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Copyright 2009 Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC. reprinted with permission from ELR, http://www.eli.org, 1-800-433-5120.

Chinas
Environment al
Super Minist ry
Reform:
Background,
Challenges, and
t he Fut ure
X QIU

Ho gl

LI

X QIU
P .D.
v
g f llow
V o L w S ool. Ho gl LI D
o
of L w P og
, Y l -C
A o
o .*

Editors Summary
I M
2008,
C
N o l P opl Co g
lv
fo
S
E v o
l Po o A
o o
M
of E v o
l
Po
o .
fo
g
v o
l
po
o
o
v
l , pol
l w ll,
o
k g pow ,
o o
. Howv ,
wM
o fo
lg l o ,
g o
o
llo o ,
w k
l-lo l
g
.F
fo
o fo
o
v lw lg l o
l g g l
o fo
x
g g l o ,
l
of oll o v f
wo k ,
ppl
o of
vpp o
o
l-lo l l o
p.

M
15, 2008, C
El v
N o l P opl Co g
p
p
fo
(SMR) o o p opo
S
Co
l
v p
, o l o
o of wo o
o p vo
o
p
.
p po
of
SMR w o vo ov l pp g gov
l po l
o
g p
w
l
o
lo l l
f
o . O of
g lg w
lvo of
S
E v o
lPo
o A
o
(SEPA) o
M
of E v o
lPo
o (MEP),
w
w lo f o
v o
l SMR.
f
o p
o
fo
o
of o p
v
po
l
p
v
f
wo k.1 I o
opo o o p
v
g
oo
o , v l p
g
o
w
,
p
,
o
l
go l
po
l
.B
l g g
po l
o ,
fo
ll
o
p
l k o
p
l
, oo
gl
p
op w
o p
v po l
fo
l pl p p v , vo
g ov l pp g
po
l
o .
,
v
v o
.
D
g
SMR, MEP w
pg
w
o l
p
o
og z o l
gov l po
l .2
o
o g pol
l
w ll
o
of C

l gov
o vo
lp o
o .
A l
o
kg o
of
SMR,
follow
o of
o v o
po v
p
of
SMR
v o
lpo
o
o.
A l
l z
g
po l
of
v o
l po
o
v f
wo k, w
v o
l SMR
po
ll olv
of
o o
. F ll ,
A l p
o
o o
k
fo f
v lop
.3
1.

2.

3.
* X QIU wo l l k o
k
C
S ol
p Co
l
USAID
g
o
ppo fo
f llow p
P of. T
g YANG, V o L w
S ool,
J f K
L
, J.D. 2010
of V o L w S ool.
o wo l l o l k o
k J
f T
, D
o of
C
E v o
Fo
,Wlo C
, P of. J o Co , N w Yo k U v
L w S ool, A W ll , Ex
v D
o , Y l -C
A o
o ,
P of .
H g LIU, Z p g LI,
D j GU, S Y -S U v
L w S ool. All
o
v o
l
o ow .

39 ELR10152

Al o g
v
xpl
o of p
,
o o o
o of
gl
o
g ov l pp g o lo l l
p
l po
l
. See SHI Y j & SHI Z gw , Several
oughts on Promoting the Reform of Super Ministry, 2 Ch inese Pub. Admin.
9-11 (2008); SHI X
& SUN F f g, On Preventing Negative E ects of
Super Ministry, 3 Ch inese Pub. Admin. 29-32 (2008); P opl D l ,
O
lC
C
l N w Ag
, What Is Super Ministry?,
p://gov.
p opl . o . /GB/46728/114889/
x.
l (l v
D . 21, 2008).
HUA J
,S
Co
lo
S
-G
l, Instruction on Institutional Reform of China State Council, M . 11, 2008, p://www.
o g. /z /
z /2008-03/12/ o
_5190487.
(l v
D . 21, 2008).
lo of l
o gov
o l fo
C
,
o
o
SMR. A of J
9, 2008,
p
v
l o C

SMR w
follow g: CHEN T x g, A Frame With Big Departments:
A New Rout for Reforming the Governmental Institutions, 2 Acad. Res. 40-47
(2008); ZHANG C
gx , e Analysis on the Relations Between Big Ministry
and Small Government, 5 Ch inese Pub. Admin. 36-38 (2008); CHEN W , e
inking of Certain Questions for Super Ministries System Reform, 2 J. Sich uan
Admin. C. 22-24 (2008); WANG Y k , Analysis on Super Ministry Reform
in China and Its Challenges, 3 Tr ib. St udy 52-55 (2008); SHI Y j & SHI
Z gw , supra o 1. How v , o of
fo o
v o
l SMR.

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW REPORTER

2-2009

Copyright 2009 Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC. reprinted with permission from ELR, http://www.eli.org, 1-800-433-5120.

I. Background of Environmental
Institutional Reform in China

Ub
,
b

A. Development of Institutional Reform in


Chinas Environmental Protection Sector
C

b
D

S
1984,

19
: (1)

.S

1. The First Stage: Formation

P
C

N
C

z
19 ,

P
C
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E

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E

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P

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Ub

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P

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S

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E

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j

(3)

S
S
P

.
b
I
H
E
N
E
19 3. A
C

.
U
D
P
E

3. The Third Stage: Stabilization

, C
C
P

A
L

5,

I 1989,
C
19 9 E

D
S

:
.5

,C
T
I

.
P -

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)b

P
SEPA

A
S
E
(SEPA). H
,
S
C

S
,

,
C

q
,
z
.C

b
C

.
b

1998,

I 19 8, C
b

P
b

.9
I M
8, SEPA
MEP (
S
C

b
b
b
S
C

SMR). I
.S
b
,

b
MEP
b

b z .

4. Status of the MEP in the National


Administrative Structure

2. The Second Stage: The Expansion


C
A

,
C

P
4.
5.
6.

E
z

A
LI H
, Discussion on Chinas Environmental Supervision and Management
System, 5 J. Hunan Pol .-Legal Cadr e C. 53-56 ( 5).
C
C
, . 11 (19 8), available at
:// .j .
. . /
.
? = 89
= .
F
C

j
,
C
O
z
N , Homepage,
://
.
. /z /z /
_1 3 61.
(
D . 8,
8).

2-2009

O
z
(OECD)

198 .6
L -

.
8.

.1 I

HAN Depei, Envir onment al Law 51 (B


D
S
E
S
C
, M 8, 1984, available at
1/1 61.
.
9. C
O
L
S
C
,
.
1 . OECD, A Model for Envir onment al
Count r ies (1988).

NEWS& ANALYSIS

:L

C .
F

://

b.

3).
, b C
. / b/

, 8,
11.
Administ r at ion in Devel oping

39 ELR10153

Copyright 2009 Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC. reprinted with permission from ELR, http://www.eli.org, 1-800-433-5120.

39 ELR10154

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW REPORTER


,b

: (1)
;( )
;
.11
-

; (3)
(4)
A

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.A

OECD,

: (1)

;( )
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2-2009
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b

81
b

113,
15,
b

b
35,6
b

16,
.
-b

b
I

.1
, b

.16
,b

b
,

2. Insu ciency of Environmental Protection


Implementation

( )
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MEP
A
.

B. Reasons for the Environmental SMR


,

b z

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C
6, SEPA
, 85

q
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59. %, 35.4%,

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4.4%

,
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1 %

,
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C
S
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,

.A
Report on the State of the Environment in China,
.O
4 %
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, 43.4%

,
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.

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MEP

j
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: (1)
; (3)

(4)

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Id.
Id.
Id.
SEPA, SEPA Announced t h e Per for mance of Envir onment al Goal s in
t h e Tent h Five-Year Pl an ( 6), available at
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. . / j /
z b/
6 4/
6 41 _ 5 14.
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1 .
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14.

II. Positive Impacts of SMR in the


Environmental Protection Sector
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1. Deterioration of Environmental Quality

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15. SEPA,
6 Repor t on t h e St at e of t h e Envir onment in Ch ina 5, 43
(
).
16. Id. 81.
1 . Id. 53.
18. Id.

Copyright 2009 Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC. reprinted with permission from ELR, http://www.eli.org, 1-800-433-5120.

2-2009

NEWS& ANALYSIS

39 ELR10155

,
S

;
,

5
.

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b

b
C

SEPA
.

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I J

5, SEPA
j
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3E

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C
B

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b

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.
,

,
-

b
b
,
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-

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C

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C .

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q
j

B. Political Perspective: Stronger Political Will


for Environmental Protection
M

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q

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SEPA,

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SEPA

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19. C
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. Max We er , Economy and Societ y: An Out l ine of Int er pr et ive Sociol ogy (U
C
P
19 8).
1. GAO Y , Analysis on Positive and Negative Impacts of Traditional Administrative Culture to Construction of Harmonious Society, 6 Th eor et ical Expl or at ion
1 9-31 ( 5).

(EIAL) b SEPA

I 5, SEPA
j
EIAL
, Environmental Storm in 2005, Ch ina Net ,
://
/z
/ j j/1164411.
(
D . 1,
5. O J
3
j

18,

. See XIONG Z
.
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8).
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3
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S N , 29 Out of the 30 Projected Were Suspended Due to Violation of Environmental Assessment Requirements Resume,
://
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5- 41 / 44856
13 .
(
D . 1,
8).
4. M
b
b
,
,

,
,
b
.
5. SHU S
, Environmental Protection Issues Have Always Been Political Issues, 1 Gr een Wor l d 16 (
).

Copyright 2009 Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC. reprinted with permission from ELR, http://www.eli.org, 1-800-433-5120.

39 ELR10156

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW REPORTER


C

C. Policymaking Perspective: Environmental


Consideration in National Decisionmaking
E

.F

b,

S
C
SEPA
EPL A
q

D. Implementation Perspective; More


Resources Available
A

MEP

MEP. C

,
b

. I
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C
.B
W
S

.O

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,
SEPA,
,
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19 . I
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-

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b
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(SAWS). I
C

SAWS

SAWS.

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FYP,
EIAL C

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35%

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8 %

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2-2009

.
C SEPA,

MEP

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SEPA
,
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6. SUN Y
DING M , Regulatory Environmental Impact Assessment Is Better an Environmental Storm, Gr een Leaves, D .
, 8-9.
. C
E
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A
L (
), E
b
://
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8/ 3/
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(L
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N
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.
9. S N , China StateSafetyMonitor Administration isUpgraded to Improve itsImplementation Capacity,
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.
.
. / /
5
/151 138 339.
(
D . 1,
8).
3 . I
5, 36 , 4
b
95.4%
;
1
, 93,1
b
96.5%
.D
b
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_ 6 14.

Copyright 2009 Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC. reprinted with permission from ELR, http://www.eli.org, 1-800-433-5120.

2-2009

NEWS& ANALYSIS

.F

C
.Ib

,
,

III. Challenges After the Environmental


SMR
W

SMR
,

(b
z

,
b
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O
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.Y

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G

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SEPA

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SEPA
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E

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SEPA

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.
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SEPA.
: (1)
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S

,
A

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T
b SEPA
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A. The MEPRequires More Organic Laws


and Regulations to Sustain Its Institutional
Responsibility and Authority

R
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,
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39 ELR10157

.F

,
:

31. S N , Former SEPA Vice Administor Believed that the Upgrade Would Improve SEPAs Capacity,
://
.
.
. / /
8- 3- 9/18 151 9 6.
(
D . 1,
8).
3 . ZHU G
JIA Y
, Super Ministry Framework Does NOT Solve All
Problems, 3 Ch ina Rep. 69- 1 (
8).
33. A
11
O
L
S
C
q
b
b
S
C
.
34. A
C
L
R b
C
,
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C
O
z
N , Summary for 1982 Reform: Improve Government Efciency, and Employ Younger O cers,
://
.
. /z /z /
8- 3/11/
_519 3 .
(
D . 1,
8); Summary for 1988 Reform:
e Key Is to Transform Governmental Responsibilities,
://
.
. /
z /z /
8- 3/11/
_519 31.
(
D . 1,
8); Summary
for 1993 Reform: To Meet the Needs of Development Socialist Market Economic,
://
.
. /z /z /
8- 3/11/
_519 3 .
(
D . 1,
8); Summary for 1998 Reform: To Separate Government Functions
From Enterprise Functions of State-Owned Enterprises,
://
.
. /
z /z /
8- 3/11/
_519 34.
(
D . 1,
8); Summary
for 2003 Reform: To Regulate Behavior, to Coordinate Operation, to Achieve Justice, Transparency, Integrity, and E ciency,
://
.
. /z /z /
8-

D
V
A

P
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N
MEP

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3/11/
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(
D . 1,
8).
b
b
S
C
P b S
R
,
S
C
.
35. SEPA, Pl ans for Est a l ish ing SEPA Super vision Cent er (
6).
36. P . WANG C
E
S
RS
C
,
b
b
.M
b
J
N , Environmental Protection Supervision Center Cannot Enforce Law Without High-Pro le Delegation,
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.j b.
/
6/
6 9349.
(
D . 1,
8).
3 . F
b
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F
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? =j jj.1
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8). F
b
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P
D
MEP,
MEP
b
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.
. . /
/j z / z /
3 1/
3 1 _84363.
(
D . 1,
8).

Copyright 2009 Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC. reprinted with permission from ELR, http://www.eli.org, 1-800-433-5120.

39 ELR10158

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW REPORTER


,

MEP,
R

: (1)

(4)

1. Pollution Prevention and Control

.
F

;( )
;

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2-2009

MEP

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2. Environmental Planning

B. Environmental SMRCannot Solve the


Ambiguous Horizontal Authority Allocation
Among Di erent Departments
H

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(1)

b
MEP

b
MEP

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SEPA

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L

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b
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b

MEP
SEPA
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b
S N , MEP
Is Likely to Set Up an Environmental Monitoring Bureau,
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/ /
8- 4- 1/
515394858.
(
D . 1,
8).
39. A
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L 1989: [U]
b
b

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b

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(1989).

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b .43
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,
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38. S

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b

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b

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P
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: (1)
z ; (3)
z ; (4)
z ; (5)
z ; (6) b
z ;

;( )
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4 . Id.
41. A P
P
C
L , .4(
); S
W
P
C
L , . 1 ( 4); W
P
P
C
L ,
. 4 (1996); N
P
C
L , . 6 (1996); R
M
P
P
C
L , .8(
3);
M
E
P
L , . 5 (1999).
4 . W
P
P
C
L , supra
41, . 1 ;
I
R
W
P
P
C
L , . (
).
43. W
L , .3 (
).

Copyright 2009 Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC. reprinted with permission from ELR, http://www.eli.org, 1-800-433-5120.

2-2009
z

NEWS& ANALYSIS

.O

R
z
11 z
b
L

j
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: (1)
;

;( )
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; (4)
; (6) b

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; (3)
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z
W

,
AQSIQ.

,
.46 A

b
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; (5)
;
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MEP

MEP. A
,

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z
z
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b

R
b

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,
; (3)

z
T

W
F

39 ELR10159

z
z
z

.B
R

,
b

4. Environmental Monitoring
B

,
MEP,

b
.C
W

MEP
,

R
z
z

b -

b
b

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q

,
I

L
R

W
R
q

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W

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b

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,b

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M

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R
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3. Environmental Standards Setting

M
z

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M
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.
q

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,
b

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z

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z

46.

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MEP,

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.
,

. C

,
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,
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z
.

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L ,

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: (1)

,
1983,
b
b

b ,

45.

,
F

b
,

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,
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,
R

b
b
( )

.48 A

C
.44 C

; (3)
; (4)
-

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q

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-

L ,
AQSIQ,
4 . S
W
C
W
C
48. I
R

.H

b A

.
L , . 9 (1991); I
L , . 1 (1993).
F
L , .
(198 ).

Copyright 2009 Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC. reprinted with permission from ELR, http://www.eli.org, 1-800-433-5120.

39 ELR10160

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW REPORTER

2. Lack of E ective Control From Superior


Environmental Protection Sector and Local
Protectionism

C. Environmental SMRFails to Strengthen


the Vertical Management Within the
Environmental Protection Sector
O

2-2009

1989 E

SMR

P
C
, EPB

EPB
-

b
.

(1)

, ( )
.S

(3)

.O
b
,

SMR

;
EPB. H

.A

.
.

1. Ambiguous Allocation of Environmental


Management Authority Within the Vertical
Framework of Environmental Protection Sector

.
I 1994, C
.S

b
,

.51
b

,
-/

(EPB )
L ,

,
P

B
P

E
j

EPB ,
. C

j
/

EPB,
MEP. EPB

EPB,

q
b

b-

.
F

.5

P
M

,
EPB,

,G
z
H z D
P
. H

.5
C ,
EPB,
EPB
,

EPB

EPB
. I

.
B

EPB

P
A
1 (1999),

L , supra
P
b SEPA.

39,
E

. 9, 1 ,

,
.53

b
,

EPB
MEP

b
b b
.54

3. Lack of Su cient Administrative Supervision


and Responsibility Enforcement System
A

P
b
.55 H

1989,
q

,
q

. .
P

EPB
b
q

EPB
.

49. E
5 . R

b
SEPA

z
H z

b
MEP, PAN Y ,

j
I
G
G

V
: A

P
, EPB

EPB .
EPB

EPB,

,
49

51. S
C
, Decision on Separating Tax and Financial Management System (At
Local and Central Levels) (1994).
5 . XIN H
, Vertical Management: Contribution and Limitation, 14 New
West Ch ina
(
).
53. HE J R , Environmental Implementation Urges for Vertical Management, Legal Daily, S . 1,
.
54. Id.
55. See E
P
L , supra
39, . .

Copyright 2009 Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC. reprinted with permission from ELR, http://www.eli.org, 1-800-433-5120.

2-2009

NEWS& ANALYSIS

EPB

b
b .C
.I

.58

b
b

,
q

39 ELR10161
,
-

C
,
,

,
.

1. To Improve Administrative Organic Laws


.56 A

,
A

.
I

SMR

,
.59 B
C

b
,

b
z
,

.W
b
b
M

.
, SEPA

6,5
SMR

j
5,

8,

.H

,
b

,
,

b
.I

,
,

,
.

b
b

,b
.D

,
.6

IV. The Future of Chinas Environmental


SMR
I

2. To Specify Provisions in Environmental


Legislation

SMR,

MEP

.W b

,C

,
,

.
b

: (1)
b
;( )
b

b
;

(3)
-

S
1

W
:

b
. F
C

,
,
L

-b
.

58. P

A. Change From Institutional Reform to


Legislative Reform
W

C
A

, b

b
,

56. R
P
A
V
E
P
( 6),
j
b
S
B
SEPA.
5 . See Pl ans for Est a l ish ing SEPA Super vision Cent er , supra

,
35.

. 3

. WANG C
: (1)

j
;( )

;
(3)
. See
WANG C
, On Limitation of Legislation on Environmental Administration
Mechanism of China, 4 Tr i . Pol . Sci. & L. (J. Ch ina Univ. Pol . Sci. & L.)
5 -58 (
3).
59. YING S
XUE G
, Administrative and Organic Law and Implementation of Administrative Authority Legally, 1 Admin. L. Rev. 1 - (1998).
6 . W b
:
(1)
z
;( )
; (3)
j
; (4)
; (5)
,
,
EPB ;
(6)
b
,
,
.

Copyright 2009 Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC. reprinted with permission from ELR, http://www.eli.org, 1-800-433-5120.

39 ELR10162
[T]
C

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW REPORTER

2-2009

S
[

MEP]

; (3)

AQSIS

,
b b

. W

?H
b

bj

,
b

b
b
.61

SMR
-

q
b

.A

,
,

b
.63

C. Introduce Financial Incentive-Based


Approaches to Current Central-Local
Relationships

B. Transfer From Super Ministry to


Collaborative Ministry
E

,
b

b ,
b-

bj

b
.I
,

b
.I

?W
,

AQSIQ.

?W

,
-

b
MEP

?W

D
b

,
C

. L

EPB , b

b
b

MEP. A

b
.

,
,
,

. I
b .

(4)

q
b

b
AQSIQ
.S
b
MEP,
b
j

MEP,

b
,

b
-

,
-b -

.64

.
U
b

EPB
.65 I

.
O
E
MEP

S
AQSIQ

1 C
M

: (1)

q
b

MEP,

AQSIQ,

b b
b
b

,
b

MEP.

j
,
MEP,
MEP
,
.F

b
. A

MEP,
;( )
,
b
b

,
AQSIQ,
-

AQSIQ
,b

61. See WANG, supra


58.
6 . Nat ional Qual it y &Tech nol ogical Super vision Bur eau, Suggest ions on
Management of Envir onment al St andar ds ( 1).

63. TNAG Z , Legal Analysis and Construction of Democracy on the System of Administration Corresponding in China, 4 Ph il . & Soc. Sci. (Wuh an Univ. J.)
5 5- 8 (
).
64. ZHANG Z , Analysis on Dilemma of Environmental Litigation in China, 5
Law Discussion 138-143 ( 3); BAI P z , Di cult Position and Solution
for Construction of Legal System of Chinas Environment, 1 Soc. Sci. J. C. Sh anxi
51-53 (
); LI Z
CHEN S
, Present Situation of Environment
Administration Law Enforcement in China and Counter Measures, 1 J. Sci. &
Tech . Mgmt . Land & Resour ces 5- (
6).
65. I
C
.O
H

P
,

.
D

R
M

b
,

6. A
;
,

.
See X
N , In-Depth Investigation: e Whole Story of Zhengzhou Longzihu College Illegally Occupied Agricultural Land,
://
.
.
/
/
6- 9/3 /
_5155934.
(
D . 1,
8).

Copyright 2009 Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC. reprinted with permission from ELR, http://www.eli.org, 1-800-433-5120.

2-2009

NEWS& ANALYSIS
b

.F

,
,

W b

b
.66

b
,
-

.C
.I

z
.6 S

b
.

b
.

V. Conclusion
E

SMR,

, SEPA

MEP,
b
A

MEP

z
.T

C
z

z
,

.M

b
.F
-

b
-b

,
b

.
b

66.

.F

SMR.
,C
-

.S

.
b

,
b .

L ,
b

.
b

E
b

P
q

q
j -

.B
b
b
b
q
.
E
P
L . See DU W
, inking on the Environmental Vertical Administration in
China, 3 Ch inese Pu . Admin. 99-1 (
6).
6 . ZHANG D q , Legal Regulation of Financial Transfer Payment Between the
Central and Local Governments, Moder n L. Sci. 56-68 (
)

39 ELR10163