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Improper Waste Disposal Can Create Environmental Problem Environmental Sciences Essay

This research paper explores about waste management and effects of improper waste disposal. This paper defines and elaborates
the importance of having waste hierarchy or the 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) as the concept of waste management. In the
resource article, they define waste management as recycling and monitoring of waste products. In other resources, they have the
same definition. It also tells about the proper way of doing of waste hierarchy by giving examples. Different types and forms of waste
are indicated in this paper. According to some articles that were read, human activities are the main cause of the calamity in our
country. Ignorance of people brought large amount of garbage to our place. And since effects of improper waste management is the
main topic, it gave emphasize to those effects according to the resource articles. Effects to humans and environment are cited in this
paper. Proper waste management is not just doings of government for us but we are also assigned to do it inside and outside our
place for our safety. Each and every one of us must have sense of responsibility in terms of garbage disposal to prevent any
disaster that might come.

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Waste Management refers to the recycling, processing, transport, assortment, and monitoring of waste products. The waste
products are mainly of three types: solid, liquid or in gas state. Solid waste is known as non-biodegradable waste
Materials and discards that come from sources like:
Businesses and Commercial establishments
Manufacturers or Industrial sites
Biomedical sources like hospital and clinics.
For Example: plastics, Styrofoam containers, bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash Solid wastes are generally
composed or made of non-biodegradable and non-compostable Biodegradable materials.
What is Pollution Caused by Solid Waste?

Solid waste pollution caused when the environment is filled with non- biodegradable and Non- compostable biodegradable
waste that is capable of emitting greenhouse gases, toxic fumes, and particulate matters as they accumulate in open landfills.
These waste are also capable of leaching organic or chemical compositions to contaminate the ground where such waste lay
in accumulation.
Solid wastes thrown in streets, highways, and waterways can cause pollution when they are carried off by rainwater run-offs
or by flood water to the main streams or drainage, as they contaminating residues will reach larger bodies of water. Liquid
waste is waste in liquid form.
For example: Domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste water ponds, manufacturing industries, hospital waste, agricultural
waste, nuclear waste and other resources.
Cause by flows out as waste waters from the toilets, kitchens and bathrooms of residential houses, toilets and canteens of
commercial establishments. Such wastewater is termed as sewage. (Pongrcz, 2002)

Concepts of waste management

Human activities also donate to increase the waste. Different process are used to handle each state. There are lots of
concepts about waste management which differ in their usage as per the varying regions or countries. Some of the widely
used concepts include waste hierarchy: reduce, reuse, and recycle.

According to MMDA Chairman Francis Tolentino, they have collected over 1,000 tons of garbage in just 4 days. They have
dredged 1,200 tons of garbage from the eight creeks that scope of their flood control management. The highest volume of
garbage according to them came from Pinagsabugan and Longos creeks in Malabon. Its about 76 over 173 truckloads of
waste. Imagine the volume of garbage in just only eight creeks. How about the total of volume of waste in the Philippines? In
just statistics, we can see what calamity it can cause when these garbage are not being collected.

There are two forms of Garbage: Bio-degradable and Non- Biodegradable.

Biodegradable is known as materials that decompose through by of bacteria, fungi, and other living organisms. In everyday
living substances that are biodegradable or can be degraded include food refuse, dried leaves, grass clippings, woods,
animal, human flesh and others.
Non-Biodegradable is materials that do not decompose or cannot be degraded for so many years. This form of garbage is the
main reason of the clogging of drainage. Waste Hierarchy is the only way to avoid these: reduce, reuse, and recycle.
Common examples of non-biodegradable garbage are plastics, bottles, old machine, cans, Styrofoam containers and others.
Most plastics are made of petroleum-based, meaning they are made from oil and other petroleum substances. Until recently,
plastics have been non-biodegradable.

Segregation is specifically separation of garbage according to their groups. It is easily for them to manage the recycling
process of the garbage. This way the waste hierarchy is needed, the 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle).
The first R is reducing. Waste reduction is conservation- using natural resources in right manner, and using things less than
they usually do to avoid large amount of waste in future. They can practice reduction of waste through buying products that do
not need to be added to waste stream in general. They can start making wise package selection.
Second R is for reusing. They can reuse materials from their original form rather than throw it. They may not cost much to
replace, but at least, number of waste will be decreased. Instead of buying new durable materials (washing machine, dryers,
refrigerator, etc.) when the old one breaks or damaged, why not repair? Or maybe they can give it to those who can use it.
Most of the times the item can be repair by those people. That is also form of reusing. New is not always better, nor it is
always necessary. They can save money and they will be helping their environment.

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Last R stands for recycling. Do not just toss everything in the trash. Lots of things such as cans, bottles, paper, and cardboard
can be remade into either the same kind of thing or even new products. Making new items from recycled ones also takes less
energy and fewer resources than making products from brand new materials. There is nothing wrong with it. Recycling is not

impossible. In fact, it is very easy to do. Do not throw anything that can be recycled. Here is a list of things you may be able to
Writing/Copy Paper
Glass (particularly bottles and jars)
Electronic equipment
Glass (particularly bottles and jars)
Steel Cans
Grocerys Plastic Bags
Plastic Bottles
Aluminum cans
Damaged or corroded roof
VHS tapes
Old toys (you can donate it)
Car battery
Scrap wood or furniture
They can use their imaginations in order to create new usable materials. There is so much we can do with every little effort.
And most important, we can save ourselves and a lot of money when we are at it.
Determine the things that must be reduced, keep those can be reuse, and set aside those can be recycled. In that case, we
can avoid so many disasters that might come.

Contributing causes of improper waste management are:

Ignorance: Ignorance of people about proper waste disposal. People are unaware of consequence of their unwise acts.
Laziness: Can cause improper garbage disposal because People not following the correct rules of proper waste disposal their
always throw it what place they want and they have no care what will be the effect of it.
Greed: Can cause improper garbage disposal for example burning of tires of wheel and plastic instead of keeping it or trade
the excess automobile car tires to maximize on it.
Affects our health

Like lung diseases, Heart problems, skin irritation, problem or abnormality in breathing and more.
Affects our coastal and marine environment

Hazardous waste, if dumped into the environment, leeches into the ground and the ground water. The ground water is used
for lots of things you may not realize, like watering the local fields, which grow the food people eat. And worst part is most
communities get their drinking water from down there, too. Like in marine environment improper waste disposal can affect too
like floating of contaminated killed fish in the sea and due to excessive excretion of the sea can be infested by mosquitoes
that may scattered to numerous diseases in humans and can cause death of hundreds of people living near it like manila bay.
Affects our climate

As some waste decomposes, it releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Like trapping of heat on earth that may
effect of abnormality of weather condition like more storm or typhoon coming per year is happening until now. The earth is
suffering it already.
Air pollution

The open burning of waste causes air pollution or greenhouse effect. For example burning of rubber and plastic.
Landfill gas (which is produced by the decomposition of wastes) which can be explosive and may harm people around on it if
it is allowed to accumulate in confined spaces (such as the cellars of buildings).
Methane gas (one of the main components of landfill gas) is much more effective than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas,
leading to climate change that may effect of destruction of atmosphere of the earth or abnormality of weather condition.
Fires on disposal sites can cause major air pollution, causing illness like cancer and reducing visibility or may lead in eye
irritating thus making disposal sites dangerously unstable. May cause explosions of cans, and possibly spreading to adjacent
Soil contamination

Soil contamination is caused by the presence of man-made chemicals, the softness of the ground, having smelly soil vapor
and other alteration in the natural soil environment. This type of contamination typically arises from the leaching of wastes
from landfills or incorrect disposal of industrial wastes to the soil. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum
hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals.

Human Health Impacts

The group at risk from the unscientific disposal of solid waste includes the population in areas where there is no proper waste
disposal method or no proper disposal area, especially the pre-school children; waste workers; and workers in facilities
producing toxic and infectious material. Other high-risk group includes population living close to a waste dump and those,
whose water supply has become contaminated either due to waste dumping or leakage from landfill sites.
Infections to humans

Skin irritations and blood infections resulting from direct contact with waste, and transmitting bacteria from waste to infected
Eye irritations and respiratory malfunctions resulting from exposure to infected dust, especially during the process of
disposing garbage.
Pest and Insects that carry bacteria comes from dirty waste:
a. Flies breed in some constituents of solid wastes, and flies are very effective vectors that can spread disease to humans.
b. Mosquitoes breed in blocked drains and in rainwater or dirty seas that is retained in discarded tires, cans and other
objects. Mosquitoes spread disease, including malaria and dengue that killed thousands of people in every year.
c. Rats find shelter and food in waste dumps and canals. Rats consume and spoil food and can damage the crops of farmers
or crops of people that have business on it, spread disease, damage electrical cables and other materials and inflict
unpleasant bites to humans.

It is very sad to know that many lives have been sacrificed because of these calamities that have come. Many places in the
Philippines are down to flood every time when typhoon comes. And worst, a large number of families have lost their shelters
and have nothing left for them. Their wealth was ruined by those storms, floods, etc. We are experiencing very hot weather
because of greenhouse effect and global warming. Many kinds of diseases occur because of untidy surroundings. Others can
no longer smell the breath of fresh air. All of these are the effects of improper waste management. There are still many of
them actually. Imagine a single piece of candy wrapper can cause a flood to a certain area when you throw it anywhere and
others do it also. One car can cause air pollution for it emits smoke. A single lighted cigarette also will do. Dynamite fishing
can not only kill fish and corals, but also those who will eat it because of the chemical came from the dynamite they used.
These are all cause by human activities. And now they are asking themselves why it is happening to them? Others have the
guts to accuse our government for poor response. How pathetic! Yes, our government has their own failures but they are not
only the one to blame. Ask yourself first how much waste you throw anywhere you want before blaming others. Only immature
people will think that they are innocent on what is happening to our country in terms of improper waste management.
Proper waste management can be successfully done not only by the program of the government. We can also do it inside and
outside our place. If we know how to use it by the concept of waste hierarchy, fewer problems will be encountered. Stop
barking at the people and do our thing first. The cleanliness and orderliness of our country is in the hands of every Filipino. Let
be our doings be the model of proper waste management.

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Improper Waste Disposal Consequences

Most people know that certain types of waste need to be disposed of in specific ways, in order to keep from
contaminating the environment through improper waste disposal. Taking old paint to the hazardous facility,
keeping recyclables out of the trash, and various other rules of disposal are all designed as a form of
protection for the world around you. However, not everyone realizes the major consequences that can come
from disregarding these rules. Everyone slips at one time or another and disposes of waste in an irresponsible
way, but once youre aware of what improper waste disposal can do and once you realize the scope of the
problem if everyone in the world keeps slipping once or twice youll probably pay a lot more attention to the

Improper Waste Disposal Consequences

You remember campaigns in grade school about littering? Waste thats not properly disposed of can be
ugly.Here are just a few side effects of improper waste disposal:

Litter can pose a threat to the health and well being of various animals: the stories about fish stuck in six-pack
rings that blew into the water arent fictions.

Hazardous waste, if dumped into the environment, leeches into the ground and the ground water. The ground
water is used for lots of things you may not realize, including watering the local fields, which grow the food people eat.
Oh, and most communities get their drinking water from down there, too.

As some waste decomposes, it releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The earth has more than
enough of those already.

Are you getting the idea? Waste disposal procedures exist because people have realized that certain types of
waste can do damage if theyre just thrown anywhere. The system of waste disposal was developed through
lots of research, and is carefully planned to funnel waste into various places, and through various disposal
methods, in order to ensure the safety and health of humans as well as the planet. The problem is that this
carefully planned system doesnt work if people dont participate in it; when you dispose of your waste, youre
the first step in the chain. if you do it properly, the waste goes on to its safe destination. If you dont or if
anyone else along the chain doesnt do it right, the waste gets sent off into places where it can do plenty of
If you have questions about proper waste disposal, ask. If you dont know how to sort your recyclables, or if
youre unsure what to do with old drywall, call around to local disposal facilities to find the answers. These
may seem like small things, but if you let them slip and everyone else lets them slip they can quickly turn
into big problems.

The Effects of Improper Garbage Disposal

Tossing everyday items into the trash can seem like second nature to many people. If you are implementing recycling techniques into your
lifestyle, you are taking a positive step toward helping the environment. Learner.org notes that in the U.S. alone, over 230 million tons of trash is
produced each year. Less than 25 percent of that waste is recycled and the rest ends up in landfills, incinerated or in ditches and roadsides.
Improper garbage disposal isnt just an eyesore; it poses a serious threat to nature.

Soil Contamination
It is important to learn the basics of recycling so that the waste that does end up in landfills can be disposed of properly. Plastics, metals, papers
and certain types of glass can all be recycled at your local recycling center. If you take the time to send these items to recyclable locations, the

items can be reused and returned to consumers. They wont end up as trash or hurting the environment. If recyclables are placed into the ground
they can potentially contaminate the surrounding soil. The Western Courier shares with readers that as plastic water bottles break down they can
release DEHA, a type of carcinogen that can cause reproductive problems, liver issues and weight loss. This type of chemical can leach into the
soil and cause contamination that can reach plant and animal life as well as water sources. Newspapers or paper that contains ink can be toxic to
the soil as well. If the garbage is dumped or not contained properly in a landfill it will contaminate the surrounding ground.

Air Contamination
When disposing of garbage that contains harmful chemicals such as bleach, acid or oil it is important that it is disposed of in approved containers
and labeled correctly. Paper, plastics and other materials that are burned can contaminate the air when they are burned. Over time the chemicals
can build up in the ozone layer. If they contain toxic chemicals like dioxin they can reach the air that people breathe and cause a public health
risk. Garbage that is disposed of improperly can also begin to release methane gases. According to the Energy Information Administration, these
gases are greenhouse gasses that can destroy the earths ozone layer and contribute to significant climate changes or global warming.

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Animals and Marine Life

Humans are not the only ones affected by improper garbage disposalanimals are too. Conservation International notes that garbage dumping
and discharging raw or untreated sewage can threaten marine life and animals who come in contact with the water. When waste forms a cluster or
algal bloom, the area can suffocate and contaminate sea bottom habitats such as coral and fish reducing their numbers. This contamination not
only destroys their habitat it can also affect human consumption as fish and shellfish that were feasting off of contaminated areas reach fishermen
and are caught for human consumption. Old fishing lures, plastic bottles, rope, Styrofoam, cigarette butts and fishing lines can be consumed by
marine animals leading to the death of millions each year according to Conservation International.
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The different types of waste

Waste has existed since the beginning of time. Before recorded history, this waste decomposed in small quantities according to
a natural cycle. With the development of cities, industrialisation, population booms, and the consumption of large amounts of
waste, the issue of how to collect and store it appeared. As raw material resources become rare and we tackle climate change,
the notions of recycling and recovery have emerged. For each type of waste, customised ways to treat them now exist.
Hazardous and non-hazardous waste, inert waste, bio waste, recyclable waste, medical wastea bit difficult to get our heads
around it all. The eMag explores the various types of waste, how theyre treated, and their material, biological and energyrecovery potential.
How should waste be classified?

Every day, large quantities of waste are produced throughout the world. Learn more about the waste classification implemented by the
European Union according to the type of waste.

Recyclable waste
As the centrepiece of the circular economy, recycling conserves natural resources, combats climate change, saves
money and creates jobs. In France, 60% of waste is recycled. What is this waste and how do we transform it into
new raw materials? Read on.


Recyclable waste is waste that can be transformed into secondary raw materials, so that other products can be
produced. Recyclable waste is divided into four broad categories:plastics, glass, paper/cardboard and metal. It also
includes wood, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), rubber and construction waste
In France, 355 million tons of waste were produced in 2010 according to a study submitted in January 2013 by the Department
of the Commissioner-General of Sustainable Development. If we include quarry fill (mineral waste backfill), 60% of waste is
recycled. Across the European Community, this percentage varies widely from one country to the next. According to a European
Commission report published in August 2012, 33% of municipal waste generated in the EU is recycled. 54% is treated in
waste storage facilities. Austria, Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, with a rate between 60% and 70% inclusive, are the
four leading European countries in the field of recycling. Conversely, Latvia, Slovakia, Lithuania and Romania recycle fewer than
one out of ten waste items. And Bulgaria is the sole member country that recycles none of its waste. Internationally, the United
States recycled an estimated 34% of its waste in 2010.


Recyclable waste undergoes materials recovery. This recovery is referred to as closed loop when the materials are recycled
and then reused in the product it came from: glass becomes more glass, PET from water bottles becomes a water bottle. It is
called downcycling when the materials are directed toward other uses: rubber from tyres becomes a soft surface for
playgrounds, and PET for example is turned into polar fleece.
Plastics recycling
The manufacturing of PET granules and flakes, recycling of agricultural films, recycling of industrial plastics Plastics
recycling possibilities are being developed to such an extent that in France, plastics recycling has increased ten-fold over the
last ten years. To recycle plastics, mechanical equipment is used to separate, wash and refine them (separation is done using
infrared detection, cameras, density, Foucault currents, etc.). Plastics are then ground into flakes. In Europe, one out of every
three plastic containers in 2011 was recycled.
Paper and cardboard recycling
Paper and cardboard recycling on the other hand, is primarily used to supply paper and cardboard manufacturers. Paper
such as newspapers, journals and magazines are made from cellulose fibres that are mainly extracted from wood or old
recovered and recycled paper. The fibres in this case are called recycled cellulose fibres (RCF). These RCF are transformed into
new paper pulp by means of a defibering process: fibres are suspended in water and contaminants like ink and varnish are
removed. The resulting pulp, depending on the level of quality, can then be used to make new paper and cardboard packaging.
According to the Confederation of European Papers Industry (CEPI), Europe recycles 78% of its paper and cardboard.
Ferrous and non-ferrous metals recycling
Deposits of ferrous and non-ferrous metals are mainly found in building demolitions, production scraps, dismantled complex
end-of-life products like cars, planes and boats. Torecycle ferrous and non-ferrous metals, their quality must first be
analysed after which they are sorted by type (copper, steel, aluminium, stainless steel, etc.). They are then compacted, cut up,
sheared or ground and separated before being supplied to steel mills, refineries and foundries as a substitute for raw materials.
According to a 2011 report by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), lead, silver and gold are the three most
recycled metals in the world. The first because it mainly exists in batteries and the other two because of their rarity.

Glass recycling
Glass, in turn, is first sorted to remove metallic elements and ceramics, which are not recyclable. Bottle caps and labels are
then removed using a blower. Finally, the glass is ground up and can be used to make new containers. In Europe, the recycling
rate for container glass was 68% on average in 2010, according to the latest report published by the European Container
Glass Federation (FEVE).
Wood recycling
Lastly, wood for recycling is collected from local authorities, industry, superstores and sawmills. Once broken down into
shavings, it can be used to make particleboards. Wood that is chemical-free can be burned in individual or joint boilers. Nonreusable pallets are broken down into shavings that can be recycled into medium-density fibreboard or used in bioenergy.
Reusable pallets, once repaired and checked, are put back into circulation. In 2011, Frances wood recycling market
represented 5 million tons. And of this total, 3.5 million tons were recycled, versus 1.8 million ten years earlier.

Compostable and biodegradable waste (bio waste)

Abundant, yet still inadequately reused, bio waste offers certain environmental advantages. Hence the reasoning
behind the increase in different types of recovery, such as composting and biogas.
Composed of food scraps (vegetable peels, eggshells), branches, leaves, paper and cardboard, bio waste is biodegradable
waste produced by companies and individuals. It is generated by local authorities, supermarkets and hypermarkets, the
restaurant industry and the agro-food industry. Sludge from wastewater treatment plants is also considered bio waste.
According to the European Commission and the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), bio waste
deposits in Europe total 190 kg/year/inhabitant. In France this number is 350 kg/year/inhabitant. The country stored 27% of its
biodegradable waste in 2009, versus 1% for Germany, since the latter has historically been engaged in bio waste recovery.


Solutions for recovering bio waste exist. Mechanical biological treatment (MBT), which is a machine-assisted process,
isolates the fermentable portion of waste from the rest of household rubbish. The resulting material is then recovered by
composting or methanisation. Compostingtransforms organic waste into humus, a fertilising material for soil and gardens.
Waste gradually decomposes under the combined action of water, microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, etc.) and
oxygen. Methanisation, on the other hand, refers to a natural fermentation process in a closed environment designed to
produce biogas.
Bio waste recovery has undeniable advantages. By reincorporating them into their natural cycle, these elements can be used
to enrich soil, or produce electricity and heat. Use of bio waste also reduces the need for chemical fertilisers. Since 1
January 2012, food distribution, non-domestic catering and the agro-food industry in France are obligated to sort and recycle
their waste. SITA France, a SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT subsidiary, has bio-depackaging plants to perform these two operations.

Medical waste
As its name indicates, medical waste (MW) comes from medical activities. Treating this waste is delicate because it
poses infectious, chemical and toxic risks. In healthcare establishments, the goal is to prevent hospital-acquired
infections. What kind of waste is considered MW and how should it be treated? The eMag explains it all.


According to the public health code, medical waste (MW) is waste from diagnostic and follow-up procedures and preventive,
curative and palliative treatment in human and animal healthcare: It is, therefore, medical waste from healthcare facilities,
medical waste from independent medical practitioners and medical analysis labs and waste from home healthcare and
individuals undergoingself-treatment. In healthcare establishments, MW is divided into five categories:
infectious medical waste (IMW). This refers to any object that comes in contact with blood or another biological fluid
(pointy or sharp objects, vials of blood products, drainage devices, etc.). Human fragments and lab waste (cultures, samples,
etc.) are included. According to ADEME, IMW produced in France totalled 163,000 tons in 2008, 155,000 of which came from
healthcare facilities.
Chemical and toxic medical waste (CTMW). This includes batteries and accumulators, active implantable medical devices
(cardiac pacemakers, defibrillators, insulin pumps, hearing aids, etc.), materials containing mercury (blood pressure monitors,
thermometers, etc.), medical waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) (accumulators, condensers, cathode tubes,
etc.), anticancer medical waste (because they have carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic effects), and unused medications.
Radioactive waste. This is primarily radioactive atoms with a very short half-life used in medicine to diagnose or treat
certain diseases.
Human anatomical parts
Non-hazardous waste, which is classified as household waste


Non-hazardous medical waste follows the procedure of household and other similar waste. It is selectively collected and then
incinerated or stored in non-hazardous waste storage facilities. Human anatomical parts are incinerated in an
authorised crematorium.
IMW is generally incinerated but may be pre-treated. Pre-treatment involves grinding it up and then reducing the
microbiological contamination most often using high temperatures. Pre-treated waste can be disposed of either by incinerating it
or storing it in a non-hazardous waste storage facility. CTMW is entrusted to companies qualified to transport these types of
material, after which it is treated in facilities classified to protect the environment subject to authorisation. This waste
undergoes heat or physicochemical treatment. It can also be recovered or stored depending on its type.
With regard to radioactive waste, two potential methods for disposing it exist depending on its characteristics:
Radioactive waste with a half-life of fewer than 100 days can be disposed of as with non-radioactive waste if it is managed
through radioactive decay. In this case, the waste is stored in a location designed for its decay. During decay, if the waste
poses an infectious risk, it is treated like IMW, and like CTMW if it poses chemical or toxic risks.
Radioactive waste with a half-life in excess of 100 days is handled by the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste
Management (ANDRA).

Hazardous Waste
Hazardous waste, primarily from industry, can have an impact on health or the environment. Various treatment
techniques can be used to safely recover or store it.


Hazardous waste is waste that contains varying amounts of toxic or hazardous elements that may have an impact on
human health or the environment. It can be organic (solvents, hydrocarbons, etc.), mineral (acids, metal hydroxide sludge,
etc.) or gaseous. It possesses one or more of the following characteristics: explosive, highly flammable, irritant, noxious,
toxic, corrosive, mutagenic or carcinogenic.
Hazardous waste accounts for 3% of waste produced in Franceevery year, or 11.5 million tons in 2010. Two-thirds comes
from industry and the building sector. More precisely, the waste production and treatment industry generates the highest
percentage of hazardous waste, followed by construction (produced using contaminated tar, soil and stone), the service industry
and the chemical industry.
In 2010, there were 94.5 million tons of hazardous waste in the European Union, or less than 4% of all waste
produced. The three leading producers are Germany (19.9 million tons), France and the UK (9.4 million tons).


Several solutions for recovering hazardous waste exist:
High-temperature incineration. This solution generates heat for private or public buildings. It is used especially for
infectious medical waste (IMW).
Storage and stabilisation. Some hazardous industrial waste must be stored so that the pollutants it contains are not
released into the environment. Some waste containing pollutants exceeding the regulated thresholds cannot be stored as is. It,
therefore, undergoes a stabilising treatment that consists of solidifying and trapping its mineral and organic pollutants.
Physico-chemical treatment. Other hazardous waste must undergo a physico-chemical treatment before it is stored. This
treatment transforms it using methods that employ chemical reactions or physical separation processes. Various techniques are
used like chemical breakdown, centrifugation or neutralisation adapted to the wastes characteristics. Physico-chemical
treatment generates sludge. Once it settles and is dehydrated, it will go to hazardous industrial waste storage centres or final
waste storage centres reserved for waste that can no longer be recovered.
Regeneration. Regenerating used solvents through distillation yields unadulterated finished products, the quality of which is
comparable to new solvents. This solution is as cost-effective as it is environmental and helps to conserve raw material
resources. Regenerated and pre-treated used oils, antifreeze, glycols and contaminated hydrocarbons can be used to
manufacture replacement petroleum products.
In France, 8.5 million tons of hazardous waste was treated in 2010. 50% was recovered through incineration, regeneration (oils,
solvents, etc.) or recycling (end-of-life equipment, batteries, etc.).

Inert waste
Primarily derived from the BPW (Building and Public Works) sector, inert waste is currently a very hot topic. By
2020, the European Union has set a goal for member countries to recycle 70% of their waste from non-hazardous
construction sites, but this goal has not been met due to the lack of adequate recycling facilities. What types of
waste are included in the category of inert waste? How should we recycle it? The eMag explains it all.


According to Article R. 541-8 of the French Environmental Code, inert waste is waste that has undergone no significant
physical, chemical or biological modification, does not decompose, does not burn, produces no physical or chemical reaction, is
not biodegradable, and does not deteriorate materials with which it comes into contact in a manner likely to harm the
environment or human health. Two types of inert waste are distinguished:
Inert waste from extractive industries (quarry mining, initial treatment facilities for quarry materials). In Europe, this
waste must meet a vast number of criteria in terms of its chemical composition and potential danger to humans and the
environment to be considered inert waste. Production of inert waste in 2010 was estimated at 727 million tons, or 28% of all
waste produced.
Inert waste not derived from extractive industries. This essentially refers to waste produced by the construction sector
such as minerals (stone, marble, sandstone, slate, etc.), concrete, bricks, glass and even earth. However, not all waste from the
BPW (Building and Public Works) sector is considered inert waste. For example, asbestos has been included in the category
of hazardous waste since 2011, while before that time it was considered inert waste. Plaster is not considered inert waste
because its water solubility can pollute groundwater and have an impact on the environment
In France, most inert waste comes from the BPW sector. According to a study conducted by the Department of the
Commissioner-General for Sustainable Development published in January 2013, 260 million tons of waste (243.4 tons of which
was mineral waste) came out of construction in France in 2010, which represents some 70% of overall waste production. This
waste production is estimated at 855 million tons in the European Union, or 33% of all waste produced.


Inert waste can be recovered at the very site that produced it, at other sites, or as quarry fill and fill for road projects. In order
to do this, the waste is crushed and sifted. Non-recycled inert waste is transported to special storage facilities. It is then
turned into final waste, meaning waste that can no longer be treated under current technical and economic conditions. In
France, such dumping sites are called IWSF (Inert Waste Storage Facilities). An ADEME survey indicated that in 2004, two-thirds
of the inert waste produced in France was recycled. According to the Department of the Commissioner-General for Sustainable
Development, this ratio was the same in 2010.
Debates over recycling inert waste are making headlines in Europe. The European Union set a goal of 70% recycling of nonhazardous BPW waste in 2020 for its member countries. To meet this goal, new recycling facilities must be built, but these
activities are not always profitable and take up a lot of space. In France, a working group has been formed at the National
Assembly to discuss an economic and tax model that will provide incentives for construction-site waste recycling.


Environmental health is one of the main concerns of schools and the government becauseit directly
affects the students as well as the surrounding communities. Almost a quarter of the population are
elementary and secondary students and as a group, they have an enormous impacton the environment.
This impact is geared towards a positive one. The capacity of these studentsto influence is used
appropriately so as to raise awareness and to compel the rest of the population to do the responsible act
of proper waste disposal.
The common types of wastes in schools are grass, leaves, paper and plastics and theyarise from routine
activities such as class work, sweeping, serving of food, and bush cutting.These wastes need efficient
and effective management because they may result to foul

odors, pest infestation, and spillages if handled otherwise. The U.S. Public Health Service publishedresult
s tracing the relationship of 22 human diseases to improper solid waste management(Mabogunje, 1968)
The problems associated with the disposal of wastes are more numerous in public schoolsdue to factors
such as the lack of facilities and the absence of student trainings regarding proper waste management.
Aside from that, the increasing ratio of students to public schools (20 millionstudents to 45,700 schools)
as compared to the ratio of students to private schools (3 millionstudents to 13,300 schools) sheds light
on the overcrowded condition of public schools. A largenumber of students confined in a limited space is
more prone to committing unsanitary practices.Also, the rise in public school population increases the
rate of waste generation.
Public schools in the Philippines face many crisis everyday ranging from theinsufficiency of facilities to
the lack of sanitation. Dirty surroundings in public schools may notrank as high as the problem r
egarding the lack of teachers, but still it is way up there. Its just
that the other main problems are so pressing that the issue of sanitation is either ignored or setaside for
the time being. The way the public school officials, teachers and students handle thesematters are
different from one public school to another. Because of that, this study is made
Statement of the Problem
Main Problem
This study intends to assess the waste management practices in the selected PublicSchools in Cebu City
and to recommend improvement in their waste management system.Sub-Problems1.
What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:1.1.
Civil Status;1.4.
Highest Educational Attainment; and1.5.
What is the level of waste management practice in terms of:2.1.
Garbage segregation practices;

Reusable Waste practices;2.3.

Compost for garbage practices; and2.4.
Turning waste into resourceful practices.3.
Is there a significant degree of difference between the demographic and the level of wastemanagement
What recommendations can be derived from the study?

Also called solid waste, this refers to all discarded household, commercial waste, non-hazardous
institutional and industrial waste, street sweepings, construction debris, agriculturalwaste, and other
non-hazardous/non-toxic solid waste (Republic Act No.
9003 Ecological SolidWaste Management Act of 2000).
Waste Management.
Also called solid waste management, this refers to the disciplineassociated with the control of
generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing,and disposal of solid wastes in a
manner that is in accord with the best principles of publichealth, economics, engineering, conservation,
aesthetics, and other environmental considerations,
and that is also responsive to public attitudes (Republic Act No. 9003 Ecologic
al Solid Waste
Management Act of 2000).
Waste Management Practice.
This refers to the customary actions employed to control thegeneration, storage, collection, transfer and
transport, processing, and disposal of solid wastes.
Public School.
This refers to all state-owned schools, colleges and universities (House Bill No.
1512 Public School Security Act of 2012).
This refers to a solid waste management practice of separating different materialsfound in solid waste in
order to promote recycling and reuse of resources and to reduce the
volume of waste for collection and disposal (Republic Act No. 9003 Ecological Solid WasteManagement
Act of 2000)
This refers to the process of recovering materials intended for the same or
different purpose without the alteration of physical and chemical characteristics (Republic Act No. 9003
Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000).
This refers to the controlled decomposition of organic matter by micro-organisms,mainly bacteria and
fungi, into a humuslike product (Republic Act No. 9003 Ecological SolidWaste Management Act of 2000).
Composting is a form of recycling. It involves decomposing organic matter into afertilizer and a soil
amendment. In the past fifteen years, it has evolved into a more sophisticatedtechnology with greater
emphasis on environmental and public health aspects. Particular emphasis has been on odor
management, volatile organic compounds reduction, and bioaerosolsmanagement (Epstein, 2011).
Composting is not as easily implemented as the other recyclingtechniques because of its sophisticated
process. Nevertheless, a few trainings about proper composting can fix this problem. Another issue faced
by composting is the need for enoughspace with soil. In this highly industrialized world, that is quite
difficult to find. However, arevolutionary idea spearheaded by Stephanie Davies (2011) is being
promoted to urban dwellerswith little to no soil space. It is called indoor composting. Davies asserts that
composting is possible wherever you live.Incineration was a popularly used waste management practice
in the late 1800s beforerecent issues of possible environmental hazards arose (Lemann, 2008). The first
incinerators for waste disposal were built in Nottingham by Manlove, Alliot & Co. Ltd. in 1874 to a
design patented by Albert Fryer and they were known
as destructors.
Although the practice of incineration faces many criticisms, it is still a key process in the treatment of
hazardous andclinical wastes which need to be subjected to high temperatures of incineration to
destroy pathogens and toxic contamination it contains. But as stated earlier, this waste processingmetho
d does not promote a sustainable environment so it must only be used on specific wastes.Landfilling is
the oldest and most common form of waste treatment. It was largelyemployed in Europe during the
1900s as an organized waste disposal method. In modern times,

an example of this kind of waste process is the Inayawan Landfill in Cebu City. A landfill isdefined as a
site for the disposal of waste materials by burial. Landfill issues in the past whichare still present today
include the migration of landfill gas away from the landfill body boundaries and its release into the
surrounding environment (Velinni, 2007). This has resulted toserious environmental concerns including
unpleasant odors, air pollution and global warming.According to Velinni, the monitoring and modelling of
landfill gas emissions is an activeresearch area, mainly aimed at reducing greenhouse gases and in
general, the environmentalimpact of landfills. A reference and optimum method to precisely quantify net
landfill gasemissions does not exist. Thus, no precise solution is yet found.Waste management involves a
combination of the waste treatment techniques mentionedabove as there is no absolute solution to the
problem of increasing waste today. Total eliminationof waste is a long shot but one way of attaining that
goal is, according to Bilitewski (1997),waste avoidance. Human cause will be greatly helped by the
controlling of the generation of waste volume. An individual employing waste avoidance may be less
impactful but collectively,as a nation, as fellow humans, it will bring gigantic change to
the earths state of cleanliness.
Children and the youth can be the perfect channel for spreading environmentalawareness, and the
schools can play a big part in this process. At the start of the school year, theEcoWaste Coalition in a
statement urged the Department of Education to turn the entire Philippines school system into a dynamic
hub where young Filipinos can learn about Zero Wasteas a way of life. Next to our homes, the schools
provide the best training ground for instillingecological awareness, responsibility and action among our
kids, especially in preventing and reducing waste.If the DepEd taps even a fraction of the 23 million
students and makes themaware of the zero-waste lifestyle, we will have a formidable army of Earthloving Filipinos whowill shun wastefulness, including the irksome habit of mixing, littering and burning
trash. Byteaching students at a young age to avoid and manage their waste, important environmental
lawsRepublic Act 9003, or the Ecological SolidWaste ManagementAct could be easilyimplemented. (June
15, 2010, PHILIPPINE DAILY INQUIRER)Waste Managementin the Philippines has been an issue for over
the past twenty yearsnow. Most Cities are facing land depletion problems due to abounding number of
landfills.Waste management problem arise due to improper waste management programs
implementedthat fall under the same category: band aid solution. Waste Management is the proper
transfer,collection and management of waste. Examples of which are recycling, incineration,
gasification,landfills and dumps. There are cities in the Philippines that are applauded because of their
solidwaste management systems executed. Sindalan, San Fernando Pampanga is one of the
fewmunicipalities in the Philippines that established their own recycling facility. It is something toapplaud
for it will be of help to environmental conservation and aesthetics of the mentioned place.
(http://www.articlesbase.com/environment-articles/waste-management-in-the-philippines- 4020619.html)
We need to start teaching our kids as early as we can to take responsibility in
safeguarding our environment. Schools are dynamic focal points of learning and powerfulvehicles of
change. Parents and teachers can work together to spread the wonders of living anenvironmentallysmart lifestyle, said DENR Secretary Ramon Paje
(November 17, 2011,PHILIPPINE STAR)