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Contents Page

- Bulletin
- News Programme
- Copy Only
- Copy only with audio clips
- Voicers
- Live Cross
- Two Way


Related to audience
Public service
Small scale
Satellite and Cable



Within this booklet, you will learn all you need to know there is about radio
news. There are many different forms and styles of radio news.
Bulletin A bulletin is a very short radio programme that usually lasts
from under a minute to 2 minutes. Due to it being very short, only the
most important and useful reports are included. This means that the
stories arent covered in depth either. Furthermore, this gives the
audience an opportunity to have a taste of the news so they are at least
kept up to date even if they do not all the information, it is simply the
main stories of the day.
Example of a bulletin: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zF2EhYLuz8g
Sources: http://www.thenewsmanual.net/Manuals%20Volume

Headline The headline is a short summary of the report usually only

consisting of a couple of words. The headline is just a taster of the story of
what is yet to come, so the audience is made of aware of what they are
going to listen to. The way that these headlines are delivered are very
similar to how TV news is reported. They sometimes feature the use of
alliteration and arent necessarily complete with proper English grammar.
Example of a headline: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hrwq2JY4XaU
Sources: http://www.thenewsmanual.net/Manuals%20Volume

News programme: A news programme is a radio production involving the

reports of all the current events in and around the world. These usually
include audio clips, interviews and commentaries. These last a lot longer
compared to bulletins and headlines. These broadcasts are normally read
by a newsreader.
Example of a news programme:
Sources: http://www.macmillandictionary.com/thesauruscategory/british/types-of-television-or-radio-programme

Copy only: This broadcast involves the newsreader reporting current

stories and events as the programme. This means that there are no
interviews or any live reports from outside the studio.
Example of a copy only: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C8GxQxvKyzY

Copy only with audio clips: This is a type of broadcast that includes a story
with interviews and other kinds of audio clips that have already been
recorded but being broadcasted after its been recorded. Most audiences
may already know about this broadcast as they may have been told
earlier in another programme or bulletin.
Example of a copy only with audio clips: https://www.youtube.com/watch?
Sources: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZX20-sO9pmo

Voicers: This is a recorded report that contains only the journalists report.
Sources: http://www.newscript.com/glossary.html

Wraps: These are short phrases that come at the ending of each story and
leads onto the next one. For example, In other news is a typical wrap
used to end the report of a story and lead on to a different one.
Sources: http://www.newscript.com/glossary.html

Live Cross: This is where a news reporter will cross over to another news
reporter who is talking about the same subject/ story. This may be outside
of the studio and be in the location that the story is based in. This
happens frequently in international storylines.
Example: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBtmttJzxEs
Sources: https://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/261637210?access_key=keyNkeiTxZS4EEpTuNgsrzd&allow_share=false&escape=false&show_recomm

Two Way: This is almost the same as a live cross broadcast except that the
news reporting outside of the studio can be recorded before it is aired.
Example of Two Way:

Sources: https://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/261637210?access_key=keyNkeiTxZS4EEpTuNgsrzd&allow_share=false&escape=false&show_recomm

Related to the audience: Most radio news has a specific target audience
that they are aiming to please. For example, BBC Newsbeat appears to be
aimed at a younger audience compared to news stations such as BBC Four
or Radio Five Live. This can be inferred from the language, (simple or
complex/using terminology related to the subject) the order in which the
stories are put in and the content of the stories themselves. For example,
BBC Newsbeat include subjects for a younger audience such as Nintendo:
However, BBC Radio 4 involves subjects more serious subjects with a
more political approach. For example, BBC Radio 4 included a report
dealing with a Christian school fighting against an Ofsted report.
Sources: http://www.audiencedialogue.net/pmlr2-3.html

Public Service: A public service broadcaster is open to the whole of the

public and the main reason why it is called the public service is because it
is paid for by the public. They are paid through license fees similar to how
TV license is used. As this is paid for by the public, every report must be
based on only fact not opinions meaning it is unbiased. Its reports are
important ones from around the UK and are spread across the nation. The
reports are all current events and spread from politics to murder. Most of
BBC Radio is paid for through license fees.
Example: http://www.audiencedialogue.net/pmlr2-3.html
You can tell this a public service broadcast due to the Received
Pronunciation (RP) being heard. This is because RP is not only the Queens
English but it is also easy to understand. You can also hear the use of the
phrase Top Stories of Today which is the leader phrase for all of the main
current events. If a radio station is being funded by the public they must
follow certain guidelines as they are being regulated by organizations
such as Ofcom, meaning the news readers cannot say anything
misleading, offensive or inappropriate.
Sources - http://ask.ofcom.org.uk/help/television/what_is_psb

Commercial: These types of radio stations are funded through companies.

Similar to commercial TV channels, you will hear adverts throughout the
broadcast to promote certain products or companies. These types of
stations usually serve regional or local areas. These stations usually aim a
more niche and specific target audience which can be based on gender,
religion or even age.
Example: talkSPORT is a commercial radio channel with reports mainly
surrounding the sport culture which features live debates and live sport
You can tell this a commercial channel as the topic of the report is sport
based and the newsreader has a distinguishable accent.
Sources: http://www.radioacademy.org/knowledge-bank/ukradio/commercial-radio/

Community: Community stations are much smaller stations as opposed to

public service and commercial stations. They are mainly produced by
students, people who want to do work experience within the radio industry
and local volunteers. Ofcom offers those who want to get involved the
chance to apply through their website and people can find out what their
community radio station is. They are non-profitable stations and are
usually funded by their own communities gaining a niche audience. The
reports featured by the station is not detailed and usually the copy only
with audio clip reports feature pre owned audio clips. Community stations
are forbidden to raise more than half of their operating costs.
Example: http://eastlondonradio.org.uk/
East London Radio is a well-known community station that serves the
citizens of London. You can tell this station is community service as its
reports are difficult to find on YouTube and are mainly found online on the
official East London Radio website. The reports are merely only about
news within the London area and the newsreaders all talk with a London
Sources: http://www.radioacademy.org/knowledge-bank/gettingin/voluntary-radio/community-radio/

Small scale A small scale radio station that has a greater niche audience
than all of the styles of radio news stations previously mentioned. It even
has a smaller audience than a community station. These stations would

include college/ campus stations or even hospital stations. The reports

featured on these stations would solely focus on the citizens of the area or
building. For example, college radio stations would focus only on stories
related to the college itself for example college sports results,
competitions or recent student trips and achievements.
Example: http://www.icradio.com/
The Imperial College of London has its own college radio station. It is
mainly run by the students of the college and features reports involving
the recent news of the college. You can tell this a small scale radio station
as similarly streamed online, the newsreaders appear to be quite young
and have a variety of accents.
Sources: http://www.icradio.com/
Local: This type of radio station is simple and straightforward and is selfexplanatory. Local radio stations serve the area that you are in and deliver
news that is local and related to the area you are in.
Example: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radiobristol
You can tell this a local radio station as it serves the Bristol area as the
news is only related to the current events situated within Bristol.
Sources: https://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/261637210?access_key=keyNkeiTxZS4EEpTuNgsrzd&allow_share=false&escape=false&show_recomm

Regional: Similar to local radio stations, the title gives away what the
subject is. The regional radio stations attract greater mass audience as
opposed to the local radio stations. This is because the regional stations
cover a wider area and arent just based as towns but are actually based
in counties. For example, BBC Radio Lincolnshire is a radio station that
specifically services citizens living within Lincolnshire. Meaning the
newsreaders will have the northern accents and the news involving
current affairs within Lincolnshire and sometimes events that are serious
and important.
Example: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radiolincolnshire
Sources: http://www.radio-now.co.uk/north.htm

National: These radio stations cover the majority of the country and
include the most important news and issues. These are also mainly funded

by the public meaning they are public service broadcasters and are
regulated by organizations such as Ofcom.
Example: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio2
You can tell this is a national radio station as there are no adverts heard,
the most important news and information is featured including
international reports. Audio clips that are live and second hand are
featured with the newsreaders using a Received Pronunciation accent.
Sources: http://www.radioacademy.org/knowledge-bank/uk-radio/bbcradio/

Internet: Internet radio stations are radio stations that can only be found,
heard and streamed online. Some of these stations are still available
offline but these are normally for mass audiences such as public service
broadcasters and commercial stations. The news reports featured usually
appeal to a niche audience.
Example: http://resonancefm.com/faq
Sources: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/10409420/Thebest-internet-radio-stations.html

Satellite and Cable: These radio stations can mainly be found on TV as TV

channels. The stations can be from national to local. Stations can be
moved from being broadcasted through the radio itself to being entirely
moved to satellite and cable.
Example: http://absoluteradio.co.uk/

Sources: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/radiolicensing/html/radiostations/satellite/satellite-main.htm


: http://www.macmillandictionary.com/thesaurus-category/british/types-oftelevision-or-radio-programme
: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZX20-sO9pmo
: https://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/261637210?access_key=keyNkeiTxZS4EEpTuNgsrzd&allow_share=false&escape=false&show_recomm
: http://www.icradio.com/
: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/10409420/The-bestinternet-radio-stations.html