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ANALISIS INVESTASI TAMBANG 26 NOVEMBER 2014
ANALISIS INVESTASI TAMBANG
26 NOVEMBER 2014

Hendra Harisman, S.T., M.Eng.Sc

INTRODUCTION TO MINE SCHEDULING 26 NOVEMBER 2014
INTRODUCTION TO MINE
SCHEDULING
26 NOVEMBER 2014

Hendra Harisman, S.T., M.Eng.Sc

MINE SCHEDULING DEFINITION: • 'A LIST OF TASKS TO BE PERFORMED, ESPECIALLY WITHIN A SET PERIOD';
MINE SCHEDULING
DEFINITION:
• 'A LIST OF TASKS TO BE PERFORMED, ESPECIALLY WITHIN A SET
PERIOD'; OR AS A 'PLAN OF PROCEDURE FOR A PROJECT'
MINE SCHEDULING
MINE SCHEDULING
• A MINING SCHEDULE, WHICH TELL US WHEN THINGS OCCUR, CAN BE CONSTRUCTED BY APPLYING PRODUCTION
• A MINING SCHEDULE, WHICH TELL US WHEN THINGS OCCUR, CAN
BE CONSTRUCTED BY APPLYING PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS TO THE
MINING SEQUENCE
• BASIS FOR PREPARING AND CONTROLLING THE MINE’S
DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION
• A SCHEDULE DETERMINES THE CASH FLOW ($$$) ASSOCIATED WITH
MINING.
MINE SCHEDULING
MINE SCHEDULING
• IMPORTANT BECAUSE A $ RECEIVED TODAY IS MORE VALUABLE THAN A $ THAT WE MIGHT
• IMPORTANT BECAUSE A $ RECEIVED TODAY IS MORE VALUABLE
THAN A $ THAT WE MIGHT RECEIVE IN A YEAR’S TIME
• LABOUR AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS ARE ESTIMATED,
PERFORMANCE RATES AND STANDARD COSTS ARE APPLIED AND
THEN THE MINE’S PROGRESS AND VIABILITY CAN BE PLANNED AND
MONITORED
• USUALLY AN ITERATIVE PROCESS
MINE SCHEDULING TYPES OF MINING SCHEDULE • PRODUCTION SCHEDULES • LONG TERM OR LIFE OF MINE
MINE SCHEDULING
TYPES OF MINING SCHEDULE
• PRODUCTION SCHEDULES
• LONG TERM OR LIFE OF MINE (10+ YEARS)
• MEDIUM TERM (5 YEARS APPROX.)
• SHORT TERM (3 MONTHS – 2 YEARS)
• EXTREMELY SHORT TERM (DOWN TO A SHIFT, OR FOR SPECIFIC JOBS)
• EXPLORATION DRILLING SCHEDULES
• DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULES
• PRODUCTION DRILLING SCHEDULES
MINE SCHEDULING
MINE SCHEDULING
TYPES OF MINING SCHEDULE • EQUIPMENT SCHEDULES • LABOR SCHEDULES • FILLING SCHEDULES • CONSUMABLE SCHEDULES
TYPES OF MINING SCHEDULE
• EQUIPMENT SCHEDULES
• LABOR SCHEDULES
• FILLING SCHEDULES
• CONSUMABLE SCHEDULES
• SPECIAL PROJECT SCHEDULES
MINE SCHEDULING LONG TERM SCHEDULE • USED TO FEED INFORMATION TO THE CALCULATION OF THE MINE’S
MINE SCHEDULING
LONG TERM SCHEDULE
• USED TO FEED INFORMATION TO THE CALCULATION OF THE MINE’S NPV
AND CUT-OFF GRADE CALCULATIONS
• PROVIDE TARGET DATES FOR ORE RESERVE EXPLORATION DRILLING
SCHEDULES, INCLUDING DEVELOPMENT REQUIRED TO ACCESS THESE
EXPLORATION DRILLING SITES
• GENERAL IN NATURE AND ARE USUALLY SCHEDULES ON A YEARLY BASIS
BECAUSE OF THE LACK OF LONG TERM INFORMATION AND DETAILED
DESIGN
• BASED ON THE KNOWN PROVED AND PROBABLE ORE RESERVES OF THE
MINE
• USUALLY UPDATED ANNUALLY OR AFTER A MAJOR DRILLING PROGRAM
MINE SCHEDULING MEDIUM TERM SCHEDULE • MAIN PLANNING SCHEDULES INDICATING WHEN PLANNING AND DESIGNS OF ACCESSES
MINE SCHEDULING
MEDIUM TERM SCHEDULE
• MAIN PLANNING SCHEDULES INDICATING WHEN PLANNING AND DESIGNS
OF ACCESSES TO NEW AREAS OF THE MINE NEED TO BE COMPLETED
• I NDICATE WHEN NEW STOPING AREAS NEED TO BE DESIGNED AND
BROUGHT INTO PRODUCTION, HENCE WHEN THE EXPLORATION DRILLING TO
PROVE UP THESE NEW AREAS NEEDS TO BE DONE
• MORE DETAILED THAN THE LONG TERM ONES WITH INDIVIDUAL STOPE ORE
BLOCKS NOMINATED, EACH WITH THEIR OWN TONNES AND GRADES AND
DILUTION AND RECOVERY FACTORS
• USUALLY UPDATED QUARTERLY
• I N CASE OF UNDERGROUND MINE, THE ORE TONNES PRODUCED FROM THE
DEVELOPMENT HEADINGS ARE SHOWN.
MINE SCHEDULING SHORT TERM SCHEDULE • PROVIDE THE MAIN MONTHLY AND QUARTERLY OPERATING TARGETS • DETAILED
MINE SCHEDULING
SHORT TERM SCHEDULE
• PROVIDE THE MAIN MONTHLY AND QUARTERLY OPERATING TARGETS
• DETAILED IN TONNES, GRADES, DILUTIONS AND RECOVERIES FOR EACH
STOPE
MINE SCHEDULING EXPLORATION DRILLING SCHEDULE • FAIRLY SIMPLE SCHEDULES INDICATING WHEN DRILLING NEEDS TO BE DONE
MINE SCHEDULING
EXPLORATION DRILLING SCHEDULE
• FAIRLY SIMPLE SCHEDULES INDICATING WHEN DRILLING NEEDS TO BE
DONE TO SATISFY THE KEY DATES INDICATED ON THE LONG TERM AND
MEDIUM TERM PRODUCTION SCHEDULES.
• SHOWS WHEN DRILLING SITES ARE REQUIRED AND HENCE THE
DEVELOPMENT NEEDED TO ACCESS THE SITES
• SHOWS VARIOUS TYPES OF EXPLORATION DRILL RIGS REQUIRED, THE
LABOUR NEEDED TO OPERATE THESE RIGS AND THE DRILLING RATES
PER SHIFT FOR EACH OF THESE RIGS.
MINE SCHEDULING DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE • DRAWN UP TO SATISFY THE TARGETS FOR PRODUCTION FROM VARIOUS AREAS
MINE SCHEDULING
DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE
• DRAWN UP TO SATISFY THE TARGETS FOR PRODUCTION FROM VARIOUS
AREAS AND STOPES, AS SHOWN ON THE PRODUCTION SCHEDULE
• TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT PERFORMANCES FOR UNDERGROUND
• DECLINE (SINGLE HEADING): 30 – 50 M/WEEK
• DECLINE (TWO HEADINGS): 50 – 60 M/WEEK
• ACCESS DEVELOPMENT (MULTIPLE HEADINGS: 60 – 80 M/WEEK)
MINE SCHEDULING EQUIPMENT SCHEDULE • PREPARED MAINLY FROM PRODUCTION, DEVELOPMENT AND DRILLING SCHEDULES • SOME EQUIPMENT
MINE SCHEDULING
EQUIPMENT SCHEDULE
• PREPARED MAINLY FROM PRODUCTION, DEVELOPMENT AND DRILLING
SCHEDULES
• SOME EQUIPMENT CAN BE SHARED BETWEEN ACTIVITIES
• ESTIMATES TO BE MADE FOR GENERAL SERVICING EQUIPMENT
• PROVIDE VITAL INFORMATION FOR ESTIMATING REQUIREMENTS FOR
MAINTENANCE
MINE SCHEDULING LABOUR SCHEDULE • PREPARED FROM EARLIER SCHEDULES • SHOW THE NUMBER OF PRODUCTION MAKERS,
MINE SCHEDULING
LABOUR SCHEDULE
• PREPARED FROM EARLIER SCHEDULES
• SHOW THE NUMBER OF PRODUCTION MAKERS, EXPLORATORY DRILLERS,
DEVELOPMENT CREW MEMBERS, PRODUCTION DRILLERS AND
MAINTENANCE LABOUR REQUIRED AND WORKING ROSTERS FOR EACH
• ESTIMATES HAVE TO BE MADE OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCTION
BLASTERS, TIMBERMAN, PIPEFITTERS, NIPPERS, SAFETY AND HYGIENE,
MANPOWER AND SUPERVISORS
• STANDARD EARNING RATES FOR EACH OF THE ABOVE LABOUR
CATEGORIES CAN THEN BE APPLIED TO THE NUMBERS REQUIRED FOR EACH,
AND OVERALL LABOUR COSTS ESTIMATED AT VARIOUS TIMES
• USE OF CONTRACTORS TO BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT
MINE SCHEDULING FILLING SCHEDULE • PREPARED FOR MINES THAT FILL THEIR EXTRACTED STOPES OR OPERATE SYSTEMS
MINE SCHEDULING
FILLING SCHEDULE
• PREPARED FOR MINES THAT FILL THEIR EXTRACTED STOPES OR OPERATE
SYSTEMS REQUIRING FILL AS PART OF THE PRODUCTION CYCLE
• THE VOLUME OF FILL REQUIRED AT VARIOUS TIMES IS CALCULATED BY
REFERENCE TO THE SHORT AND MEDIUM TERM PRODUCTION
SCHEDULES
MINE SCHEDULING CONSUMABLES SCHEDULE • CRITICAL CONSUMABLE REQUIREMENTS ARE USUALLY PREPARED TO INDICATE TO SUPPLIERS WHEN
MINE SCHEDULING
CONSUMABLES SCHEDULE
• CRITICAL CONSUMABLE REQUIREMENTS ARE USUALLY PREPARED TO
INDICATE TO SUPPLIERS WHEN AND HOW MUCH OF THESE ARE
REQUIRED
• SUCH AS EXPLOSIVES, FUEL, POWER, ETC...
MINE SCHEDULING SPECIAL PROJECT SCHEDULES • USED FOR PREPARATION, DEVELOPMENT, INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING OF MAJOR INFRASTRUCTURE
MINE SCHEDULING
SPECIAL PROJECT SCHEDULES
• USED FOR PREPARATION, DEVELOPMENT, INSTALLATION AND
COMMISSIONING OF MAJOR INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENTS AT
MINES
• CRITICAL PATH FOR THE COMPLETE PROJECT IS DETERMINED AND
RESOURCES REQUIRED FOR EACH TIME SEGMENT CALCULATED
• UPDATED REGULARLY AND USED AS ONE OF THE PROJECT
MANAGEMENT TOOLS TO CONTROL THE PROJECT TO MEET ITS
TARGETS IN TERMS OF TIME AND COST
PRODUCTION SCHEDULING OPEN PIT SCHEDULING
PRODUCTION SCHEDULING
OPEN PIT SCHEDULING
MINE SCHEDULING
MINE SCHEDULING
OBJECTIVES • PROVIDING A STEADY AND BALANCED ORE FEED TO THE MILL • MAXIMISING THE NPV
OBJECTIVES
• PROVIDING A STEADY AND BALANCED ORE FEED TO THE MILL
• MAXIMISING THE NPV OF THE PROJECT
• PROVIDING A STEADY, BALANCED WORK LOAD FOR THE ORE AND
WASTE MINING EQUIPMENT FLEETS
• MAINTAINING HAULROAD ACCESS TO WORKING BENCHES AND
MAINTAINING AN EFFECTIVE SUMP
• PROVIDING TIME IN THE MINING CYCLE FOR GRADE CONTROL AND
FOR OPENING UP A BOX CUT ON A NEW BENCH
MINE SCHEDULING
MINE SCHEDULING
SCHEDULING • SCHEDULING IS INTEGRAL TO THE DESIGN AND OPERATION OF AN OPEN PIT MINE. •
SCHEDULING
• SCHEDULING IS INTEGRAL TO THE DESIGN AND OPERATION OF AN
OPEN PIT MINE.
• THE PROCESS OF DECIDING WHICH BENCH TO EXTRACT, WHEN TO
EXTRACT IT AND HOW THIS FITS INTO THE OVERALL PIT DESIGN IS
INCREASINGLY BECOMING MORE COMPLEX DUE TO THE ADVENT OF
ECONOMIC THEORY AND ADVANCED COMPUTER OPTIMISATION
SOFTWARE.
• SCHEDULING OF OPEN PITS OFTEN UTILISES THE CONCEPT OF A
PUSHBACK, AS DESCRIBED FOLLOWING.
MINE SCHEDULING
MINE SCHEDULING
PUSHBACK • A PUSHBACK IS A DESIGN OF WHAT THE PIT WILL LOOK LIKE AT A
PUSHBACK
• A PUSHBACK IS A DESIGN OF WHAT THE PIT WILL LOOK LIKE AT A
SPECIFIC TIME.
• PUSHBACKS ARE USED WHERE THE EXACT DESIGN OF THE PIT AT THAT
TIME WILL SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT OVERALL MINE PROFITABILITY, PIT
SCHEDULING, OR SOME OTHER CHOSEN DESIGN FACTOR (USUALLY
ECONOMIC).
• OVER THE MINE LIFE, SUCCESSIVE PUSHBACKS WILL INCREASE IN SIZE
FROM SMALL PITS, TO LARGE PITS, TO THE FINAL PIT.
MINE SCHEDULING
MINE SCHEDULING
PUSHBACK
PUSHBACK

The pit passes through the phases from 1 to 6 (the final pit) over the mine life

MINE SCHEDULING
MINE SCHEDULING
PUSHBACK • THE PROCESS OF CHOOSING WHEN A PUSHBACK IS NEEDED, IS USUALLY DONE THROUGH SOME
PUSHBACK
• THE PROCESS OF CHOOSING WHEN A PUSHBACK IS NEEDED, IS USUALLY
DONE THROUGH SOME TYPE OF OPTIMISATION PROCESS, WHERE
PUSHBACKS ARE CREATED DUE TO THE POSITIVE EFFECT OF THEIR EXISTENCE
ON THE CHOSEN DESIGN FACTOR.
• PUSHBACKS ARE COMMONLY CHOSEN DUE TO THE EFFECT OF THEIR
EXISTENCE ON THE NPV OF THE MINE.
• THE PUSHBACKS DEFINE WHICH ORE AND WHICH WASTE WILL BE REMOVED
AT WHAT TIME. WITH EFFECTIVE SELECTION OF WHEN A PUSHBACK IS
NECESSARY , THE COST OF REMOVING WASTE WILL BE MOST EFFECTIVELY
OFFSET BY THE REVENUE OF SELLING EXTRACTED ORE WHEN ECONOMIC
CONDITIONS AND THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY ARE CONSIDERED.
MINE SCHEDULING
MINE SCHEDULING
PUSHBACK
PUSHBACK
MINE SCHEDULING SIMPLE EXAMPLE
MINE SCHEDULING
SIMPLE EXAMPLE
MINE SCHEDULING
MINE SCHEDULING
• ASSUME THE PRODUCTION RATE IS 5 BLOCKS PER YEAR; • THE NET VALUE (PROFIT) FOR
• ASSUME THE PRODUCTION RATE IS 5 BLOCKS PER YEAR;
• THE NET VALUE (PROFIT) FOR AN ORE BLOCK = $60.00
• COST OF REMOVING THE WASTE = $30.00 PER BLOCK
• CALCULATE THE NPV OF THIS STRATEGY USING 10%
INTEREST RATE. ASSUME CASH-FLOWS ARE REALISED AT THE
END OF EACH YEAR.
MINE SCHEDULING
MINE SCHEDULING
• PRESENT VALUE = FUTURE VALUE/(1+10/100) N SEQUENCING: • Y R 1= 5 WASTE BLOCKS (BENCH
• PRESENT VALUE = FUTURE VALUE/(1+10/100) N
SEQUENCING:
• Y R 1= 5 WASTE BLOCKS (BENCH 1)
Y R 2 = 5 WASTE BLOCKS (BENCH 1)
Y R3 = 5 ORE BLOCKS (BENCH 2)
Y R 4 = 5 ORE BLOCKS (BENCH 2)

Jawaban: NPV = $169.96