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TRAINING REPORT

OF
SIX WEEKS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING, UNDERTAKEN
AT

BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED, Panchkula


SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE
OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGG.

Submitted By:
Name: Amber Bhaumik
UPT No.: 5594/13
College: Chitkara Inst. of Engg. & Tech., Rajpura

Under the Guidance of:


Name: Anish Chauhan
Desig.: Sr. Asstt. Engineer
Department: HRD

BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED


(A GOVT. OF INDIA ENTERPRISE, MINISTRY OF DEFENCE)
405, INDUSTRIAL AREA, PHASE-III
PANCHKULA 134113 (HARYANA)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am highly grateful to Bharat Electronics Limited Panchkula, one of the leading


defense organizations of the nation, for providing me an opportunity to undertake
six weeks training at their manufacturing premises at Panchkula, Haryana. It was a
great learning experience as I was introduced to various aspects of the working of
the organization, the latest state of the art technologies & machines used in the
manufacturing processes. It was wonderful to see the company striving hard to
keep up the national security at par with the rest of the world. I would like to
express my sincerest gratitude towards Mr. Anish Chauhan (Sr. Assistant Engineer)
and Mr. Pankaj Singhal (Manager, Work Assembly Section) for their regular
support and guidance that helped me in successful completion of my six weeks
training. At the end I would like to thank all the staff members of BEL, Panchkula
who made this training a rich learning experience.

PREFACE
With the ongoing revolution in electronic & communication where innovations are
taking at the blink of eye, it is impossible to keep the pace with the emerging
trends. Excellence is an attitude that whole of human race is born with. It is the
environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or
otherwise. A well planned, properly executed and evaluated industrial training
helps a lot in including a professional attitude. It provides a linkage b/w the student
and industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving,
based on broad understanding of process and mode of operation of organization.
During this period, the student gets the real experience for working in the actual
industry environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained
during the course of their studies is put to test here. Apart from this the student gets
an opportunity to learn the latest technology, which is immensely helps in them in
building their carrier.
I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures, which increased
my sphere of knowledge to great extent. I got a chance to learn many new
technologies and was also interfaced to many instruments.
And all this credit goes to organization Bharat Electronics Ltd.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

PAGE NO.

1. INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................2
2. COMPANY PROFILE................................................................................................................4
3. MAUFACTURING UNITS........................................................................................................8
4. PRODUCTS & MARKET OF BEL.........................................................................................12
5. BEL PANCHKULA & ITS PRODUCTS.................................................................................16
6. DEPARTMENTS & FUNCTIONS...........................................................................................29
6.1 DEVLOPMENT AND ENGINEERING........................................................................29
6.2 MANUFACTURING......................................................................................................29
6.3 MATERIAL MANAGEMENT.......................................................................................30
6.4 MARKETING.................................................................................................................30
6.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE...............................................................................................30
6.6 PLANT & SERVICES....................................................................................................31
6.7 HUMAN RESOURCE & ADMINISTRATION.............................................................31
6.8 FINANCE & ACCOUNTS.............................................................................................31
6.9 INFORMATION SYSTEMS..........................................................................................31
6.10 QUALITY MANAGEMENT........................................................................................32
7. SUB DEPARTMENTS..............................................................................................................34
7.1 PRODUCTION, PLANNING & CONTROL..................................................................34
7.2 ADVANCED MANUFACTURING FACILITY.............................................................34
7.3 WORK ASSEMBLY........................................................................................................43
7.4 TESTING & INSPECTION.............................................................................................44
8. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS...................................................................................................46
CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
With the ongoing revolution in the field of electronics & communications where innovations are
taking place at the blink of an eye, it is impossible to keep the pace with the emerging trends.
Excellence is an attitude that whole of human race is born with. It is the environment that makes
sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. A well planned, properly
executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot in including a professional attitude. It
provides a linkage between the student and industry to develop an awareness of industrial
approach to problem solving, based on broad understanding of process and mode of operation of
organization.
During this period, the student gets the real experience for working in the actual industry
environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their
studies is put to test here. Apart from this the student gets an opportunity to learn the latest
technology, which is immensely helps in them in building their carrier. I had the opportunity to
have a real experience on many ventures, which increased my sphere of knowledge to great
extent. I got a chance to learn many new technologies and was also interfaced to many
instruments.
The word quality holds out different meaning for different people, but for an industry it is most
important and can be defined as The totality of features and characteristics of a product /
services that bear on its ability to satisfy given needs.
And all the credit goes to organization Bharat Electronics Ltd.

CHAPTER 2

COMPANY PROFILE

Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) is a state-owned electronics company with about nine
factories, and few regional offices in India. It is owned by the Indian Government & primarily
manufactures advanced electronic products for the Indian Armed Forces.BEL is one of the eight
PSUs under Ministry of Defence, Government Of India. It has even earned the government's
Navratna status.
Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was set up at Bangalore, India, by the Government of India
under the Ministry of Defence in 1954 to meet the specialised electronic needs of the Indian
defence services. Over the years, it has grown into a multi-product, multi-technology, multi-unit
company serving the needs of customers in diverse fields in India and abroad . BEL is among an
elite group of public sector undertakings which have been conferred the Navratna status by the
Government of India.
The growth and diversification of BEL over the years mirrors the advances in the electronics
technology, with which BEL has kept pace. Starting with the manufacture of a few
communication equipment in 1956, BEL went on to produce Receiving Valves in 1961,
Germanium Semiconductors in 1962 and Radio Transmitters for AIR in 1964. In 1966, BEL set
up a Radar manufacturing facility for the Army and in-house R&D, which has been nurtured
over the years. Manufacture of Transmitting Tubes, Silicon Devices and Integrated Circuits
started in 1967. The PCB manufacturing facility was established in 1968. In 1970, manufacture
of Black & White TV Picture Tube, X-ray Tube and Microwave Tubes started. The following
year, facilities for manufacture of Integrated Circuits and Hybrid Micro Circuits were set up.
1972 saw BEL manufacturing TV Transmitters for Doordarshan. The following year,
manufacture of Frigate Radars for the Navy began. Under the government's policy of
decentralization and due to strategic reasons, BEL ventured to set up new Units at various
places. The second Unit of BEL was set up at Ghaziabad in 1974 to manufacture Radars and
Tropo communication equipment for the Indian Air Force. The third Unit was established at
Pune in 1979 to manufacture Image Converter and Image Intensifier Tubes. In 1980, BEL's first
4

overseas office was set up at New York for procurement of components and materials.
In 1981, a manufacturing facility for Magnesium Manganese Dioxide batteries was set up at the
Pune Unit. The Space Electronic Division was set up at Bangalore to support the satellite
programme in 1982. The same year saw BEL achieve a turnover of Rs.100 crores. In 1983, an
ailing Andhra Scientific Company (ASCO) was taken over by BEL as the fourth manufacturing
Unit at Machilipatnam. In 1985, the fifth Unit was set up in Chennai for supply of Tank
Electronics, with proximity to HVF, Avadi. The sixth Unit was set up at Panchkula the same year
to manufacture Military Communication equipment. 1985 also saw BEL manufacturing on a
large scale Low Power TV Transmitters and TVROs for the expansion of Doordarshan's
coverage.
1986 witnessed the setting up of the seventh Unit at Kotdwara to manufacture Switching
Equipment, the eighth Unit to manufacture TV Glass Shell at Taloja (Navi Mumbai) and the
ninth Unit at Hyderabad to manufacture Electronic Warfare Equipment. In 1987, a separate
Naval Equipment Division was set up at Bangalore to give greater focus to Naval projects. The
first Central Research Laboratory was established at Bangalore in 1988 to focus on futuristic
R&D. 1989 saw the manufacture of Telecom Switching and Transmission Systems as also the
setting up of the Mass Manufacturing Facility in Bangalore and the manufacture of the first batch
of 75,000 Electronic Voting Machines.
The agreement for setting up BEL's first Joint Venture Company, BE DELFT, with M/s Delft of
Holland was signed in 1990. Recently this became a subsidiary of BEL with the exit of the
foreign partner and has been renamed BEL Optronic Devices Limited. The second Central
Research Laboratory was established at Ghaziabad in 1992. The first disinvestment (20%) and
listing of the Company's shares in Bangalore and Mumbai Stock Exchanges took place the same
year. BEL Units obtained ISO 9000 certification in 1993-94. The second disinvestment (4.14%)
took place in 1994. In 1996, BEL achieved Rs.1,000 crores turnover.
In 1997, GE BEL, the Joint Venture Company with M/s GE, USA, was formed. In 1998, BEL set
up its second overseas office at Singapore to source components from South East Asia. The year
5

2000 saw the Bangalore Unit, which had grown very large, being reorganized into Strategic
Business Units (SBUs). There are seven SBUs in Bangalore Unit. The same year, BEL shares
were listed in the National Stock Exchange. In 2002, BEL became the first defence PSU to get
operational Mini Ratna Category I status. In June 2007, BEL was conferred the prestigious
Navratna status based on its consistent performance.

CHAPTER 3

MANUFACTURING UNITS
BEL has a total of nine manufacturing complexes spread throughout the nation with Banglore
being the biggest of them. The details about the different manufacturing units of BEL along
with their product specialities are a s follows:Sr. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

COMPLEX
Ghaziabad
Panchkula
Navi Mumabi
Kotdwara
Pune
Hyderabad
Banglore
Machlipatnam
Chennai

STATE
Uttar Pradesh
Haryana
Maharashtra
Uttaranchal
Maharashtra
Andhra Pradesh
Karnatka
Andhra Pradesh
Tamilnadu

In 1954 with a factory of Jallahali, Bharat Electronics grew into nine units, spread all over India.
The locations & products of the units are given below:1.

BANGALORE: This is also called BG Complex. Jallahali unit which is the mother unit
is now a part of the BG Complex. This is the biggest unit with approx. 10,000 employees
working here. Among the products here, the important ones are:
Communication equipment
Air & Doordarshan equipment like mobile van for live telecast etc.
Radar-mobile, one dimensional, 3-dimensional & multi-dimensional Radars are
manufactured here. Different range of semi-conductor devices like ICs.
Resistors & black & white color TV picture tube glasses.
ISROs requirements are met at space electronics department at Bangalore. Satellite
launch vehicle was also manufactured here.

2. GHAZIABAD: This is the second unit which was set up in 1974, & approx. 2500
employees working here. Radars & some communication equipment are The products
manufactured here are:

Radars
SATCOM
Microwave components

3. PUNE: To diversify further one more branch was added 1979 & this was in Pune. In
this branch around 700-800 employees are working. The product profile includes:

Image convertor, image intensifier,


X-ray tubes
Batteries
Electro-optics

4. MACHLIPATNAM: There was one Andhra scientific company, which was a sick unit.
This was taken over by BEL & is called ASCO unit in 1983. The products include:

Optical & optoelectronic equipment like binoculars, microscopes


Medical Electronics

5. NAVI MUMBAI: This is an industrial place near Mumbai. This unit makes:

Glass shells for black & white TV picture tubes

Shelters for Electronic Equipment

Train Actuated Warning System

Electronic Equipment Assembly

6. PANCHKULA: Panchkula & Kotdwara were proposed simultaneously by the Government


in 1985. It was proposed to set up one unit each in Haryana & Uttar-Pradesh. But the place in
U.P. for setting up a BEL unit could not be decided while that at Haryana was decided &
hence this unit started earlier. This unit manufactures only tactical communication equipment
like VHF, UHF transceivers etc.
7. KOTDWARA: This is a unit in Garhwal district of Uttaranchal. This unit manufactures
radio relay, multiplex equipments & exchanges etc.
8. CHENNAI: The eight unit of BEL was established in Chennai. This unit manufactures:

Tank related electronic equipments


Optical fire control systems

9. HYDERABAD: This is another unit of BEL which manufactures electronic warfare


equipments.

10

CHAPTER 4

11

PRODUCTS & MARKET OF BEL

Bharat Electronics Limited is a major supplier of products and turnkey systems to the Indian
Defence Services. Over the years, BEL has diversified into manufacturing many civilian
products as well. Large turnkey telecommunication solutions are also being offered to civilian
market. BEL has been involved in providing state-of-the-art communication equipment to the
Indian Army, be it hand held mobile radios and terminals, ground based systems, airborne and
even ship borne equipment and systems. The communication equipment developed here cover
HF, VHF, UHF, and V/UHF frequency bands. The most important project of BEL under the
communication equipment is STARS-V which provides secure mode of data transfer. In
STARS-V, the data to be transferred is first encrypted using a microprocessor which could be
read only by a similar device with same coding. Now the latest technology of frequency
hopping is being implemented which is a very useful tool in making a secure data transfer
system. BEL manufactures a lot of product which is very difficult to list but some of the major
products were as follows:

Integrated circuits and micro circuits


X-ray tubes and magnetrons
HF & broadcast equipment
ACME MK II
SPACE GUIDING EQUIPMENTS
AIRBORNE GPS RECEIVER (UA-429)
SRAX
SECURE TELEPHONE
DOMESTIC MARKET
Sr. No.
PRODUCT
1.
Defence Communication
2.
Radars & Sonars
3.

Telecommunication

Radars
STARS-V
SECTEL
CNR
HUD
LUP
TIDEX
SECURE FAX

CUSTOMER
Indian Defence Services , Para -Military Forces
Indian Defence Services, Civil Aviation,
Meteorological Department, ISRO
Department of Telecommunication, Para- military
forces, Power Sector, Oil Industry, Railways
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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Broadcasting Equipment
and Studio Systems
Electronic Voting Machine
Solar Products & Systems
Turnkey
Systems,
Governance
Networks
Components

All India Radio, Doordarshan, (National Radio & TV


Broadcasters)
Election Commission Of India
Individuals, Private and Government
Organizations
E- Police, State Governments, Public Sector
Undertakings
All India Radio and Doordarshan the National
Radio & TV Broadcasters, Instrumentation
Industry, Switching Industry, Entertainment
Industry, Telephone Industry.

Exports play a key role in BEL's strategic perspective. A number of International companies are
using the facilities at BEL for contract Manufacturing.. The broad list of products and services
being exported is given below:

Sr. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

EXPORTS/INTERNATIONAL MARKET
PRODUCT
CUSTOMER
Defence Communication
Botswana, Indonesia, Suriname,
equipment
Malaysia
and spare parts
Radars & Sub-systems
Indonesia, Egypt, Switzerland
Electronic Warfare products Russia, Brazil
and
services
Opto-electronics products
Sri Lanka, Nepal, Israel, South Africa
Semiconductor devices,
Malaysia, Singapore, Turkey,
Microwave
Netherlands, UK, USA, France, Hong
Tubes
and Transmitting Kong
Tubes
Solar Products & Systems
Suriname, Germany, Zimbabwe,
Botswana, Kenya, Nigeria
Telecom
and SATCOM
Nigeria, Kenya
systems
Radio & TV Broadcasting Nepal, Mauritius
products
and Systems
13

9.

Electronic Voting Systems

10.

Vacuum Interrupters

Sri Lanka, Uganda, Malawi, South


Africa
Malaysia, UAE, Uganda, Turkey, UK,
Azerbaijan

CHAPTER 5

14

BEL PANCHKULA & ITS PRODUCTS


Panchkula is a planned city in Panchkula District, Haryana, India. It is a satellite city of the
Union Territory of Chandigarh. The prestigious Chandimandir Cantonment Headquarters of the
Indian Western Command, is also located in Panchkula city. There are five towns in the district
named Panchkula,Barwala Pinjore, Kalka and Raipur Rani. The only Hill station in Haryana
called Morni is also in this District. The estimated population of Panchkula city, in 2006, is
2,00,000. Panchkula and Mohali (in Punjab) are two satellite cities of Chandigarh. These three
cities are collectively known as Chandigarh Tricity. The complex at Panchkula is spread over an
area of 63 acres. It has a total employee strength of 600. It specialises in defence communication
products and has recently started the manufacturing of RADARs also.
Following are some of the important products manufactured by BEL Panchkula:

1. Electronic Voting Machines:The world's largest democracy with 671 million voters went to polls in April - May 2004 and
elected a Government of their choice using the most powerful means of decision making in the
world, The Electronic Voting Machine (EVM). Exclusive use of EVMs across the length and
breadth of a huge country like India came off splendidly and the unparalleled success of this bold
and progressive experiment demonstrated to the rest of the world, the country's technological as
well as grassroots democratic capabilities. About half a million of the EVMs deployed in these
elections were designed, manufactured and delivered by Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), a
Public Sector Enterprise of the Government of India. Today, the Electronic Voting Machines
have made an easy passage to India's hundreds of thousands of villages. There is widespread
awareness of its reliability and adaptability, so also the political recognition. All these have been
15

achieved through a series of meticulously planned events like exhaustive training to the polling
officials, mass awareness programmes to educate voters, especially the overwhelming majority
of those who live in the remote villages of India, etc. Technical experts from Bharat Electronics
Ltd. worked untiringly alongside the Indian Election Commission officials offering support and
assistance for these activities and also during the elections, ensuring that the whole process
succeeded and it is remarkable that there have been no problems with the machines worth
speaking about.
The 2004 general elections in India, where millions of voters cast their votes through the
electronic voting machines and the results of which were declared in one single day, was indeed
a landmark success for the application of technology for sustained development of society.

2. STARS-V (Secure Tactical Army Radio System):


STARS-V (Secure Tactical Army Radio System - VHF) is a family of fixed frequency and
frequency hopping radio sets avai lable in 5W and 25W power output configurations. The radios
provide communication in voice clear, voice secure and data modes. They can be controlled from
a remote location upto 2 km. All front panel controls (except ON/OFF) are extended using 2 wire
cables to a Remote Control Unit (RCU) at the remote location. Intercom operation between radio
16

set and RCU is also provided. The radio set can be configured for fully automatic rebroadcast
operation. It is also possible to setup rebroadcast over two wires for voice clear mode only.
External data interface is provided on the front panel to facilitate data communication with
suitable modem. The radios are fully modular in construction. They are designed to perform in
conformance to MIL 461class of EMI/EMC specifications. STARS-V radios find use in
Manpack as well as vehicular applications for providing voice and data communications in VHF
frequency range of 30-88MHz

There is two types of STARS-V:1. MARK I:This is the first stage of STARS-V .This set is heavy and the if any need repair then difficulty to
find out the fault .And the major difference is frequency hopping is not possible. There are two
power mode 5W, 25W and the frequency range only used by army is (30-87.97MHz)
2. MARK II:This is the modified stage of the MARK-I. It is light in weight then the MARK-I. And the major
difference is frequency hopping is possible.it consist of seven modules are given as
A2-Power amplifier A417

Receiver card A5Synthesizer Card A11Fequency hoping card A6controller card A7-secure
card A8-display card

3. CNR (Composite Net Radio)


VHF Transrecievers (CNR) is a software controlled frequency hopping radio (Transmitter and
Receiver)in the VHF frequency band of 30 88MHz the design of the radio is based on Digital
Signal Processor (DSP) technology making use of Direct Digital Frequency Synthesis (DDFX).
The radio works in Anti-jam frequency hopping and fixed frequency modes with built-in high
grade digital secrecy. Theradio supports both Voice and Data communication in clear as well as
secure mode.
VHF frequency range of 30 - 88 MHz
2320 channels with 25 KHz spacing
1W/2W/5W/25W power outputs
Different models 250 hops per sec
Specifications Manpack / Vehicular roles
Radio is based on DSP technology Frequency range of 30-88 MHz with 25 KHz channel spacing
Supports 2320 channels with 10 preset channels and 10 hop sets Scan and BITE facility
Automatic re-broadcast facility Direct serial data interface (RS-232C)Modular construction.

18

4. SECTEL (Secure Telephone)


Secure Telephone is a compact, full duplex digital Subscriber End Secrecy Device (SESD)
providing highest grade of secrecy on normal telephone lines. It replaces subscribers normal
telephone instruments. It can operate over any standard voice channel of telephone networks like
DOT hired mi l trunk single link circuits and STD channels. It operates from 230 V AC mains
using AC-DC adapter. Key management is supported by Fill gun. Speech is digitized using
Linear Predictive Coding(LPC) technique and digitally encrypted by a highly complex crypto
algorithm which ensures highest grade of secrecy. The encrypted speech is transmitted over the
telephone line using a Full Duplex QAS modem. At the receiver end, the encrypted data stream
is demodulated decrypted and the original speech is synthesized. The user can switch between
clear and secure mode during the same call.

19

5. SECURE UHF HANDHELD RADIO (LUP 291)


High-grade speech secrecy Full duplex transmission in Secure and Clear mode Data rate 2.4
kbps full duplex Memory dialling of 10 stored numbers Multifunction keypad for different
functions Simple connectivity over standard two wire telephone lines 2 x 16 character LCD
display to show the status LUP 291 is a UHF hand held radio with inbuilt high grade digital
secrecy. The radio set is state of the art design, compact and light weight. Interface is
provided for Headgear and Crypto key loading .The operator interface is user friendly with
minimum number of controls. The radio set is provided with helical and magnetic mount
antennas. The radio set has in-built mic and speaker. VOX headgear is also available as optional
accessory for hands free operation. Continuous Tone coded squelches (CTCSS) RF Power
Output: 5W /1 W (selectable). Various programmable features like Scan, CTCSS frequency
selection, Power Save, Password etc. Inbuilt Powerful Diagnosis feature (BITE) TX Inhibit (Sulk
) , Clone , Erase and Whisper facilities7.2 V Primary & Secondary batteries Antennas : Helical
and magnetic mount Complaint to MIL 461 EMI.

20

6. SEED (Subscriber End Encryption Device)


It is compact, full duplex secrecy deice. Description:
1) SEED Processor card PRGMD
2) Power supply card
3) Battery charger
4) Front panel card
Application:1) Execute the application file provided for data communication.
2) Secret comport on which the SEED connected to the pc and the main menu will be
displayed.
3) Go to telephone dairy.
4) To transmit a file, go to transmit file menu.

7. SMILE (Secure Multi Interface Link Encrypter)


It is a bulk data traffic and radio relay with variable data rates of 64, 128, 256, 384, 512, 1024,
2048 kbps.
Description:1) Mother fillgun
2) Child fillgun

21

Various card consist of SMILE:


1) PRGMD controller card
2) PSU-card
3) Front panel card
4) V.35 male interface card
5) V.35 female interface card

8. HUD (Head up display)


The projection unit in a typical HUD is an optical collimator setup: a convex lens or concave
mirror with a Cathode Ray Tube, light emitting diode, or liquid crystal display at its focus. This
setup (a design that has been around since the invention of the reflector sight in 1900) produces
an image where the light is parallel i.e. perceived to be at infinity. The combiner is typically an
angled flat piece of glass (a beam splitter) located directly in front of the viewer, that redirects
the projected image from projector in such a way as to see the field of view and the projected
infinity image at the same time.

22

Combiners may have special coatings that reflect the monochromatic light projected onto it from
the projector unit while allowing all other wavelengths of light to pass through. In some optical
layouts combiners may also have a curved surface to refocus the image from the projector. The
computer provides the interface between the HUD (i.e. the projection unit and the systems/data
to be displayed and generates the imagery and symbols to be displayed by the projection unit.

Generations HUDs are split into four generations reflecting the technology used
to generate the images.

First GenerationUse a CRT to generate an image on a phosphor screen, having the


disadvantage of the phosphor screen coating degrading over time. The majority of HUDs
in operation today are of this type.

Second GenerationUse a solid state light source, for example LED, which is
modulated by an LCD screen to display an image. These systems do not fade or require
the high voltages of first generation systems. These systems are on commercial aircraft.

Third GenerationUse optical waveguides to produce images directly in the combiner


rather than use a projection system.

Fourth GenerationUse a scanning laser to display images and even video imagery on a
clear transparent medium. Newer micro-display imaging technologies are being
introduced including

23

1. Liquid crystal display (LCD),


2. Liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS),
3. Digital micro-mirrors (DMD),
4. Organic light-emitting diode (OLED).

9. BHARANI RADAR
Low level Light Weight 2D Radar - BHARANI: is a light weight, battery powered and
compact sensor which provides 2D surveillance solution to alert Army Air Defence Weapon
Systems mainly in mountainous terrain against hostile aerial targets like UAVs, RPVs,
helicopters and fixed wing aircraft flying at low and medium altitudes. The radar can be
transported by vehicles, animal transport or group of men or as helislung loads. It can be
dismantled into packages to facilitate quick installation and re-location in mountainous terrain. It
will act as an early warner to air defence weapon systems employed to provide protection to
vulnerable areas or vulnerable points.
The system consists of radar, Commander Display Unit (CDU) and messaging unit Target
Designation Unit (TDU) and Target Data Receivers (TDR). One radar can service upto 10 TDRs
using existing combat radio resources/ network. The CDU can be located upto 750m from the
radar. The radar with modular architecture, advanced ECCM features, ruggedness as per Mil
standards can be operated in varied conditions including extreme climatic and geographical
conditions and in battle field situations, especially offensive EW environment. The radar detects
and tracks short range air-to-ground threats with a high probability of detection. The radar has an
integrated IFF that can detect, confirm, classify and attain IFF status on every target in the battle
space under surveillance.

24

It has a range of 50 KMs and can operate at an altitude of 75 mtrs to 5400 mtrs. It operates in L
band.

10. ROHINI RADAR


Low level Light Weight 3D Radar - ROHINI: ROHINI is a multifaceted ground based S-Band
3D Low Level Light Weight Surveillance Radar for deployment in diverse terrains like plains,
deserts, mountain tops and high altitude regions. Rohini detects and tracks heterogeneous air
targets, including helicopters, fighters and UAVs at low and medium altitudes. The radar can
scan the valley. It provides accurate range, azimuth and height information for each target with
electronically steerable multi-beam technology in elevation. The radar sweeps 360 in azimuth
and 30 in elevation to provide air space awareness. Semi - distributed active aperture radar uses
advanced VLSI and high-speed digital technologies like high efficiency T/R modules, DDS,
digital receiver and programmable signal processor to provide 3D air space awareness with high
accuracy, resolution and reliability.

25

As all the main radar subsystems are on the rotating platform, this radar architecture obviates the
two most common single point failures by dispensing with high power rotary joints and central
transmitter; thereby making the radar system extremely reliable. The radar is easily re-locatable
and can be deployed or decamped in less than 15 minutes. The radar is engineered in multiple
packages to enable easy transportability in mountainous terrain by vehicles, group of men, or as
an under slung carriage by a helicopter. The remote operation of the radar through Commander's
Display Unit (CDU) upto 1 km from the radar provides safety to the crew during operation. The
facility also enables the Commander to deploy the radar at a tactically favourable point. The
quadri pod-mounted radar is built to operate in networked or stand-alone mode to support joint
or independent operations by Air Force. Multi ECCM features help the radar to deliver intended
performance even under intense hostile EM environment. Rohini being compact, lightweight and
modular, can be used in different innovative roles like air space surveillance in urban areas for
VVIPs, large critical installations.

26

CHAPTER 6
27

DEPARTMENTS & FUNCTIONS

BEL Panchkula has different divisions which are further divided into departments-

1. D&E (Development and Engineering)


This is a division which is further divided into departments. They are:

D&E (DEVELOPMENT & ENGINEERING) It is to design the project, make the


modifications to prepare design and related documents.

D&E CRYPTO It is for designing of secure communication.

TIC (Technical Information Centre) TIC is a library for designing purpose.

DRA OFFICE - It is the Drawing office.

STDS (STANDARDS) These are the standards for Drafting, Design manure,
Quality standards.

2. MFG (MANUFACTURING):

WA (WORK ASSEMBLY) There are different types of work assembly i.e PCB
assembly, Module assembly, Final assembly.

WF (WORK FABRICATION) It is the department for the mechanical work.

AMF (ADVANCED MANUFACTURING FACILITIES) Advanced machines are


used in the manufacturing of the projects as SMT (Surface Mounted Technology), it is
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an automatic system to mount the item on the PCB.

PE (PRODUCTION ENGINEERING) It is for the installation of the new


machinery.

PPC (PRODUCTION, PLANNING and CONTROL) In this the work is planned.

SC (SUB CONTRACT)

3. MM (MATERIAL MANAGEMENT):

It is the management of the materials.

PUR (PURCHASE DEPARTMENT) - This department purchases the materials.

ISM (INTEGRATED STORE MANAGEMENT)

HS (HOLDING STORE) It has different bins that holds items after inspection.

IGS (INCOMING GOODS STORE)

MC (MATERIAL CONTROL)

4. MKTG / PA (MARKETING / PRODUCT ASSURANCE):

MKTG (Marketing Division)

Sales It is to prepare ESO equipment source order.

FGS (FINISH GOODS STORE) After finishing the project it is sent to FGS for
final packing.

TL (Technical Literature) It is the booklet with the project having instructions.

PR (PUBLIC RELATION) It is the relation with the customers.

TESTING Products are tested by different tests

C TEST (CIPHER TEST) - It is the test for the secrecy.

PS (PRODUCT SUPPORT) It is done after sale services.

SELF CERT (SELF CERTIFICATION) It is the department which visits the place
where work is going on.
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5. QA (QUALITY ASSURANCE):
It deals with the quality of the material.

INSP(WA) {INSPECTION IN WORK ASSEMBLY)

INSP(WF) {INSPECTION IN WORK FABRICATION)

R&E (RELIABILITY & EVALUATION) - The materials are checked before giving it
to customers.

6. P&S (PLANT AND SERVICES):


It is the department for providing the services to company. Services are water supply, electrical
supply, transport, horticulture.

7. HR & A (HUMAN RESOURCES & ADMINISTRATION):

PERSON. (PERSONNEL) In this department the recruitment of employees is done.

ESTD. (ESTABLISHMENT) It is to use manpower in different areas.

MEDICAL Medical facilities are also available.

CRECHE

CANTEEN

WELFARE

8. F&A (FINANCE & ACCOUNT):


FINANCE - Department for the sanction of money.

PAYROLL It is the salary of the employees.

BUDGET It is made for one year.

ACCOUNTS It is the record of the money.

AUDIT Survey of the systems.


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9. IS / MS (INFORMATION SYSTEMS):

MRP - All Production Related work related to assy,stores, purchase etc.

PAYROLL - Related to Salary.

FINANCE - Concerned with ledgers, sub-sidary ledgers, General ledger etc.

10. QM (QUALITY MANAGEMENT):

ISO (INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANISATION) It is to sell our products in


the international market.

6 SIGMA It is the statistical Technique for maintaining Quality.

TES (TEST EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORT) Calibration or measuring of instruments.

IGI (INCOMING GOODS INSPECTION)

QCC (QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLE) In this department there is a group of


employees who discuss the problems, find out its solution and present it to manager.

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CHAPTER 7
32

SUB DEPARTMENTS

PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL


This sub-department forms the most important section among the others present because it forms
the backbone. Right from the beginning till the end of the production of a particular set, the
responsibility lies in the hands of this section, it mainly performs three functions namely: Scheduling
Launching
Control
The market section takes the order from the customer and gives the equipment stock order to
PPC. The management servicing department prepares the work order and gives it to PPC. Now
PPC makes the list of each component involved in product. This is called Scheduling.
Next function that comes is launched PPC prepares shop order and engineering documents such
as drawings. This function is called Launching.
Now comes material control. Here the PPC keeps track of production i.e. the purchase
requisition is given to purchase department and sub-contact department. The purchase now
comes to the IGS (Inwards Goods Section) where it is tested in IGI. The pieces that are okayed
are then stored in holding stores.
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ASSEMBLY SECTION /AMF (Advanced Manufacturing Facility)


As the name suggests, in this department all the components are mounted on PCBs. These
PCBs are then sat properly in the complete set. It is one of the most important and
technologically advanced department at BEL Panchkula.It is divided into three sections:

PCB assembly section

Coil winding section

Final assembly section

First we will discuss in detail about the AMF section which uses the surface mounting
technology to mount components on the PCBs a detailed structure of the complete AMF line is
explained as follows:

THE SMT LINE


The various stages involved in the SMT in sequence are called the SMT line. The stages
involved are:

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SURFACE MOUNT TECHNOLOGY


Surface-mount technology was developed in the 1960s and became widely used in the late
1980s. Much of the pioneering work in this technology was by IBM. The design approach first
demonstrated by IBM in 1960 in a small-scale computer was later applied in the Launch Vehicle
Digital Computer used in the Instrument Unit that guided all Saturn IB and Saturn V vehicles.
Components were mechanically redesigned to have small metal tabs or end caps that could be
directly soldered to the surface of the PCB. Components became much smaller and component
placement on both sides of a board became far more common with surface mounting than
through-hole mounting, allowing much higher circuit densities. Often only the solder joints hold
the parts to the board, although parts on the bottom or "second" side of the board are temporarily
secured with a dot of adhesive as well. Surface-mounted devices (SMDs) are usually made
physically small and lightweight for this reason. Surface mounting lends itself well to a high
degree of automation, reducing labour cost and greatly increasing production rates. SMDs can be
one-quarter to one-tenth the size and weight, and one-half to one-quarter the cost of equivalent
through-hole parts.

Expanded Forms
SMD Surface-mount devices (active, passive and electromechanical components)
SMT Surface-mount technology (assembling and mounting technology)
SMA Surface-mount assembly (module assembled with SMT)
SMC Surface-mount components (components for SMT)
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SMP Surface-mount packages (SMD case forms)


SME Surface-mount equipment (SMT assembling machines)

1. Loader
MODEL: L-SIZE
MAKE: AUTOVEYOR

Loader as the name suggest load the pcb on which component are to be mounted. This is the first
step of SMT line It has five magazine to load pcb and each magazine has a maximum capacity of
50 pcb. The height is 930 mm from the ground

2. Stencil Printer

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Make: DEK
Model: ELA-VI
Huge print area capability
The huge print area capability allows printing up to 1200mm x 400mm. It accepts standard SMT
frame sizes from 350 x 350 mm to 1480 x 500 mm (for SP1200), or 350 x 350 mm to 736x 736
mm (for SP600L).
Vertical Separation of Stencil from PCB
4 corner ball screw system provides excellent separation control of stencil for high quality solder
paste printing Programmable Speed Control for both squeegee movement and stencil separation
Dual Camera system for quick PCB alignment.

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3. Pick and place machine


Make: siemens
Model: SIPLACE-HF
Component handling capacity:
Flip chip, BGA, -BGA, MELF, mini MELF, CPS Fine pitch component up to 12 MIL
Heads: Hydra Head (8 Nozzles) more speed
Midas Head (1-Master Head) more accurate.
Chip component=24000 CPH
Fine pitch component=3500 CPH
Placement accuracy: 45m at 6-sigma fine pitch component

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4. Reflow soldering machine


Make: SEHO (Germany)
Model: MAXI POWER2.7
Reflow oven is that part of SMT process where all solder paste is re-heated and components are
assumed to be properly connected. In this process the PCB is passed through different
temperature.
Number of heating zone is six
Active cooling module
Flux manufacturing system
All convection heating type
Double peak in reflow zone

5. Automatic optical inspection


Make: AGILENT

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Model: SJ50-SERIES II

PCB is inspected carefully for their components. Due to small size of components SMT board
requires very careful inspection particularly for solder ball, improperly soldered joints and
missed solder connections, etc. Some components are specially difficult to inspect like quad
PLCCs (Plastic Loaded Chip Carrier) i.e. IC having J profile pins along each four sides and it
has more than 28 pins.

Optical character recognition (OCR)

Optical character verification (OCV)

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6. Wave Soldering Machine


Wave soldering machine consists of the PCB carrier stand, which can hold 10 PCBs at a time.
This stand moves over the conveyer belt whose speed is 60 80 cm/sec. The flux used for
soldering is Rosion R8. The thinner is added to the flux so as to make the flux thinner. The next
component in this machine is air knife where the excess flux is removed. Next comes the preheater zone. It consists of 6 per-heaters. The temperature for the first 2 heaters is 100 degree
Celsius, for next two pre-heaters the temperature is 140 degree Celsius, and the temperature for
last two chambers is 180 degree Celsius.
The box containing the solder is called the solder bath, which has the capacity of 400kg. The
temperature of the solder bath is 250 270 degree Celsius. While the solder is heated up inside
the solder bath, the pump arrangement provides for the hot solder to flow. The solder nozzle then
produces a solder wave. After the solder bath, the conveyor belt is set on the angle of 4 7
degrees. This machine costs around 30 lakhs. This machine also consists of the sensors which
sense the green mask as well as the spot mask on the PCB such that the solder does not stays on
it. The waste material of the machine is known as dross. The solder temperature is continuously
controlled by the PID controller and its thermo couples.

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WORK ASSEMBLY
It is an important department of the manufacturing division. The assembly of the different
components takes place here to make a complete product. Many of the accessories related to the
products are also manufactured here. Some of them are as follows:
1. Handsets
2. Data Cables
3. Fill Guns
It is basically divided into two parts wiz:
1. PCB Assembling: in this section PCB are manually assembled and components are
mounted using manual soldering. This is in the case of large components. There four
lines dedicated to this work.
2. Integration: in this section the integration of the different components to form the
complete product takes place is also called as final assembly. The works carried out in
this section can be described as follows:1. Cable Forming
2. Cable Assembly
3. Modules Assembly
4. Stag Integration
5. Cable Harness
6. Final Integration
7. RF & Data Cables Forming
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The devices or products after being dispatched from this section are then forwarded to the testing
section where they are tested for different parameters and finally the instruments which pass the
test are further sent to the other departments. The testing process is explained in the next section.

TESTING & INSPECTION


Testing & Inspection is done in every stage of PCB namely at:
Module stage
Sub-assembly
Final stage
It is done after the environmental testing and before sending for testing. The most important
parameters that are to be followed during the inspection are as follows:1) The values of the various components
2) The visible characteristics of various active devices
3) Various interconnections
4) Whether the BEL standards are maintained or not
Testing is very important in the production. In PG-I manufacturing of STARSV is the main job.
Testing of STARS-V is done in two main stages only.

PCB level testing

Main testing

PCB level testing takes place in many stages. Firstly, the PCBS are kept in chamber with a
temp. of +50C and -30C. This is done to check the stability of characteristic of PCB as well as
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its components. This process is done for approx. 80 hours. This is called ageing process.
The PCB that passes out of the ageing process are then brought out in the block to put them
through test jigs. These test jigs provide perfect environment In terms of signals that actual set
will face in the field. In testing, product is subjected to adverse condition to check the reliability
of product under condition defence forces will use.
The PCB is sent to assembly section back and they come out clear from test jigs. Now in
assembly section all components are packed finally. These packed sets are now sent for main
testing. The main testing includes many tests. The first test is BUMP TEST. This is done to check
the resistance of set against mechanical bumps and vibrations.
Next is THERMAL SHOCK test to check the adaptability of set to sudden change in
temperature. Thermal shocks are given. The sets are subjected to temp. Range of 40C-70C.
LEAKAGE TEST is done to check the set for any leakage. In this the radio set is immersed in
water. The air is filled inside set through a nozzle at a pressure of 3 PSI. if air bubbles appear ,
set is sent for repairing. There is a spatial section in testing by the name CIPHER. Here the
encryption part of PCB is enabled and checked. Entry in this section is strictly restricted for
anyone, apart from authorized personnel.

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CHAPTER 8
45

RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS

The industrial training at B.E.L. has given me an exposure of the activities of a defense unit. This
being a large organization deals with wide spectrum of technologies.
During my training in B.E.L, I came to know about different range of products , ranging from
communication equipments to hardware to software equipments and it goes in every strata of
society like it is now usually used in military training academies.

APPLICATIONS OF PRODUCTS :1. STARS- V- These radios are used in Manpack as well as vehicular
applications for providing voice and data communications in VHF
frequency range of 30-88 MHZ.

2.

CNR This radio works in Anti jam frequency hopping and fixed frequency modes
with built in high grade digital secrecy.

3. SECTEL- Here the encrypted speech is transmitted over the telephone line
using a FULL Duplex QASK modem. At the receiver end, the encrypted
data stream is demodulated / decrypted and the orinal speech is synthesized.
The user can switch between clear and secure mode during the same call.
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4. SECURE UHF HANDHELD RADIO this radio set is provided with


helical and magnetic mount antennas. The radio set has in built mic and
speaker. VOX headgear is also available as optional accessory for hands free
operation.

5. DBC- It is to charge the two batteries at the same time which is used in VPS set.
It can work with AC as well as dc input also .It is also shockproof.

CONCLUSION

The six weeks of summer training at BEL, PKL unit generated a lot more interest in my subject.
It made me more aware of the scope of Electronics & Communication Engineering. It has also
made me appreciative of an industrial work environment.
Undergoing training on the indoor substation has helped me integrate conceptual knowledge with
real life application. I was fortunate to have personal guidance from experienced professionals
who took been interest in explaining the working details of various equipments.
I feel that without this opportunity, my own understanding of this subject and also the motivation
to acquire more knowledge would have remained incomplete.
Well, regarding future scope I think my training has given me enough motivation and an
exposure that I will try to join defence services or get linked up with the defence of the country.
To know the technical know-how, industrial training is the best way to move forward.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] THE MAIN RESOURCES OF THE WORK WERE THE FACULTY OF HRD
DEPARTMENT.
[2] WEBSITE:
http://www.bel-india.com/

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