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# Teaching Mathematics in the Elementary School: Activity Diary

## Name: Katie Oller

Number and Number Sense
Name and
Location of
Activity
Ordering Decimals
Number Game
(Observed
Practicum Lesson)

## Up and Down the

Number Line (Van

Materials
Needed

Brief Description
of Activity

Worksheet with
sets of three
various
decimals,
scissors, scrap
sheet of paper
and pencil.

## For this activity, the 4.3

student will be given
a series of
worksheets that have
three sets of various
decimals that they
will compare. The
students will be
instructed to cut out
the decimals and
keep them in their
sets together. After,
the student will
order the sets from
greatest to least, and
least to greatest
according to their
size. When ordering
the decimals, the
students should also
by place value to
ensure that they
know how to
represent the
decimal orally and
written.
Lay the number line K.4
flat on the floor so

Number line
large enough to

Relevant Standard(s) of
Learning (SOL)
The student will
represent, and
identify
decimals
expressed
through
thousandths;
b) round decimals
to the nearest
whole number,
tenth, and
hundredth;
c) compare and
order decimals;
and
d) given a model,
write the
decimal and
fraction
equivalents.

Relevant NCTM
Process
Standard(s)
Communication
and
Representation.
Students use
written and oral
skills to
communicate
mathematical
processes and
thinking to peers
and teacher.
Students also
Create
representations by
ordering decimal
cards and written
notes to organize
and record
mathematical
ideas.

## The student will

a) count forward

Communication
and

Evaluation/Suggested
Modifications

can mix and match
different sets and
compare different
decimals.
If students complete
this, they can also
take every set and
compare all of the
decimals to create a
large number line
from least to greatest,
and then greatest to
least.

## For this activity I

would suggest for my

2
de Walle, Activity
9.1 p. 155)

## walk on, stuffed

animals.

Crazy Mixed-up
Numbers (Van de
Walle Activity 8.15,
p. 138).

Ten-frame for
each student,
counters, paper,
pencil.

## that students can

see/walk on it. First,
put stuffed animals
on the number line
and move them
across the number
to count aloud to the
number it lands on.
Students can also
individually walk on
the number line and
have the rest of the
class say the
number. The teacher
should mention the
movement that is
needed for the
stuffed animal or
student to walk
across the number
line. This will help
students understand
one-to-one
correspondence
between numbers.
for students to place
ten counters on the
ten frame to create a
full frame board.
Then, the teacher
calls out random
numbers for the
students to match
with their ten frame
board. This activity

K.2

to 100 and
backward from
10;
b) identify one
more than a
number and one
less than a
number; and
c) count by fives
and tens to 100.

Representation.
During this activity
students will be
verbally
communicating
what the number
line says, an
extension to this
activity could be to
have students write
down on paper
their own number
line to represent
their own personal
number line to use
for reference.

## The student, given a

set containing 15 or
fewer concrete
objects, will
a) tell how many
are in the set by
counting the
number of
objects orally;
b) write the
numeral to tell
how many are

Connections and
communication.
Students are
making
connections
because they are
making one-to-one
correspondence
when placing the
counters on the ten
frame. Students are

students to create
their own number
line to reference to.
This allows for them
to have something to
look at when they are
stuck on a problem,
but also gives them
extra practice writing
the number line on
their own.

## A good extension was

listed in the activity
description in which
the student plays
teacher and calls
out the number for
the rest of the
students to change
their ten frame to.
If students are
excelling at this

## Find the same

amount (Van de
Walle, Activity 8.10
p. 135).

## Cards with sets

on them (cards
with dots
preferred).

can be done
individually or in
large groups. For
students that are
English Language
learners, you may
need to say the
number aloud or
write it on the board.
Students can work
2.2
individually during
centers or in pairs
Students are given
cards that have dots
on them to count.
They are to match
the pairs of dots that
correspond to the
other card. Once
students have
matched the pairs of
dots, students are to
compare cards to
find which ones are
less or more.

## in the set; and

c) select the
corresponding
numeral from a
given set of
numerals.

also using
communication by
representing the
numbers on the ten
frame and
organizing their
information on the
ten frame.

## The student will

a) identify the
ordinal
positions first
through
twentieth, using
an ordered set
of objects; and
b) write the
ordinal
numbers.

Communication
and Connections.
While working in
pairs, students are
using
communication
skills to talk with
one another and
compare cards.
Students are
making
connections and
comparing between
the cards. Students
are making a
connection
between counting
the dots and
numbers which in
turn creates one to
one
correspondence.

Relevant NCTM
Process
Standard(s)

Evaluation/Suggested
Modifications

## activity, you can

take away x from
ten. This will allow
for them to begin to
implement
subtraction into the
lesson.
One recommendation
that I would make to this
activity is to require
students to say the
number aloud while
sorting them into groups.
This allows for students
to get multiple exposures
to the numbers they are
finding.
To make an extension
for this activity, I would
have found all the pairs
to order them from
greatest to least.

## Computation and Estimation

Name and
Location of
Activity

Materials
Needed

Brief Description
of Activity

Relevant Standard(s) of
Learning (SOL)

4
Salute! (Van de
Walle, Activity
10.12, p. 185)

Missing-Part
Subtraction (Van de
Walle, Activity 9.2,
p. 155)

Deck of cards
(not including
face cards).
Number line
(optional) for
struggling
students.

Book: Whats
Hiding in
There? Tiles to
count, sheet of
paper.

## Students will get

into groups of three
and be provided a
stack of cards (no
face cards). The
stack of cards will
be placed down and
two of the three
students will pick a
card and without
looking, and place it
outwards. The
student that does not
have a card will tell
the other two
students what the
sum is, and both
students have to
guess what number
the other student
has. Continue with
the activity
switching off roles
in the problem.
students the story
Whats Hiding in
There? Pair up
students to work
with each other on a
math problem. For
this problem,
students will be
given tiles to use as
manipulatives. The
students will place

1.5

## The student will

facts with sums to
18 or less and the
corresponding
subtraction facts.

Communication
and Connections.
Students must
communicate
mathematical ideas
to partners to come
to agreement on a
solution. If
subtraction is used,
students should be
able to make
connection
and subtraction
concepts.

K.6
The student will
subtracting whole numbers,
using up to 10 concrete
objects.

Reasoning and
proof and
Connections.
Students will be
using reasoning
and proof because
they will be
making
mathematical
the tiles that are
hidden. They will

## For students that are

struggling with this
activity, a number
line provided to them
may help to come up
with the solution
easier.
students, subtraction
can be implemented
into the lesson by
find what the solution
would be if you
subtracted the larger
card number from the
smaller one.
Students can also use
diagrams to write
down and draw their
solutions to help as
well.

## For students that are

struggling with this
concept I would
provide a number line
so they could use it to
figure out how many
are hidden under the
tiles. This would also
help students make
the connection
subtraction.

Division (Van de
Walle Activity 9.5,
p.163)

Book: Bean
Thirteen, beans,
small paper
cups, paper,
pencil.

## the number of tiles

of their choice
(under 10) on the
carpet. One student
will cover their eyes
while the other
separates the piles
and covers one pile
with a sheet of
paper. The other
student will then say
the subtraction
sentence x minus x
(the visible part) is x
(the covered part).
book Bean Thirteen
to introduce the
concept of division
to students, students
will be placed into
small groups and
given beans in paper
cups. The students
count out the
number of beans in
the cup and record it
on their sheet of
paper. After, the
students will be
their beans into four
separate equal sized
sets. Have students
write the division
equation that

4.4

## The student will

a) estimate sums,
differences,
products, and
quotients of
whole numbers;
and multiply
whole numbers;
c) divide whole
numbers,
finding
quotients with
and without
remainders; and
d) solve singlestep and
multistep
subtraction, and
multiplication
problems with
whole numbers.

also make
connections when
the mathematical
concept is
introduced through
using a book to
introduce the math
concept.

As an extension for
students that are
doing well with the
more tiles to make
the subtraction
problems more
challenging for them.

Representation
and Problem
Solving. Students
will be using
representation
when they are
organizing and
writing down their
mathematical
equations. Students
are also using
problem solving
when they create a
method of
distributing the
beans into separate
categories, students
should be
encouraged to
create their own
method to separate
the beans.

## The book mentioned

some modifications
for this problem that I
felt were great for
students with
disabilities and
English Language
Learners. The only
suggestion that I
would have for this
activity is to have one
group create both the
division problem
with the beans, but
also complete a
multiplication
problem with the
beans so that they can
actually see how the
two are connected.
This would be a good
visual for students to

6
Real Counting On
(Van de Walle
Activity 8.8 p.134).

Counting Change
Bingo (Practicum
Lesson)

Deck of cards
(1-7), a die, a
paper cup,
counters, piece
of paper, pencil.

Bingo playing
cards with
pictures of
various kinds of
change, bingo
cards with
change and
letters, counters.

matches this
problem.
Students are divided 1.5
into pairs of two and
provided the
material. The first
student flips over
the top card on the
stack and puts the
same amount of
counters in the cup
as the number on the
card. The second
player then rolls the
die and places the
same number of
counters next to the
cup as is on the die.
The two students
then record how
many counters they
have in total to help
students understand
counting on.
This lesson was
2.10
used as a review
activity to end a unit
on counting change.
To do this activity,
the teacher passed
out bingo cards that
have pictures of
change with various
coins printed on it.
Once each student
card, the teacher

## see the connection.

Problem Solving
and
Representation.
Students use
problem solving
skills by setting up
an equation to
figure out how
many counters
there are in total.
Students use
representation
when they organize
and write down
their mathematical
communicate with
what the solution is
and how they got
it.
Problem solving
The student will
and
a) count and
representation.
compare a
Through this bingo
collection of
pennies,
nickels, dimes,
to use problem
and quarters
solving skills to
whose total
identify and match
value is \$2.00
the change on their
or less; and
board with the
b) correctly use the
cent symbol (), amount the teacher
dollar symbol
(\$), and decimal required reflection

## The student will

facts with sums to
18 or less and the
corresponding
subtraction facts.

provides an extension
for once the students
have mastered the
small numbers, which
requires more cards
with higher numbers.
Another extension to
do is to have students
that have mastered
this activity begin
subtracting the
number in the cup by
the number that is
rolled on the die.

## This was a great game

to play to review the
unit on change, however
I would suggest that the
teacher require the
student to write down
their work while trying
to figure out how much
the change is all
together. This would
allow for fewer student
errors, and would give
the student the

7
amount of change
written on it. The
students were to
identify coins that
matched the amount
that the teacher
counted out and put
a counter on top of
it. The first student
that got bingo won a
prize.

Fraction Riddles
(Worksheet)

Color tiles
(yellow, blue,
red and green).
Fraction Riddles
worksheet.

## For this activity,

2.3
students can work in
pairs or individually.
They will be given
the materials and
worksheet to
complete. This
worksheet will have
instructions at the
top, and below listed
various riddles for
students to solve
using their
manipulatives. An
example of one is:
There are 2 tile
colors. of the tiles
are red. The rest of

point (.).

## The student will

a) identify the
parts of a set
and/or region
that represent
fractions for
halves, thirds,
fourths, sixths,
eighths, and
tenths;
b) write the
fractions; and
c) compare the
unit fractions
for halves,
thirds, fourths,
sixths, eighths,
and tenths.

up to, and used
prior knowledge of
how much each
coin costs. This
activity uses
representation
because the
students are seeing
the change
represented in
multiple ways
between the
amount and the
picture of the coin
listed on the card
the teacher is
Representation
and Problem
Solving. Students
practice
representation
through this
activity by
showing what a
visual
representation of
is by
demonstrating
what it looks like
using their
manipulatives.
Once more,
students are
practicing problem

## opportunity to look back

at their answers to see if

## I thought that this is a

great way to help
students visualize
fractions while using
manipulatives. The only
recommendation that I
would have is to allow
students to work
together. I would also
incorporate a discussion
at the end to compare
let them explain how
and why they got their
manipulatives to help
them reason and prove

8
the tiles are green.
Students are to
complete each
question using their
manipulatives.

Manipulatives to
Subtract (Practicum
Lesson)

Chips to count
with, individual
white boards
and markers.

## For this activity,

students work with
their peers at their
tables with them.
One student is
assigned to be the
writer and the rest
help solve the
problems with
manipulatives. The
teacher writes on the
board a subtraction
problem and
students are to use
their manipulatives
to help them find
entire team works
together with the
manipluatives while
the writer draws the
and writes the
solution.

2.7

## The student, given

two whole numbers,
each of which is 99
or less, will
a) estimate the
difference; and
b) find the
difference,
using various
methods of
calculation.

solving by laying
out the
manipulatives as
an extra resource to
help them solve the
problem. Using
these
manipulatives will
help them walk
through the process
of solving the
problem.
Communication
and
representation.
Students are using
communication
skills with each
other to help figure
out how to solve
the problem. In
are defending their
encouraging their
peers at their table
Students are using
the manipulatives
as representations
to help them solve
the problems.

## One thing that my

practicum teacher did
that I would change
she encouraged
competition and gave
points to students who
To change this, I would
station for students to go
to during math time so
that they would not be
competing against each
other.

Measurement
Name and
Location of
Activity
Is it Reasonable?
(Van de Walle
Activity 8.28, p.
144).

Materials
Needed

Brief Description
of Activity

Relevant Standard(s) of
Learning (SOL)

## Relevant NCTM Evaluation/Suggested

Process
Modifications
Standard(s)
Reasoning and
One suggestion that I
The student will
Proof
and
would make to a
a) estimate and
measure length, and Communication.
teacher doing this
This activity
describe the result
activity is to put in
in both metric and
allows for students
place a cap for how
U.S. Customary
to make arguments
large the number for
units; and
the unit should be,
b) identify equivalent
prove why their
because if the
measurements
argument is
students are coming
between units
mathematically
up with the numbers
within the U.S.
valid.
While
some may be too big
Customary system
discussing
with
for other students to
(inches and feet;
other
students,
understand or
feet and yards;
they are using
inches and yards;
measure.
communication
yards and miles)
For students that are
and between units
skills to translate
struggling I would
within the metric
their ideas to other
suggest keeping a
system (millimeters students.
ruler or other kind of
and centimeters;
measuring tool
centimeters and
around to help them
meters; and
visualize the size of
millimeters and
the unit.
meters).
A good extension
would be to extend
this lesson to include
units for measuring
liquids (which also
happens to be the

Ruler, sheet of
scrap paper,
pencil.

## Select any kind of

large or small unit
of measurement
(inch, foot,
centimeter, etc.)
and write on the
board for students
them if a series of
random items
(people or things)
could match that
length, or if it was
unreasonable and is
too large or too
small. Have the
students talk with
why they agree or
measurements and
come to a
consensus. Let the
students choose the
next number and
unit and continue
with the activity.

4.7

10
Over or Under?
(Van de Walle
Activity 12, p. 230)

Measuring Time
(Practicum Lesson)

Pictures of
items with price
tags to present
to students on
projector, piece
of paper and
pencil.

Sheet to record
results, hand
clock.

## The teacher will

2.10
place a projection
on the board of
various items with
price tags labeled.
the students if the
items together are
over or under x
value. For younger
students, smaller
numbers such as
\$1.00 or \$1.50 will
work best. This
activity is a good
beginning
estimation activity,
so students may not
need to write down
their work because
they are estimating,
but students should
be allowed to jot
down work if they
need.
For this activity, my 4.9
practicum teacher
provided each
student a worksheet
that they will use to
the teacher. On the
worksheet there
were problems
listed that gave
examples of time

## The student will

a) count and compare
a collection of
pennies, nickels,
dimes, and quarters
whose total value is
\$2.00 or less; and
b) correctly use the
cent symbol (),
dollar symbol (\$),
and decimal point
(.).

Connections and
Representation.
This activity
requires students
to use practical
life skills which in
turn makes a
connection to life
outside of the
classroom.
Students use
representation
when they are
writing their
organize their
mathematical
ideas.

## The student will

determine elapsed time
in hours and minutes
within a 12-hour
period.

Reasoning and
Proof and
Representation.
This activity
requires for
students to work
with partners to
give them practice
at how to verbally
say the times
listed on the

## next SOL 4.8).

A good extension for
this activity would
students to write
down their work and
correctly write using
the cent symbol,
dollar symbol and
decimal point.
To make things more
engaging and hands
on for the students,
bring in actual things
that they could find
at the store that have
price tags still on
them and proceed to
do the same activity.
This may help
students who work
better kinesthetically.

## One suggestion that I

would have to improve
this lesson to help
students visualize the
times better is to have
students in class make a
hand clock out of paper.
This would allow for
students to have their
own manipulative to use
at any time when given a

11

Personal
Benchmarks (Van
de Walle Activity
19.2 p. 378).

Ruler, tape
measure, paper
for recording.

## lapses that students

were to measure.
My practicum
teacher walked
along with them for
the first few
questions, showing
them how to count
the hours and
minutes that passed
by and using the
hand clock as a
manipulative. After
students were
shown how to count
the hours, they
worked in groups of
two individually
with my practicum
teacher circulating
the room to look at
students work.
Students were also
taught to make a
chart to keep track
of the times and
hours they are
counting.
For this activity,
2.11
students will be
creating
benchmarks to use
as references for
measurement.
Students will be
grouped into

worksheet. It also
gives students
multiple
representations by
using the clock to
see the time,
discuss the time
orally with a
partner, and see
what the time
looks like when it
is written down.

## The student will

estimate and measure
a) length to the
nearest centimeter
and inch;
b) weight/mass of
objects in
pounds/ounces and
kilograms/grams,
using a scale; and

Reasoning and
proof and
representation.
This activity will
allow for students
to see multiple
representations of
measurements.
They can

## problem regarding time.

It would also give
students more practice at
Another suggestion that
I would make for this
lesson would be to
incorporate
differentiation into the
lesson by having various
worksheets given to
students to match their
level of cognitive
thinking.

## One extension that I

students to compare
their measurements to
other students
measurements to
compare and contrast the

12
to measure various
parts of their bodies
such as length of
foot, palm, pinkie,
width of finger, etc.
Students are to
record these results
on their paper and
use as a personal
reference later on
during the unit of
measurement. It
will allow for them
to have a quick
reference when
one inch is, and
they can look at
their sheet or body.

c) liquid volume in
cups, pints, quarts,
gallons, and liters.

reference informal
and formal
measurements for
reference. This
activity
incorporates
reasoning and
proof because it
allows for students
to prove how long
an inch or a
centimeter is by
referencing back
to this activity.

## they got. Allowing

students to compare
their measurements will
allow for them to see
different measurements
and how they compare
to each other, which will
create a great visual for
students to use to
reference to for
measurements.

## Patterns, Functions, and Algebra

Name and Location
of Activity

## Materials Needed Brief Description of

Activity

Relevant
Standard(s) of
Learning (SOL)

Relevant NCTM
Process Standard(s)

Learning Patterns
(Van de Walle
Activity 8.1 p. 130).

Counters, paper
plates and sharpie.

1.17

Representation and
Communication.
Students are
incorporating
representation in this
activity by
replicating the
pattern on the
teachers plate on
their own plate.
Students are

## Provide each student

their own paper plate
and counters. Once
each student has their
materials, create a
pattern on a plate
using a sharpie to
draw a pattern that
students can replicate
with their counters
and show to students

The
student
will
recognize
,
describe,
extend,
and create
a wide
variety of
growing

Evaluation/Suggested
Modifications

## As an extension for this

activity, I would make
small groups of
students (or even make
it a center) and have
one student be
teacher and create
their own pattern for
other students to
replicate. This way,
students get experience

13

Making Repeating
Patterns (Van de
Walle Activity 14.12
p. 272).

the pattern on their
plate with counters
and prompt with
questions such as
How many dots did
you see? How were
they shaped? Once
students have finished
creating the pattern,
show them the plate
so they can self-check
Various objects to For this activity,
K.16
use to create
students can work
patterns (buttons,
individually or in
blocks, toothpicks, groups with other
geometric shapes, students. They will be
etc.) Recording
given various objects
sheets.
created in an obvious
pattern. Students are
to extend that pattern
to match it with their
group and record the
results. Once students
have completed the
pattern, they are to
create new patterns of
their own to give to
other students to
complete the pattern.
After the lesson,
students will identify
the patterns as AB,
ABC, AABBCC, etc.

and
repeating
patterns.

communicating with
their peers and
mathematical
concepts to discuss
their patterns they
replicated.

The
student
will
identify,
describe,
and
extend
repeating
patterns.

Representation and
Communication.
This is a great
activity that will help
students visualize
and represent various
kinds of patterns
using manipulatives.
will be practicing
communication skills
to talk through and
solve the pattern
with their peers.

## creating patterns and

therefore have a deeper
understanding of what
a pattern is.

## This was a great

activity to incorporate
into a unit on patterns
for kindergarten
mathematics. Included
in the activity in the
book was a description
to include students with
disabilities which is a
great way to use
differentiation.
One way that I would
extend this activity is to
come in and create a
pattern for the younger
students to practice.
This will give students
more time to explore
and explain what
patterns are and how to
solve them.

14

Geometry
Name and
Location of
Activity
Pattern Block
Rotational
Symmetry (Van de
Walle Activity
20.18 p. 421).

Materials
Needed

Brief Description
of Activity

Relevant Standard(s) of
Learning (SOL)

Pattern blocks
and a sheet to
record results
on.

## For this activity,

students can work
individually or in
pairs to create
designs with pattern
blocks. The only
requirement
students have of
their creations is to
make a design that
has rotational
symmetry. Once
students have
completed their
design, they are to
count how many
rotational
symmetries there
are in the shape.
Students should be
able to make up to
12 rotational
symmetries.

4.11

## For this activity,

students will be
placed in small
groups. Each group
will have one sheet

2.16

## Shape Sorts (Van de Sheet with 2-D

Walle Activity 20.1 Shapes for
p. 404).
students to cut
out, scissors.

## The student will

a) investigate
congruence of
plane figures after
geometric
transformations,
such as reflection,
translation, and
rotation, using
mirrors, paper
folding, and
tracing; and
b) recognize the
images of figures
resulting from
geometric
transformations,
such as
translation,
reflection, and
rotation.

## The student will

identify, describe,
compare, and contrast
plane and solid
geometric figures

Relevant NCTM
Process
Standard(s)
Representation
and reasoning
and proof. This
activity is a good
representation to
students to show
what a shape looks
like that has
reflective
symmetry. It also
gives them the
opportunity to
draw a picture or
come up with
another way to
symbolize the
shape. After
finding how many
reflective and
rotational
symmetries there
are, students can
prove their point
by counting and
dismantling the
shape to
demonstrate.
Communication
and Connections.
Students are using
communication
skills by verbally

Evaluation/Suggested
Modifications

As an extension for
this activity, I would
find the reflective
symmetry as well. If
students have not
reflective symmetry,
this would be a good
introductory lesson
for them to create
their designs with
reflective symmetry.
To help struggling
students, I would
also put up on the
board an example of
what reflective and
rotational symmetry
look like.

## This would be a great

lesson to use to
introduce students to
the properties of
shapes. The only

15

## Property lists for

de Walle Activity
20.2 p. 405).

Pictures of
various
Resources to
use to help
define
properties:
rulers, index
cards, etc.
Recording
sheet.

## of 2-D figures to cut

out, with each shape
being different.
Once students have
cut the shapes out,
they will lay them
all out flat on the
table and each
student will pick
one shape. One at a
time, students will
tell each other what
they find interesting
After sharing,
students will find
two other shapes
and explain how
they are alike, and
how they are
different.
For this activity,
3.14
students will be
grouped into small
groups of 4 or 5
students. Each
group will be
handed a card with
a different 2-D
shape on it.
Students are to
describe the
characteristics and
properties of each
shape. In order to
agree on a property,
students must test

(circle/sphere,
square/cube, and
rectangle/rectangular
prism).

describing to the
other students
characteristics of
their shape. In
turn, the other
students are
comparing and
contrasting using
descriptive
the shape. Students
are building and
making
communications
with the other
shapes.

## The student will

identify, describe,
compare, and contrast
characteristics of
plane and solid
geometric figures
(circle, square,
rectangle,
triangle, cube, rectang
ular prism, square
pyramid, sphere,
cone, and cylinder) by
identifying relevant
characteristics,
including the number
of angles, vertices,
and edges, and the
number and shape of

Communication
and reasoning
and proof.
Students are
communicating
with one another
and discussing
what properties
match with the
shape and which
ones do not.
Students are using
reasoning and
proof skills when
testing out if their
properties are

suggestion that I
would have to
incorporate into the
lesson is to write on
the board a few
students could use
while describing
their shape. This
would give extra
support for students
that are struggling
coming up with
words to describe
their shape.

This is a great
activity to introduce
what properties are
of shapes. Included
in the lesson also are
ways that a teacher
can accommodate the
lesson for students
with disabilities.
There are no changes
that I would make to
this lesson.

16
using rulers to find
length to see if they
are congruent and
use index cards to
see if there are right
angles. All students
in the group must
agree on the
properties of the
shape.

models.

valid.