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cen72367_appx1.

qxd 11/17/04 4:34 PM Page 886

886
FLUID MECHANICS

TA B L E A 1
Molar mass, gas constant, and ideal-gas specfic heats of some substances

Substance
Air
Ammonia, NH3
Argon, Ar
Bromine, Br2
Isobutane, C4H10
n-Butane, C4H10
Carbon dioxide, CO2
Carbon monoxide, CO
Chlorine, Cl2
Chlorodifluoromethane (R-22), CHClF2
Ethane, C2H6
Ethylene, C2H4
Fluorine, F2
Helium, He
n-Heptane, C7H16
n-Hexane, C6H14
Hydrogen, H2
Krypton, Kr
Methane, CH4
Neon, Ne
Nitrogen, N2
Nitric oxide, NO
Nitrogen dioxide, NO2
Oxygen, O2
n-Pentane, C5H12
Propane, C3H8
Propylene, C3H6
Steam, H2O
Sulfur dioxide, SO2
Tetrachloromethane, CCl4
Tetrafluoroethane (R-134a), C2H2F4
Trifluoroethane (R-143a), C2H3F3
Xenon, Xe

Specific Heat Data at 25C

Molar Mass
M, kg/kmol

Gas Constant
R, kJ/kg K*

cp, kJ/kg K

28.97
17.03
39.95
159.81
58.12
58.12
44.01
28.01
70.905
86.47
30.070
28.054
38.00
4.003
100.20
86.18
2.016
83.80
16.04
20.183
28.01
30.006
46.006
32.00
72.15
44.097
42.08
18.015
64.06
153.82
102.03
84.04
131.30

0.2870
0.4882
0.2081
0.05202
0.1430
0.1430
0.1889
0.2968
0.1173
0.09615
0.2765
0.2964
0.2187
2.077
0.08297
0.09647
4.124
0.09921
0.5182
0.4119
0.2968
0.2771
0.1889
0.2598
0.1152
0.1885
0.1976
0.4615
0.1298
0.05405
0.08149
0.09893
0.06332

1.005
2.093
0.5203
0.2253
1.663
1.694
0.8439
1.039
0.4781
0.6496
1.744
1.527
0.8237
5.193
1.649
1.654
14.30
0.2480
2.226
1.030
1.040
0.9992
0.8060
0.9180
1.664
1.669
1.531
1.865
0.6228
0.5415
0.8334
0.9291
0.1583

cv, kJ/kg K
0.7180
1.605
0.3122
0.1732
1.520
1.551
0.6550
0.7417
0.3608
0.5535
1.468
1.231
0.6050
3.116
1.566
1.558
10.18
0.1488
1.708
0.6180
0.7429
0.7221
0.6171
0.6582
1.549
1.480
1.333
1.403
0.4930
0.4875
0.7519
0.8302
0.09499

k ! cp /cv
1.400
1.304
1.667
1.300
1.094
1.092
1.288
1.400
1.325
1.174
1.188
1.241
1.362
1.667
1.053
1.062
1.405
1.667
1.303
1.667
1.400
1.384
1.306
1.395
1.074
1.127
1.148
1.329
1.263
1.111
1.108
1.119
1.667

* The unit kJ/kg K is equivalent to kPa m3/kg K. The gas constant is calculated from R ! Ru /M, where Ru ! 8.31447 kJ/kmol K is the universal gas
constant and M is the molar mass.
Source: Specific heat values are obtained primarily from the property routines prepared by The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
Gaithersburg, MD.

cen72367_appx1.qxd 11/17/04 4:34 PM Page 887

887
APPENDIX 1

TA B L E A 2
Boiling and freezing point properties
Boiling Data at 1 atm

Substance

Normal
Boiling
Point, C

Ammonia

"33.3

Latent Heat of
Vaporization
hfg , kJ/kg
1357

Freezing
Point, C
"77.7

Latent Heat
of Fusion
hif , kJ/kg
322.4

Argon
Benzene
Brine (20% sodium
chloride by mass)
n-Butane
Carbon dioxide
Ethanol
Ethyl alcohol
Ethylene glycol
Glycerine
Helium
Hydrogen
Isobutane
Kerosene
Mercury
Methane

103.9
"0.5
"78.4*
78.2
78.6
198.1
179.9
"268.9
"252.8
"11.7
204293
356.7
"161.5

385.2
230.5 (at 0C)
838.3
855
800.1
974
22.8
445.7
367.1
251
294.7
510.4

"17.4
"138.5
"56.6
"114.2
"156
"10.8
18.9

"259.2
"160
"24.9
"38.9
"182.2

109
108
181.1
200.6

59.5
105.7

11.4
58.4

Methanol
Nitrogen

64.5
"195.8

1100
198.6

"97.7
"210

99.2
25.3

124.8

306.3

"57.5

180.7

"218.8

13.7

"187.7

80.0

Octane
Oil (light)
Oxygen
Petroleum
Propane

"185.9
80.2

"183

"42.1

Refrigerant-134a

"26.1

Water

100

161.6
394

Freezing Data

212.7
230384
427.8
216.8

2257

"189.3
5.5

"96.6

0.0

28
126

80.3

333.7

Liquid Properties
Temperature,
C

Density
r, kg/m3

Specific
Heat
cp, kJ/kg K

"33.3
"20
0
25
"185.6
20

682
665
639
602
1394
879

4.43
4.52
4.60
4.80
1.14
1.72

20
"0.5
0
25
20
20
20
"268.9
"252.8
"11.7
20
25
"161.5
"100
25
"195.8
"160
20
25
"183
20
"42.1
0
50
"50
"26.1
0
25
0
25
50
75
100

1150
601
298
783
789
1109
1261
146.2
70.7
593.8
820
13,560
423
301
787
809
596
703
910
1141
640
581
529
449
1443
1374
1295
1207
1000
997
988
975
958

3.11
2.31
0.59
2.46
2.84
2.84
2.32
22.8
10.0
2.28
2.00
0.139
3.49
5.79
2.55
2.06
2.97
2.10
1.80
1.71
2.0
2.25
2.53
3.13
1.23
1.27
1.34
1.43
4.22
4.18
4.18
4.19
4.22

* Sublimation temperature. (At pressures below the triple-point pressure of 518 kPa, carbon dioxide exists as a solid or gas. Also, the freezing-point temperature
of carbon dioxide is the triple-point temperature of "56.5C.)

cen72367_appx1.qxd 11/17/04 4:34 PM Page 888

888
FLUID MECHANICS

TA B L E A 3
Properties of saturated water

Temp.
T, C

Saturation
Pressure
Psat, kPa

Density
r, kg/m3

Enthalpy
of
Vaporization
hfg, kJ/kg

Specific
Heat
cp, J/kg K
Liquid

Vapor

Thermal
Conductivity
k, W/m K

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Dynamic Viscosity
m, kg/m s
Liquid

Vapor

Volume
Expansion
Coefficient
b, 1/K
Liquid

Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

0.01
5
10
15
20

0.6113
0.8721
1.2276
1.7051
2.339

999.8
999.9
999.7
999.1
998.0

0.0048
0.0068
0.0094
0.0128
0.0173

2501
2490
2478
2466
2454

4217
4205
4194
4186
4182

1854
1857
1862
1863
1867

0.561
0.571
0.580
0.589
0.598

0.0171
0.0173
0.0176
0.0179
0.0182

1.792
1.519
1.307
1.138
1.002

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

0.922
0.934
0.946
0.959
0.973

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

13.5
11.2
9.45
8.09
7.01

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

"0.068
0.015
0.733
0.138
0.195

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

25
30
35
40
45

3.169
4.246
5.628
7.384
9.593

997.0
996.0
994.0
992.1
990.1

0.0231
0.0304
0.0397
0.0512
0.0655

2442
2431
2419
2407
2395

4180
4178
4178
4179
4180

1870
1875
1880
1885
1892

0.607
0.615
0.623
0.631
0.637

0.0186
0.0189
0.0192
0.0196
0.0200

0.891
0.798
0.720
0.653
0.596

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

0.987
1.001
1.016
1.031
1.046

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

6.14
5.42
4.83
4.32
3.91

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.247
0.294
0.337
0.377
0.415

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

50
55
60
65
70

12.35
15.76
19.94
25.03
31.19

988.1
985.2
983.3
980.4
977.5

0.0831
0.1045
0.1304
0.1614
0.1983

2383
2371
2359
2346
2334

4181
4183
4185
4187
4190

1900
1908
1916
1926
1936

0.644
0.649
0.654
0.659
0.663

0.0204
0.0208
0.0212
0.0216
0.0221

0.547
0.504
0.467
0.433
0.404

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

1.062
1.077
1.093
1.110
1.126

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

3.55
3.25
2.99
2.75
2.55

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.451
0.484
0.517
0.548
0.578

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

75
80
85
90
95

38.58
47.39
57.83
70.14
84.55

974.7
971.8
968.1
965.3
961.5

0.2421
0.2935
0.3536
0.4235
0.5045

2321
2309
2296
2283
2270

4193
4197
4201
4206
4212

1948
1962
1977
1993
2010

0.667
0.670
0.673
0.675
0.677

0.0225
0.0230
0.0235
0.0240
0.0246

0.378
0.355
0.333
0.315
0.297

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

1.142
1.159
1.176
1.193
1.210

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

2.38
2.22
2.08
1.96
1.85

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.607
0.653
0.670
0.702
0.716

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

100
110
120
130
140

101.33
143.27
198.53
270.1
361.3

957.9
950.6
943.4
934.6
921.7

0.5978
0.8263
1.121
1.496
1.965

2257
2230
2203
2174
2145

4217
4229
4244
4263
4286

2029
2071
2120
2177
2244

0.679
0.682
0.683
0.684
0.683

0.0251
0.0262
0.0275
0.0288
0.0301

0.282
0.255
0.232
0.213
0.197

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

1.227
1.261
1.296
1.330
1.365

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.75
1.58
1.44
1.33
1.24

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.01
1.02

0.750
0.798
0.858
0.913
0.970

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

150
160
170
180
190

475.8
617.8
791.7
1,002.1
1,254.4

916.6
907.4
897.7
887.3
876.4

2.546
3.256
4.119
5.153
6.388

2114
2083
2050
2015
1979

4311
4340
4370
4410
4460

2314
2420
2490
2590
2710

0.682
0.680
0.677
0.673
0.669

0.0316
0.0331
0.0347
0.0364
0.0382

0.183
0.170
0.160
0.150
0.142

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

1.399
1.434
1.468
1.502
1.537

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.16
1.09
1.03
0.983
0.947

1.02
1.05
1.05
1.07
1.09

1.025
1.145
1.178
1.210
1.280

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

200
220
240
260
280

1,553.8
2,318
3,344
4,688
6,412

864.3
840.3
813.7
783.7
750.8

7.852
11.60
16.73
23.69
33.15

1941
1859
1767
1663
1544

4500
4610
4760
4970
5280

2840
3110
3520
4070
4835

0.663
0.650
0.632
0.609
0.581

0.0401
0.0442
0.0487
0.0540
0.0605

0.134
0.122
0.111
0.102
0.094

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

1.571
1.641
1.712
1.788
1.870

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.910
0.865
0.836
0.832
0.854

1.11
1.15
1.24
1.35
1.49

1.350
1.520
1.720
2.000
2.380

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

1405
1239
1028
720
0

5750
6540
8240
14,690

5980
7900
11,870
25,800

0.548
0.509
0.469
0.427

0.0695
0.0836
0.110
0.178

0.086
0.078
0.070
0.060
0.043

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

1.965
2.084
2.255
2.571
4.313

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.902
1.00
1.23
2.06

1.69
1.97
2.43
3.73

2.950 # 10"3

300
320
340
360
374.14

8,581
11,274
14,586
18,651
22,090

713.8
667.1
610.5
528.3
317.0

46.15
64.57
92.62
144.0
317.0

Note 1: Kinematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n ! m/r and a ! k/rcp ! n/Pr. The temperatures 0.01C,
100C, and 374.14C are the triple-, boiling-, and critical-point temperatures of water, respectively. The properties listed above (except the vapor density) can
be used at any pressure with negligible error except at temperatures near the critical-point value.
Note 2: The unit kJ/kg C for specific heat is equivalent to kJ/kg K, and the unit W/m C for thermal conductivity is equivalent to W/m K.
Source: Viscosity and thermal conductivity data are from J. V. Sengers and J. T. R. Watson, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 15 (1986), pp.
12911322. Other data are obtained from various sources or calculated.

cen72367_appx1.qxd 11/17/04 4:34 PM Page 889

889
APPENDIX 1

TA B L E A 4
Properties of saturated refrigerant-134a

Temp.
T, C

Saturation
Pressure
P, kPa

Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

Vapor

Volume
Expansion
Coefficient
b, 1/K
Liquid

"40
"35
"30
"25
"20

51.2
66.2
84.4
106.5
132.8

1418
1403
1389
1374
1359

2.773
3.524
4.429
5.509
6.787

225.9
222.7
219.5
216.3
213.0

1254
1264
1273
1283
1294

748.6
764.1
780.2
797.2
814.9

0.1101
0.1084
0.1066
0.1047
0.1028

0.00811
0.00862
0.00913
0.00963
0.01013

4.878
4.509
4.178
3.882
3.614

#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

2.550
3.003
3.504
4.054
4.651

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6

5.558
5.257
4.992
4.757
4.548

0.235
0.266
0.299
0.335
0.374

0.00205
0.00209
0.00215
0.00220
0.00227

0.01760
0.01682
0.01604
0.01527
0.01451

"15
"10
"5
0
5

164.0
200.7
243.5
293.0
349.9

1343
1327
1311
1295
1278

8.288
10.04
12.07
14.42
17.12

209.5
206.0
202.4
198.7
194.8

1306
1318
1330
1344
1358

833.5
853.1
873.8
895.6
918.7

0.1009
0.0989
0.0968
0.0947
0.0925

0.01063
0.01112
0.01161
0.01210
0.01259

3.371
3.150
2.947
2.761
2.589

#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

5.295
5.982
6.709
7.471
8.264

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6

4.363
4.198
4.051
3.919
3.802

0.415
0.459
0.505
0.553
0.603

0.00233
0.00241
0.00249
0.00258
0.00269

0.01376
0.01302
0.01229
0.01156
0.01084

10
15
20
25
30

414.9
488.7
572.1
665.8
770.6

1261
1244
1226
1207
1188

20.22
23.75
27.77
32.34
37.53

190.8
186.6
182.3
177.8
173.1

1374
1390
1408
1427
1448

943.2
969.4
997.6
1028
1061

0.0903
0.0880
0.0856
0.0833
0.0808

0.01308
0.01357
0.01406
0.01456
0.01507

2.430
2.281
2.142
2.012
1.888

#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

9.081
9.915
1.075
1.160
1.244

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5

3.697
3.604
3.521
3.448
3.383

0.655
0.708
0.763
0.819
0.877

0.00280
0.00293
0.00307
0.00324
0.00342

0.01014
0.00944
0.00876
0.00808
0.00742

35
40
45
50
55

887.5
1017.1
1160.5
1318.6
1492.3

1168
1147
1125
1102
1078

43.41
50.08
57.66
66.27
76.11

168.2
163.0
157.6
151.8
145.7

1471
1498
1529
1566
1608

1098
1138
1184
1237
1298

0.0783
0.0757
0.0731
0.0704
0.0676

0.01558
0.01610
0.01664
0.01720
0.01777

1.772
1.660
1.554
1.453
1.355

#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

1.327
1.408
1.486
1.562
1.634

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

3.328
3.285
3.253
3.231
3.223

0.935
0.995
1.058
1.123
1.193

0.00364
0.00390
0.00420
0.00456
0.00500

0.00677
0.00613
0.00550
0.00489
0.00429

60
65
70
75
80

1682.8
1891.0
2118.2
2365.8
2635.2

1053
1026
996.2
964
928.2

87.38
100.4
115.6
133.6
155.3

139.1
132.1
124.4
115.9
106.4

1659
1722
1801
1907
2056

1372
1462
1577
1731
1948

0.0647
0.0618
0.0587
0.0555
0.0521

0.01838
0.01902
0.01972
0.02048
0.02133

1.260
1.167
1.077
9.891
9.011

#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"5
10"5

1.704
1.771
1.839
1.908
1.982

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

3.229
3.255
3.307
3.400
3.558

1.272
1.362
1.471
1.612
1.810

0.00554
0.00624
0.00716
0.00843
0.01031

0.00372
0.00315
0.00261
0.00209
0.00160

85
90
95
100

2928.2
3246.9
3594.1
3975.1

887.1
837.7
772.5
651.7

95.4
82.2
64.9
33.9

2287
2701
3675
7959

2281
2865
4144
8785

0.0484
0.0444
0.0396
0.0322

0.02233
0.02357
0.02544
0.02989

8.124
7.203
6.190
4.765

#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

2.071
2.187
2.370
2.833

#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

3.837
4.385
5.746
11.77

2.116
2.658
3.862
8.326

0.01336
0.01911
0.03343
0.10047

0.00114
0.00071
0.00033
0.00004

Density
r, kg/m3
Liquid

Vapor

182.3
217.8
269.3
376.3

Enthalpy
of
Vaporization
hfg, kJ/kg

Specific
Heat
cp, J/kg K

Thermal
Conductivity
k, W/m K

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Dynamic Viscosity
m, kg/m s
Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

Surface
Tension,
N/m

Note 1: Kinematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n ! m/r and a ! k/rcp ! n/Pr. The properties listed here (except
the vapor density) can be used at any pressures with negligible error except at temperatures near the critical-point value.
Note 2: The unit kJ/kg C for specific heat is equivalent to kJ/kg K, and the unit W/m C for thermal conductivity is equivalent to W/m K.
Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Original sources: R. Tillner-Roth and H. D. Baehr, An International
Standard Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) for Temperatures from 170 K to 455 K and Pressures up to
70 MPa, J. Phys. Chem, Ref. Data, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1994; M. J. Assael, N. K. Dalaouti, A. A. Griva, and J. H. Dymond, Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity of
Halogenated Methane and Ethane Refrigerants, IJR, Vol. 22, pp. 525535, 1999; NIST REFPROP 6 program (M. O. McLinden, S. A. Klein, E. W. Lemmon,
and A. P. Peskin, Physical and Chemical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80303, 1995).

cen72367_appx1.qxd 11/17/04 4:34 PM Page 890

890
FLUID MECHANICS

TA B L E A 5
Properties of saturated ammonia

Saturation
Pressure
P, kPa

Liquid

Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

Volume
Expansion
Coefficient
b, 1/K
Liquid

"40
"30
"25
"20
"15

71.66
119.4
151.5
190.1
236.2

690.2
677.8
671.5
665.1
658.6

0.6435
1.037
1.296
1.603
1.966

1389
1360
1345
1329
1313

4414
4465
4489
4514
4538

2242
2322
2369
2420
2476

0.5968
0.5853
0.5737

0.01792
0.01898
0.01957
0.02015
0.02075

2.926
2.630
2.492
2.361
2.236

#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

7.957
8.311
8.490
8.669
8.851

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6

1.875
1.821
1.769

0.9955
1.017
1.028
1.041
1.056

0.00176
0.00185
0.00190
0.00194
0.00199

0.03565
0.03341
0.03229
0.03118
0.03007

"10
"5
0
5
10

290.8
354.9
429.6
516
615.3

652.1
645.4
638.6
631.7
624.6

2.391
2.886
3.458
4.116
4.870

1297
1280
1262
1244
1226

4564
4589
4617
4645
4676

2536
2601
2672
2749
2831

0.5621
0.5505
0.5390
0.5274
0.5158

0.02138
0.02203
0.02270
0.02341
0.02415

2.117
2.003
1.896
1.794
1.697

#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

9.034
9.218
9.405
9.593
9.784

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6

1.718
1.670
1.624
1.580
1.539

1.072
1.089
1.107
1.126
1.147

0.00205
0.00210
0.00216
0.00223
0.00230

0.02896
0.02786
0.02676
0.02566
0.02457

15
20
25
30
35

728.8
857.8
1003
1167
1351

617.5
610.2
602.8
595.2
587.4

5.729
6.705
7.809
9.055
10.46

1206
1186
1166
1144
1122

4709
4745
4784
4828
4877

2920
3016
3120
3232
3354

0.5042
0.4927
0.4811
0.4695
0.4579

0.02492
0.02573
0.02658
0.02748
0.02843

1.606
1.519
1.438
1.361
1.288

#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

9.978
1.017
1.037
1.057
1.078

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.500
1.463
1.430
1.399
1.372

1.169
1.193
1.218
1.244
1.272

0.00237
0.00245
0.00254
0.00264
0.00275

0.02348
0.02240
0.02132
0.02024
0.01917

40
45
50
55
60

1555
1782
2033
2310
2614

579.4
571.3
562.9
554.2
545.2

12.03
13.8
15.78
18.00
20.48

1099
1075
1051
1025
997.4

4932
4993
5063
5143
5234

3486
3631
3790
3967
4163

0.4464
0.4348
0.4232
0.4116
0.4001

0.02943
0.03049
0.03162
0.03283
0.03412

1.219
1.155
1.094
1.037
9.846

#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"5

1.099
1.121
1.143
1.166
1.189

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.347
1.327
1.310
1.297
1.288

1.303
1.335
1.371
1.409
1.452

0.00287
0.00301
0.00316
0.00334
0.00354

0.01810
0.01704
0.01598
0.01493
0.01389

65
70
75
80
85

2948
3312
3709
4141
4609

536.0
526.3
516.2
505.7
494.5

23.26
26.39
29.90
33.87
38.36

968.9
939.0
907.5
874.1
838.6

5340
5463
5608
5780
5988

4384
4634
4923
5260
5659

0.3885
0.3769
0.3653
0.3538
0.3422

0.03550
0.03700
0.03862
0.04038
0.04232

9.347
8.879
8.440
8.030
7.645

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.213
1.238
1.264
1.292
1.322

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.285
1.287
1.296
1.312
1.338

1.499
1.551
1.612
1.683
1.768

0.00377
0.00404
0.00436
0.00474
0.00521

0.01285
0.01181
0.01079
0.00977
0.00876

90
95
100

5116
5665
6257

482.8
470.2
456.6

43.48
49.35
56.15

800.6
759.8
715.5

6242
6561
6972

6142
6740
7503

0.3306
0.3190
0.3075

0.04447
0.04687
0.04958

7.284 # 10"5
6.946 # 10"5
6.628 # 10"5

1.354 # 10"5
1.389 # 10"5
1.429 # 10"5

1.375
1.429
1.503

1.871
1.999
2.163

0.00579
0.00652
0.00749

0.00776
0.00677
0.00579

Temp.
T, C

Density
r, kg/m3
Vapor

Enthalpy
of
Vaporization
hfg, kJ/kg

Specific
Heat
cp, J/kg K
Liquid

Vapor

Thermal
Conductivity
k, W/m K

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Dynamic Viscosity
m, kg/m s
Liquid

Vapor

Surface
Tension,
N/m

Note 1: Kinematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n ! m/r and a ! k/rcp ! n/Pr. The properties listed here (except
the vapor density) can be used at any pressures with negligible error except at temperatures near the critical-point value.
Note 2: The unit kJ/kg C for specific heat is equivalent to kJ/kg K, and the unit W/m C for thermal conductivity is equivalent to W/m K.
Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Original sources: Tillner-Roth, Harms-Watzenberg, and Baehr, Eine
neue Fundamentalgleichung fur Ammoniak, DKV-Tagungsbericht 20:167181, 1993; Liley and Desai, Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants, ASHRAE,
1993, ISBN 1-1883413-10-9.

cen72367_appx1.qxd 11/17/04 4:34 PM Page 891

891
APPENDIX 1

TA B L E A 6
Properties of saturated propane

Temp.
T, C
"120
"110
"100
"90
"80

Saturation
Pressure
P, kPa
0.4053
1.157
2.881
6.406
12.97

Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

Vapor

Vapor

Volume
Expansion
Coefficient
b, 1/K
Liquid

664.7
654.5
644.2
633.8
623.2

0.01408
0.03776
0.08872
0.1870
0.3602

498.3
489.3
480.4
471.5
462.4

2003
2021
2044
2070
2100

1115
1148
1183
1221
1263

0.1802
0.1738
0.1672
0.1606
0.1539

0.00589
0.00645
0.00705
0.00769
0.00836

6.136
5.054
4.252
3.635
3.149

#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

4.372
4.625
4.881
5.143
5.409

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6

6.820
5.878
5.195
4.686
4.297

0.827
0.822
0.819
0.817
0.817

0.00153
0.00157
0.00161
0.00166
0.00171

0.02630
0.02486
0.02344
0.02202
0.02062

0.6439
1.081
1.724
2.629
3.864

453.1
443.5
433.6
423.1
412.1

2134
2173
2217
2258
2310

1308
1358
1412
1471
1535

0.1472
0.1407
0.1343
0.1281
0.1221

0.00908
0.00985
0.01067
0.01155
0.01250

2.755
2.430
2.158
1.926
1.726

#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

5.680
5.956
6.239
6.529
6.827

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6

3.994
3.755
3.563
3.395
3.266

0.818
0.821
0.825
0.831
0.839

0.00177
0.00184
0.00192
0.00201
0.00213

0.01923
0.01785
0.01649
0.01515
0.01382

Density
r, kg/m3
Liquid

Vapor

Enthalpy
of
Vaporization
hfg, kJ/kg

Specific
Heat
cp, J/kg K

Thermal
Conductivity
k, W/m K

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Dynamic Viscosity
m, kg/m s
Liquid

Vapor

Liquid

Surface
Tension,
N/m

"70
"60
"50
"40
"30

24.26
42.46
70.24
110.7
167.3

612.5
601.5
590.3
578.8
567.0

"20
"10
0
5
10

243.8
344.4
473.3
549.8
635.1

554.7
542.0
528.7
521.8
514.7

5.503
7.635
10.36
11.99
13.81

400.3
387.8
374.2
367.0
359.5

2368
2433
2507
2547
2590

1605
1682
1768
1814
1864

0.1163
0.1107
0.1054
0.1028
0.1002

0.01351
0.01459
0.01576
0.01637
0.01701

1.551 #
1.397 #
1.259 #
1.195 #
1.135 #

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

7.136
7.457
7.794
7.970
8.151

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6

3.158
3.069
2.996
2.964
2.935

0.848
0.860
0.875
0.883
0.893

0.00226
0.00242
0.00262
0.00273
0.00286

0.01251
0.01122
0.00996
0.00934
0.00872

15
20
25
30
35

729.8
834.4
949.7
1076
1215

507.5
500.0
492.2
484.2
475.8

15.85
18.13
20.68
23.53
26.72

351.7
343.4
334.8
325.8
316.2

2637
2688
2742
2802
2869

1917
1974
2036
2104
2179

0.0977
0.0952
0.0928
0.0904
0.0881

0.01767
0.01836
0.01908
0.01982
0.02061

1.077
1.022
9.702
9.197
8.710

#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"5
10"5
10"5

8.339
8.534
8.738
8.952
9.178

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6

2.909
2.886
2.866
2.850
2.837

0.905
0.918
0.933
0.950
0.971

0.00301
0.00318
0.00337
0.00358
0.00384

0.00811
0.00751
0.00691
0.00633
0.00575

40
45
50
60
70

1366
1530
1708
2110
2580

467.1
458.0
448.5
427.5
403.2

30.29
34.29
38.79
49.66
64.02

306.1
295.3
283.9
258.4
228.0

2943
3026
3122
3283
3595

2264
2361
2473
2769
3241

0.0857
0.0834
0.0811
0.0765
0.0717

0.02142
0.02228
0.02319
0.02517
0.02746

8.240
7.785
7.343
6.487
5.649

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

9.417
9.674
9.950
1.058
1.138

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"5
10"5

2.828
2.824
2.826
2.784
2.834

0.995
1.025
1.061
1.164
1.343

0.00413
0.00448
0.00491
0.00609
0.00811

0.00518
0.00463
0.00408
0.00303
0.00204

80
90

3127
3769

373.0
329.1

84.28
118.6

189.7
133.2

4501
6977

4173
7239

0.0663
0.0595

0.03029
0.03441

4.790 # 10"5
3.807 # 10"5

1.249 # 10"5
1.448 # 10"5

3.251
4.465

1.722
3.047

0.01248
0.02847

0.00114
0.00037

Note 1: Kinematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n ! m/r and a ! k/rcp ! n/Pr. The properties listed here (except
the vapor density) can be used at any pressures with negligible error except at temperatures near the critical-point value.
Note 2: The unit kJ/kg C for specific heat is equivalent to kJ/kg K, and the unit W/m C for thermal conductivity is equivalent to W/m K.
Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Original sources: Reiner Tillner-Roth, Fundamental Equations of
State, Shaker, Verlag, Aachan, 1998; B. A. Younglove and J. F. Ely, Thermophysical Properties of Fluids. II Methane, Ethane, Propane, Isobutane, and Normal
Butane, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1987; G.R. Somayajulu, A Generalized Equation for Surface Tension from the Triple-Point to the CriticalPoint, International Journal of Thermophysics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1988.

cen72367_appx1.qxd 11/17/04 4:34 PM Page 892

892
FLUID MECHANICS

TA B L E A 7
Properties of liquids

Temp.
T, C

Density
r, kg/m3

Specific
Heat cp,
J/kg K

Thermal
Conductivity
k, W/m K

Thermal
Diffusivity
a, m2/s

Dynamic
Viscosity
m, kg/m s

Kinematic
Viscosity
n, m2/s

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Volume
Expansion
Coeff.
b, 1/K

Methane (CH4)
"160
"150
"140
"130
"120
"110
"100
"90

420.2
405.0
388.8
371.1
351.4
328.8
301.0
261.7

3492
3580
3700
3875
4146
4611
5578
8902

0.1863
0.1703
0.1550
0.1402
0.1258
0.1115
0.0967
0.0797

1.270
1.174
1.077
9.749
8.634
7.356
5.761
3.423

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"7
10"7
10"7
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8

1.133
9.169
7.551
6.288
5.257
4.377
3.577
2.761

10"4
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

2.699
2.264
1.942
1.694
1.496
1.331
1.188
1.055

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7

2.126
1.927
1.803
1.738
1.732
1.810
2.063
3.082

0.00352
0.00391
0.00444
0.00520
0.00637
0.00841
0.01282
0.02922

#
#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

7.429
6.531
5.795
5.185
4.677
4.250

#
#
#
#
#
#

10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7

7.414
6.622
5.980
5.453
5.018
4.655

0.00118
0.00120
0.00123
0.00127
0.00132
0.00137

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"5
10"5

1.360
8.531
5.942
4.420
3.432
2.743
2.233
1.836
1.509

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7

12.65
8.167
6.079
4.963
4.304
3.880
3.582
3.363
3.256

0.00142
0.00150
0.00161
0.00177
0.00199
0.00232
0.00286
0.00385
0.00628

8.219
5.287
3.339
1.970
1.201
7.878
5.232
3.464
2.455

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

84,101
54,327
34,561
20,570
12,671
8,392
5,631
3,767
2,697

4.242
9.429
2.485
8.565
3.794
2.046
1.241
8.029
6.595

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"4
10"4
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"6
10"6

46,636
10,863
2,962
1,080
499.3
279.1
176.3
118.1
98.31

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

Methanol [CH3(OH)]
20
30
40
50
60
70

788.4
779.1
769.6
760.1
750.4
740.4

2515
2577
2644
2718
2798
2885

0.1987
0.1980
0.1972
0.1965
0.1957
0.1950

1.002
9.862
9.690
9.509
9.320
9.128

#
#
#
#
#
#

10"7
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8

5.857
5.088
4.460
3.942
3.510
3.146

Isobutane (R600a)
"100
"75
"50
"25
0
25
50
75
100

683.8
659.3
634.3
608.2
580.6
550.7
517.3
478.5
429.6

1881
1970
2069
2180
2306
2455
2640
2896
3361

0.1383
0.1357
0.1283
0.1181
0.1068
0.0956
0.0851
0.0757
0.0669

1.075
1.044
9.773
8.906
7.974
7.069
6.233
5.460
4.634

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"7
10"7
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"8

9.305
5.624
3.769
2.688
1.993
1.510
1.155
8.785
6.483

Glycerin
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

1276
1273
1270
1267
1264
1261
1258
1255
1252

2262
2288
2320
2354
2386
2416
2447
2478
2513

0.2820
0.2835
0.2846
0.2856
0.2860
0.2860
0.2860
0.2860
0.2863

9.773
9.732
9.662
9.576
9.484
9.388
9.291
9.195
9.101

10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8

10.49
6.730
4.241
2.496
1.519
0.9934
0.6582
0.4347
0.3073

Engine Oil (unused)


0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
150

899.0
888.1
876.0
863.9
852.0
840.0
828.9
816.8
810.3

1797
1881
1964
2048
2132
2220
2308
2395
2441

0.1469
0.1450
0.1444
0.1404
0.1380
0.1367
0.1347
0.1330
0.1327

9.097
8.680
8.391
7.934
7.599
7.330
7.042
6.798
6.708

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8

3.814
0.8374
0.2177
0.07399
0.03232
0.01718
0.01029
0.006558
0.005344

Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Originally based on various sources.

0.00070
0.00070
0.00070
0.00070
0.00070
0.00070
0.00070
0.00070
0.00070

cen72367_appx1.qxd 11/17/04 4:34 PM Page 893

893
APPENDIX 1

TA B L E A 8
Properties of liquid metals

Temp.
T, C

Density
r, kg/m3

Specific
Heat cp,
J/kg K

Thermal
Conductivity
k, W/m K

Thermal
Diffusivity
a, m2/s

Dynamic
Viscosity
m, kg/m s

Kinematic
Viscosity
n, m2/s

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Volume
Expansion
Coeff.
b, 1/K

Mercury (Hg) Melting Point: "39C


0
25
50
75
100
150
200
250
300

13595
13534
13473
13412
13351
13231
13112
12993
12873

140.4
139.4
138.6
137.8
137.1
136.1
135.5
135.3
135.3

8.18200
8.51533
8.83632
9.15632
9.46706
10.07780
10.65465
11.18150
11.68150

4.287 #
4.514 #
4.734 #
4.956 #
5.170 #
5.595 #
5.996 #
6.363 #
6.705 #

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6

1.687
1.534
1.423
1.316
1.245
1.126
1.043
9.820
9.336

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"4
10"4

1.241
1.133
1.056
9.819
9.326
8.514
7.959
7.558
7.252

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"7
10"7
10"7
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8
10"8

0.0289
0.0251
0.0223
0.0198
0.0180
0.0152
0.0133
0.0119
0.0108

1.545
1.436
1.215
1.048
9.157

#
#
#
#
#

10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"8

0.01381
0.01310
0.01154
0.01022
0.00906

2.167
1.976
1.814
1.702
1.589
1.475
1.360

#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7

0.02252
0.02048
0.01879
0.01771
0.01661
0.01549
0.01434

7.432
5.967
4.418
3.188
2.909
2.614

#
#
#
#
#
#

10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7

0.01106
0.008987
0.006751
0.004953
0.004593
0.004202

4.213
3.456
2.652
2.304
2.126

#
#
#
#
#

10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7

0.006023
0.004906
0.00374
0.003309
0.003143

10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7
10"7

0.02102
0.01611
0.01161
0.00753
0.00665
0.00579

Bismuth (Bi) Melting Point: 271C


350
400
500
600
700

9969
9908
9785
9663
9540

146.0
148.2
152.8
157.3
161.8

16.28
16.10
15.74
15.60
15.60

1.118
1.096
1.052
1.026
1.010

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.540
1.422
1.188
1.013
8.736

#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"4

Lead (Pb) Melting Point: 327C


400
450
500
550
600
650
700

10506
10449
10390
10329
10267
10206
10145

158
156
155
155
155
155
155

15.97
15.74
15.54
15.39
15.23
15.07
14.91

9.623
9.649
9.651
9.610
9.568
9.526
9.483

#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6
10"6

2.277
2.065
1.884
1.758
1.632
1.505
1.379

#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3
10"3

Sodium (Na) Melting Point: 98C


100
200
300
400
500
600

927.3
902.5
877.8
853.0
828.5
804.0

1378
1349
1320
1296
1284
1272

85.84
80.84
75.84
71.20
67.41
63.63

6.718
6.639
6.544
6.437
6.335
6.220

#
#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

6.892
5.385
3.878
2.720
2.411
2.101

#
#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

Potassium (K) Melting Point: 64C


200
300
400
500
600

795.2
771.6
748.0
723.9
699.6

790.8
772.8
754.8
750.0
750.0

43.99
42.01
40.03
37.81
35.50

6.995
7.045
7.090
6.964
6.765

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

3.350
2.667
1.984
1.668
1.487

#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

SodiumPotassium (%22Na-%78K) Melting Point: "11C


100
200
300
400
500
600

847.3
823.2
799.1
775.0
751.5
728.0

944.4
922.5
900.6
879.0
880.1
881.2

25.64
26.27
26.89
27.50
27.89
28.28

3.205
3.459
3.736
4.037
4.217
4.408

#
#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

5.707
4.587
3.467
2.357
2.108
1.859

#
#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

6.736
5.572
4.339
3.041
2.805
2.553

#
#
#
#
#
#

Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Originally based on various sources.

1.810
1.810
1.810
1.810
1.810
1.810
1.815
1.829
1.854

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

cen72367_appx1.qxd 11/17/04 4:34 PM Page 894

894
FLUID MECHANICS

TA B L E A 9
Properties of air at 1 atm pressure
Temp.
T, C

Density
r, kg/m3

Specific
Heat cp
J/kg K

Thermal
Conductivity
k, W/m K

Thermal
Diffusivity
a, m2/s

Dynamic
Viscosity
m, kg/m s

Kinematic
Viscosity
n, m2/s

Prandtl
Number
Pr

"150
"100
"50
"40
"30

2.866
2.038
1.582
1.514
1.451

983
966
999
1002
1004

0.01171
0.01582
0.01979
0.02057
0.02134

4.158
8.036
1.252
1.356
1.465

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5

8.636
1.189
1.474
1.527
1.579

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5

3.013
5.837
9.319
1.008
1.087

#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"5
10"5

0.7246
0.7263
0.7440
0.7436
0.7425

"20
"10
0
5
10

1.394
1.341
1.292
1.269
1.246

1005
1006
1006
1006
1006

0.02211
0.02288
0.02364
0.02401
0.02439

1.578
1.696
1.818
1.880
1.944

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.630
1.680
1.729
1.754
1.778

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.169
1.252
1.338
1.382
1.426

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.7408
0.7387
0.7362
0.7350
0.7336

15
20
25
30
35

1.225
1.204
1.184
1.164
1.145

1007
1007
1007
1007
1007

0.02476
0.02514
0.02551
0.02588
0.02625

2.009
2.074
2.141
2.208
2.277

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.802
1.825
1.849
1.872
1.895

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.470
1.516
1.562
1.608
1.655

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.7323
0.7309
0.7296
0.7282
0.7268

40
45
50
60
70

1.127
1.109
1.092
1.059
1.028

1007
1007
1007
1007
1007

0.02662
0.02699
0.02735
0.02808
0.02881

2.346
2.416
2.487
2.632
2.780

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.918
1.941
1.963
2.008
2.052

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.702
1.750
1.798
1.896
1.995

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.7255
0.7241
0.7228
0.7202
0.7177

80
90
100
120
140

0.9994
0.9718
0.9458
0.8977
0.8542

1008
1008
1009
1011
1013

0.02953
0.03024
0.03095
0.03235
0.03374

2.931
3.086
3.243
3.565
3.898

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

2.096
2.139
2.181
2.264
2.345

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

2.097
2.201
2.306
2.522
2.745

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.7154
0.7132
0.7111
0.7073
0.7041

160
180
200
250
300

0.8148
0.7788
0.7459
0.6746
0.6158

1016
1019
1023
1033
1044

0.03511
0.03646
0.03779
0.04104
0.04418

4.241
4.593
4.954
5.890
6.871

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

2.420
2.504
2.577
2.760
2.934

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

2.975
3.212
3.455
4.091
4.765

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.7014
0.6992
0.6974
0.6946
0.6935

350
400
450
500
600

0.5664
0.5243
0.4880
0.4565
0.4042

1056
1069
1081
1093
1115

0.04721
0.05015
0.05298
0.05572
0.06093

7.892
8.951
1.004
1.117
1.352

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4

3.101
3.261
3.415
3.563
3.846

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

5.475
6.219
6.997
7.806
9.515

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.6937
0.6948
0.6965
0.6986
0.7037

700
800
900
1000
1500
2000

0.3627
0.3289
0.3008
0.2772
0.1990
0.1553

1135
1153
1169
1184
1234
1264

0.06581
0.07037
0.07465
0.07868
0.09599
0.11113

1.598
1.855
2.122
2.398
3.908
5.664

#
#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

4.111
4.362
4.600
4.826
5.817
6.630

#
#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

1.133
1.326
1.529
1.741
2.922
4.270

#
#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

0.7092
0.7149
0.7206
0.7260
0.7478
0.7539

Note: For ideal gases, the properties cp, k, m, and Pr are independent of pressure. The properties r, n, and a at a pressure P (in atm) other than 1 atm are
determined by multiplying the values of r at the given temperature by P and by dividing n and a by P.
Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Original sources: Keenan, Chao, Keyes, Gas Tables, Wiley, 198; and
Thermophysical Properties of Matter, Vol. 3: Thermal Conductivity, Y. S. Touloukian, P. E. Liley, S. C. Saxena, Vol. 11: Viscosity, Y. S. Touloukian, S. C. Saxena,
and P. Hestermans, IFI/Plenun, NY, 1970, ISBN 0-306067020-8.

cen72367_appx1.qxd 11/17/04 4:34 PM Page 895

895
APPENDIX 1

TA B L E A 1 0
Properties of gases at 1 atm pressure
Temp.
T, C

Density
r, kg/m3

Specific
Heat cp
J/kg K

Thermal
Conductivity
k, W/m K

"50
0
50
100
150
200
300
400
500
1000
1500
2000

2.4035
1.9635
1.6597
1.4373
1.2675
1.1336
0.9358
0.7968
0.6937
0.4213
0.3025
0.2359

746
811
866.6
914.8
957.4
995.2
1060
1112
1156
1292
1356
1387

0.01051
0.01456
0.01858
0.02257
0.02652
0.03044
0.03814
0.04565
0.05293
0.08491
0.10688
0.11522

Thermal
Diffusivity
a, m2/s

Dynamic
Viscosity
m, kg/m s

Kinematic
Viscosity
n, m2/s

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Carbon Dioxide, CO2


5.860
9.141
1.291
1.716
2.186
2.698
3.847
5.151
6.600
1.560
2.606
3.521

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4

1.129
1.375
1.612
1.841
2.063
2.276
2.682
3.061
3.416
4.898
6.106
7.322

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

4.699
7.003
9.714
1.281
1.627
2.008
2.866
3.842
4.924
1.162
2.019
3.103

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4

0.8019
0.7661
0.7520
0.7464
0.7445
0.7442
0.7450
0.7458
0.7460
0.7455
0.7745
0.8815

1.378
1.629
1.863
2.080
2.283
2.472
2.812
3.111
3.379
4.557
6.321
9.826

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

9.012
1.303
1.764
2.274
2.830
3.426
4.722
6.136
7.653
1.700
3.284
6.543

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4

0.7840
0.7499
0.7328
0.7239
0.7191
0.7164
0.7134
0.7111
0.7087
0.7080
0.7733
0.9302

8.564
1.028
1.191
1.345
1.491
1.630
1.886
2.119
2.334
3.281
4.434
6.360

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

9.774
1.436
1.969
2.567
3.227
3.944
5.529
7.297
9.228
2.136
4.022
7.395

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4

0.8116
0.7494
0.7282
0.7247
0.7284
0.7344
0.7450
0.7501
0.7502
0.7331
0.7936
1.0386

7.293
8.391
9.427
1.041
1.136
1.228
1.403
1.570
1.730
2.455
3.099
3.690

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

6.624
9.329
1.240
1.582
1.957
2.365
3.274
4.302
5.443
1.272
2.237
3.414

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"3
10"3
10"3

0.6562
0.7071
0.7191
0.7196
0.7174
0.7155
0.7149
0.7179
0.7224
0.7345
0.7795
1.1717

Carbon Monoxide, CO
"50
0
50
100
150
200
300
400
500
1000
1500
2000

1.5297
1.2497
1.0563
0.9148
0.8067
0.7214
0.5956
0.5071
0.4415
0.2681
0.1925
0.1502

1081
1048
1039
1041
1049
1060
1085
1111
1135
1226
1279
1309

0.01901
0.02278
0.02641
0.02992
0.03330
0.03656
0.04277
0.04860
0.05412
0.07894
0.10458
0.13833

1.149
1.739
2.407
3.142
3.936
4.782
6.619
8.628
1.079
2.401
4.246
7.034

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

Methane, CH4
"50
0
50
100
150
200
300
400
500
1000
1500
2000

0.8761
0.7158
0.6050
0.5240
0.4620
0.4132
0.3411
0.2904
0.2529
0.1536
0.1103
0.0860

"50
0
50
100
150
200
300
400
500
1000
1500
2000

0.11010
0.08995
0.07603
0.06584
0.05806
0.05193
0.04287
0.03650
0.03178
0.01930
0.01386
0.01081

2243
2217
2302
2443
2611
2791
3158
3510
3836
5042
5701
6001

0.02367
0.03042
0.03766
0.04534
0.05344
0.06194
0.07996
0.09918
0.11933
0.22562
0.31857
0.36750

1.204
1.917
2.704
3.543
4.431
5.370
7.422
9.727
1.230
2.914
5.068
7.120

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

Hydrogen, H2
12635
13920
14349
14473
14492
14482
14481
14540
14653
15577
16553
17400

0.1404
0.1652
0.1881
0.2095
0.2296
0.2486
0.2843
0.3180
0.3509
0.5206
0.6581
0.5480

1.009
1.319
1.724
2.199
2.729
3.306
4.580
5.992
7.535
1.732
2.869
2.914

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"3
10"3
10"3

(Continued)

cen72367_appx1.qxd 11/17/04 4:34 PM Page 896

896
FLUID MECHANICS

TA B L E A 1 0
Properties of gases at 1 atm pressure (Continued)
Temp.
T, C

Density
r, kg/m3

Specific
Heat cp
J/kg K

Thermal
Conductivity
k, W/m K

Thermal
Diffusivity
a, m2/s

"50
0
50
100
150
200
300
400
500
1000
1500
2000

1.5299
1.2498
1.0564
0.9149
0.8068
0.7215
0.5956
0.5072
0.4416
0.2681
0.1925
0.1502

957.3
1035
1042
1041
1043
1050
1070
1095
1120
1213
1266
1297

0.02001
0.02384
0.02746
0.03090
0.03416
0.03727
0.04309
0.04848
0.05358
0.07938
0.11793
0.18590

1.366
1.843
2.494
3.244
4.058
4.921
6.758
8.727
1.083
2.440
4.839
9.543

"50
0
50
100
150
200
300
400
500
1000
1500
2000

1.7475
1.4277
1.2068
1.0451
0.9216
0.8242
0.6804
0.5793
0.5044
0.3063
0.2199
0.1716

984.4
928.7
921.7
931.8
947.6
964.7
997.1
1025
1048
1121
1165
1201

0.02067
0.02472
0.02867
0.03254
0.03637
0.04014
0.04751
0.05463
0.06148
0.09198
0.11901
0.14705

1.201
1.865
2.577
3.342
4.164
5.048
7.003
9.204
1.163
2.678
4.643
7.139

Dynamic
Viscosity
m, kg/m s

Kinematic
Viscosity
n, m2/s

Prandtl
Number
Pr

Nitrogen, N2
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

1.390
1.640
1.874
2.094
2.300
2.494
2.849
3.166
3.451
4.594
5.562
6.426

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

9.091
1.312
1.774
2.289
2.851
3.457
4.783
6.242
7.816
1.713
2.889
4.278

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4

0.6655
0.7121
0.7114
0.7056
0.7025
0.7025
0.7078
0.7153
0.7215
0.7022
0.5969
0.4483

1.616
1.916
2.194
2.451
2.694
2.923
3.350
3.744
4.114
5.732
7.133
8.417

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

9.246
1.342
1.818
2.346
2.923
3.546
4.923
6.463
8.156
1.871
3.243
4.907

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4

0.7694
0.7198
0.7053
0.7019
0.7019
0.7025
0.7030
0.7023
0.7010
0.6986
0.6985
0.6873

7.187
8.956
1.078
1.265
1.456
1.650
2.045
2.446
2.847
4.762
6.411
7.808

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

7.305
1.114
1.587
2.150
2.806
3.556
5.340
7.498
1.002
2.761
5.177
8.084

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

1.0047
1.0033
0.9944
0.9830
0.9712
0.9599
0.9401
0.9240
0.9108
0.8639
0.8233
0.7833

Oxygen, O2
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"4

Water Vapor, H2O


"50
0
50
100
150
200
300
400
500
1000
1500
2000

0.9839
0.8038
0.6794
0.5884
0.5189
0.4640
0.3831
0.3262
0.2840
0.1725
0.1238
0.0966

1892
1874
1874
1887
1908
1935
1997
2066
2137
2471
2736
2928

0.01353
0.01673
0.02032
0.02429
0.02861
0.03326
0.04345
0.05467
0.06677
0.13623
0.21301
0.29183

7.271
1.110
1.596
2.187
2.890
3.705
5.680
8.114
1.100
3.196
6.288
1.032

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

10"6
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"4
10"4
10"4
10"3

Note: For ideal gases, the properties cp, k, m, and Pr are independent of pressure. The properties r, n, and a at a pressure P (in atm) other than 1 atm are
determined by multiplying the values of r at the given temperature by P and by dividing n and a by P.
Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Originally based on various sources.

cen72367_appx1.qxd 11/17/04 4:34 PM Page 897

897
APPENDIX 1

TA B L E A 1 1
Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude
Altitude,
m

Temperature,
C

Pressure,
kPa

Gravity
g, m/s2

Speed of
Sound,
m/s

Density,
kg/m3

Viscosity
m, kg/m s

Thermal
Conductivity,
W/m K

0
200
400
600
800

15.00
13.70
12.40
11.10
9.80

101.33
98.95
96.61
94.32
92.08

9.807
9.806
9.805
9.805
9.804

340.3
339.5
338.8
338.0
337.2

1.225
1.202
1.179
1.156
1.134

1.789
1.783
1.777
1.771
1.764

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.0253
0.0252
0.0252
0.0251
0.0250

1000
1200
1400
1600
1800

8.50
7.20
5.90
4.60
3.30

89.88
87.72
85.60
83.53
81.49

9.804
9.803
9.802
9.802
9.801

336.4
335.7
334.9
334.1
333.3

1.112
1.090
1.069
1.048
1.027

1.758
1.752
1.745
1.739
1.732

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.0249
0.0248
0.0247
0.0245
0.0244

2000
2200
2400
2600
2800

2.00
0.70
"0.59
"1.89
"3.19

79.50
77.55
75.63
73.76
71.92

9.800
9.800
9.799
9.799
9.798

332.5
331.7
331.0
330.2
329.4

1.007
0.987
0.967
0.947
0.928

1.726
1.720
1.713
1.707
1.700

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.0243
0.0242
0.0241
0.0240
0.0239

3000
3200
3400
3600
3800

"4.49
"5.79
"7.09
"8.39
"9.69

70.12
68.36
66.63
64.94
63.28

9.797
9.797
9.796
9.796
9.795

328.6
327.8
327.0
326.2
325.4

0.909
0.891
0.872
0.854
0.837

1.694
1.687
1.681
1.674
1.668

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.0238
0.0237
0.0236
0.0235
0.0234

4000
4200
4400
4600
4800

"10.98
"12.3
"13.6
"14.9
"16.2

61.66
60.07
58.52
57.00
55.51

9.794
9.794
9.793
9.793
9.792

324.6
323.8
323.0
322.2
321.4

0.819
0.802
0.785
0.769
0.752

1.661
1.655
1.648
1.642
1.635

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.0233
0.0232
0.0231
0.0230
0.0229

5000
5200
5400
5600
5800

"17.5
"18.8
"20.1
"21.4
"22.7

54.05
52.62
51.23
49.86
48.52

9.791
9.791
9.790
9.789
9.785

320.5
319.7
318.9
318.1
317.3

0.736
0.721
0.705
0.690
0.675

1.628
1.622
1.615
1.608
1.602

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.0228
0.0227
0.0226
0.0224
0.0223

6000
6200
6400
6600
6800

"24.0
"25.3
"26.6
"27.9
"29.2

47.22
45.94
44.69
43.47
42.27

9.788
9.788
9.787
9.786
9.785

316.5
315.6
314.8
314.0
313.1

0.660
0.646
0.631
0.617
0.604

1.595
1.588
1.582
1.575
1.568

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

0.0222
0.0221
0.0220
0.0219
0.0218

7000
8000
9000

"30.5
"36.9
"43.4

41.11
35.65
30.80

9.785
9.782
9.779

312.3
308.1
303.8

0.590
0.526
0.467

1.561 # 10"5
1.527 # 10"5
1.493 # 10"5

0.0217
0.0212
0.0206

10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
18,000

"49.9
"56.5
"56.5
"56.5
"56.5

26.50
19.40
14.17
10.53
7.57

9.776
9.770
9.764
9.758
9.751

299.5
295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1

0.414
0.312
0.228
0.166
0.122

1.458
1.422
1.422
1.422
1.422

0.0201
0.0195
0.0195
0.0195
0.0195

#
#
#
#
#

10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5
10"5

Source: U.S. Standard Atmosphere Supplements, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966. Based on year-round mean conditions at 45 latitude and varies with
the time of the year and the weather patterns. The conditions at sea level (z ! 0) are taken to be P ! 101.325 kPa, T ! 15C, r ! 1.2250 kg/m3,
g ! 9.80665 m2/s.