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_____________________________________________Chapter 14 Lymphatic and Immune Systems

1 Lesson Plan
4 Lymphatic and Immune Systems
TEACHING FOCUS
Students will have the opportunity to learn about the structure and function of the immune and lymph
vascular systems. The text presents terminology associated with the pathological conditions affecting the
lymphatic and immune systems, so that the student can become familiar with laboratory tests, clinical
procedures, and abbreviations that are pertinent to these systems. The student will then have the opportunity
to apply knowledge and understanding of medical terms in context.

MATERIALS AND RESOURCES

Flash cards (Lesson 14.1)


Index cards (Lesson 14.2)
Medical journals (Lesson 14.1)

Photocopies of a relevant journal article


(Lesson 14.2)

LESSON CHECKLIST

Preparations for this lesson include:


Lecture
Flash cards
Student performance evaluation of entry-level skills required for student comprehension and
application of knowledge about the lymphatic and immune systems, including:
o recognizing terms related to structure, function, pathology, and clinical procedures
o obtaining and recording patient history
o preparing patient for and assisting with examinations, procedures, and treatments

KEY TERMS

Vocabulary (pp. 554-555)


acquired immunity
adenoids
antibody
antigen
axillary node
B cell
cervical node
complement system
cytokine
cytotoxic cell
dendritic cell
helper T cell
immunity
immunoglobulins
immunotherapy
inguinal node
interferons
interleukins
interstitial fluid
lymph

lymph capillaries
lymphoid organs
lymph node
lymph vessel
macrophage
mediastinal node
monoclonal antibody
natural immunity
plasma cell
right lymphatic duct
spleen
suppressor T cell
T cell
tolerance
thoracic duct
thymus gland
tonsils
toxin
vaccination
vaccine

_____________________________________________Chapter 14 Lymphatic and Immune Systems


Terminology (pp. 556-557)
immun/o
lymph/o
lymphaden/o
splen/o
Pathology (pp. 558-561)
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
(AIDS)
allergy
Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (pp. 562-563)
CD4+ cell count
CT scan
ELISA

thym/o
tox/o
anainterlymphoma
multiple myeloma
thymoma
immunoelectrophoresis
viral load test

REFERENCE LIST
PowerPoint slides (CD, Evolve): 1-51

Legend

CD
Companion CD

iTerms

IRM
Instructors
Resource Manual
available on CD
and Evolve

Evolve
Evolve
Resources

PPT
PowerPoint
Slides

MTO
Medical
Terminology
Online

Class Activities are indicated in bold italic.

_____________________________________________Chapter 14 Lymphatic and Immune Systems

LESSON 14.1
PRETEST
IRM Exercise Quiz A

BACKGROUND ASSESSMENT
Question: When a cancerous lesion is surgically removed from the breast, axillary lymph nodes are often
removed as well. Why is removal of axillary lymph nodes thought to be important?
Answer: Sampling the lymph nodes can give the surgeon information about metastatic spread of the cancer
in the breast. Lymph vessels drain interstitial fluid that has come out of the blood and courses through the
tissues of the body. This fluid drains into specialized thin-walled vessels called lymph capillaries. The fluid
in these vessels, now called lymph, passes through larger lymphatic vessels and through deposits of lymph
tissues called lymph nodes. Ultimately the lymph fluid reenters the bloodstream. Because the axillary nodes
drain the areas of the breast, malignant cells could easily enter the lymph and end up in the nodes in the
axilla.
Question: What type of immunity does a vaccination during childhood provide? What is the advantage of
receiving a vaccination?
Answer: Immunity is the bodys ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins that damage the tissues. A
childhood vaccination makes the body immune to a disease-causing organism by exposing the body to a
modified pathogen that stimulates lymphocytes to produce antibodies. The antibodies remain ready to mount
an attack if the body is exposed to the foreign organism years later. A person either will not become ill or
may contract a milder form of the disease. A person also may acquire immunity after contracting a disease
because the body produces antibodies that repel future attacks. However, if the disease is contracted without
having had a vaccination, it probably will be more severe and may have other serious side effects.

CRITICAL THINKING QUESTION


Rosa has been diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). She recognizes that this is one of
the disorders that is referred to as an autoimmune disorder. What could you tell her that describes
these diseases?
Autoimmune disorders result when the lymphocytes fail to accept the body's own antigens as self or
friendly. The cause is currently unknown, but other autoimmune disorders are multiple sclerosis and
rheumatoid arthritis.

OBJECTIVES
Identify the
structures and
analyze terms
related to the
lymphatic
system.

CONTENT

Introduction (p. 546)

Lymphatic system (p. 548)

Anatomy (p. 548)


Spleen and thymus gland
(p. 550)

TEACHING RESOURCES
PPT 5-18
MTO Module 14, Section I, Lessons 1-2
Figure 14-1 Interstitial fluid and lymph
capillaries (p. 547)
Figure 14-2 Relationship between the
circulatory systems of blood and lymph
(p. 547)
Figure 14-3 Lymphatic system (p. 548)
Figure 14-4 A lymph node (p. 549)
Figure 14-5 A, Spleen; B, thymus gland
(p. 550)
Exercises A, B (p. 566)
Discuss the function of the lymphatic
system. Review the names and locations of
tissues and organs.
Discuss the flow of lymph and blood
through the spleen. Ask students to describe
what happens if the spleen or thymus is

_____________________________________________Chapter 14 Lymphatic and Immune Systems

OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING RESOURCES
removed.
Divide students into two groups
to do additional research on the flow of
lymph and blood through the spleen. Have
one group report to the class on the open
system theory and the other group report on
the closed system theory. Discuss with the
class which theory is preferred today and
why.
Class Activity

Learn terms to
describe basic
elements of the
immune system.

Immune system (p. 551)

Terminology (p. 556)

Combining forms (p. 556)

Prefixes (p. 557)

PPT 19-28
MTO Module 14, Section I, Lessons 3-4
Figure 14-6 Types of immunity (p. 551)
Figure 14-7 B call, plasma cell, and
immunoglobulins (p. 552)
Figure 14-8 Types of T cells (p. 552)
Figure 14-9 Functions of B-cell
(humoral immunity) and T-cell lymphocytes
(cell-mediated immunity) (p. 553)
Figure 14-10 Lymphedema (p. 556)
Exercises C-E (pp. 567-568)
Review Sheet (p. 575)
Discuss basic elements of the immune
system.
Class Activity Divide

the class into three


groups, each one focusing on a different type
of immunity, natural, active acquired or
passive acquired. Have each group describe
the type and present at least three examples of
real conditions in which that type is the
bodys primary or secondary response.
Make flash cards, or have
students make them, with key vocabulary
terms on one side and short definitions on the
other. Divide the class into three groups and
distribute one third of the cards to each
group. Have members of each group quiz
each other. Then, rotate the cards among
groups until each group has worked with all
the cards.
Class Activity

Divide the students into teams.


During a timed session, call out the name of a
combining form. Each team needs to create
as many lymphatic and immune system
medical terms from the combining form as it
can in a 60-second period. After 60 seconds,
announce another combining form.
Class Activity

_____________________________________________Chapter 14 Lymphatic and Immune Systems


14.1 Homework/Assignments:

14.1 Teachers Notes:

_____________________________________________Chapter 14 Lymphatic and Immune Systems

LESSON 14.2
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTION
What are opportunistic infections? What specific immunodeficiency leads to the development of
opportunistic infections in AIDS patients?
Guidelines: Potentially invasive organisms normally contained by the immune system can produce
opportunistic infections. These include yeast-like fungi, bacteria, parasites, and viral organisms normally
present in the mouth, skin, intestinal tract, respiratory tract, and elsewhere. The AIDS virus specifically
destroys T-cell helper lymphocytes, which promote antibody production by B cells and stimulate cytotoxic
T cells that act directly on antigens to destroy them.

OBJECTIVES
Recognize terms
that describe
various
pathological
conditions
affecting the
lymphatic and
immune
systems.

CONTENT

Pathology (p. 558)

Immunodeficiency (p. 558)


Acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (AIDS) (p. 558)

Hypersensitivity (p. 560)


Allergy (p. 560)

Malignancy (p. 560)

TEACHING RESOURCES
PPT 30-36
MTO Module 14, Section II, Lessons 1-4
Table 14-1 Opportunistic infections with AIDS
(p. 558)
Figure 14-11 A, Kaposi sarcoma; B, Wasting
syndrome (p. 559)

Lymphoma (p. 560)

Table 14-2 Common routes of transmission


(p. 559)

Multiple myeloma (p. 561)

Figure 14-12 Atopic dermatitis (p. 560)

Thymoma (p. 561)

Figure 14-13 Staging of Hodgkins disease


(p. 561)
Exercises G-I (pp. 568-569)
Class Activity Pass

out photocopies of a
medical journal article pertaining to an
immune system dysfunction. Have students
trade articles and underline terms related to
immune function. Then pair off students and
have the pairs identify and define 25 terms
related to immune system dysfunction in their
articles.
Alternatively, ask the students to
make flash cards for the conditions with
definitions on the back. In pairs, have them
shuffle their cards and quiz one other. After
10 minutes, have one pair compete against
another to see who can identify the most
terms correctly.
Class Activity

_____________________________________________Chapter 14 Lymphatic and Immune Systems

OBJECTIVES
Identify
laboratory tests,
clinical
procedures, and
abbreviations
that are pertinent
to the lymphatic
and immune
systems.

CONTENT

Laboratory tests, clinical


procedures, and abbreviations
(p. 562)

MTO Module 14, Section III, Lessons 1-2

CD4+ cell count (p. 562)

Class Activity

Viral load tests (p. 563)


Clinical procedures (p. 563)
CT scan (p. 563)

Apply your new


knowledge to
understanding
medical terms in
their proper
contexts, such
as medical
reports and
records.

PPT 37-48

Study Section (p. 562)

Immunoelectrophoresis
(p. 563)

TEACHING RESOURCES

Laboratory tests (p. 562)


ELISA test (p. 562)

Abbreviations (p. 563)

Abbreviations (p. 563)

Performance
Evaluation

Play medical terminology bingo.


Have half the students make lists of
abbreviations and half make lists of medical
terms related to the lymphatic and immune
systems. Put the components on index cards.
Have the class switch the cards between
groups and then put the meanings on the
backs. Then shuffle the cards and make
bingo place cards. Have the meanings called
by rotating callers and play bingo.

Have students take turns


reading Exercise J to the class. Ask that the
student who is reading the question
pronounce, analyze, define, and underline the
accented syllable in the correct answer.
Class Activity

ESLR Body Spectrum Electronic Anatomy


Coloring Book, Lymphatic
ESLR Student Quiz Chapter 14
MTO Module 14, Sections I-III quizzes
MTO Module 14 Exam
iTerms Chapter 14

14.2 Homework/Assignments:

Have students research the types of laboratory tests that might be performed to identify allergies. Have
students make brief oral reports to the class.

14.2 Teachers Notes:

_____________________________________________Chapter 14 Lymphatic and Immune Systems