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Chapter

19
Magnetism

At the end of this chapter,


you should be able to

State the properties of magnets.


Describe induced magnetism.
Distinguish between magnetic and
non-magnetism materials.
Describe electrical methods of
magnetisation and
demagnetisation.

At the end of this chapter,


you should be able to

Describe the plotting of magnetic


field lines with a compass.
Distinguish between the properties
and uses of temporary magnets
(eg. iron) and permanent magnets
(eg. steel).

At the end of this chapter,


you should be able to

Describe the plotting of magnetic


field lines with a compass.
Distinguish between the properties
and uses of temporary magnets
(eg. iron) and permanent magnets
(eg. steel).

Properties of Magnetic
Materials

A magnetic force is felt as a repulsion


__________
.
or as an attraction
two
A magnet always has ________
poles.
N
S
strongest
The
magnetic effects are
_______________ at the poles

Materials and Magnets


Magnetic and Non-magnetic materials

The law of magnetism states that


________________________________________.
like poles repel and unlike poles
Aattract
magnet can __________
magnetic materials. Magnets have no
attract
effect on non-magnetic materials.

Materials and Magnets


Magnetic and Non-magnetic materials

Examples of magnetic materials


Iron, Steel, Nickel and
are
Cobalt
Examples
non-magnetic
Wood,ofglass,
cotton,
materials
are:
copper
and brass.

Materials and Magnets


Properties of Magnets

If a bar is suspended freely, it will


always point in the north-south
direction

Quiz Time
How do you use a magnet to
determine whether an unknown
object is a magnet?

Quiz Time
How do you use a magnet to
determine whether an unknown object
is a magnet?
Place the unknown object near one
pole of the magnet. If the object is
attracted, we can only confirm that the
object is a magnetic material. Then
place the other pole of the magnet
near the object. If the object repels the
magnet, then we can confirm that the

Repulsion is the only test to


determine if an unknown object is
a magnet.

Magnetic Induction

Magnetic induction is the


magnetic
process whereby
a material is
made to behave like a magnet.
________________________________
Induced magnetism is
temporar
y.

Magnetic Induction

In this example,
the magnet
induces an south
pole at the
top of the first nail
and an north pole
at the bottom of
the first nail.

Magnetic Induction

The first nail


acting as a magnet
will induce a south
pole at the top of
the second nail
and an north pole
at the bottom of
the second nail.

Magnetic Induction

When the bar


magnet is taken
away, the nails
will fall showing
that induced
magnets are
temporary.

Quiz Time

Two steel nails are hanging from the


ends of a magnet as shown below.
Why do you think the nails are leaning
towards each other.
N

Quiz Time

On the right side, the south pole of the


magnet induces the top of the nail to be
north pole and bottom of the nail to be
south pole.
N

N
S

Quiz Time

On the left side, the north pole of the


magnet induces the top of the nail to be
south pole and bottom of the nail to be
north pole.
N

N
N

Quiz Time

Since the bottom of the nail are of


unlike polarity, hence they will be
attracted to each other.

N
N

Materials and Magnets


Magnetic Induction

Advantages of Induced Magnets


A simple method
Induced magnets are produced
instantly.

Disadvantages of Induced Magnets

Induced magnets are weak magnets, it


will lose all their magnetism when not
attracted by other magnets.

Food for Thought

What happens when you cut a


permanent magnet into ten
pieces? A hundred pieces? A
million pieces?

Materials and Magnets


Theory of Magnetism

A magnetised bar is made up of


tiny magnet all lined up with their
north poles pointing in the same
direction.
S
N
S
N
S
N
Free pole

Free pole

Materials and Magnets


Theory of Magnetism

A unmagnetised bar is made up of


tiny magnet pointing at different
direction. Hence the resulting
magnetic effect of all the tiny
magnets are then cancelled off
and thus it is said to be
unmagnetised.

Materials and Magnets


Theory of Magnetism

Storage of magnets using keepers

Due to the free poles near the ends of


the magnets repelling each other, the
alignment of tiny magnets may be
upset. This makes the magnet weaker
as time passes.
S
S
S
Free pole

N
N
N
Free pole

Materials and Magnets


Theory of Magnetism

Storage of magnets using keepers

To prevent the weakening of the


magnets, we store the bar magnets in
pairs by using soft iron magnets called
keepers across the ends of the bar
S
N
magnets.
N

Soft iron
keepers

Materials and Magnets


Theory of Magnetism

Magnetic Saturation

Every magnet has a maximum


possible strength. This happens when
all the tiny magnets are aligned in the
same direction.

Materials and Magnets


Theory of Magnetism

Demagnetisation of Magnets
Demagnetisation is the process of
removing the magnetism from a
magnet.
During demagnetisation, the atoms of
the magnet vibrates vigorously, mixing
up the directions of the tiny magnets
(magnetic domain).

Methods of Magnetism
(By Electrically)

A steel bar is placed inside a


solenoid.

Methods of Magnetism
(By Electrically)

When an electric current passes


through the solenoid , a magnetic field
is produced and the steel bar becomes
magnetised.

Methods of Magnetism
(By Electrically)

The polarity of the magnet can be


determined in two ways.

Direction of current at the ends of the


solenoid.

Methods of Magnetism
(By Electrically)

Right-hand Grip Hand


By

gripping the solenoid with right hand


such that the fingers are in the direction
of the current, the end of the magnetised
steel bar that the thumbs point to is an
north pole.

Methods of Magnetism
(By Electrically)

Advantage
Stronger permanent magnet produced.

Disadvantage
Direct current is needed to make the
magnet,

Safety measures have to be taken when

using electricity.

Industrial solenoid

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets
Heating

Hammering

Alternating

current

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Heating)

The heatcauses the vibration of the


atoms of the magnet which cause
alignment
the tiny magnets to lose
their
. Hence the magnetisation
is destroyed.

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Heating)

Advantage:
Simple Method

Disadvantages:
It causes damage to the material
of the magnets.
Often require a long time to heat
and cool.

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Hammering)

Similarly to heating, hammering


causes the tiny magnets to lose
their
, causing the
alignment
magnet to lose its magnetism.

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Hammering)

Advantage:
Simple mechanical method

Disadvantages:
It may change the shape of the
magnet.
It takes a bit of hammering before
the magnetism is all lost.

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Alternating
By placing a magnet inside a
Current)
solenoid facing east-west direction
alternating
current power
connected
to an
supply, slowly removed
it from the solenoid will cause the
magnet to lose its magnetism.

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Alternating
Current)

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Alternating
Advantage:
Current)
It allows magnets to lose magnetism
faster.

Disadvantages:
Safety measures have to be taken
when using electricity.

Magnetic Fields and the


Plotting Compass

region in which
A magnetic field is the
a magnetic object, placed within the
influence of the field, experience a
magnetic force.

Magnetic Fields and the


Plotting Compass

Magnetic field lines arecloser to


each other in a stronger magnetic
field.

magnetic field is stronger at A than at B

Magnetic Fields and the


Plotting Compass

A uniform magnetic field is


represented by straight parallel
magnetic field lines

a uniform magnetic field

Magnetic Fields and the


Plotting Compass

The magnetic field lines run from


the north pole to the south pole.
A compass needle points towards
the same direction as the magnetic
field lines.

Magnetic Fields and the


Plotting Compass

The point where there is no


neutral
magnetic effect is
calledpoint
the

point X is the neutral point

Magnetic Fields and the


Plotting Compass

In magnetic shielding, soft


magnetic materials can be placed
to divert magnetic field lines
through themselves and away from
sensitive equipment.

Magnetic Fields and the


Plotting Compass

Magnetic Fields and the


Plotting Compass

Magnetic Fields and the


Plotting Compass

Plotting Magnetic Field


Lines
(c) Mark the end points of the compass
needle on the paper (e.g. A and B).
(d) Move the compass so that the
compass needle coincides with one of
the marked points (e.g. B).
(e) Mark a third point at the other end
of compass needle (e.g. C).

Plotting Magnetic Field


Lines
(f) Continue doing this until the
compass reaches the south pole.
(g) Join the dots smoothly to get one
magnetic field line.
(e) Repeat the process on the other
side of the magnet for more magnetic
field lines.

Magnetic Properties of Iron


and Steel
bar magnet

steel
bar

soft
iron
iron
filings

bar magnet is on top

bar magnet is removed

Magnetic Properties of Iron


and Steel
Iron (Temporary Magnets)

Soft magnetic material


- easier to magnetise
- loses its magnetism
Properties
easily when removed

Steel (Permanent Magnets)

Hard magnetic material


- difficult to magnetise
- retains its magnetism for
a long time.

from a magnetic field.

Uses

electromagnet

Compass, magnetic door


catchers, loudspeakers,
magnetic strips

Some uses of Permanent


Magnets and
Electromagnets

Moving-coil galvanometer