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# Chapter

19
Magnetism

## At the end of this chapter,

you should be able to

## State the properties of magnets.

Describe induced magnetism.
Distinguish between magnetic and
non-magnetism materials.
Describe electrical methods of
magnetisation and
demagnetisation.

## At the end of this chapter,

you should be able to

## Describe the plotting of magnetic

field lines with a compass.
Distinguish between the properties
and uses of temporary magnets
(eg. iron) and permanent magnets
(eg. steel).

## At the end of this chapter,

you should be able to

## Describe the plotting of magnetic

field lines with a compass.
Distinguish between the properties
and uses of temporary magnets
(eg. iron) and permanent magnets
(eg. steel).

Properties of Magnetic
Materials

## A magnetic force is felt as a repulsion

__________
.
or as an attraction
two
A magnet always has ________
poles.
N
S
strongest
The
magnetic effects are
_______________ at the poles

## Materials and Magnets

Magnetic and Non-magnetic materials

## The law of magnetism states that

________________________________________.
like poles repel and unlike poles
Aattract
magnet can __________
magnetic materials. Magnets have no
attract
effect on non-magnetic materials.

## Materials and Magnets

Magnetic and Non-magnetic materials

## Examples of magnetic materials

Iron, Steel, Nickel and
are
Cobalt
Examples
non-magnetic
Wood,ofglass,
cotton,
materials
are:
copper
and brass.

## Materials and Magnets

Properties of Magnets

## If a bar is suspended freely, it will

always point in the north-south
direction

Quiz Time
How do you use a magnet to
determine whether an unknown
object is a magnet?

Quiz Time
How do you use a magnet to
determine whether an unknown object
is a magnet?
Place the unknown object near one
pole of the magnet. If the object is
attracted, we can only confirm that the
object is a magnetic material. Then
place the other pole of the magnet
near the object. If the object repels the
magnet, then we can confirm that the

## Repulsion is the only test to

determine if an unknown object is
a magnet.

Magnetic Induction

## Magnetic induction is the

magnetic
process whereby
a material is
made to behave like a magnet.
________________________________
Induced magnetism is
temporar
y.

Magnetic Induction

In this example,
the magnet
induces an south
pole at the
top of the first nail
and an north pole
at the bottom of
the first nail.

Magnetic Induction

## The first nail

acting as a magnet
will induce a south
pole at the top of
the second nail
and an north pole
at the bottom of
the second nail.

Magnetic Induction

## When the bar

magnet is taken
away, the nails
will fall showing
that induced
magnets are
temporary.

Quiz Time

## Two steel nails are hanging from the

ends of a magnet as shown below.
Why do you think the nails are leaning
towards each other.
N

Quiz Time

## On the right side, the south pole of the

magnet induces the top of the nail to be
north pole and bottom of the nail to be
south pole.
N

N
S

Quiz Time

## On the left side, the north pole of the

magnet induces the top of the nail to be
south pole and bottom of the nail to be
north pole.
N

N
N

Quiz Time

## Since the bottom of the nail are of

unlike polarity, hence they will be
attracted to each other.

N
N

## Materials and Magnets

Magnetic Induction

A simple method
Induced magnets are produced
instantly.

## Induced magnets are weak magnets, it

will lose all their magnetism when not
attracted by other magnets.

## What happens when you cut a

permanent magnet into ten
pieces? A hundred pieces? A
million pieces?

## Materials and Magnets

Theory of Magnetism

## A magnetised bar is made up of

tiny magnet all lined up with their
north poles pointing in the same
direction.
S
N
S
N
S
N
Free pole

Free pole

## Materials and Magnets

Theory of Magnetism

## A unmagnetised bar is made up of

tiny magnet pointing at different
direction. Hence the resulting
magnetic effect of all the tiny
magnets are then cancelled off
and thus it is said to be
unmagnetised.

## Materials and Magnets

Theory of Magnetism

## Due to the free poles near the ends of

the magnets repelling each other, the
alignment of tiny magnets may be
upset. This makes the magnet weaker
as time passes.
S
S
S
Free pole

N
N
N
Free pole

## Materials and Magnets

Theory of Magnetism

## To prevent the weakening of the

magnets, we store the bar magnets in
pairs by using soft iron magnets called
keepers across the ends of the bar
S
N
magnets.
N

Soft iron
keepers

## Materials and Magnets

Theory of Magnetism

Magnetic Saturation

## Every magnet has a maximum

possible strength. This happens when
all the tiny magnets are aligned in the
same direction.

## Materials and Magnets

Theory of Magnetism

Demagnetisation of Magnets
Demagnetisation is the process of
removing the magnetism from a
magnet.
During demagnetisation, the atoms of
the magnet vibrates vigorously, mixing
up the directions of the tiny magnets
(magnetic domain).

Methods of Magnetism
(By Electrically)

## A steel bar is placed inside a

solenoid.

Methods of Magnetism
(By Electrically)

## When an electric current passes

through the solenoid , a magnetic field
is produced and the steel bar becomes
magnetised.

Methods of Magnetism
(By Electrically)

## The polarity of the magnet can be

determined in two ways.

## Direction of current at the ends of the

solenoid.

Methods of Magnetism
(By Electrically)

By

## gripping the solenoid with right hand

such that the fingers are in the direction
of the current, the end of the magnetised
steel bar that the thumbs point to is an
north pole.

Methods of Magnetism
(By Electrically)

Stronger permanent magnet produced.

Direct current is needed to make the
magnet,

## Safety measures have to be taken when

using electricity.

Industrial solenoid

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets
Heating

Hammering

Alternating

current

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Heating)

## The heatcauses the vibration of the

atoms of the magnet which cause
alignment
the tiny magnets to lose
their
. Hence the magnetisation
is destroyed.

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Heating)

Simple Method

It causes damage to the material
of the magnets.
Often require a long time to heat
and cool.

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Hammering)

## Similarly to heating, hammering

causes the tiny magnets to lose
their
, causing the
alignment
magnet to lose its magnetism.

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Hammering)

Simple mechanical method

It may change the shape of the
magnet.
It takes a bit of hammering before
the magnetism is all lost.

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Alternating
By placing a magnet inside a
Current)
solenoid facing east-west direction
alternating
current power
connected
to an
supply, slowly removed
it from the solenoid will cause the
magnet to lose its magnetism.

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Alternating
Current)

Methods of Demagnetising
magnets (Alternating
Current)
It allows magnets to lose magnetism
faster.

Safety measures have to be taken
when using electricity.

## Magnetic Fields and the

Plotting Compass

region in which
A magnetic field is the
a magnetic object, placed within the
influence of the field, experience a
magnetic force.

Plotting Compass

## Magnetic field lines arecloser to

each other in a stronger magnetic
field.

Plotting Compass

## A uniform magnetic field is

represented by straight parallel
magnetic field lines

Plotting Compass

## The magnetic field lines run from

the north pole to the south pole.
A compass needle points towards
the same direction as the magnetic
field lines.

Plotting Compass

## The point where there is no

neutral
magnetic effect is
calledpoint
the

Plotting Compass

## In magnetic shielding, soft

magnetic materials can be placed
to divert magnetic field lines
through themselves and away from
sensitive equipment.

Plotting Compass

Plotting Compass

Plotting Compass

## Plotting Magnetic Field

Lines
(c) Mark the end points of the compass
needle on the paper (e.g. A and B).
(d) Move the compass so that the
compass needle coincides with one of
the marked points (e.g. B).
(e) Mark a third point at the other end
of compass needle (e.g. C).

## Plotting Magnetic Field

Lines
(f) Continue doing this until the
compass reaches the south pole.
(g) Join the dots smoothly to get one
magnetic field line.
(e) Repeat the process on the other
side of the magnet for more magnetic
field lines.

and Steel
bar magnet

steel
bar

soft
iron
iron
filings

## Magnetic Properties of Iron

and Steel
Iron (Temporary Magnets)

## Soft magnetic material

- easier to magnetise
- loses its magnetism
Properties
easily when removed

## Hard magnetic material

- difficult to magnetise
- retains its magnetism for
a long time.

Uses

electromagnet

## Compass, magnetic door

catchers, loudspeakers,
magnetic strips

## Some uses of Permanent

Magnets and
Electromagnets

Moving-coil galvanometer