of affairs in which the child did not have this relationship he termed "maternal deprivation". The end product of such psychic disturbance could be neurosis and instability of character."[28] Ainsworth implies. and needed to have that fact understood non-judgementally. residential nurseries and hospitals. to partial deprivation where the mother. (It was assumed the mother of the illegitimate child would usually be left with the child).[23] Complete or almost complete deprivation could "entirely cripple the Residential nursery capacity to make relationships". the role of other figures.[26] On the issue of removal of children from their homes. as he put it.

the importance of Bowlby's initial writings on "maternal deprivation" lay in his emphasis that children's experiences of interpersonal relationships were crucial to their psychological development and that the formation of an ongoing relationship with the child was as important a part of parenting as the provision of experiences. children needed a close and continuous caregiving relationship. the important area to study was how a child was actually treated by his parents in real life and in particular the interaction between them. or "dependency" was secondary. discipline and child care. another contemporary referred to "the quasi-mystical union of mother and child. rather than to events in the external world. In hospitals. a term by which we mean both the child's actual mother and/or any other person of either sex who may take the place of the child's physical mother during a significant period of time". when he was effectively ostracised). (His breach with the psychoanalysts only became total and irreparable after his later development of attachment theory incorporating ethological and evolutionary principles. the effects of which could be studied. Bowlby also broke with social learning theory's view of dependency and reinforcement. In addition. and because he believed it could have serious effects on a child's development and because it was preventable. Although this view was rejected by many at the time. contrary to the focus of psychoanalysts on the internal fantasy world of the child.[29] However. rather than in institutions. He chose the actual removal of children from the home at this particular time because it was a specific event. and a move towards the professionalisation of alternative carers.[2] Food was seen as the primary drive and the relationship. Bowlby proposed instead that to thrive emotionally.Maternal deprivation A contemporary of Ainsworth spoke of "the mother.[5] He had already found himself in conflict with dominant Kleinian theories that children's emotional problems are almost entirely due to fantasies generated from internal conflict between aggressive and libidinal drives.[32] Maternity ward.[31] Psychoanalysis Bowlby departed from psychoanalytical theory which saw the gratification of sensory needs as the basis for the relationship between infant and mother.[2] Bowlby later stated that he had concluded that. This led him to see that far more systematic knowledge was required 231 .[31] The practice of allowing parents frequent visiting to hospitalised children became the norm and there was a move towards placing homeless children with foster carers. the argument focussed attention on the need to consider parenting in terms of consistency of caregivers over time and parental sensitivity to children's individuality and it is now generally accepted.[33] Bowlby's theory sparked considerable interest and controversy in the nature of early relationships and gave a strong impetus to what Mary Ainsworth described as a "great body of research" in what was perceived as an extremely difficult and complex area.[30] Influence on institutionalised care The practical effects of the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health were described in the preface to the WHO 1962 publication Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects as "almost wholly beneficial" with reference to widespread changes in the institutional care of children. views that he had already expressed about the importance of a child's real life experiences and relationship with carers had been met by "sheer incredulity" by colleagues before World War II. of the dynamic union that mother and child represent". 1955 According to Michael Rutter. the change was given added impetus by the work of social worker and psychoanalyst James Robertson who filmed the distressing effects of separation on children in hospital and collaborated with Bowlby in making the 1952 documentary film A Two-Year Old Goes to the Hospital.

his ideas were often oversimplified. although Bowlby was of the view that proper care could not be provided "by roster".[28] Bowlby's quotable remark. In fact. this was not fully investigated in his monograph as the main focus was on the risks of complete or almost complete deprivation. that children thrived better in bad homes than in good institutions.[35] or that the formation of an ongoing relationship with a child was an important part of parenting.[39] was often taken to extremes leading to reluctance on the part of Children's Officers (the equivalent of child care social workers) to remove children from homes however neglectful and inadequate. that all children undergoing such experiences would develop into "affectionless children".[5] In addition to criticism. He then goes on to describe the subsequent development of attachment theory. There was criticism of the confusion of the effects of privation (no primary attachment figure) and deprivation (loss of the primary attachment figure) and in particular. He amassed further evidence. contributed with his approval. the theoretical basis of Bowlby's monograph was controversial in a number of ways. day care and nurseries were not good enough and mothers should not go out to work.[40] Michael Rutter made a significant contribution to the controversial issue of Bowlby's maternal deprivation hypothesis.[37] Such strictures suited the policies of governments concerned about finding employment for returned and returning servicemen after World War II. the WHO published Deprivation of Maternal Care: A Reassessment of its Effects to which Mary Ainsworth. although Bowlby mentioned briefly the issue of "partial deprivation" within the family. any experience of institutional care or a multiplicity of "mothers" necessarily resulted in severe emotional deprivation and sometimes.[38] In fact. His 1981 monograph and other papers (Rutter 1972. he was also of the view that babies should be accustomed to regular periods of care by another and that the key to alternative care for working mothers was that it should be regular and continuous.[37] It was also pointed out that there was no explanation of how experiences subsumed under the broad heading of "maternal deprivation" could have effects on personality development of the kinds claimed. Bowlby and his colleagues were pioneers of the view that studies involving direct observation of infants and children were not merely of interest but were essential to the advancement of science in this area.Maternal deprivation of the effects on a child of early experiences. misinterpretation and criticism Aside from his profound differences with psychoanalytic ideas. of the failure to distinguish between the effects of the lack of a primary attachment figure and the other forms of deprivation and understimulation that might affect children in institutions.[36] In 1962. addressed the many different underlying social and psychological mechanisms and showed that Bowlby was only partially right and often for the wrong reasons. to present the recent research and developments and to address misapprehensions. Rutter 1979) comprise the definitive empirical evaluation and update of Bowlby's early work on maternal deprivation.[33] The idea that early experiences have serious consequences for intellectual and psychosocial development was controversial in itself. This heightened the controversy.[34] Controversy.[36] Others questioned the extent to which his hypothesis was supported by the evidence. Bowlby explained in his 1988 work that the data were not at the time "accommodated by any theory then current and in the brief time of my employment by the World Health Organisation there was no possibility of developing a new one". Bowlby's close colleague.[31] Bowlby's work was misinterpreted to mean that any separation from the natural mother. and suggested that anti-social behaviour was not linked to maternal deprivation as 232 . Ainsworth in the WHO 1962 publication also attempted to address this misapprehension by pointing out that the requirement for continuity of care did not imply an exclusive mother–child pair relationship. distorted or exaggerated for various purposes. As a consequence it was claimed that only 24-hour care by the same person (the mother) was good enough.[37] He addressed this point in a 1958 publication called Can I Leave My Baby?. The WHO advised that day nurseries and creches could have a serious and permanent deleterious effect. misrepresented. Some profoundly disagreed with the necessity for maternal (or equivalent) love in order to function normally. Rutter highlighted the other forms of deprivation found in institutional care and the complexity of separation distress.

no difference in nurturing capacity was found. the mother. which contributed significantly to attachment theory. Children also have fathers!"[40] Within attachment theory. It was also stated that in relation to institutional care. to be filled by women as such. "For some aspects of development the same-sexed parent seems to have a special role. school-teachers and others all have an impact on development. Schaffer in Social Development (1996) suggests that the father–child relationship is primarily a cultural construction shaped by the requirements of each society. mothers. Bowlby referred primarily to mothers and "maternal" deprivation.[43] The 1962 WHO publication contains a chapter on the effect of "paternal deprivation". attachment theory relates to the development of attachment behaviours and relationships after about 7 months of age and there are other theories and research relating to earlier carer–infant interactions. sex and temperamental development. "parental deprivation" would have been more accurate. described by New Society as a "classic in the field of child care".[28] Father and child Michael Rutter in Maternal Deprivation Reassessed (1972).[2] Fathers are mentioned only in the context of the practical and emotional support they provide for the mother but the monograph contains no specific exploration of the father's role. there having by 1962 been some limited research on the issue which illustrated the importance of the father's relationship with his children. A less exclusive focus on the mother is required. Bowlby. noting that separation is only one of many risk factors related to poor cognitive and emotional development. As a matter of social reality mothers are more often the primary carers of children and therefore are more likely to be the primary attachment figure. argued that research showed that it did not matter which parent the child got on well with as long as he got on well with one of them. of necessity. friends. covered infants relationships with all family members.[45] [46] . "discontinuity" and "distortion" to either. He concluded. Bowlby's work was misinterpreted by some to mean natural mothers only. The importance of these refinements of the maternal deprivation hypothesis was to reposition it as a "vulnerability factor" rather than a causative agent. namely the assumption that the daily care of infants and small children was undertaken by women and in particular. In societies where the care of infants has been assigned to boys rather than girls.[44] However. volume one of Attachment (1969). brother and sisters. Nor is there any discussion as to whether the maternal role had. with a number of varied influences determining which path a child would take.[41] Rutter has more recently advised attention to the complexity of development and the roles of genetic as well as experiential factors. makes it quite clear that infants become attached to carers who are sensitive and responsive in their social interactions with them and that this does not have to be the mother or indeed a female. in Attachment and Loss. although the words "parents" and "parental" are also used. for some the person who plays and talks most with the child and for others the person who feeds the child.[42] Fathers In accordance with the prevailing social realities of his time. that both parents influence their child's development and that which parent is more important varies with age. but the process of attachment applies to any carer and infants develop a number of attachments according to who relates to them and the intensity of the engagement.Maternal deprivation 233 such but to family discord. The father. but their influences and importance differ for different aspects of development. although Ainsworth preferred the terms "insufficiency".[43] The hope was expressed by Ainsworth that in the future there would be more such research and indeed her early research.

The first early formal statements of attachment theory were presented in three papers in 1958. continuous and sensitive relationship.[47] Maternal deprivation today Whilst Bowlby's early writings on maternal deprivation may be seen as part of the background to the later development of attachment theory. or lack of care. For his subsequent development of attachment theory. reviewed the world literature on maternal deprivation and suggested that emotionally available caregiving was crucial for infant development and mental health. Bowlby drew on concepts from ethology. feminists objected to the idea of anatomy as destiny and concepts of "naturalness" derived from ethnocentric observations. Subsequent research showed good quality care for part of the day to be harmless. 1959 and 1960. there are many significant differences between the two. Maternal deprivation as a discrete syndrome is a concept that is rarely used other than in connection with extreme deprivation and failure to thrive. they criticised Bowlby's historical perspective and saw his views as part of the idealisation of motherhood and family life after World War II.Maternal deprivation Feminist criticism There were three broad criticisms aimed at the idea of maternal deprivation from feminist critics. Certainly his hypothesis was used by governments to close down much needed residential nurseries although governments did not seem so keen to pay mothers to care for their children at home as advocated by Bowlby. the monograph concentrates mostly on social policy.[42] Subsequent studies have however confirmed Bowlby's concept of "cycles of disadvantage" although not all children from unhappy homes reproduce the deficiencies in their own experience. At the time of the 1951 publication. The idea of exclusive care or exclusive attachment to a preferred figure.[37] 234 .[49] Rather. information processing. developmental psychology and psychoanalysis. as outlined by John Bowlby . there was little research in this area and no comprehensive theory on the development of early relationships.."[48] Beyond that broad statement. which is now generally accepted. Secondly. except in the area of extreme deprivation. 1969 to 1980 . as well as consideration of constitutional and genetic factors in determining developmental outcome.[5] Aside from its central proposition of the importance of an early. Maternal Care and Mental Health. The opening of East European orphanages in the early 1990s following the end of the Cold War provided substantial opportunities for research on attachment and other aspects of institutional rearing.. The studies on which he based his conclusions involved almost complete lack of maternal care and it was unwarranted to generalise from this view that any separation in the first three years of life would be damaging. Bowlby's (1951) monograph. Thirdly. of which attachment is only one aspect. Attachment theory revolutionised thinking on the nature of early attachments and extensive research continues to be undertaken.[47] The first was that Bowlby overstated his case. it is now conceptualised as a series of pathways through childhood and a number of varied influences will determine which path a particular child takes. His major work Attachment was published in three volumes between 1969 and 1980. rather than a hierarchy (subsequently thought to be the case within developments of attachment theory) had not been borne out by research and this view placed too high an emotional burden on the mother. has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development in the first 3 years of life. "ethological attachment theory. however such research rarely mentions "maternal deprivation" other than in a historical context..[6] According to Zeanah. cybernetics. Rather there is consideration of a range of different lacks and deficiencies in different forms of care.. little remains of the underlying detail of Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation that has not been either discredited or superseded by attachment theory and other child development theories and research. They argued that anthropology showed that it is normal for childcare to be shared by a stable group of adults of which maternal care is an important but not exclusive part.

V. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 5: 66–73. (1951).T. "Relevance of direct infant observation".759. upenn. P. 84–90 [25] Bowlby J. A. New York: International Universities Press. Maternal Care and Mental Health. The Origins of Love and Hate. Wet Nursing. which purport to bring about age regression and to recapitulate early development to produce a better outcome.Maternal deprivation The maternal deprivation concept outside mainstream psychology The idea that separation from the female caregiver has profound effects is one with considerable resonance outside the conventional study of child development. however. 24 [6] Cassidy. J. mental communication between mother and unborn child.5. I. In United States law. (1935). pp. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1: 53–74. pp. London: Penguin.T. (1999). Freud and the post-Freudians. War and Children. [9] Brown. beliefs in prenatal communication between mothers and infants are largely confined to unconventional thinkers such as William Emerson. "The Nature of the Child's Ties".R. Over the last decade or so. (1951) pp.. PMID 21004303. "sometimes referred to by Bowlby's colleagues as "Ali Bowlby and the Forty Thieves"" [21] Karen R. Developmental Psychology 28 (5): 759–775. 11 [5] Bowlby J. Guilford press. edu/ classics1986/ A1986F063100001. These beliefs are also congruent with CAM psychotherapies such as attachment therapy (not based on attachment theory). In Cassidy. "Hospitalism: An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood". 221 [2] Bretherton. pdf) (PDF). the "tender years" doctrine was long applied when custody of infants and toddlers was preferentially given to mothers. The Writings of Anna Freud. [7] Bowlby. [11] Karen R. (1951) pp. New York: Blackwell. . doi:10. ISBN 978-0631158318. A. but with an emotional attachment between mother and child which advocates of these systems believe to develop prenatally. J. [8] Fildes. 59–62 [22] Karen R. (1988) p. [16] Karen R. ISBN 0837169429. and Burlingham. pp. 3. ISBN 978-1572308268. pp. (1988). [4] Bowlby J. are concepts that connect easily to the unfounded assumption that all adopted children suffer emotional disorders. (1945). Research and Clinical Applications.[53] Notes [1] Holmes J. Infants Without Families and Reports on the Hampstead Nurseries. 20–21 [13] Karen R. some decisions appear to have been derived from the "tender years" concept. Geneva: World Health Organisation. and Shaver. garfield. 26–29 [20] Bowlby J (1944). but others involve the contrary assumption that a 2-year-old is too young to have developed a relationship with either parent. I. J. pp. 18–22 [14] Spitz. (1992). D. [18] Freud. p. 11–12 [24] Bowlby J. D. (1939–1945). [3] Bowlby. J. R. Handbook of Attachment: Theory. pp. Such belief systems are concerned not only with the impact of the young child's separation from the care of the mother. 62–66 [23] Bowlby J. These beliefs were at one time in existence among some legitimate psychologists of psychoanalytic background.[50] Concern with the negative impact of separation from the mother is characteristic of the belief systems behind some complementary and alternative (CAM) psychotherapies. (1951) p. 117–122 235 . "The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth". JAC (1961). (1943). p. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 25 (19–52): 107–27. London: Penguin.[9] [51] Today. [10] Suttie.28. [15] Spitz R (1950). and Burlingham. 13–17 [12] Karen R. New York: Medical War Books. and emotional attachment of child to mother as a prenatal phenomenon. ISBN 1568217579.[52] Belief in prenatal fetal awareness. even if this occurs on the day of birth and even if the adoptive family provides all possible love and care. library. (1951) pp. "Forty-four juvenile thieves: Their characters and home life". Such attachment is said to lead to emotional trauma if the child is separated from the birth mother and adopted.1037/0012-1649. 25 [17] Freud. [19] Karen J. ISBN 0415210429. (1986). "Maternal Care and Mental Health" (http:/ / www.

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