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Years of tension & hostility

between Superpowers
U.S. Vs. USSR
War of ideas
Communism Vs. Democracy
Capitalism Vs. command
Arms Race, Space Race, etc.

Democracy restored to nations of


Western Europe
Aided by U.S. & G. Britain
Eastern Europe occupied by armies
of USSR
Stalin supported the establishment
of pro communist governments in the
Region

Churchill,
Roosevelt, Stalin
Germany would
be divided into
zones of
occupation
Stalin promises
Eastern
European
countries will
have free
elections

Stalin,
Truman,Attlee
Stalin refuses free
elections in Eastern
European countries
Establishes satellite
nations (pro
communist
governments) in

An Iron Curtain has descended


across Europe- W. Churchill 1946
Western Europe Democratic
Eastern Europe- Communist

U.S. policy of blocking further


Communist expansion
Limiting Communism to
regions already under
Communist control
Creating alliances,aiding
weak countries, military action
Ex. Vietnam, Korea, Marshall
Plan, Truman Doctrine

U.S. sent military &


financial aid to Turkey &
Greece
Dictated US foreign
policy for years to come
$400 Million
Helping them resist
communist forces

U.S. Secretary of State George


Marshall
Massive economic aid package for
European Recovery
12.5 Billion in loans
Strengthened
Democracies in Europe
Lessened the appeal of

Germany is divided into 4


occupational zones
US, France, Britain USSR
Division is supposed
to be temporary
Tensions grew
between East & West
Stalin feared a strong united

Berlin the divided capital was located


in the Eastern sector
1948- three western zones unified
Stalin responded by
attempting to to force
the allies out of
Berlin
Closed of all land routes to city

American & British


response to blockade
Yearlong airlift of
food, fuel & medicine
into Western Berlin
Planes fly around
the clock missions
The Soviets end
blockade in 1949

Planes took
off & landed
every 3
minutes
277,000
flights
2.3 million
tons of
supplies

1949-German
Democratic Republic
(East Germany)Communist
1949-German
Federal
Republic(West
Germany)Democratic
Division would last
until 1990

1961-East Germany
constructed a wall that
separated East from
West Berlin
Known as the
wall of death
The Walls
destruction in 1989
symbolizes the fall of

1949-NATO- North
Atlantic Treaty
Organization
Defensive alliance
10 Western
European nations w/
US & Canada
Pledged to
support each other if
attacked

1955 Warsaw Pact


Soviet Response
to NATO
Also a defensive
alliance
Alliance between
USSR &7 of its
Eastern European
satellites countries

Stockpiling &
development of the
deadliest weapons
Atomic bomb US 1945/
USSR 1949
Hydrogen Bomb US
1952/ USSR 1953
Construction of ICBMs
Intercontinental Ballistic
Missiles

Arms race raised


the level of tension
for over 40 years
Raised fears that
conflict would
destroy the world
Brinkmanshipwillingness to go to
the brink or edge of
destruction

1957USSR launched first


satellite Sputnik
US founds NASA
1961USSR launch first
man in space
1969 US lands on moon
US & USSR explored
military use of spy

US & USSR Never clash head to head


They clashed through surrogate or
representative states

Following WWII
Korea is divided
@ 38th Parallel
North(Communist),
South (noncommunist)
1950- N. Korea invades
South

UN forces led by
Macarthur prevented
communist
takeover
Three years of
Back & forth
fighting
(Ping Pong)
Armistice signed in
1953
Border is reset @

Korea remains
divided
US troops patrol
DMZ
Hot spot in the
world today
North Korean
construction of
Nuclear weapons

1959-Cuban revolutionary
Fidel Castro
overthrows the government
Becomes Communist state
dependant upon USSR
Still rules today as dictator

1961- Bay of Pigs Invasion


Exiled Cuban Nationalists
backed by US attempt
overthrow of Castro
Invasion is crushed
Kennedy administration
is
humiliated

The Cuban Missile


Crisis
USSR installs
missile bases in Cuba
Threat to US security
US blockades Cuba
US & USSR brought
to the brink of war
(Brinkmanship)

Crisis is avoided after 13 days


USSR dismantles nuclear missiles

1954- France loses control


of its colonies in Indochina
to Communist/ Nationalist
forces
Vietnam is divided @
th
the 17 Parallel
Communist(North)
Led by Ho Chi Minh

US forces sent in to
prevent Communist
from uniting Vietnam
Eisenhowers
Domino Theory
US pulls out in
1973/ Saigon falls in
1975
Vietnam remains
communist today

USSR kept a tight grip


on its satellites
Any revolts were put
down with extreme
force
East Germany&
Poland 1950s
1956 Hungary

Soviet leader following Stalin


1953-1964
Destalinization
Purged the USSR
of Stalins memory
Policy of peaceful coexistence
with Capitalist states
Maintained strict control over
satellites

Adopted repressive measures


@ home & in Satellites
Brezhnev Doctrine
Initiated Dtente with the US
A cooling down of tensions between
East & West
SALTI & II- 1972,1979
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties

Drastically reformed the Soviet


government & failing economy
Withdrew Soviet Troops
from Afghanistan
Encouraged Glasnost (openness)
Ended censorship & encouraged
free flow of ideas
Allowed open criticism of the

Perestroika
Movement towards a
free market economy
(Capitalism) NEP?
Democratization
Voters could choose
candidates for office

Allowed pro-democracy movements


in the Satellites
Repealed Breshnev Doctrine
Without threat of Soviet force,
communism crumbles in E. Europe
EX. The Berlin Wall 1989

1991 Baltic States Estonia, Latvia, &


Lithuania declare independence
Shortly after all other 15 Soviet
Republics gain independence
1991 The USSR ceases to exist

1989 Berlin Wall comes


down
1990 Germany is reunited
Financial strain on West
Germany
Unemployment
rises in East

1980 Independent trade


union Solidarity led by
Lech
Walesa calls for a
change
Polish government
outlaws union &
arrested members
1989 Lech Walesa is

Czechoslovakia breaks apart


Czech Republic & Slovakia
Croatia, Slovenia, BosniaHerzegovina, & Macedonia
separate from Yugoslavia
Bosnia becomes crisis point in
1990s
Genocide of Non- Serbs

1991Communist
hardliners
attempt to
overthrow
Gorbachev
Attempts failed
but Gorbachev
resigns

Succeeds Gorbachev after failed coup


1st popularly elected
President of Russia
Adopted policy of Shock Therapy
Abrubt shift to a free market
economy
Living standards declined/ economy
faltered/ corruption rampant

Current President of Russia


Continues market reforms
Former KGB administrator
Problems still exist today with
rebel Province of Chechnya
Improved relations w/ U.S., E.U.,
NATO & China

US & USSR attempted to gain


influence over Third World
countries
Underdeveloped countries of
Africa & Latin America
Military, technical, & financial
assistance
Backed revolutions (Cuba,
Nicaragua, Afghanistan)