Você está na página 1de 47

Executive Summary

February 2010

NYC GREEN
CODES
TASK FORCE
A REPORT TO MAYOR MICHAEL R. BLOOMBERG & SPEAKER CHRISTINE C. QUINN
Katie Abbott/Rohit T. Aggarwala/Marc Albanese/
Michael C. Alfano/John Anderson/Robin
Auchincloss/Jack Bailey/Dee Jay Bankhead/Kate
Barton/Hilary Beber/Rick Bell/James Belluardo/
Bob Benazzi/Chris Benedict/Devon Berger/
Zachary Bernstein/Inder Bery/Michael Bierut/
Daniel Birkett/Karen Anne Blackman/Michael S.
Blass/Les Bluestone/Catherine Bobenhausen/
Michael Bobker/Casimir Bognacki/Lee C. Bollinger/
Chris Boyd/Carlton A. Brown/Bill Browning/
Floris Keverling Buisman/Commissioner Amanda
M. Burden/David Carlson/Stephen Cassell/James
E. Cavanaugh/Scott Ceasar/Doug Chambers/
Kizzy M. Charles-Guzman/Stephanie Chiuminatto/
Nancy Clark/Ed Clerico/Amy Coffman/Daniel
Colasuonno/Louis J. Coletti/Fiona Cousins/Elias
F. Dagher/J. Christopher Daly/Marolyn Davenport/
Edward M. DePaola/Christopher Diamond/
Jonathan Dickinson/Markus Dochantschi/Susan
Drew/Skye Duncan/Molly Dunham/Jody Durst/Jeff
Eichenwald/Melissa Wright Ellis/Joseph Esposito/
Art Fasolino/Paul Fernandes/Bruce S. Fowle/
Robert F. Fox Jr./Scott Frank/Yetsuh Frank/Adam
Freed/Charles Fritsch/Frederick Fucci/Peter
Furst/ Shir Gale/Chris Garvin/Rocco Giannetti/
Henry Gifford/John J. Gilbert, III/Helen Gitelson/
Ed Goldberg/Tal Golumb/Piotr W. Grebski/Nicholas
Grecco/Beth Greenberg/Jennifer Greenfeld/
Victoria Grimshaw/Ashok Gupta/Timothy Hauck/
Anne Haynes/ Robert Heintges/David W. Hess/
Adam Hinge/Commissioner Caswell F. Holloway/
Ellen Honigstock/Radley Horton/ Mark Husser/
Philip Jackier/Brook Jackson/Peter Jacobson/
Betsy Jenkins/Benjamin Jones/Ilana Judah/Susan
D. Kaplan/Robert Kasdin/Daniel Kass/Greg Kelly/
CHAPTER TITLE

COPYRIGHT
© 2010 Urban Green Council, New York Chapter of
the U.S. Green Building Council. All rights reserved.

DISCLAIMER
None of the parties involved in the funding or creation
of the New York City Green Codes Task Force Report
-- including Urban Green Council, its members, and its
contractors -- assume any liability or responsibility to the
user or any third parties for the accuracy, completeness,
or use of or reliance on any information contained in the
report, or for any injuries, losses or damages (including, SUPPORT
without limitation, equitable relief) arising from such use
or reliance. Although the information contained in the
report is believed to be reliable and accurate, all materials
are provided without warranties of any kind, either express
or implied, including but not limited to warranties of
the accuracy or completeness of information contained,
merchantability, or the fitness of the information for any
particular purpose.

As a condition of use, the user pledges not to sue and


agrees to waive and release Urban Green Council, its
members, and its contractors from any and all claims,
demands, and causes of action for any injuries, losses, or
damages (including without limitation, equitable relief)
that the user may now or hereafter have a right to assert
against such parties as a result of the use of, or reliance on,
the report.

Urban Green Council


U.S. Green Building Council New York
Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House
One Bowling Green, Suite 419
New York, NY 10004

PRINTING
The Green Codes Task Force was made possible by the
This report has been printed on 100% post-consumer generous support of the Mertz Gilmore Foundation and
waste recycled, FSC-Certified paper, processed chlorine- New York Community Trust, with meetings hosted by the
free, with non toxic toner. Steven L. Newman Real Estate Institute.

URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY V


CONTENTS

Introduction 1 Task Force Contributors 71

Creating this Report 3 Financial Cost


& Savings Methodology 79
Reading this Report 5
Credits & Sources 81
PROPOSAL SUMMARIES 8
Overarching Code Issues 9
Health & Toxicity 14
Energy & Carbon Emissions:
Fundamentals 24
Energy & Carbon Emissions:
Operations & Maintenance 33
Energy & Carbon Emissions:
Energy Efficiency 45
Building Resilience 49
Resource Conservation 54
Water Efficiency 57
Stormwater 61
Urban Ecology 65
INTRODUCTION
City dwellers tend to think of the natural environment green buildings, and the Building Owners and Managers and they build on existing institutions and industry The recommendations of the Task Force primarily affect
as something external to their lives, a fragile wilderness Association has developed model green leases. Similarly, practices. They can be tuned to the priorities and new buildings under construction and existing buildings
that needs to be protected through national efforts. But both the International Code Council (ICC) and ASHRAE conditions of a particular jurisdiction. In addition, codes that are being renovated. But in a few cases, the Task
this way of thinking has begun to shift in recent decades. are developing model green codes. Finally, several labor allow the city to correct market failures, such as split Force also recommends targeting upgrades to existing
Climate change is now recognized as a universal threat, unions have developed green training programs and are incentives; these include landlords who do not want to buildings to correct some widespread problems.
and dense cities have come to be understood as working with Urban Green to develop additional training pay for improvements because the benefits would go to
environmentally preferable to suburbs, despite seeming through GPRO, the Green Pro Building Skills program. their tenants. Finally, codes help the City achieve social One fundamental principle underlies the work of the Task
“unnatural.” In this context, green building has emerged equity and environmental justice. By modifying codes Force, namely, that environmental issues and climate
as a solution to many environmental challenges. Even with this progress, green building remains the and driving down costs, green buildings can be available change should explicitly join the protection of health and
exception rather than the rule for the building industry. to all. safety as the purpose of the codes. Environmental issues
This is perhaps truer in New York City than elsewhere While many green building techniques and materials have serious, long-term impacts on public health and
in the United States. While most U.S. cities focus their have spread throughout the industry, most buildings Fortunately, New York has the expertise to undertake this safety, including the very habitability of New York City,
environmental policies around transportation, New York do not even come close to achieving their potential for task, given its world class architecture and engineering the region, and even the planet. For this reason, the Task
is already blessed with an excellent public transportation efficiencies. Also, green building has been limited mainly community, and its proud history of green building. By Force’s first recommendation is that the purpose section
system. Consequently, 75 percent of greenhouse gas to expensive, high-end buildings, depriving middle- and the late 1980s, many pioneers of the green building of New York’s construction codes be modified to include
emissions and 85 percent of water use in New York are low-income New Yorkers of the benefits. Yet, it is the movement were practicing in New York, redefining the words “environmental protection.” This principle sets
attributed to buildings.* city’s poorest residents who are least able to afford the environmentalism as an urban phenomenon. And the stage for the many recommendations in this report,
high operating costs of inefficient buildings. during the 1990s, the City’s Department of Design & as well as for future efforts to “green” the codes.
In 2007, New York City released PlaNYC, a Construction, the Battery Park City Authority, and the
comprehensive environmental agenda to guide In July 2008, New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg Durst Organization began experimenting with green Urban Green would like to thank the hundreds of
sustainable growth. The plan calls for reductions in and New York City Council Speaker Christine Quinn building. In the last decade, many of New York’s other volunteers who dedicated countless hours of their time
energy use, water use and other environmental impacts, asked Urban Green Council to convene the NYC real estate leaders have become green building leaders. to produce this report. Their intelligence, insight, and
culminating in a 30 percent reduction in greenhouse Green Codes Task Force. The charge to the Task Force As a result, New York today enjoys an enormous generosity resulted in a document of depth and breadth.
gas emissions by 2030. This goal was later codified was to recommend green changes to the laws and concentration of green building experts, both among We also thank New York City Mayor Bloomberg and
into law under the Climate Protection Act (Local Law regulations affecting buildings in New York, bringing its city officials and among its design, construction and Council Speaker Quinn for entrusting us with the
55). But because buildings have such a preponderant them to the “next level.” But unlike several other cities, real estate firms. honor of leading this task force, and for their
impact on the environment, the goals of PlaNYC will be New York chose not to mandate LEED for private extraordinary leadership.
achievable only if the performance of the city’s buildings construction (LEED is already a requirement for public While the 111 recommendations of the NYC Green Codes
is improved substantially. construction in New York). Rather, LEED is intended as a Task Force are tailored to New York City, many will be
leadership standard (after all, the “L” in LEED stands for applicable to other jurisdictions, particularly those that
Thanks in large part to the LEED rating system, the Leadership), not a baseline; New York City leaders want use the ICC family of construction codes or ASHRAE for
real estate industry now recognizes the enormous to raise the baseline to achieve large-scale change. energy. The Task Force’s 200+ volunteers have produced
potential for improvement in the design, construction a work of great specificity and depth. Each proposal
and operation of buildings. Virtually every stakeholder Greening the codes has significant advantages over includes statutory language, a detailed explanation of the
in real estate is now working to advance green building. mandating LEED for the private sector. Codes create issues, an analysis of costs and savings, precedents from
For example, many members of the Real Estate Board of economies of scale in both expertise and materials, other jurisdictions, a comparison of the proposal to any
New York have become national leaders in developing thereby lowering costs. Codes are also enforceable, related LEED credits, and information on implementation.

1 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2
CREATING
THIS REPORT
The New York City Green Codes Task Force report is đƫ Industry Advisory Committee: This group of the first draft of their proposals, including preliminary The proposals were originally grouped according to
the product of an army of dedicated volunteers, leaders industry stakeholders was assembled to provide code language. These drafts were then reviewed by the the subject matters represented by each Technical
in the design and construction industries, who have feedback on the feasibility and coherence oversight committees and relevant city agencies. Committee. As the project neared completion, major
collectively devoted hundreds of hours to developing, of the proposals. Its members included themes emerged that crossed committee boundaries.
critiquing, and refining these proposals. These volunteers developers, building owners, contractors, unions, In an iterative, 10-month effort, the proposals were For example, several committees developed proposals
include architects; engineers; lighting, landscape environmentalists, universities, affordable housing edited, packaged and critiqued, then edited once that addressed both health issues and passive design. To
architects and interior designers; owners and developers; experts, commercial tenants, and representatives again. At each step, Urban Green managed the process, reflect these new underlying themes, the proposals were
corporate tenants; contractors; cost estimators; from professional and industry organizations. mediated among stakeholders, and fleshed out and regrouped into new categories.
affordable-housing experts; code specialists; attorneys; refined much of the content, including code language
waste haulers; scientists and public-health experts; and đƫ Technical Committees: The structure of these and supporting information. The Task Force issued four Finally, the Industry Advisory Committee reviewed
representatives of environmental organizations, building committees was based on the LEED subject areas, formal drafts of all the proposals, followed by reviews the fourth draft of proposals and endorsed the
trade unions, city agencies, and industry and professional modified to reflect areas of technical expertise and comments by the oversight committees and relevant following statement:
associations. The work of this diverse group was directed and include emerging areas of interest in New agencies. In between, there were numerous drafts of
and organized by Urban Green Council staff, with advice York City. There were eight original committees individual proposals, with separate meetings, sometimes This report proposes a wide range of
and support from the Mayor’s Office of Long-Term and one ad hoc committee: Climate Adaptation, including multiple agencies and outside experts, devoted recommendations to address local and national
Planning and Sustainability and the Office of City Council Construction Practices, Energy & Ventilation, to refining them. concerns of energy independence, human health,
Speaker Christine Quinn. Homes, Lighting & Day Lighting, Materials & VOCs, and environmental sustainability, including climate
Physical Activity (ad hoc), Site & Site Stormwater, At the request of the Industry Advisory Committee, the change. The Industry Advisory Committee supports
ASSEMBLING THE TASK FORCE and Water Efficiency & Building Stormwater. Most first cost of each proposal was analyzed, along with some proposals of the NYC Green Codes Task Force,
On July 8, 2008, New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg of the committee members were building design the length of payback for many proposals. This cost while noting that many proposals require further
and City Council Speaker Christine Quinn asked Urban professionals, including architects and landscape analysis was performed pro-bono by Bovis Lend-Lease refinement and others have uneven support among
Green to assemble the NYC Green Codes Task Force architects, engineers, lighting and interior with direction from the Mayor’s Office of Economic Committee members. The Committee will work with
and direct their efforts. Urban Green and the Mayor’s designers, and experts in construction, along with Development. The New York offices of Fried, Frank, the Mayor’s Office and City Council to refine the
Office worked together to structure the Task Force and representatives from relevant city agencies. Harris, Shriver & Jacobson LLP also provided pro-bono proposals in the coming months.
assemble its membership. The structure would require review of legal language within the recommendations.
both technical input and oversight. Nine Technical FINAL REPORT
BRAINSTORMING, CONCEPTUAL FINAL COST ANALYSIS, REPACKAGING The complete report of the New York City Green Codes
Committees, composed largely of design professionals, REFINEMENT & CODE DRAFTING
would generate most of the ideas. Oversight would be & STATEMENT OF SUPPORT Task Force was delivered to New York Mayor Michael
The work of the Task Force began on July 14, 2008, with Substantive revisions to proposals were closed in Bloomberg and City Council Speaker Christine Quinn
provided by two committees: a Steering Committee, a kick-off meeting for all members.
drawn from the technical committees, Urban Green August 2009 for a pre-publication review by the on February 1, 2010, the result of 18 months of intense
and relevant municipal officials, to oversee the process; Mayor’s Office & Speaker’s Office and to prepare the analysis and industry collaboration. In the opinion of the
This was followed by three months of almost daily
and an Industry Advisory Committee of stakeholders to final report for release. With proposals no longer being Steering Committee, many proposals in this report are
meetings – roughly 70 in all – by the Technical
provide essential feedback on the proposals. The precise revised, the costing exercise could advance. Bovis Lend ready for implementation, while many others require
Committees. During the first cycle of meetings, the
roles and composition of these committees are: Lease prepared draft cost assessments, and these further review and revision. Urban Green and the rest of
Technical Committees brainstormed ideas on both
were reviewed by the Technical Committee chairs and the Task Force look forward to working with the Mayor
code impediments that should be removed and code
members of the Industry Advisory Committee. Drawing and Speaker to implement and refine this work.
đƫ Steering Committee: As the ultimate decision- enhancements that should be added to NYC’s laws
on the costing approach developed by the Department
making body for the Task Force, its purpose was and regulations. They also considered code proposals
of Building for the 2006 code revision, the final cost
to ensure that the Task Force achieved the goals from other cities, states, and countries; innovative and
analysis included estimates for various building types.
put forward by the Mayor and the Speaker. Its groundbreaking ideas that have not been implemented
A detailed explanation of the costing exercise is provided
members were the chairs of the eight Technical elsewhere; and issues that are specific to New York City’s
in the Financial Cost & Savings Methodology section of
Committees and representatives from Urban buildings. Next, the Technical Committees reconvened
this report.
Green, the Mayor’s Office, the Speaker’s Office, and for a second cycle of meetings, during which they first
key NYC agencies. selected and prioritized these ideas, then developed

3 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4
READING
THIS REPORT
The more than 100 proposals of KEY TO THE IMPACT GRAPHICS COSTS & SAVINGS COSTS
the Task Force Report have been
divided into ten categories, and The proposals have been analyzed with respect to their See the Financial Cost & Savings
Proposal reduces the initial cost of construction.
are numbered within each. The projected impacts on four categories: the environment, Methodology section for a detailed
Proposal Summaries include short human health, operational savings, and the cost of construction. overview of how costs and savings Proposal increases initial cost by less than 0.01%.
descriptions of the “Issue” the The first three categories represent benefits and are grouped were determined. The cost analysis
proposal is intended to address, together on the left, with the costs required to obtain those estimates the increase in first cost Proposal increases initial cost
a succinct description of the benefits located on the right. The projected impacts are of construction relative to standard between 0.01% and 0.05%.
“Recommendation” of the Task Force presented using the symbols below. In general, a dash means construction costs across a range
and a simple graphic representation there is negligible impact in a category, while N/A means that of building types. Since the cost Proposal increases initial cost
of the anticipated impacts of that the impact was not able to be assessed or the category is impacts often varied according to between 0.05% and 0.5%.
each proposal on the environment, not applicable to the proposal. building types or by design strategy
health, savings and cost. selected, and since some proposals Proposal increases initial cost more than 0.5%.
would actually decrease costs, it was
The Full Proposals section of the necessary
document includes the full text and ENVIRONMENT to show both positive and negative SAVINGS
documentation of each proposal, impacts and also the range of
including expansive supporting An indirect positive impact on the environment. anticipated impact within
information, and where appropriate this category. This proposal does not result
the exact code or legal language the in operational savings.
A low positive environmental impact per building
Task Force recommends govern the and impacts a low number of buildings. In some cases, the estimated cost of
a proposal differed between building Operational savings have an estimated
issue at hand. Also included is an
types. Where there is financial payback period greater than
expanded description of the issue Either a) a low positive environmental impact per
a range in estimates, cost increases ten years but less than the expected
the proposal addresses, as well as building and impacts a large number of buildings,
found only life of the equipment or structure.
descriptions of: environmental and or b) a high positive environmental impact per
health benefits of the proposals, building and impacts a low number of buildings. in some building types are
represented with Operational savings have an estimated financial
background to the cost & savings payback period of three to
analysis, similar precedents, the A high positive environmental impact per building open dots.
ten years.
impact of the proposal on LEED and impacts a large number of buildings.
certification, and implementation For example:
Operational savings have an estimated financial
and market availability issues related payback period of less than three years.
to the proposal. means the minimum
HEALTH estimated cost increase was 0.01%
and one or more building types had
Appendix A is the draft cost and An indirect positive impact on public health. cost increases greater than 0.5%.
savings analysis of each proposal.
Refer to the draft cost analysis
A low positive public health impact per building in Appendix A for more specific
Both the full report and the and impacts a low number of buildings. information about each proposal.
Executive Summary are available
in PDF format here: Either a) a low positive public health impact per Operational savings were only
building and impacts a large number of buildings, estimated for proposals dealing with
www.urbangreencouncil.org/ or b) a high positive public health impact per Energy, Lighting or Water.
GreenCodes building and impacts a low number of buildings.

A high positive public health impact per building


and impacts a high number of buildings.

5 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6
PROPOSAL
SUMMARIES

7 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 8
OVERARCHING
CODE ISSUES
Most change is incremental, but there are times when disciplines go
through periods of sweeping change. The green building movement,
along with growing awareness of climate change, has catapulted
building design and operation into such a period. For example, the
U.S. Congress’ draft energy bill would direct energy codes to increase
the efficiency of new buildings by 75% over the next 20 years, in stark
contrast to the slow and uneven pace of energy code improvements
over the past 30 years.

Accommodating this dramatic shift in the building industry will


require considerable capacity-building in both government and the
private sector. Every Technical Committee emphasized the need for OC 3: 85% of the buildings we will occupy in 2030 exist today. If any significant portion of these existing
buildings are exempted from modern code standards we will make little progress in making NYC an
training in the codes and for code enforcement. After all, codes are environmentally responsible and healthy place to live and work.
not worth the paper they’re printed on unless enforced; similarly, the
building community needs information and training to comply with
new requirements.

Also, rapid improvements in green building strategies and technologies OC 1


mean that New York City’s government will need to develop processes
Anticipating Add Environmental Protection
that accommodate and facilitate these changes. The city will need to as Fundamental Principle of the
be more nimble in both approving new technologies and permitting Construction Codes
advanced projects that cross traditional jurisdictional boundaries.1 The
Future Risk.
city will also need to keep its codes up to date by regularly reconvening Significant reforms to our building codes Issue:
have historically been in response to Although environmental protection is not expressly
a green codes process that engages knowledgeable practitioners. disasters like the Triangle Factory Fire of recognized as a principle informing the building
1911 or the 2003 blackout. But a retroactive code, environmental risks are more likely to affect
Finally, the purview of the codes should be expanded to reflect and approach to the global climate change crisis New York City buildings and their residents than
accommodate the shift toward sustainable building practices. Chief is inadequate because once repercussions many other risks currently addressed in the code.
like sea level rise are underway they will be
among these expansions is the need to clarify the mandate of building effectively irreversible. And changes are Recommendation:
codes to protect the environment. This should be seen as a natural coming. The New York City Climate Change Amend the intent section of the building
extension of the concept of protecting health and safety. The green Adaptation Task Force predicts that by code to include environmental protection as a
2030 sea level rise in New York will reach fundamental principle.
code provisions should also apply to all buildings, not just those 7-12 inches, average daily temperatures will
completed after July 2009. Further, the design and construction of the be 3-5 deg. F hotter, precipitation will be Benefits Costs
landscape needs to be housed in a unified section of the code so that it 10% greater and there will be more frequent
can be addressed comprehensively. This has been a lacuna of the codes extreme weather events. Savings Cost
that nonetheless impacts multiple issues, including stormwater runoff, Health & Safety
materials consumption, the urban heat island effect, and biodiversity. Environment

9 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 10
OVERARCHING CODE ISSUES OVERARCHING CODE ISSUES

OC 2: BUILDING PERMITS ISSUED 1989-2008








  
 














                 
 




OC 7: Further education will be necessary for architects and


engineers to keep up with changes to our construction laws.

OC 2 OC 3
OC 4 OC 5
Fully Enforce NYC’s Don’t Exempt Existing
Construction Codes Buildings from Green Codes Reconvene The Green Consolidate Regulation
Codes Task Force of Landscape Practices
Issue: Issue:
Codes are increasingly viewed as an essential, Buildings constructed before the 2007 building Issue: Issue:
low-cost strategy for achieving energy and carbon code went into effect can use the laxer standards of Green building is a rapidly evolving field, and New Landscape and site design have an impact on
reduction targets. However, to be effective, codes the 1968 code for alterations. This exception allows York City’s construction laws need to keep pace important urban environmental issues, such as the
must be enforced. existing buildings to bypass the environmental and with these changes. urban heat island effect, stormwater capture and
health enhancements recommended by the NYC run-off, species diversity, maintenance, toxicity, and
Recommendation: Green Codes Task Force. Recommendation: materials flows. However, New York City does not
Develop a strategy to achieve 90% code compliance Reconvene the NYC Green Codes Task Force every have a code or ordinance to address these issues
citywide, and address known impediments Recommendation: three years. comprehensively.
to enforcement. Require all buildings to comply with improved
environmental and health standards. Benefits Costs Recommendation:
Benefits Costs Add a chapter on landscape and site to the city’s
Benefits Costs Building Code.

Savings Cost Benefits Costs

Health & Safety Savings Cost


Environment Health & Safety
Environment

11 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 12
OVERARCHING CODE ISSUES

OC 6 OC 7
HEALTH & TOXICITY
Streamline Approvals for Green Enhance Code Training
Technologies & Projects for Architects & Engineers
Issue: Issue:
New products and technologies that address With the adoption of the 2008 New York City
environmental concerns are rapidly being Construction Codes, along with regular revisions
developed, and many building owners and and the addition of new green provisions, the
developers are eager to implement them. However, city’s building codes are continuously changing.
there are often no rules governing the use of new It is important that the city informs building In the mid- to late-19th Century, most of New York City’s residents were
products. There are also interagency regulatory professionals of all code changes and ensures that crowded into a lower Manhattan that rivaled the density of Calcutta.
issues, which can prohibit or delay projects that training is provided so that practitioners can comply
utilize new technologies. with new requirements. Many lived in unsanitary tenements with little access to either light
or fresh air. Tuberculosis was rampant, and epidemics of scarlet fever,
Recommendation: Recommendation: cholera and other diseases were all too frequent. Gradually, scientists
To facilitate the use of innovative technology Develop a strategy to ensure that building
that can have significant environmental benefits, professionals are aware of code changes and able demonstrated that many of these diseases were spread by infested
the city will establish an Interagency Green Team to access training on the most current versions of water, airborne germs, insects, and even overcrowding – mechanisms
to assist innovative projects in overcoming the New York City Construction Codes. The Mayor’s that were “environmental” insofar as they were part of the surroundings.
interagency regulatory hurdles. It will also Office began working with industry associations,
establish an Innovation Review Board to evaluate including Urban Green, AIA New York, and ASHRAE In response, New York set about making its environment healthier with
technologies for pilot projects or recommend that New York, to develop training prior to issuance of new building codes and zoning requirements, the development of parks,
rules be established for their use. Independent this report. and the creation of better sanitation systems.
of the Task Force proposal, the New York City
Department of Buildings has initiated a Building Benefits Costs
Sustainability Board to streamline approvals of new These new codes and improved infrastructures, combined with public
green technology. Savings Cost immunization programs, worked so well that the average life expectancy
Health & Safety
among New Yorkers nearly doubled between 1900 and 2000.1 Similarly,
Benefits Costs
the percentage of deaths attributed to communicable diseases fell
Savings Cost Environment from 57% of all New York City deaths in 1880 to just 9% in 2005.2
Now, most New York City deaths result from chronic diseases, not
Health & Safety
communicable ones.
Environment
The environment still continues to play a major role in spreading chronic
diseases. Poor air quality inside buildings and smog outside can trigger
asthma attacks, which now afflict an estimated 1 million New Yorkers.
Also, many chemicals used in building supplies and furnishings are toxic;
some have been implicated as causing cancers, endocrine disorders,
and other serious diseases. Even obesity, a precursor to many diseases,
can be attributed to the ways in which our buildings and infrastructures
discourage walking and other forms of physical exercise.

The code proposals in this chapter aim to reduce the incidence of


chronic diseases by making New York a healthier place in which to live.
They concentrate on buildings because, in such a dense city, buildings
essentially are the environment – they’re where we spend roughly 90

13 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 14
HEALTH & TOXICITY HEALTH & TOXICITY

percent of our time. In fact, indoor air quality has a greater impact on HT 1
the health of New Yorkers than does outdoor air. Even most of our
exercise is taken indoors. Limit Harmful Emissions From Carpets That New
Issue:
The recommendations in this section aim to reduce the levels of indoor Carpet, carpet backing, carpet cushion and Car Smell.
pollutants, which can be up to 1,000 times higher than outdoor levels. adhesives emit respiratory irritants and cancer Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are
causing compounds, which are harmful to the common chemical contaminants that easily
They would do so by limiting harmful compounds used in many building comfort and well-being of installers and occupants. evaporate into the air at room temperature
materials and reducing other unhealthy contaminants from entering the and are often noticed as the familiar odor of
building via foot traffic and ventilation systems. The proposals also aim Recommendation: paint or “new car smell.” VOCs are present
Establish standards, in accordance with national in a vast array of building materials, from
to increase ventilation levels in residences and improve air quality both industry programs, to limit the presence of volatile paints and sealants and glues, to composite
during and after construction activities. They would further reduce toxic organic compounds in carpet, carpet backing and products like fiberboard. Some are known
compounds found in existing light fixtures. And by phasing out dirty carpet adhesives. carcinogens that contribute to “sick building
boiler fuels, they would improve both indoor and outdoor air quality. Of syndrome” and have been linked to luekemia.
Benefits Costs They can cause eye, nose and throat irritation;
course, the proposals in the Energy & Carbon Emissions chapters of this headaches, fatigue, loss of coordination, and
report also aim to improve air quality by reducing the use of fossil fuels. Savings Cost nausea; and can damage the liver, kidneys
and the nervous system. EPA studies have
Health & Safety
Several of the proposals stake out new territory by addressing the found levels of VOCs inside homes can
Environment be 2 to 5 times higher than outside, with
environmental causes of the obesity epidemic, which affects many some indoor levels over 1,000 time higher
New Yorkers and is known to increase the incidence of diabetes and following activities like paint stripping. VOCs
related diseases. In 2008, 56 % of the city’s adults3 and 39% of the city’s contribute to ground level ozone formation
(smog), which can cause respiratory problems
elementary school students4 were either obese or overweight. What’s and exacerbates asthma, emphysema, and
more, the increased incidence of obesity is not unrelated to rising bronchitis. In addtion to human health
energy use and global warming. In fact, human energy has largely been impacts, VOCs effect local ecosystems,
damaging or weakening trees and plants,
replaced by petrochemical energy. We move about in cars and trains and reducing forest growth and crop yield.
rather than walking or bicycling; we watch televisions and computers
rather than play outdoors; and we ride elevators and escalators instead HT 2
of climbing the stairs. Several proposals in this section would help Limit Harmful Emissions
reverse this trend by making stair use in buildings more accessible and From Paints & Glues
more appealing. A final proposal, aimed at increasing access to water
fountains, seeks to reduce the excess intake of calories by making it Issue:
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted
easier to drink water than sugary soft drinks. from building materials, glues, adhesives, paints
and lacquers. These compounds are respiratory
irritants that adversely affect the health of workers
and occupants.

Recommendation:
Reduce indoor air contaminants by limiting VOCs in
adhesives, sealants, paints and coatings.

Benefits Costs

Savings Cost
Health & Safety
Environment

15 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 16
HEALTH & TOXICITY HEALTH & TOXICITY

HT 7: ASTHMA HOSPITALIZATIONS
Children age 0 to 12 years, 2004
HT 3 HT 5 HT 7
Restrict Cancer-Causing Filter Soot from Incoming Air Reduce Mold in Bathrooms 


Formaldehyde In Building Materials  
 
Issue: Issue:
Issue: HVAC systems bring outside air into buildings, along Mold is common in moist areas of many buildings,
Formaldehyde is a carcinogen and irritant found in with airborne pollutants. Without proper filters, this such as showers. Exposure to mold can cause 
composite wood materials, which are widely used can lower the quality of indoor air. negative health effects, including allergic responses,
in construction. asthma and other respiratory irritations.
Recommendation: 
Recommendation: Require the use of HVAC systems that filter soot and Recommendation:
Limit the content of formaldehyde in non-structural other pollutants from indoor air. Require the use of mold-resistant gypsum board
composite wood products. and cement board in water-sensitive locations. 
Benefits Costs
Benefits Costs Benefits Costs
Savings Cost 
Savings Cost Savings Cost
Health & Safety
Health & Safety Health & Safety 
Environment
Environment Environment


     

HT 8
Improve Air Quality
During & After Construction
HT 4 HT 6 Issue:
Construction activities can lead to the release of
Keep Street Contaminants Ensure Ventilation substances, such as volatile organic compounds HT 9
Out of Buildings Airflow in Residences (VOCs) and particulates, that have an adverse
effect on the health of construction workers and Phase Out Dirty Boiler Fuels
Issue: Issue: occupants alike.
Foot traffic brings many indoor air contaminants The new requirements for ventilation in the Building Issue:
and bacteria into buildings. These particulates Code save a great deal of energy. However, if Recommendation: Boilers that use #4 and #6 fuel oils emit a
irritate the respiratory system and can the systems are not adjusted properly, the energy Provide ventilation during construction, protect the substantial portion of the city’s air pollution.
trigger asthma. savings will come at the expense of indoor HVAC system from contaminants and absorptive
air quality. materials from moisture, and flush out bad air Recommendation:
Recommendation: before occupancy. Do not issue new permits for boilers using #4 and
Require new buildings to install permanent entry Recommendation: #6 fuel oils, and require all new burners to utilize
mat systems to capture particulates. In new construction, require improved design Benefits Costs only #2 fuel oil and/or gas fuel. The issue addressed
parameters, testing, and balancing for exhaust by this proposal is already under consideration by
Benefits Costs ventilation systems. Savings Cost the City.

Savings Cost Benefits Costs Health & Safety Benefits Costs

Health & Safety Savings Cost Environment Savings Cost


Environment Health & Safety Health & Safety
Environment Environment

17 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 18
HEALTH & TOXICITY HEALTH & TOXICITY

HT 11 HT 13

Twice The Convene Task Force on Recycling Treat Corrosive Concrete Wastewater
Fluorescent Light Bulbs
Issue:
Lighting? Issue: Concrete trucks, buckets and washout pump trucks
NYC codes mandate emergency Despite increased use of fluorescent lamps and are typically rinsed at construction sites, and the
lighting levels roughly twice that of ballasts, there is a lack of public information runoff is then directed to a stormwater drain. This
the rest of the country. Reducing about these lights and limited options for their water is corrosive and should not be discharged
these lighting levels will not only safe disposal. onto public streets or into rivers.
save energy, but will also reduce the
Recommendation: Recommendation:
size and disposal frequency of the
The Department of Sanitation should convene a Require wastewater from concrete mixer trucks
batteries typically used for these
task force to study and determine the best bulb to be either treated on site or returned to the
systems. These batteries contain
recycling program for NYC. manufacturing plant for treatment.
extremely toxic materials like
lead and cadmium and are often Benefits Costs
disposed of as regular trash. Benefits Costs
HT 13: Concrete washout water has a pH
Savings Savings Cost comparable to Drano® Clog Remover.

Health & Safety Health & Safety

Environment Environment
Cleaning Up
Concrete.
When concrete trucks are washed
HT 14 out in NYC, construction firms are
permitted to dispose of the water
Reduce “Red Tape” directly to the ground, the street or
the City sewer- which commonly
for Asbestos Removal outflows to local rivers. Because
HT 10 HT 12 concrete often contains portland
Issue:
Products containing encased asbestos, such as cement, antifreeze, fly ash and
Phase Out Toxic & Inefficient Reduce Oversized Batteries in slag, the washout water has a pH
vinyl tile or window putty, can be safely removed
Light Fixture Components Emergency Lighting using simpler procedures than those required for above 12, comparable to Drano
the removal of crumbly asbestos products. While Clog Removers. Concrete washout
Issue: Issue: water also contains toxic metals
The EPA banned the manufacture of polychlorinated Much emergency lighting is powered by batteries, New York State allows the use of such simplified
procedures, the New York City Department of like arsenic, chromium, lead and
biphenyls (PCBs) in 1978, but old and inefficient which contain heavy metals and other hazardous zinc. Direct contact or ingestion of
ballasts containing PCBs are still in use today. substances. By mandating twice as much Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) requires
contractors to obtain a variance in order to do so. this washout water is harmful to
PCBs are chemicals that bioaccumulate in the emergency illumination as the rest of the country, humans and, undiluted, is lethal to
environment, threaten the reproduction of many the NYC building code promotes excessively large aquatic life. For a 1.2 million square
Recommendation:
species of plants and animals, and are linked to battery systems. foot project, proposal HT 13 would
NYCDEP should allow projects removing encased
certain cancers. prevent the release of 163,500
Recommendation: asbestos products to utilize approved, simpler
procedures without a variance. This proposal was gallons of untreated concrete
Recommendation: Reduce the required level of emergency lighting, washout water to neighboring
Institute a mandatory phased removal of all existing thereby reducing battery size. incorporated into DEP Rules prior to the issuance of
this report. streets and the City sewer- the
PCB and magnetic ballasts, starting with the largest amount of water in a four lane wide
buildings by 2013 and working down to all buildings Benefits Costs and four foot deep, Olympic length
Benefits Costs
by 2019. (50 meter) swimming pool.
Savings Cost Savings Cost
Benefits Costs
Health & Safety Health & Safety
Savings Cost
Environment Environment
Health & Safety
Environment

19 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 20
HEALTH & TOXICITY HEALTH & TOXICITY

HT 15 HT 17
Allow Stairway Use Promote Stair Use Through Signage
Issue: Issue:
Locked doors inhibit the use of stairs, deterring People are insufficiently aware of the health benefits
physical activity and fitness. of using stairs.

Recommendation: Recommendation:
Encourage regular physical activity in buildings by Encourage stair use by requiring signs that prompt
requiring stair doors to be unlocked, while allowing stair use and that provide floor re-entry information.
exceptions for security access devices.
Benefits Costs
Benefits Costs
Savings Cost
Savings Cost
Health & Safety
Health & Safety
Environment
Environment

HT 16
HT 15: CAUSES OF DEATH IN NYC
Encourage Stairway Use
with Transparent Doors 

Issue:
Opaque doors discourage stair use by making them
difficult to locate, uninviting and less safe.

Recommendation:
Require doors to public access stairs to
include glass.

Benefits Costs

Savings Cost
Health & Safety   

Environment  






HT 19: People are more likely to use stairs instead of elevators if they are inviting and conveniently located.

21 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 22
HEALTH & TOXICITY

HT 18 HT 20
ENERGY &
Encourage Stairway Use Increase Availability
by Holding Doors Open of Drinking Fountains CARBON EMISSIONS
Issue: Issue:
One means of encouraging stair use is to hold doors People buy and consume bottled water and sugary
open by magnets that release the doors when drinks, in large part, because there are not enough FUNDAMENTALS
smoke is detected. But the building code does easily accessible water fountains. All bottled drinks
not permit the use of these magnetic devices for stress the environment by wasting materials, using
stair doors. energy for transportation, and creating waste. Also, Reducing both energy use and the carbon emissions that cause global
sugary drinks can contribute to chronic diseases. warming constitutes our most urgent global priority. The International
Recommendation:
Allow the use of magnetic devices to hold doors Recommendation: Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded that to stabilize the
open for stairs of three stories or less. Increase the number of required drinking fountains, world’s climate near a 2° C increase over preindustrial temperatures,
and also require that they include faucets for filling industrialized nations must reduce their emissions by at least 80 percent
Benefits Costs bottles. Do not allow bottled water to substitute
for fountains. by 2050. If this can be achieved, we should avoid the most disastrous
Savings Cost impacts of ice melts and rising sea levels. At the local level, New York
Benefits Costs City has committed to the first wave of reductions by passing Local
Health & Safety
Savings Cost
Law 55 of 2007, which requires the city to reduce its greenhouse gas
Environment emissions by 30 percent by 2030.
Health & Safety
Environment Achieving these dramatic reductions will be complicated due to the
city’s pervasive use of energy. Large-scale, systematic changes will be
involved, including the roughly 1 million buildings in New York City alone,
each with numerous energy systems and sub-systems. Due to this high
degree of complexity, a large number of proposals are required: In all,
HT 19 roughly half of the 111 code proposals in this report aim at reducing
carbon emissions, and more reductions will ultimately be needed to
Provide Zoning Bonus reach the IPCC’s target.
for Inviting Staircases
Issue: For this reason, the Energy & Carbon Emissions proposals have been
When stairs are easy to locate, convenient, and divided into three sections. The first, Fundamentals, lays the groundwork
attractive they are well used. But in most new
buildings, stairs are built as hidden necessities.
by clarifying the underlying codes and ensuring that buildings
require smaller energy systems. The second, Energy Efficiency, sets
Recommendation: requirements to make those energy systems more efficient. And the
Reward buildings with a zoning bonus for designing
stairs that are prominent and accessible.
third, Operations & Maintenance, seeks to ensure that these energy
systems are run properly. Together, these proposals aim to do more than
Benefits Costs merely save energy and reduce carbon emissions. They would also save
New Yorkers money by reducing energy costs, improve public health by
Savings Cost
improving air quality, and make the city’s building stock more resilient.
Health & Safety

Environment
The Fundamentals chapter includes several proposals that would clarify
and advance New York City’s underlying energy codes. One proposal
would require designers of commercial buildings to use the latest
HT 20: Accessible water fountains will reduce version of ASHRAE 90.1 (the energy standard developed and updated
reliance on bottled water and sugary drinks. by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning
Engineers) rather than allowing a version of both ASHRAE and another
base code, both outdated, with over a dozen sub-paths, as is now the
case. As a result, most other proposals in the three Energy & Carbon

23 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 24
ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: FUNDAMENTALS ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: FUNDAMENTALS

Emissions chapters are drafted as amendments to the 2007 version EF 1


of ASHRAE 90.1. Another proposal would reduce gaming by requiring
projects that use energy modeling to achieve higher standards. Still Simplify Commercial Energy
another proposal would require that new residential projects be built in Code to Current ASHRAE 90.1
compliance with U.S. Energy Star requirements. Issue:
The Energy Code provides commercial buildings
A second group of Fundamentals proposals would reduce the need for two major compliance paths with over a dozen EF 1: Computer generated energy
subpaths. This results in an excessively complex models plays large role in energy
energy by promoting passive design strategies, which, because they are code structure, which creates loopholes and makes code compliance.
built into the building fabric, tend to be more durable than efficiency enforcement difficult.
improvements. For example, envelopes would need to be thoroughly Recommendation:
airtight and achieve a minimal level of insulation, with incentives to To simplify compliance and enforcement, require
encourage exemplary performance. Barriers to external insulation and that all commercial buildings follow ASHRAE 90.1. We Have Two
shading devices would be removed, and natural ventilation would be Benefits Costs
facilitated. Other requirements would reduce cooling loads through Energy Codes?
lighter surfaces on roofs and pavements, and similarly reduce lighting Savings Cost Yes. For a variety of historical
loads through the use of daylight harvesting. reasons New York State currently
Health & Safety allows commercial buildings to
comply with either of two
A final group of proposals would remove barriers to distributed energy Environment separate but equally exhaustive
production and renewable energy. One would clarify language to allow and complex energy codes,
the use of bio-fuels. The remainder of the proposals would make it easier known as ASHRAE 90.1 and ICC
Chapter 8. This situation greatly
to site alternative energy equipment by updating the language in the complicates the entire design
Landmarks Preservation Commission rules, the Zoning Resolution, and and code review process; from
the Construction Codes. a designer determining baseline
requirements to a code official
analyzing compliance.

EF 2
Build New Homes to A System
Energy Star® Standard
Issue: Of Trade-offs.
New homes are not designed to take advantage of Currently the energy code allows a
cost-effective energy-saving measures. Energy Star project to trade greater efficiency in
is a widely accepted national standard for energy- one system against lower efficiency
efficient housing design. in another. For instance, the energy
efficiency gained by choosing
Recommendation: better lighting can be traded
Require all new residential buildings of against a low performance building
three stories or less to be constructed to ENERGY façade with minimal insulation.
STAR standards. Unfortunately, the lighting may be
replaced with a low performance
Benefits Costs product when it’s relatively short
life ends, while the low performing
Savings Cost facade will be working against
the buildings overall energy
Health & Safety performance for a very long time.
Environment

25 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 26
ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: FUNDAMENTALS ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: FUNDAMENTALS

EF 4 EF 6
EF 3: SYSTEM LIFETIMES
Promote Super-Insulated Increase Allowable
Exterior Walls Size of Solar Shades




Issue: Issue:
The City’s definition of “floor area,” which Shading devices help combat heat gain and prevent
"
!

"! determines how large a building can be, includes glare, decreasing cooling energy requirements. The
exterior wall thickness. This penalizes thick, energy- Building Code only permits these shading devices to
efficient walls, and rewards poorly insulated thin- extend 10 inches from the building, thus restricting
"!#

!%
!"
wall construction. their effectiveness. They are also not “permitted
obstructions” under the Zoning Resolution.
!

!
Recommendation:
For super-insulated walls, exclude up to eight Recommendation:
inches of the exterior wall thickness from the Treat shading devices the same as awnings and

!
!

! “floor area” calculation. canopies, which are permitted to extend five
feet from the building. Also add these devices
Benefits Costs to the list of “permitted obstructions” in the
!"
 Zoning Resolution.
Savings Cost
Benefits Costs
        
  Health & Safety
$!
% !


 Savings Cost
Environment
Health & Safety
Environment

EF 3 EF 5
Limit Heat Loss Allow External Insulation
Through Exterior Walls Beyond Zoning Limits EF 7
Issue: Issue:
Building envelope design has a major impact on Insulating the exterior of a building is often the
Minimize Air Leakage
both heat loss in winter and solar gain in summer. most effective way to reduce heat transfer and fuel EF 6: Solar shades were a common feature
Through Building Exteriors
Using the flexibility in current energy codes, consumption. But many buildings are built up to in New York City prior to the advent of air
designers can meet energy-efficiency requirements the zoning setbacks, making it impossible to add Issue:
conditioning systems, as seen in this photo Energy code requirements for air barriers are
by trading off the efficiency of mechanical and insulation to the exterior. of an awning-encrusted Flatiron building.
lighting equipment against the thermal integrity insufficient to prevent air leakage both in and out of
of the envelope. Since the building envelope will Recommendation: buildings. An effective air barrier permits controlled
be in use for a century or more, this trade-off is Allow exterior insulation on existing buildings to levels of ventilation, prevents drafts, lowers heating
short-sighted. extend into side and rear yard setbacks. loads and contributes to overall energy savings.

Recommendation: Benefits Costs


Passive Recommendation:
Establish fixed performance requirements for Strengthen the energy code to include requirements
building envelopes with respect to heat loss, Savings Cost
Shading. for more-effective air barriers.
independent of mechanical and lighting equipment Properly designed exterior solar shades can
Health & Safety decrease air conditioning loads 30%-60%, Benefits Costs
choices.
can lower room temperatures as much as
Benefits Costs Environment 25 degrees and have the greatest impact at Savings Cost
times of peak energy demand, like a midday
in summer. Health & Safety
Savings Cost
Environment
Health & Safety

Environment

27 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 28
ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: FUNDAMENTALS ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: FUNDAMENTALS

EF 8 EF 10 EF 11 EF 12
Provide Window Screens to Reduce Artificial Lighting Reduce Summer Heat with Cool Roofs Reduce Summer Heat with
Encourage Natural Ventilation In Sunlit Spaces Cool, Shady Building Lots
Issue:
Issue: Issue: Light-colored roofs reflect light and heat back Issue:
Many people do not open their windows in the Many of New York’s buildings have been designed into the atmosphere, thereby cooling buildings Unbuilt areas on private building lots make up
summer due to concern for insect bites, but this also to maximize daylight in interior spaces. However, and cities. The building code mandates white roof approximately one third of New York City’s space.
prevents the use of natural, energy-free ventilation. these buildings often waste energy by using coatings, but the standards are not aligned with Because these areas are often covered in dark,
This issue is likely to become more important in the artificial light when daylight could provide much of LEED, which is used by many developers. unshaded pavement, they contribute to the city’s
future as climate change expands the habitat of the required illumination. heat island.
tropical insects. Recommendation:
Recommendation: Amend specifications for cool roof coatings to align Recommendation:
Recommendation: Require daylight responsive controls that reduce them with LEED. Require light-colored pavement, trees or plantings
Provide fitted window screens on all new windows artificial light when sufficient daylight is present. on 50% of the unbuilt areas of building lots.
at seven stories or lower. Beginning in 2016, provide Benefits Costs
expandable screens on request for all windows. Benefits Costs Benefits Costs
Savings Cost
Benefits Costs Savings Cost Savings Cost
Health & Safety
Savings Cost Health & Safety Health & Safety
Environment
Health & Safety Environment Environment

Environment

EF 9 EF 13
Ensure Operable Windows Daylight= Clarify Standards for
in Residential Buildings Attaching Rooftop Solar Panels
Issue:
Free Lighting Issue:
Operable windows permit cooling without power, Numerous studies have The Building Code does not specify acceptable
which saves energy and allows buildings to documented lighting energy criteria for the attachment of solar panels to
remain habitable during power outages. Builders savings in excess of 30% for rooftops, inhibiting the installation of solar
have misinterpreted Health Code regulations to daylight-responsive lighting energy systems.
limit window openings to 4.5 inches, which is controls in commercial spaces.
inconsistent with the Building Code. Recommendation:
Require the Department of Buildings to develop
Recommendation: detailed criteria for roof attachment of solar panels.
DOB should require documentation showing that
residential properties provide window openings Benefits Costs
as required by code, counting only the actual area
that can be opened with window stops, if stops Savings Cost
are provided.
Health & Safety
Benefits Costs
Environment
Savings Cost
Health & Safety
Environment
EF 11: White roofs are an inexpensive
way to reflect heat away from our cities.

29 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 30
ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: FUNDAMENTALS ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: FUNDAMENTALS

Solar Energy EF 16

When We Remove Landmarks Impediments Energy


to Alternative Energy
Need It Most. Issue: From “Away”
Distributed solar panels reduce In historic districts, rooftop equipment – Even though NYC generates a
our reliance on aging power including solar panels, wind turbines and micro- significant portion of it’s own
transmission grids and produce the turbines -- is not permitted if visible from the energy, the great majority of
most energy when chances of a street without a lengthy review by the Landmarks electrical power is delivered to
blackout or brownout are highest- Preservation Commission. the city through a transmission grid
on hot days in mid-summer. that collects energy from distant
Recommendation: power plants. As much as 70% of
Treat alternative and distributed energy equipment the fuel consumed in the generation
the same as other rooftop mechanical equipment, of power for the grid is lost during
which is allowed to be visible from the street. generation and transmission.
Removing impediments to
Benefits Costs renewable energy within NYC will
make the power grid more reliable,
Savings Cost reducing the risk of blackouts
and brownouts.
Health & Safety
Environment

EF 14: Solar panels on the roof of Silvercup Studios in Brooklyn.

EF 14 EF 15 EF 17
Allow Large Solar Remove Zoning Impediments Allow Use of Biofuels Heating Oil
Rooftop Installations to Alternative Energy
Issue:
Issue: Issue: Biofuels can create energy from waste, while And Air Quality.
Current regulations limit the area of roof that solar The Zoning Resolution allows many categories of reducing resource consumption and air pollution. Heating oil, primarily #4 and #6
panels can cover without counting as another floor. mechanical equipment on a roof to exceed the However, they are not permitted under the oil, is responsible for 14% of local
This can increase the effective cost of solar panels, allowable building height. However, equipment used Mechanical Code. emissions of fine particulate matter
or prevent their installation. for alternative or distributed energy is not treated as (known as PM 2.5) with high levels
such a ”permitted obstruction.” Recommendation:
of nickel, vanadium and elemental
Recommendation: Revise the definition of fuel oil to allow the use of
carbon. Because of heating oil and
Exempt solar panels from limits on Recommendation: alternative fuels.
other sources, New York City does
rooftop coverage. Treat alternative and distributed energy equipment, not comply with federal Clean
such as photovoltaic and solar thermal collectors, as Benefits Costs
Air Act standards for PM 2.5. The
Benefits Costs “permitted obstructions.” burning of heating oil emits large
Savings Cost quantities of particulate matter
Savings Cost Benefits Costs because of its high sulfur content-
Health & Safety
heating oil contains 2000-3000
Health & Safety Savings Cost Environment parts per million of sulfur compared
Environment with just 15 parts per million for on-
Health & Safety road diesel.
Environment

31 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 32
ENERGY &
CARBON EMISSIONS
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
The first and least expensive route to reducing greenhouse gas emission Some proposals encourage the use of efficient equipment by clarifying
is through greater energy efficiency. If less fuel is burned and less or updating existing code requirements, including boiler regulations
electricity consumed, emission levels can only decline. A 2009 study based on test equipment from the 1960s. Also, because proper planning
of U.S. energy use by management consultants McKinsey & Company and accurate assessments of energy needs during design is important
demonstrated that cost-effective reductions in carbon emissions of 20 for efficiency, two proposals would require new reporting or analysis.
percent below 2008 levels would be possible by 2020 in the residential In addition, substantial energy is sometimes wasted due to simple
and commercial sectors (excluding transportation). While greater bad practice, so two proposals seek to minimize this. One requires the
reductions will be required in later years, this would be a good start. recovery of heat from utility steam condensate; the other, that pipes
New York City can likely exceed this reduction, since the city’s buildings be insulated whenever they are exposed during construction activity.
contain systems, some in operation for a full century, that were designed Finally, other proposals address the very large quantities of greenhouse
when fuel was far cheaper than it is today. Many of these systems are gasses generated by cement production. These proposals aim to
overdue for replacement simply because they have exceeded their lower the amount of cement required in concrete to levels that, while
useful service life. consistent with safety and longevity, still provide substantial reductions
in the emissions associated with a given project.
The proposals in the Energy & Carbon Emissions: Energy Efficiency
chapter aim to ensure that these replacements are done early and
well, and that the replacements also use a wide range of strategies
to increase the energy efficiency of buildings. Even within the
building sector, energy is used in myriad ways for a broad spectrum
of purposes. Any attempt to lower consumption will involve many EE 1
different technologies, many different building types, and many different Improve Energy Modeling
governing rules. It is no surprise, then, that this chapter includes nearly Energy for Building Design
30 independent proposals.
& Climate Issue:
The proposals fall into several categories. First, sensors and controls ASHRAE 90.1 allows designers to follow a
Change. prescriptive path or to use energy modeling
would be required in several applications where they are now optional; to demonstrate compliance. Energy modeling,
Energy-related carbon dioxide
in this way, buildings would no longer illuminate, heat, ventilate or cool emissions from the combustion however, is prone to manipulation because it lets
empty spaces. Second, while equipment standards have remained static of petroleum, coal, and natural enhanced efficiency in one energy system be traded
gas represent roughly 80% of U.S. off against poor efficiency in another system.
for years, even decades, available equipment has improved dramatically;
greenhouse gas emissions.
in these cases, proposals tighten numerical efficiency standards. For Recommendation:
example, one proposal aims to encourage the use of Energy Star Require projects using energy modeling to
demonstrate design energy use that is 14% lower
appliances. Another requires that when homes are sold, basic energy than the prescriptive path.
and water conservation steps, such as caulking windows and insulating
roofs, will be undertaken. A third group of proposals expands the use Benefits Costs
of building commissioning and increases inspections to ensure that
Savings Cost
equipment functions as designed.
Health & Safety

Environment

33 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 34
ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: ENERGY EFFICIENCY ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: ENERGY EFFICIENCY

EE 2 EE 4 EE 5
Improve Analysis of Heating Improve Energy & Water Efficiency Improve Efficiency of Boilers Housing
& Cooling Needs During Design upon Sale of Residences & Heating Distribution Systems
Issue: Issue: Issue: Performance.
Equipment used to heat and cool buildings is often Housing stock accounts for over 37% of the The energy code permits the use of inefficient Simple energy and water efficiency
over-sized, resulting in operating inefficiency. To total energy consumed in NYC. Year after year, boilers and heat-distribution systems. measures implemented when a
size the equipment appropriately, it is important to these properties are renovated before or after home or apartment is sold can have
accurately calculate the peak heating and cooling they are sold. But typically, these renovations Recommendation: a dramatic and positive impact on
load demands of buildings. do not include cost-effective energy or water Establish higher-efficiency standards for heating the performance of our housing
efficiency improvements. systems. Also, prohibit the installation of new one- stock for about 1/5th the typical
Recommendation: pipe steam systems and other inefficient systems. cost of brokerage services.
As part of the plans submitted to the Department of Recommendation:
Buildings for approval, require detailed calculations Require one-to two-family houses and Benefits Costs
of peak heating and cooling loads. apartments to implement simple energy and water
conservation measures at the time of sale and major Savings Cost
Benefits Costs renovation, unless a property has been sold under
financial distress. Health & Safety
Savings Cost
Benefits Costs Environment
Health & Safety
Savings Cost
Environment
Health & Safety
Environment

EE 3 EE 6 EE 7
Assess Co-generation Increase Efficiency of Increase Lighting Efficiency
Feasibility in Large Buildings Large Cooling Systems in Apartment Buildings
Issue: Issue: Issue:
Properly designed co-generation systems are Air conditioning is responsible for approximately The current lighting requirements in the Housing
roughly twice as efficient as electricity from the 17% of electricity use in New York office buildings. Maintenance Code for hallways, stairs, and common
grid because these systems utilize waste heat from Buildings often install inefficient air conditioning laundry facilities reference an old terminology for
electric generation. Owners are often unaware of systems, resulting in excessive electric demand lighting, the use of incandescent lights. They also
the potential for co-generation in their buildings. and usage. imply that the lights in hallways, stair, and common
laundry facilities should always be fully on.
Recommendation: Recommendation:
Require new developments of 350,000 square feet Steer buildings toward more-efficient air Recommendation:
or more to analyze the potential for co-generation. conditioning by prohibiting outdated, inefficient Update the language in the code to match other
EE 4: An infrared image of a home in cooling equipment and limiting the use of other city codes, particularly the energy code. Specify
Benefits Costs winter, showing heat loss through a poorly equipment associated with inefficient systems. a minimum efficacy for light bulbs, and expressly
insulated roof and around door and window allow bi-level lighting for hallways and stairs, and
Savings Cost openings. There are many inexpensive Benefits Costs occupancy sensors for laundries.
measures available that can vastly improve
Health & Safety the performance of our housing stock. Savings Cost Benefits Costs
Environment Health & Safety Savings Cost
Environment Health & Safety
Environment

35 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 36
ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: ENERGY EFFICIENCY ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: ENERGY EFFICIENCY

EE 8: AVERAGE ENERGY CONSUMPTION


OF NEW REFRIGERATORS IN THE US
EE 10 EE 12
  #" &! %)%!" !
  Reduce Overheating in Apartments Provide Ventilation Air Only
' !" !" !"(" as Needed in Large Spaces
 Issue:
 Many apartment residents have little or no control Issue:
over individual radiators in their living spaces. This HVAC systems typically provide outdoor air based
results in overheating in the winter. Residents then on maximum occupancy, wasting energy when
open windows and waste energy. rooms are partially occupied or empty. Demand
 
  control ventilation adjusts the amount of air
$  !" ! Recommendation: pumped into rooms as needed.
 Over a 10-year period, phase-in individual
 
 room or apartment temperature controls in Recommendation:
residential buildings. Require demand control ventilation for large spaces
!"  of variable occupancy.


Benefits Costs
 Benefits Costs

!"  Savings Cost
  !" 
 Savings Cost
Health & Safety

          
Health & Safety
Environment

  

 
Environment

EE 8 EE 9 EE 11 EE 13
Encourage Installation of Improve Operation of Dryers Turn Off Equipment Use Manual On - Auto Off Lighting
Energy Star® Appliances in Apartment Buildings in Empty Hotel Rooms
Issue:
Issue: Issue: Issue: Occupancy sensors turn on lights when a room
Home appliances, such as refrigerators, freezers, Shared clothes dryers in multifamily residential Lights, televisions, air conditioners and heating is entered, then turn them off after people have
dishwashers and clothes washers, are a significant properties have a large energy impact because they systems are often left running in unoccupied hotel departed. This does not maximize energy savings
contributor to building energy consumption. Energy are heavily used. Many dryers sell drying time in and motel rooms. because light is not always needed at entry, if the
Star® appliances are more efficient, and they are large increments (45 minutes to an hour), causing use is transitory or daylighting is available.
readily available. the dryer to run longer than necessary. Recommendation:
Require a master switch, such as a room key Recommendation:
Recommendation: Recommendation: control, that automatically turns off lighting and Require vacancy sensors, which contain a manual
Require owners of buildings and apartments Require dryers to sell time in increments of 15 televisions, and reduces heating or cooling when On switch, coupled with an occupancy sensor that
undertaking kitchen and/or laundry facility minutes or less rooms are vacated. turns lights off after a period of vacancy.
construction to either purchase Energy Star®
appliances or undertake alternate energy- Benefits Costs Benefits Costs Benefits Costs
saving measures.
Savings Cost Savings Cost Savings Cost
Benefits Costs
Health & Safety Health & Safety Health & Safety
Savings Cost Environment
Environment Environment
Health & Safety
Environment

37 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 38
ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: ENERGY EFFICIENCY ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: ENERGY EFFICIENCY

EE 14 EE 15 EE 16 EE 17
Limit After-Hours Retail Lighting Reduce Artificial Lighting Increase Lighting Efficiency Use Outdoor Air for Cooling
in Sunlit Lobbies & Hallways on Construction Sites
Issue: Issue:
Many retail establishments in New York City Issue: Issue: Buildings can be cooled using outside air when
light their spaces all night long. This wastes The building code mandates excessive lighting for The standards for temporary lighting on temperatures are sufficiently low. ASHRAE 90.1 does
energy, especially because stores often use egress spaces and that they be illuminated construction sites are outdated, allowing for not require this energy-efficient practice in New
high-wattage fixtures. by artificial means even when the space is daylit inefficient fixtures and wasteful practices. York City’s climate zone.
or unoccupied.
Recommendation: Recommendation: Recommendation:
Require retail lighting, other than lighting used in Recommendation: Update the efficiency standards for lighting on Require that new HVAC systems be capable
window displays or for egress, to be turned off Align NYC egress illumination requirements with construction sites, provide separate circuits for life- of utilizing outside air for cooling, when
when stores are unoccupied. national standards and allow natural light to supply safety lighting and let natural light illuminate foot temperatures permit.
the required illumination, while maintaining current bridges, temporary walkways and sidewalk sheds.
Benefits Costs NYC standards when spaces are occupied. Benefits Costs
Benefits Costs
Savings Cost Benefits Costs Savings Cost
Savings Cost
Health & Safety Savings Cost Health & Safety
Health & Safety
Environment Health & Safety Environment
Environment
Environment

EE 15: ENERGY USE IN NYC BUILDINGS






" 


  "
 
 


 



  
 

  ! 




EE 14: Many retailers leave virtually all their interior lighting on while the store is closed.

39 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 40
ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: ENERGY EFFICIENCY ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: ENERGY EFFICIENCY

EE 19 EE 21 EE 22
Using Fresh Insulate Pipes Exposed Modernize Boiler Regulations Reduce Lighting Power
Drinking Water During Construction Requirements for Offices
Issue:
Issue: NYC’s boiler regulations were written in 1973, and Issue:
To Cool Steam. Pipe insulation is a cost-effective measure to are based on now outmoded technology. An outmoded provision of the Electrical Code
Buildings that use Con Edison improve energy efficiency. While it is required for mandates that spaces have capacity to deliver
district steam for space heating new construction, most pipes in existing buildings Recommendation: three times the power for lighting as is allowed
or cooling dispose the resulting lack this beneficial insulation. A dedicated task force -- including boiler experts, under the Energy Code. This increases cooling load
condensate into the City sewer. DEP Air Engineering Staff, and members of the requirements, necessitating oversized, expensive
However, the condensate must be Recommendation: Green Codes Task Force -- should review existing HVAC systems.
cooled from its normal 212° F to Require that all pipes exposed during renovations boiler regulations and propose revisions.
150° F before it can be disposed. be insulated. Recommendation:
Benefits Costs Reduce the required lighting power capacity to
This is typically done by adding
fresh drinking water to the steam Benefits Costs better align with the Energy Code.
condensate- wasting both energy Savings Cost
and water. A 100 unit residential Savings Cost Benefits Costs
Health & Safety
building might use 7500 million
Btu of steam in a year. The Health & Safety Savings Cost
Environment
EE18 proposal would save this
Environment Health & Safety
hypothetical building 550 million
Btu of steam and eliminate the Environment
waste of over 700,000 gallons
of water.

EE 18 EE 20 EE 23
Use Waste Heat from ConEd Steam Clarify Standards for Recycled Reduce CO2 Emissions
Equipment Venting Due to Concrete
Issue:
Energy is wasted due to the dumping of hot Issue: Materials Issue:
condensate from purchased Con Edison steam. Venting boilers to the sidewalls of buildings Manufacturing cement, a significant component
In addition, substantial potable water is wasted encourages the use of efficient appliances by In Concrete. of concrete, requires large amounts of energy that
cooling the condensate to 150 degrees F. before it is reducing costs. However, sidewall venting is often produce significant quantities of CO2. Cement can
dumped in the sewer. Cement manufacturing is
rejected by building inspectors for reasons that are responsible for up to 5% of global easily be replaced in concrete with less energy-
not clearly delineated by any agency guidelines.This carbon emissions and is the largest intensive materials.
Recommendation: creates an uncertainty that discourages contractors
Require all new or reconstructed heating systems source of U.S. emissions after
from installing efficient equipment. Recommendation:
that use Con Edison’s steam to maximize the fossil fuel consumption. Fly ash
Limit the amount of cement permitted in concrete,
recovery of heat from steam condensate. Doing so can replace up to 50% of Portland
Recommendation: substituting other cementitious materials, such as
will lead to significant savings of energy and water. cement in concrete mixtures, while
Establish physical criteria that clarify when sidewall readily available industrial by-products.
blast furnace slag can replace up
venting is allowable and ensure these criteria are
Benefits Costs to 80%. Benefits Costs
consistent with national practice

Savings Cost Benefits Costs Savings Cost


Health & Safety Savings Cost Health & Safety
Environment Health & Safety Environment

Environment

41 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 42
ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: ENERGY EFFICIENCY ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: ENERGY EFFICIENCY

EE 24 EE 25 EE 27
Reduce CO2 Emissions Lighting Ensure New Energy Systems Reduce Leakage from Air Ducts
From Specialized Concrete Function Properly
Issue:
Issue: the Way. Issue: Energy is wasted when air ducts leak and vents are
The NYC Building Codes currently limits the amount Lighting accounts for 16% of New Commissioning is a quality assurance process improperly adjusted.
of recycled material that can be used in concrete York City’s CO2 emissions. Proposal that is not typically done on building systems.
exposed to de-icing chemicals. Although often omitted, commissioning helps Recommendation:
EE 26 is estimated to provide
identify and correct deficiencies in design or Test and seal all ventilation ducts, and adjust vents
lighting energy savings of 5-15%
Recommendation: installation, resulting in higher energy efficiency in new construction or renovations.
with a financial payback of less than
Increase the maximum percentage of recycled three years. and building performance.
material that be used in concrete. Benefits Costs
Recommendation:
Benefits Costs Require commissioning in all new construction, Savings Cost
substantial renovations, and additions of greater
Savings Cost than 50,000 square feet. Also, require building Health & Safety
acceptance testing (“commissioning light”) for
Health & Safety projects between 5,000 square feet and 50,000 Environment
square feet.
Environment
Benefits Costs

Savings Cost
Health & Safety
Environment

EE 24: SOURCES OF GLOBAL CO2 EMISSIONS

EE 26 EE 28


  

Ensure Lighting Systems Expand Boiler Efficiency
Function Properly Testing & Tuning
 Issue: Issue:
   Increasingly, lighting systems rely on sophisticated The Department of Environmental Protection tests
 sensors and controls to reduce energy consumption. boiler combustion efficiency only in very large
These systems must be tested and adjusted after boilers, and only every three years. Annual testing
 installation to ensure that they function properly; would detect malfunctions, permit tuning, and result

    unfortunately, this is not common practice. in more efficient boiler operation.


!  
Recommendation: Recommendation:
 Require functional testing of lighting sensors Require annual testing of boilers that generate
and controls to ensure that the systems perform more than 2 million BTU per hour or are located
 "
as designed. in buildings larger than 50,000 square feet. Also
 

require boiler cleaning, tuning and repairs as


 Benefits Costs necessary. The issue addressed by this proposal is
already under consideration by the City.
"
 "  

Savings Cost
Benefits Costs
Health & Safety


Savings Cost
 Environment
Health & Safety
Environment

43 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 44
ENERGY &
CARBON EMISSIONS
OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE
The most immediate and promising route to reducing building fuel, That said, there are some initiatives aimed at improving operations
electricity use and carbon emissions lies in more efficient operation of and maintenance in New York City buildings. For example, the U.S.
existing buildings. Most buildings consume more energy than necessary, Green Building Council’s LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations and
often substantially more. The range in performance is enormous: The Maintenance program provides nationally recognized certification that
least efficient existing buildings use three to five times more energy a building is being run efficiently. So does the U.S. Energy Star program
than the most efficient buildings. Even among new buildings, marked for buildings. On the training front, local labor unions have established a
discrepancies exist between design expectations and actual energy use. wide variety of programs, including the Service Employees International
What’s more, existing buildings are here to stay: It’s estimated that 85 Union’s Local 32BJ’s Thomas Shortman Training Program and the
percent of the buildings that will constitute New York City’s real estate in associated 1000 Green Supers initiative. Other training programs
2030 are already standing today. include Local 94 Operating Engineers’ suite of training courses, and
the International Union of Operating Engineers Local 30’s Apprentice
Much of the variation in energy use among buildings and between Training and Skill Improvement Training courses. These have all
an individual building’s design and actual usage is due to differences provided valuable improvements in the capabilities of New York City’s
in operations. This includes both decisions on when to replace aging building operators.
capital equipment and day-to-day operating schedules and maintenance
choices. Mismatches between the requirements of efficient operation The proposals in this section would increase awareness of energy use
and the resources made available are frequent. These occur because by tenants and building operators. If approved, meters will be required
buildings are large, complex entities that require constant control to measure electricity use by major systems and tenant spaces, and
and correction. automated energy tracking will be required for new, large buildings.
Ready access to this information would increase the attention placed
Building operations are often neglected, and maintenance is frequently on energy efficiency and speed the detection of leaks and other
deferred, steps that can lead to excessive energy use and high malfunctions. One proposal would establish reasonable limits on heating
operations expenses. The reasons are many. For one, building residents and cooling temperatures, hopefully putting an end to the need to
and management alike tend to judge a building’s performance by its wear sweaters inside of freezing movie theatres during the dog days
level of comfort and reliability, rather than its energy efficiency. Also, of summer. Finally, the proposals aim to improve building operations
energy and water costs are modest when compared with such expenses and maintenance through the training of building operators, regular
as mortgages, salaries and taxes; as a result, these costs are often paid inspections, and periodic tune-ups of building systems.
less attention. In many commercial buildings, there are split incentives: If
leases include energy expenses as a mark-up on the utility’s bill, then the
owner has little reason to promote efficient operations in the tenants’
spaces. Finally, New York City’s elaborate codes and laws governing
buildings have overwhelmingly focused on assuring health and safety,
rather than energy efficiency.

45 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 46
ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE ENERGY & CARBON EMISSIONS: OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE

EO 1 EO 3 EO 4
Re-tune Large Buildings Train Building Operators Automate Tracking of
Every Seven Years in Energy Efficiency Building Energy Use
Issue: Issue: Issue:
Even the best-designed building systems drift away Current requirements for building operators do Many building managers and operators do not
from optimal performance over time, due to broken not include training in efficient building operations, know how efficiently (or not) their buildings’ energy
parts, changes in use, and the accumulation of small energy efficiency, or monitoring of overall building systems are performing. This can lead to poor
changes in procedures and equipment. performance. performing systems and missed opportunities for
energy savings.
Recommendation: Recommendation:
Every seven years, buildings larger than 50,000 In buildings larger than 50,000 square feet, require Recommendation:
square feet must be retro-commissioned, re- operators to be trained and certified for energy- For all new buildings of 50,000 square feet
tuning the major building systems to ensure they efficient operations. Fund a study to establish the and larger, require computerized building control
all work together correctly. A similar proposal was appropriate training and certification requirements. systems that capture energy data and provide
incorporated into the Greener, Greater Buildings useful information to building managers
Plan, which became law prior to the issuance of Benefits Costs and operators.
this report.
Savings Cost Benefits Costs
Benefits Costs
Health & Safety Savings Cost
Savings Cost Environment Health & Safety
Health & Safety
Environment EO 4: A diagram of a typical
Environment building management system.

EO 2 EO 5 EO 6
Measure Electricity Use Awareness= Inspect & Maintain Establish Maximum Heating &
in Tenant Spaces Commercial HVAC Systems Minimum Cooling Temperatures
Issue: Efficiency Issue: Issue:
Because electricity is often unmetered in New York State studies have shown Without routine inspection and maintenance, HVAC The City Multiple Dwelling Law requires a minimum
commercial tenant spaces, tenants are unaware of that metering tenant electrical use systems do not deliver on energy efficiency, thermal indoor temperature during the heating season.
the energy they consume. This, in turn, can lead to in a multi-famliy building can reduce comfort and indoor air quality. However, there is no maximum temperature,
excessive use and waste. apartment electricity consumption allowing for overheated buildings. In addition,
by approximately 17%-27%. Recommendation: there are no temperature regulations during the
Recommendation: Adopt ASHRAE 180P for the inspection cooling season.
All new commercial tenant spaces of 10,000 square and maintenance of HVAC systems in
feet or larger shall be metered for electricity. A commercial buildings. Recommendation:
similar proposal was incorporated into the Greener, Undertake a study on the feasibility of limiting
Greater Buildings Plan, which became law prior to Benefits Costs heating in winter and cooling in summer from
the issuance of this report. central systems.
Savings Cost
Benefits Costs Benefits Costs
Health & Safety
Savings Cost Savings Cost
Environment
Health & Safety Health & Safety

Environment Environment

47 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 48
BUILDING RESILIENCE

Because many of New York’s historic buildings were built before the
era of cheap energy and air conditioning, they were designed to utilize
available daylight and provide natural ventilation. In fact, access to
light and air were required in a series of landmark tenement laws. Since
the Second World War, however, New York’s buildings have become
increasingly dependent on electric lights, mechanical equipment and
externally supplied energy; in effect, these buildings are on life support.
As Hurricane Katrina demonstrated, such buildings quickly become
intolerable or uninhabitable when their energy supply goes down.

New York City, actually an archipelago with more than 580 miles of
coastline, is exceptionally susceptible to flooding and, with precious
little margin in electrical power capacity, is vulnerable to power
disruptions. New York’s buildings need to both house the population BR 4: New York City, NY – 3.0-meter sea level rise.
Source: ©2007-2010 2030, Inc. / Architecture 2030. Data Source: USGS 10M DEM.3
during emergencies and quickly recover functionality; the threats of
climate change and terrorism increases the likelihood that we will need
buildings to serve as refuge. Developing resilience at the building scale
will complement other efforts, led by the New York Mayor’s City Office BR 1 BR 2
of Long-Term Planning and Sustainability, to coordinate the protection Create & Use 2080 Flood Map Safeguard Toxic Materials
of the city’s infrastructure, such as the power grid, sewage system, and Based on Climate Change Predictions Stored in Flood Zones
transportation system.
Issue: Issue:
Current flood maps are based entirely on historical The New York City Department of Environmental
Considerations about building resilience are relatively new, unlike many data and do not account for the predicted sea-level Protection requires facilities that store hazardous
other green building strategies, which have been carefully developed rise due to climate change and coastal flooding that chemicals to file a risk management plan, but it does
by the building industry over many years, incorporated into LEED, and would ensue. not require any special provisions for chemicals
widely accepted as best practices. Therefore, this section includes stored within the 100-year floodplain.
Recommendation:
several studies that would recommend policy changes, along with Develop flood maps that reflect sea-level rise and Recommendation:
specific proposals that are ready for enacting now. increases in coastal flooding through 2080. New Require toxic materials within the 100-year
developments susceptible to future 100-year floods floodplain to be stored in a floodproof area.
should meet the same standards as buildings in the
Among these proposals, one group addresses flooding, in part by current 100-year flood zone. Benefits Costs
offering requirements that would both augment the building code’s
new section on flooding and redefine the flood plane. A second group Benefits Costs Savings Cost
of proposals address building habitability in the event of a power loss; Health & Safety
Savings Cost
these range from “passive survivability,” in which buildings can retain
their functionality even without their energy systems, to full emergency Health & Safety Environment
back-up systems. Another proposal would study other, lesser-known Environment
impacts of climate change on buildings, including the impact of rising
sea levels, stronger winds and wetter conditions.

49 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 50
BUILDING RESILIENCE BUILDING RESILIENCE

BR 3 BR 6
Study Adaptive Strategies to Flooding New York to Analyze Strategies to Maintain
Habitability During Power Outages
Issue:
Current building codes and zoning regulations have North Carolina. Issue:
not been examined and modified as necessary With 580 miles of coastline, New Research on climate change indicates that there
in the context of rising sea levels and increased York may be impacted more than will be an increase in the frequency and severity
frequency of flooding. In addition, strategies that any other U.S. city by sea level of events that can disrupt the city’s power, water,
could increase safety may have the unintended rise. According to the New York sewer and transportation infrastructure. In the event
consequence of undermining urban design quality. City Panel on Climate Change, that city services are not usable, passive and dual-
by 2080 sea levels could rise by mode functions will be critical.
Recommendation:
12-23 inches and New York City’s
The city should undertake a study to determine how Recommendation:
climate will be closer to present-
the building code and zoning resolution should be Undertake a comprehensive study of passive
day North Carolina.
strengthened to protect buildings from sea-level survivability and dual-mode functionality, then
rise and flooding. Also, the city should study urban- propose code changes to incorporate these
design strategies to ensure that streetscape vitality concepts into the city’s building codes. Also include
is not a casualty of these proactive measures. a study on refuge areas in sealed buildings.
Benefits Costs Benefits Costs
Savings Cost Savings Cost
Health & Safety BR 8: Rooftop water towers have long been a
Health & Safety fixture of the New York City skyline and, unlike
Environment Environment pump driven systems, can help ensure access
to potable water during a crisis.

BR 4 BR 5 BR 7 BR 8
Study Adaptive Strategies Forecast Non-Flood Ensure Toilets & Sinks Can Operate Enhance Building Water Supply
to Non-Flood Climatic Risks Climatic Hazards to 2080 During Blackouts During Blackouts
Issue: Issue: Issue: Issue:
Current building codes and zoning regulations are New York City will face a series of risks associated Some toilets and faucets can function only with Water towers are an energy-efficient method for
based on historic data and do not consider the with climate change whose impact has not been utility power; this presents a sanitation risk in the providing water pressure and ensuring access
potential impacts of climate change on existing and adequately studied. These risks include rises in event of a long-term power outage. to potable water during short power losses. The
future development. the groundwater table, increased wind velocities, building codes do not require water towers for
changes in rainfall, heat waves, electrical grid Recommendation: new construction, and they allow the towers to be
Recommendation: disruptions, increased humidity and other extreme Require that toilets and faucets be capable of removed from existing buildings.
Based on the hazard zone maps and risk weather events. operating without building power for at least
assessments developed in the study on non-flood two weeks. Recommendation:
climatic hazards, undertake a further study to Recommendation: Prohibit the removal of existing water towers,
recommend building code and zoning changes to Study climate risks to buildings through 2080. Benefits Costs and require water towers in all new and
diminish the impacts of those hazards. Determine whether impacts will vary across the renovated buildings.
city or have a uniform impact; then, define and map Savings Cost
Benefits Costs hazard zones in the city based on the risk of these Benefits Costs
climatic effects. Health & Safety
Savings Cost Savings Cost
Benefits Costs Environment
Health & Safety Health & Safety
Savings Cost
Environment Environment
Health & Safety

Environment

51 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 52
BUILDING RESILIENCE

BR 9
RESOURCE
BR 9: PROJECTED NYC TEMPERATURE RISE
Include Climate Change in
Environmental Impact Statements CONSERVATION
Issue: 
“CEQR” is the process by which city agencies review
proposed actions in order to identify the effects

those actions may have on the environment. CEQR
guidelines are currently being updated to include
an assessment of the impact of climate change on  Of all the materials consumed globally, a total of 40 percent, or roughly
proposed actions. 3 billion tons a year, are used in the construction of buildings.1 This

Recommendation: massive flow of materials generates major environmental impacts at
The technical committee supports the amendments  every stage in the production cycle. For example, the clear-cutting
to the CEQR guidelines underway in the Mayor’s of forests for wood can lead to deforestation, while the extraction of
Office of Environmental Coordination, which will
incorporate climate change. The issue addressed  minerals often involves harmful strip-mining and the contamination of
by this proposal is already under consideration by

  
waterways. Similarly, the manufacturing and transport of construction
the City.  materials consumes both energy and water resources while creating
Benefits Costs pollution. Finally, construction debris constitutes as much as 45 percent

    of all solid waste around the country.2 In New York City, the proportion is
Savings Cost even higher – over 60 percent-- due to minimal yard waste and the city’s
Health & Safety high density.3
Environment BR 9: PROJECTED NYC SEA LEVEL RISE Many strategies are available for reducing the impacts associated with
building materials. Consumption can be reduced by first using longer-

lasting materials to construct buildings and then maintaining them.
Many materials can be reused, giving them a second life. Others can be

recycled and used as raw inputs for new materials. Still other materials
can be extracted using sustainable methods. All these approaches can
help the environment, and all can be implemented using proven building
 materials and practices.

The proposals in the Resource Conservation chapter concentrate on


 the reuse and recycling of construction waste. Since this part of the
materials cycle occurs within the city, it can therefore be managed by
city regulations. In general, New York City’s waste-processing system
 relies on the off-site separation of mixed construction debris at waste
processing yards, or “transfer stations,” and it does a surprisingly good



job: New York recycles roughly 70 percent of its construction debris,
 equivalent to nearly two LEED points.4 But because some highly
   
recyclable materials are too fragile to survive this system, one proposal
requires that these products be site-separated. Also, because other
waste materials are produced in greater quantities than the current
system can absorb, several proposals would require the reuse of this
waste in the production of new materials. Additionally, one proposal
aims to expand the use of sustainably harvested wood. Yet another
would require the addition of recycling areas to residential projects
because buildings with dedicated recycling areas have much higher
recycling rates than those without them.

53 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 54
RESOURCE CONSERVATION RESOURCE CONSERVATION

RC 1 RC 3 RC 4
Recycle Construction Waste Use Recycled Aggregate in Concrete Use Recycled Asphalt
Issue: Issue: Issue:
While most waste from construction sites can be Waste concrete, asphalt, and glass can be reused Asphalt pavement diverted from the construction
collected in dumpsters and then separated and as bedding material or as aggregate in new waste stream can be reused as aggregate in new
recycled off-site, certain materials become damaged concrete, reducing construction waste and the asphalt, greatly reducing construction waste and
when comingled. They cannot be reused or recycled need for virgin materials. the need for virgin materials.
unless they are separated at the construction site.
Recommendation: Recommendation:
Recommendation: Require a minimum amount of recycled concrete, Require a minimum amount of recycled asphalt as
Require ceiling tiles, carpeting, new gypsum asphalt, or glass as bedding material and within the base material for new asphalt aggregate.
wallboard scrap and large-dimension lumber to new concrete.
be sorted on-site and reused or recycled. Also, Benefits Costs
require construction-waste management plans for Benefits Costs
large projects. Savings Cost
Savings Cost
Benefits Costs Health & Safety
Health & Safety
Savings Cost Environment
Environment
Health & Safety
Environment

RC 2 RC 5
RC 2: ENERGY SAVINGS PER TON RECYCLED
Provide Recycling Areas Protect Forests by Using Sustaining
in Apartment Buildings Sustainable Wood
  Forests.
Issue: Issue:
In many buildings, the lack of a dedicated recycling Forests store carbon, and tropical forests provide Healthy forests store and sequester
space impedes recycling.  
 

a habitat for half of the world’s animal and plant carbon, and our tropical forests
species. Conventional forestry practices degrade provide habitat for half of the
Recommendation: forests and are unsustainable. world’s plant and animal species.
Require new multi-family residential buildings Deforestation releases enormous
  
to provide adequate space to store and sort Recommendation: amounts of carbon dioxide into
recyclable materials. Require that a portion of wood used in construction the atmosphere, 20% of the
   
be sustainably harvested or come from reclaimed world total. Conventional forestry
Benefits Costs sources. Require that all tropical wood used in practices cause water and air
 
    construction be sustainably harvested. pollution, soil erosion, stream
Savings Cost sedimentation and habitat
Benefits Costs destruction on a massive scale.
Health & Safety Sustainable forestry practices
Environment  Savings Cost mitigate many of these impacts
Health & Safety
Environment

55 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 56
WATER EFFICIENCY

WATER EFFICIENCY

In the last 45 years, New York City has experienced seven droughts, The recommendations in this chapter aim to help the city’s tenants
two of which lasted longer than a year.1 Droughts are likely to and owners know when they are wasting water. The recommendations
become even more frequent in the future. According to the New York would prohibit certain extremely wasteful practices, such as cooling
City Panel on Climate Change, drought frequency will double by 2050 with drinking water. Other recommendations would reduce water
and increase five-fold toward the end of the century.2 In addition, the consumption by increasing efficiency standards for plumbing
Delaware Aqueduct, which supplies half of New York City’s drinking fixtures and ensuring upgrades during building renovations. Finally,
water, contains a major leak that needs to be repaired. Conserving water these recommendations aim to increase the use of rainwater and
is a proactive means to ensure that the City can survive disruptions other recycled water by revising and streamlining the city’s rules for
to its water supply, whether from climate change or infrastructure water reuse.
vulnerabilities.

Fortunately, New York City has a history of successful water


conservation. In the 1990s, the city’s Department of Environmental
Protection metered residential properties, instituted a toilet-rebate
program and fixed leaks in the supply system. Thanks to these efforts,
daily water consumption levels in the city fell from an average high of
208+ gallons per person in 1988 to approximately 134 gallons per person
in 2006.3 WE 1
Enhance Water Efficiency Standards
Water consumption can be further reduced significantly because many
existing practices and plumbing fixtures are surprisingly wasteful. For Issue:
example, the average New Yorker still uses the equivalent of 16 water- Although New York City receives substantial
rainfall, the city is still vulnerable in dry years and
cooler bottles in their home each day. Some commercial tenants air has experienced seven droughts in the last 45
condition their space by running vast amounts of clean (and cold) years. Fortunately, the need for water can be easily
drinking water through pipes and then dumping it into the sewers.  reduced with more-efficient plumbing fixtures.
Toilets purchased before 1980 can use as much as seven gallons of water Recommendation:
per flush, while some of the latest high-efficiency flush toilets use less Enhance water efficiency standards for
than 1.28 gallons. Also, some New Yorkers have begun to reuse water plumbing fixtures.
by collecting rainwater or filtering and cleaning wastewater; but this has Benefits Costs
proven challenging due to city regulations.
Savings Cost

Health & Safety

Environment
WE 1: New Yorkers use the equivalent of 16 water
cooler bottles of water in their homes, everyday.

57 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 58
WATER EFFICIENCY WATER EFFICIENCY

WE 3 WE 5 WE 7
WE 2: WATER SAVINGS
OF EFFICIENT TOILETS Catch Leaks by Measuring Water Use Reduce Use of Drinking Water Reuse Water from ConEd Steam
to Clean Sidewalks
  Issue: Issue:
Leaks and equipment malfunctions waste a Issue: The water used by Con Edison to make steam is
tremendous amount of water in New York City Clean drinking water is frequently used in New York dumped into the sewers after it has been used by

 

buildings, and they can persist undetected for City to wash sidewalks, parking lots and streets. buildings. This wastes 5 million to 10 million gallons
years. Submeters attached to major water-using of clean water a day and stresses wastewater
equipment can help detect these leaks. Recommendation: treatment plants.
Require the use of either water-conserving
  Recommendation: equipment, such as water brooms, or recycled water Recommendation:
Require submeters for all major water-using for cleaning sidewalks, parking lots and streets. Require buildings that use utility steam for space
equipment. These submeters will help building heating and/or cooling to reuse at least 50% of

 


 

managers quickly detect leaks and malfunctions. Benefits Costs the steam condensate produced, unless shown to

be unfeasible.


Benefits Costs
Savings Cost
Benefits Costs
 Savings Cost Health & Safety

     
     Savings Cost
Health & Safety Environment
Health & Safety
Environment
Environment

WE 2 WE 4 WE 6
Upgrade Inefficient Toilets, Facilitate Use of Recycled Water Stop Wasting Drinking Once-Through,
Showerheads & Faucets During Water for Cooling
Issue:
Renovations Using rainwater and recycled water can Then Gone.
Issue:
Issue: reduce stress on the city’s water supply while “Once-through” cooling systems emit heat into Many air conditioning and
Older toilets and fixtures use three to five times as simultaneously reducing the volume of combined potable water, which is then drained into the refrigeration systems around the
much water as today’s standard fixtures. sewer overflow. But the Plumbing Code currently sewer. No other cooling systems wastewater in city pass fresh drinking water
discourages reuse by limiting applications and this manner. through equipment to provide
Recommendation: requiring all recycled water to follow the same cooling and then dump the water
Require the replacement of any outdated plumbing stringent protocols, regardless of end use or Recommendation: into the City sewer. These systems,
fixtures when bathrooms are renovated. incoming water quality. Prohibit new installations from using “once-through” which waste enormous amounts of
cooling systems. drinking water, are commonly found
Benefits Costs Recommendation:
in use for ice-making machines in
Facilitate the use of rainwater and recycled water Benefits Costs hotels and restaurants, for walk-in
by tailoring protocols according to incoming water
Savings Cost coolers, older medical equipment
quality and end use, and expand the permitted uses Savings Cost and cooling for “back office”
Health & Safety of such water.
portions of buildings where heat
Health & Safety loads from people and computers
Environment Benefits Costs
Environment exceed the originally anticipated
load for air conditioning. WE 6
Savings Cost looks to prohibit the use of these
Health & Safety ubiquitous, wasteful systems.

Environment

59 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 60
STORMWATER

The Northeastern U.S. faces a challenge that much of the country only The proposals in this chapter address New York’s stormwater issues
wishes it had: too much water. This excess water, however, does not in two general ways. Current stormwater requirements address only a
come in stable forms, such as lakes, but instead in heavy rainfalls that limited number of larger, newly developed sites, and they place what
can cause flooding and pollution. are now insufficient requirements on even those sites. So first, the new
proposals would both broaden this reach by including smaller sites,
In a more natural setting, this rainwater would be slowed by vegetation, existing sites and sidewalks, and improve stringency by lowering the
reabsorbed into the soil, returned to the atmosphere by evaporation, amount of flow permitted from all sites. Second, this chapter proposes
and drained into rivers and lakes. But in the city, these natural drainage a series of studies to broaden the techniques used to detain or retain
systems have been largely dismantled. Most of the vegetation has been stormwater. These techniques would include such newer ideas as roof-
removed, streams and rivers have been buried, and the ground has been based detention, landscape-based solutions that recreate the natural
covered by buildings, concrete walkways and asphalt roads, preventing cycles, and requirements for maintaining those systems.
water from ever entering the soil. This has necessitated the creation of
engineered storm sewage systems, which channel rainwater through
storm drains, sewage pipes and storage tanks. Without such systems,
New York’s streets and basements would flood on a regular basis.
SW 1 SW 2
In general, this engineered storm-drainage system does what it was Reduce Excessive Paving of Sites Reduce Stormwater Runoff
designed to do. But new issues have arisen that require some rethinking From New Developments
of the system. For example, increased paving in some neighborhoods Issue:
Due to excess stormwater,27 billion gallons of Issue:
has led to localized flooding. New possibilities have emerged through sewage are released directly into New York harbor While wastewater discharged by the city into
site-based systems that recreate or utilize natural hydrological each year. Paving over the ground exacerbates New York Harbor must meet increasingly stringent
processes. And perhaps most important, increasingly stringent Federal this problem. national and state standards, the city’s own
requirements to clean New York Harbor, combined with PlaNYC’s goal stormwater detention standards have not changed in
Recommendation: 25 years. For this reason, DEP is considering increasing
of opening 90 percent of the city’s waterways for active recreation, In new construction projects, require that half of the detention standards for properties with new or altered
require that the storm-drainage system do much more to slow the flow non-built lot be permeable. sewer connections.
of excess rainwater. Benefits Costs Recommendation:
The Task Force supports more rigorous standards
Rain storms regularly lead to the pollution of New York Harbor through Savings Cost for new and altered sewer connections, which should
“combined sewer overflows” (CSOs). These incidents occur because be accompanied by model detention system designs
more than half of the city’s sewers transport rainwater and wastewater in Health & Safety that would meet these standards. Future permit
applications and decisions should also be made
the same pipes. When the weather is dry, New York’s sewage-treatment Environment publicly available. DEP began considering these
plants can easily handle the flow. But when heavy rain falls, the rainwater measures through a process that was independent of
volume can be up to twelve times the wastewater volume, exceeding the Task Force, prior to the issuance of this report.
plant capacity and releasing untreated sewage into the city’s rivers. Benefits Costs
What’s more, in some areas of the city, CSOs can be caused by as little
as one tenth of an inch of rain. Correcting the CSO problem is therefore Savings Cost
much more difficult than preventing localized flooding.
Health & Safety
Environment

61 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 62
STORMWATER STORMWATER

SW 3 SW 5
Reduce Stormwater Runoff Encourage Innovative
from Construction Sites Stormwater Practices
Issue: Issue:
While state and federal regulations limit stormwater Modern stormwater control systems incorporate
discharge from construction sites that are larger both civil engineering strategies, such as
than an acre, smaller sites are unregulated. In New underground detention tanks, and landscape-
York City, many construction sites are well under based strategies, such as green roofs and natural
an acre. landscaping. New York City’s regulations, however,
do not properly account for the impact of
Recommendation: landscape-based strategies.
Require construction sites of less than an acre to
reduce runoff, soil loss, sedimentation, and the Recommendation:
generation of dust and particulate matter. Revise stormwater regulations to account for
landscape-based strategies.
Benefits Costs
Benefits Costs
Savings Cost

Health & Safety

Environment
SW 5: The Staten Island “Bluebelt.” Stormwater can be controlled with properly engineered natural systems.

SW 4 SW 6 SW 7
Send Rainwater To Waterways Maintain Site-Based Analyze Strategies to Reduce
Stormwater Detention Systems Stormwater Runoff From
Issue:
Most properties located on the waterfront direct
Existing Developments
Issue:
their rainwater into the sewer system, which Site-based stormwater diversion and Issue:
contributes to more frequent combined sewer detention systems must be properly maintained To reduce combined sewer overflows, New York
overflows during storms. to be a reliable component of the city’s storm- City must address already developed buildings
water infrastructure. and lots. These make up nearly 50% of the city’s
Recommendation:
impervious surfaces, and they often release more
Require waterfront properties to treat and discharge Recommendation: runoff than permitted, largely due to new paving
rainwater into the adjacent water body, unless it is Establish maintenance standards for site-based after initial construction.
technically infeasible. stormwater systems, and require property owners to
verify compliance. Recommendation:
Benefits Costs
Undertake a study to assess the potential for
Benefits Costs reducing stormwater runoff from existing properties.
Savings Cost
Savings Benefits Costs
Health & Safety
Health & Safety Savings
Environment
Environment Health & Safety
Environment

63 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 64
URBAN ECOLOGY UE 1
Increase Biodiversity
In Public Landscapes
Issue:
Historically, foreign species and monocultures
have been widely used in landscaping to the
detriment of the urban ecology. Native and diverse
plants species tend to be hardy, require little water
In the past, cities were seen as creations largely divorced from nature. and fertilizer, and provide habitats for birds and
Impermeable concrete replaced dirt roads long ago, skyscrapers rose other native animals.
toward the clouds, and even some backyards were paved over. Nature Recommendation:
was confined largely in zoos, the waterfront and parks. Promote diverse and native plant species by
requiring their use on city-owned property,
including buildings, parks and sidewalks.
But this image of the “concrete jungle” is an old way of thinking about
cities. Increasingly, New Yorkers want nature marbled throughout Benefits Costs
the city’s infrastructure, and it’s easy to understand why. Trees don’t
merely combat the urban heat-island effect, provide shade and reduce Savings Cost
stormwater runoff; they also provide evaporative cooling and even filter Health & Safety
air pollution. Also, relying on a wide variety of plant and tree species is Environment
a powerful way to increase resilience against pests. What’s more, New
UE 3: Adding more trees and water-absorbing
York’s native plants tend to be more resistant to drought and disease pavement to sidewalks will make them more
than others. Many animals, particularly birds, see New York as part of pleasant and reduce stormwater runoff.
their environment, rather than an isolated area to avoid. In fact, New
York is situated along the major East Coast flyway, and the city’s parks
provide critical stopping grounds for many migratory birds.
UE 2 UE 3
In thinking about urban ecology, the Task Force gave particular attention
to sidewalks since they represent 8 percent of the city’s area and 9 Increase Biodiversity Construct Sustainable Sidewalks
percent of its impermeable (that is, non-water-absorbing) surfaces.1 in Sidewalk Plantings
Issue:
The proposals in this chapter would encourage the planting of diverse Sidewalks have the potential to reduce runoff,
Issue:
and native trees along the city’s sidewalks and other public spaces. Where groundcover is required under the mitigate the urban heat island effect, promote the
Other proposals in this chapter aim to protect trees by both enhancing Zoning Code, such as in sidewalk planting strips, use of recycled materials and increase the longevity
standard practice is to use turfgrass. But turfgrass of trees. However, city rules and regulations for
standards of care during construction activities and creating a program sidewalks are inconsistent and are, in some cases,
is a water-intensive monoculture that requires
to publicly recognize century-old trees. pesticides and fertilizers. impediments to green sidewalks

Recommendation: Recommendation:
Prohibit the use of turfgrass within the sidewalk Create a single consistent sidewalk standard that
planting strips required in new developments. includes permeable strips, water storage capacity,
increased planting and recycled materials.
Benefits Costs
Benefits Costs
Savings Cost
Savings Cost
Health & Safety
Health & Safety
Environment
Environment

65 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 66
URBAN ECOLOGY

UE 4 UE 5
Preserve “100-Year Old” Trees Protect Street Trees From
Construction Activities
Issue:
Large, old trees offer significant benefits to the Issue:
city by providing cooling, shade, habitat, and While sidewalk sheds protect pedestrians during
carbon sequestration, as well as significant the construction, maintenance and inspection of
aesthetic benefits. buildings, they can cause considerable damage to
trees. Limbs are often damaged or removed, and the
Recommendation: trees are cut off from access to sun and moisture,
Establish a voluntary program whereby property often resulting in the weakening or even death of
owners can obtain plaques for their “100-year the tree.
old” trees, which could also be added to a map of
significant trees. Recommendation:
During construction, require that street trees be
Benefits Costs protected and watered, and that any pruning be
performed by a professional.
Savings
Benefits Costs
Health & Safety
Environment Savings Cost

Health & Safety


Environment

UE 5: Street trees are an important community resource


but are sometimes damaged during construction activity.

67 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 68
FOOTNOTES

INTRODUCTION: RESOURCE CONSERVATION:


* THE CITY OF NEW YORK, PLANYC: INVENTORY OF NEW YORK CITY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS, 6 1 Lenssen and Roodman, Worldwatch Paper 124: A Building Revolution: How Ecology and Health Concerns are
(SEPTEMBER 2009), available at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/downloads/pdf/greenhousegas_2009.pdf. Transforming Construction. WORLDWATCH INSTITUTE, (March 1, 1995).
This figure is down from 79% in 2007. CITY OF NEW YORK, PLANYC: A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK, 9
(APRIL 22, 2007). 2 NYC DEPARTMENT OF DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION, CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE MANUAL 2
(2003), available at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/ddc/downloads/pdf/waste.pdf.

OVERARCHING CODE ISSUES: 3 Ibid.

1 THE CITY OF NEW YORK, THE DEPARTMENT OF BUIDLINGS, SUSTAINABILITY: 4 Statistic from the Office of Long-term Planning & Sustainability based on NYC Department of Sanitation records.
BUILDING SUSTAINABILITY BOARD, http://www.nyc.gov/html/dob/html/sustainability/sustainability_advisory_
board.shtml (last visited on January 19, 2010).
WATER EFFICIENCY:
HEALTH & TOXICITY: 1 NYC DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, HISTORY OF DROUGHT AND WATER CONSUMPTION, at
http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/drinking_water/droughthist.shtml
1 JONES, M.M. PROTECTING PUBLIC HEALTH IN NEW YORK CITY: 200 YEARS OF LEADERSHIP; 1805-2005 (2005)
Available at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/bicentennial/historical-booklet.pdf.[ cited 2008 March 7] 2 NEW YORK CITY PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE, CLIMATE CHANGE RISK INFORMATION, 19 (Feb. 17, 2009), www.
nyc.gov/html/om/pdf/2009/NPCC_CRI.pdf
2 THE CITY OF NEW YORK, SUMMARY OF VITAL STATISTICS 2005, (2006)
Available at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/vs/2005sum.pdf. ) [cited 2008 June 30] 3 Ibid.

3 The City of New York, Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Physical Activity and Nutrition Program,
http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/cdp/cdp_pan_data.shtml (last visited on Jan 21, 2009) URBAN ECOLOGY:
4 THE CITY OF NEW YORK, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE, NYC VITAL SIGNS, CHILDHOOD 1 THE CITY OF NEW YORK, PLANYC: SUSTAINABLE STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PLAN, 31 (2008) available at:
OBESITY IS A SERIOUS CONCERN IN NEW YORK CITY 1 (June 2009), http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/…/pdf/sustaiable_stormwater_plan.pdf.
www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/.../survey-2009fitnessgram.pdf

69 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 70
TASK FORCE
CONTRIBUTORS
Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg Commissioner Robert LiMandri Chair, Energy & Ventilation Chair, Materials & VOCs Michael S. Blass John J. Gilbert, III
City of New York New York City Department of Buildings Fiona Cousins CEng, LEED AP, PE Andrew Zumwalt-Hathaway Arent Fox LLP Rudin Management Company, Inc.
ARUP LEED AP, LEED Faculty
Represented By: Represented By: Steven Winter Associates Les Bluestone Ed Goldberg
Rohit T. Aggarwala Benjamin Jones Chair Energy & Ventilation Blue Sea Development Company LLC Macy’s, Inc.
New York City Mayor’s Office of New York City Department of Buildings Scott Frank LEED AP, PE Chair, Site & Site Stormwater
Long-Term Planning & Sustainability Jaros Baum & Bolles Signe Nielsen FASLA Lee C. Bollinger Ashok Gupta
Represented By: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects Columbia University Natural Resources Defense Council
Speaker Christine C. Quinn Deborah Taylor Chair, Energy & Ventilation
City of New York New York City Department of Buildings Richard Leigh LEED AP, PE Chair, Site & Site Stormwater Represented By: Gary LaBarbera
Urban Green Council Michele O’Connor LEED AP, PE Robert Kasdin Building & Construction Trades
Represented By: Commissioner Amanda M. Burden Langan Columbia University Council of Greater New York
Laura Popa FAICP Honorary Member, AIA Chair, Physical Activity
New York City Council New York City Department Karen Lee FRCPC, MD Chair, Water Efficiency Carlton A. Brown Represented By:
of City Planning New York City Department of Health & Building Stormwater Full Spectrum of NY LLC Paul Fernandes
and Mental Hygiene Bob Benazzi PE Building & Construction Trades
STEERING Represented By: Jaros, Baum & Bolles Bill Browning Council of Greater New York
Howard S. Slatkin Chair, Physical Activity Terrapin Bright Green
COMMITTEE: New York City Department Bill Stein FAIA Chair, Water Efficiency Roberta M. McGowan
The Steering Committee is of City Planning Dattner Architects & Building Stormwater James E. Cavanaugh BOMA New York
comprised of New York City Chris Garvin AIA, LEED AP Hugh L. Carey,
Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg, City Commissioner Caswell F. Holloway Chair, Homes Cook+Fox Architects Battery Park City Authority Michael F. Northrop
Council Speaker Christine C. Quinn, New York City Department Ellen Honigstock LEED AP, RA & Terrapin Bright Green Rockefeller Brothers Fund
high level New York City officials of Environmental Protection Ellen Honigstock Architect PC Louis J. Coletti
and the Chairs of the Task Force Technical Committee Member Building Trades Employers’ Association Frank P. Ricci
Technical Committees. Represented By: Chair, Homes Susan D. Kaplan LEED AP, RLA Rent Stabilization Association
Angela Licata Marc Zuluaga PE Hugh L. Carey Battery Park City Authority Represented By: of New York
Chair New York City Department Steven Winter Associates Hank Kita
Russell Unger LEED AP of Environmental Protection Building Trades Employers’ Association Stephen M. Ross
Urban Green Council Chair, Lighting & Daylighting Related
INDUSTRY
Chair, Climate Adaptation Mark Loeffler IALD J. Christopher Daly
Deputy Mayor for Operations Laurie Kerr LEED AP, RA Atelier Ten ADVISORY The Sheldrake Organization Represented By:
Edward Skyler New York City Mayor’s Office of Michael Loughran
City of New York Long-Term Planning & Sustainability Chair, Lighting & Daylighting
COMMITTEE: Marolyn Davenport Related
Michael Mehl LEED AP, LC Kate Barton Real Estate Board of New York
Represented By: Chair, Climate Adaptation Jaros, Baum & Bolles Steven Roth
Laurie Kerr LEED AP, RA Ernst & Young LLP
Val Lehr LEED AP, PE Jody Durst Vornado Realty Trust
New York City Mayor’s Office of Lehr Consultants International Chair, Materials & VOCs The Durst Organization
Long-Term Planning & Sustainability Represented By:
Edward M. DePaola PE Rebecca Truelove Represented By:
Chair, Construction Practices Severud Associates Ernst & Young LLP Represented By: Gaston Silva
Represented By: Charlotte Matthews LEED AP Consulting Engineers, PC Don Winston Vornado Realty Trust
Hilary Beber LEED AP Related The Durst Organization
New York City Mayor’s Office of Rick Bell FAIA
Chair, Materials & VOCs AIA New York
Long-Term Planning & Sustainability Chair, Construction Practices Christopher Diamond LEED AP, PE Robert F. Fox Jr. LEED AP, AIA
Charlie Whitney LEED AP Steven Winter Associates Cook+Fox Architects
Turner Construction

71 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 72
TASK FORCE CONTRIBUTORS TASK FORCE CONTRIBUTORS

John Sexton Bruce S. Fowle FAIA, LEED AP Alexandros Washburn AIA Paul Rode PE Mary-Jo Schlachter RA
New York University FXFowle Architects New York City Department ENERGY & Johnson Controls MJTStudio
of City Planning VENTILATION:
Represented By: Yetsuh Frank AIA, LEED AP Tom Sahagian
Michael C. Alfano Urban Green Council Power Concepts Attendee:
New York University CONSTRUCTION Chairs: Piotr W. Grebski PE
Robert Heintges FAIA Fiona Cousins CEng, LEED AP, PE Paul Stoller LEED AP New York City Department of
Abby Jo Sigal R.A. Heintges & Associates PRACTICES: ARUP Atelier Ten Housing Preservation & Development
Enterprise Community Partners, Inc.
Radley Horton Scott Frank LEED AP, PE Adrian Tuluca LEED AP, RA
Jerry I. Speyer Columbia University Chairs: Jaros Baum & Bolles Viridian Energy & Environmental, LLC LIGHTING &
Tishman Speyer Charlotte Matthews LEED AP
Ilana Judah Related Richard Leigh LEED AP, PE David White DAYLIGHTING:
Represented By: Intl. Assoc. AIA, LEED AP, OAQ Urban Green Council Right Environments
Thomas Scarola FXFowle Architects Charlie Whitney LEED AP
Tishman Speyer Turner Construction Marc Zuluaga PE
Chairs:
Members: Mark Loeffler IALD
Thomas Molnar LEED AP, PE Steven Winter Associates Atelier Ten
Daniel R. Tishman George Langer Associates Chris Benedict RA
Tishman Construction
Members: Chris Benedict, R.A.
Marc Albanese LEED AP Attendees: Michael Mehl LEED AP, LC
Daniel Nall FAIA, LEED AP, PE Structure Tone Jaros, Baum & Bolles
Represented By: WSP Flack + Kurtz Michael Bobker CEM Skye Duncan
John Kovacs City University of New York New York City Department
Doug Chambers Institute for Urban Systems of City Planning
Tishman Construction Guy Nordenson PE Members:
Guy Nordenson & Associates Daniel Colasuonno Jack Bailey LEED AP
Kathryn S. Wylde and Princeton University David Carlson LEED AP, PE Laurie Kerr AIA, LEED AP One Lux Studio
Titan Contracting Group Columbia University Facilities New York City Mayor’s Office
Partnership for New York City
Rafael Pelli AIA, LEED AP of Long-Term Planning & Sustainability Inder Bery
Frank Fortino Scott Ceasar LEED AP, PE
Represented By: Pelli Clark Pelli Architects Metropolis Group, Inc. Universal Lighting Technologies
Brook Jackson Cosentini Associates Jeffrey Shumaker AICP, Assoc. AIA
Partnership for New York City Kevin Phillips PE New York City Department Karen Anne Blackman
David W. Hess LEED AP, RA Jeff Eichenwald BPI BA of City Planning
FPM Group FPM Remediations Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects Acuity Brands Lighting
and FPM Engineering P.C Heating Depot
Ellen Honigstock LEED AP, RA Susan Drew AIA, LEED AP
Clarence Tsung PE Art Fasolino PE HOMES: Gruzen Samton Architects LLP
TECHNICAL Ellen Honigstock Architect PC City University of New York
Clarence Tsung Associates
COMMITTEES: Robert Leon LEED AP Mark Husser AIA, LEED AP
Alex Wilson LEED AP Charles Fritsch Chairs: Grimshaw Architects
Structure Tone Association For Energy Affordability Ellen Honigstock LEED AP, RA
BuildingGreen, LLC
CLIMATE Ellen Honigstock Architect PC Peter Jacobson IESNA
Tom O’Connor PE Henry Gifford
ADAPTATION: Port Authority of Con Edison
Attendees: Architecture & Energy Ltd Marc Zuluaga PE
Jonathan Dickinson New York and New Jersey Steven Winter Associates Brett Malak
Chairs: New York City Mayor’s Office Nicholas Grecco PE
of Long-Term Planning & Sustainability Ramesh Raman LEED AP Milrose Consultants
Laurie Kerr LEED AP, RA Columbia University Members: Hayden McKay AIA, FIALD,
New York City Mayor’s Office of Floris Keverling Buisman LEED AP FIES, LEED AP
Long-Term Planning & Sustainability Adam Freed AICP Adam Hinge PE Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design Inc.
New York City Mayor’s Office of David Reese AIA, LEED AP Sustainable Energy Partnerships Vital Sustainability
Long-Term Planning & Sustainability Bovis Lend Lease
Val Lehr LEED AP, PE Charles Fritsch Brian Stacy
Lehr Consultants International Mark MacCracken LEED AP, PE ARUP
Helen Gitelson CALMAC Manufacturing Corp. Association For Energy Affordability
New York City Department of Buildings
Attendee:
Fred Sachs LEED AP Gita Nandan LEED AP, RA Willard L. Warren FIES, LC, PE
Members: New York City Department John B. Rice LEED AP, PE Willard L. Warren Associates
Stephen Cassell AIA, LEED AP Thaddeus Pawlowski AKF Thread Collective
of Environmental Protection Lighting and Energy Consultants
Architecture Research Office New York City Department
of City Planning

73 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 74
TASK FORCE CONTRIBUTORS TASK FORCE CONTRIBUTORS

Attendee: Attendees: Michele O’Connor LEED AP, PE


David Salazar Langan WATER COSTING
Melissa Wright Ellis Daniel Birkett
New York City Mayor’s Office Environmental Protection Agency studioMDA EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS:
of Operations Members: & BUILDING
Kizzy M. Charles-Guzman Jessica Spiegel LEED AP, RA
Elias F. Dagher LEED AP, PE Senior Cost Estimator
New York City Mayor’s Office of 1100 Architect STORMWATER:
Dagher Engineering James Stawniczy AIA, LEED AP
MATERIALS & VOCs: Long-Term Planning & Sustainability Bovis Lend Lease LMB, Inc.
Attendees: Susan D. Kaplan LEED AP, RLA Chairs:
Nancy Clark Hilary Beber LEED AP Hugh L. Carey Battery Park City Authority Senior Cost Estimator
Chairs: New York City Department Bob Benazzi PE Anne Haynes AIA, LEED AP
New York City Mayor’s Office of Jaros, Baum & Bolles
Edward M. DePaola PE of Health & Mental Hygiene Long-Term Planning & Sustainability Joan Krevlin AIA, LEED AP NYC Capital Project Development
Severud Associates BKSK Architects Office of the Mayor
Consulting Engineers, PC Daniel Kass Chris Garvin AIA, LEED AP
Skye Duncan Cook+Fox Architects
New York City Department New York City John Leys LEED AP, PE Cost Estimator
Christopher Diamond LEED AP, PE of Health & Mental Hygiene & Terrapin Bright Green Colin E. Parkes LEED AP
Department of City Planning Sherwood Design Engineers
Steven Winter Associates Bovis Lend Lease LMB, Inc.
Zydnia Nazario LEED AP, RA Victoria Grimshaw Paul Mankiewicz
Andrew Zumwalt-Hathaway LEED AP, New York City Department
Members: Cost Estimator
New York City Department Gaia Institute Floris Keverling Buisman LEED AP
LEED Faculty of Design and Construction of Health and Mental Hygiene Joseph Esposito LEED AP
Vital Sustainability
Steven Winter Associates Margie Ruddick Bovis Lend Lease LMB, Inc.
Fred Sachs LEED AP Laurie Kerr AIA, LEED AP Ed Clerico LEED AP, PE
New York City Department of New York City Mayor’s Office of Mary-Jo Schlachter RA Cost Estimator
Members: Alliance Environmental LLC
Environmental Protection Long-Term Planning & Sustainability MJTStudio Raynor Rodgers AIA
John Anderson LEED AP Bovis Lend Lease LMB, Inc.
Robert Silman Associates James Perise LEED AP
Zydnia Nazario RA Dahlia Thompson LEED AP, PE WSP Flack + Kurtz
PHYSICAL New York City Department Sherwood Engineers Sample Building Designer
Robin Auchincloss AIA, LEED AP Zygmunt Staszewski
Dattner Architects ACTIVITY: of Design and Construction Larsen Plano
Patricia Zander LEED AP, PE Community Environmental Center Z.S. Engineering, PC
Catherine Bobenhausen LEED AP Leslie Powell
Viridian Energy & Environmental, LLC Chairs: New York City Mayor’s Office of Hershel Weiss
Karen Lee FRCPC, MD Long-Term Planning & Sustainability Attendees: Ashokan Water Services LEGAL
New York City Department Jennifer Greenfeld
Casimir Bognacki PE New York City Department
Port Authority of New York of Health and Mental Hygiene Deborah Taylor AIA, LEED AP, RA COUNSEL:
New York City Department of Buildings of Parks & Recreation Attendees:
& New Jersey
Bill Stein FAIA Chris Boyd Tal Golumb
Dattner Architects Alexandros Washburn AIA Aaron Koch LEED AP New York City Department Fried, Frank, Harris,
Rocco Giannetti AIA, LEED AP New York City Mayor’s Office
New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Shriver & Jacobson LLP
Gensler of Long-Term Planning & Sustainability
of City Planning
Members: Amy Coffman Molly Dunham
Beth Greenberg AIA Ketki Patel PE
Markus Dochantschi Margot Woolley AIA Fried, Frank, Harris,
Dattner Architects New York City Department
studioMDA New York City Department Lorne LaMonica Shriver & Jacobson LLP
of Design and Construction of Environmental Protection Environmental Protection Agency
Greg Kelly LEEP AP, PE
Yetsuh Frank AIA, LEED AP Frederick Fucci
Weidlinger Esther Siskind
Urban Green Council Nicole Rodriguez LEED AP Arnold & Porter
SITE & SITE New York City Department New York City Department
Murray L. Levi AIA, LEED AP of Environmental Protection
Shir Gale of City Planning Timothy Hauck
LiRo Architects & Planners
studioMDA STORMWATER: Arnold & Porter
Howard S. Slatkin Carter H. Strickland Jr.
Gita Nandan LEED AP, RA New York City Department
Betsy Jenkins New York City Mayor’s Office Richard Leland
Thread Collective Chairs: of City Planning
Power Concepts of Long-Term Planning & Sustainability Fried, Frank, Harris,
Signe Nielsen FASLA Shriver & Jacobson LLP
Ellen Martin RA Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects
1100 Architect

75 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 76
TASK FORCE CONTRIBUTORS

Melanie Meyers Senior Project Intern Intern


Fried, Frank, Harris, Daniel Liswood Brendan McKeon
Shriver & Jacobson LLP Urban Green Council New York City Mayor’s Office
of Long-Term Planning & Sustainability
Zachary Bernstein Design Intern
Fried, Frank, Harris, Kaarin Patterson Urban Fellow
Shriver & Jacobson LLP Urban Green Council Leslie Powell
New York City Mayor’s Office
Senior Project Intern of Long-Term Planning & Sustainability
URBAN Ashley Peng LEED AP
Urban Green Council
GREEN Legal Intern
PRODUCTION
STAFF: Patrick G. Macdonald LEED AP TEAM:
Urban Green Council
Executive Director Urban Green
LEED Volunteer Style Guidelines
Russel Unger LEED AP
Kim V. Martin AIA, LEED AP Michael Bierut
Urban Green Council
Urban Green Council PENTAGRAM
Director of Advocacy & Research
Volunteer Urban Green
Richard Leigh LEED AP, PE
Jay Orfield PE Style Guidelines
Urban Green Council
Urban Green Council; RightFrame, LLC Jennifer Kinon
Director of Programs & Policy PENTAGRAM
Legal Intern
Yetsuh Frank AIA, LEED AP
Adam Putter Graphic Design
Urban Green Council
Urban Green Council Devon Berger
Special Projects Coordinator
Katie Abbott LEED AP Editing
Urban Green Council NEW YORK CITY Peter Krass
Petros Consulting LLC
MAYOR’S OFFICE
URBAN GREEN OF LONG-TERM
INTERNS & PLANNING &
VOLUNTEERS: SUSTAINABILITY
Senior Project Volunteer FELLOWS &
James Belluardo AIA, LEED AP
Urban Green Council INTERNS:
Design Intern Intern
Dee Jay Bankhead LEED AP Irina Maldenova
Urban Green Council New York City Mayor’s Office
of Long-Term Planning & Sustainability
Senior Project Volunteer
Stephanie Chiuminatto IIDA, LEED AP Intern
Urban Green Council Zindzi McCormick
New York City Mayor’s Office
Legal Intern of Long-Term Planning & Sustainability
Peter Furst
Urban Green Council

77 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 78
FINANCIAL
COST & SAVINGS
METHODOLOGY
Estimating the cost and savings of complying with the The key assumptions used in the costing analysis are: The costing analysis did not incorporate two
Task Force proposals presents a challenge, given the considerations that would likely have reduced the
wide variety of building types and construction project đƫ Only proposals involving hard or soft estimated cost of many proposals. First, future market
scopes in New York City. A particular proposal could, construction costs were evaluated in the cost trends were not considered, although the cost of green
for example, affect the renovation of a single bathroom analysis; proposals that recommended studies or code changes should reduce over time. Presently, green
in a townhouse quite differently than it would impact administrative processes were not analyzed. products and services represent a niche within the
the construction of a new commercial skyscraper. It was building construction industry, and this is reflected in
thus necessary to develop a methodology for measuring đƫ Costs were assessed according to 2009 prices their pricing. Codifying green practices should make
costs and savings across the range of buildings and using recent bids from the Bovis database, them standard, leading to economies of scale and
construction activities. adjusted as necessary to account for price lower costs.
escalation.
To assist the Task Force in estimating costs for Second, the analysis did not assess cost reductions that
proposals, the Mayor’s Office of Economic Development đƫ Whenever there were a variety of potential may flow from building design trade-offs. In the Bovis
(OED) researched methodologies used during code compliance paths, it was assumed owners analysis, each decision had to be treated in isolation. By
modifications in other cities and in the 2006 NYC would follow the least expensive path. The cost contrast, in an actual design process, increases in the
Department of Building (DOB) code revision process. of a more expensive compliance path was also cost of one design element are weighed against potential
The OED selected DOB’s methodology, which defined evaluated if common in New York design or savings from other design decisions. For example,
several prototypical buildings in which to assess the construction practice. improvements in the insulation of exterior building
impact of code changes on construction costs. walls could permit downsizing of heating and cooling
đƫ The analysis of the proposals included all direct equipment, thus involving both cost increases and
The costing analysis developed by the OED utilized four costs required for compliance. For example, decreases. The Bovis cost estimates therefore provide a
of DOB’s prototypes for new construction, which are a if changing a mechanical system required “worst case” metric.
new commercial high-rise, a new residential high-rise, a additional structural upgrades, those costs were
new residential low-rise; and a new single family house. included. Members of the Technical Committees calculated
To evaluate all the Task Force proposals accurately, annual operational savings for those proposals where
the OED also found it necessary to add four other đƫ Only hard construction costs, including related savings could be estimated with assurance – namely,
prototypes: a new commercial low-rise, a renovation construction markups, were included unless the proposals relating to energy efficiency and water
of a large commercial building (equivalent to the new the proposal states that soft costs were also efficiency. Savings were analyzed with the same
commercial high rise), a renovation/tenant fit-out of a included. prototypes used for the cost analysis, so that cost and
smaller commercial space (equivalent to the low-rise savings figures could be meaningfully compared. Savings
commercial), and a renovated apartment. Most proposals đƫ The cost of each proposal was expressed both from proposals that were difficult to monetize, such
were evaluated in a subset of these eight prototypes, but in absolute dollars and as a percentage of the as improvements in health and productivity, were
all prototypes proved useful for overall project cost. not evaluated.
some proposals.

79 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 80
SOURCES
& CREDITS

CHARTS: PHOTOGRAPHS:

OC 2 Data provided by the New York City Department of Buildings OC 1 Urban Green Council

HT 7 THE CITY OF NEW YORK, PLANYC: A GREENER GREATER NEW YORK, 127 (2007) OC 7 Urban Green Council
Available at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/downloads/download.shtml
HT 13 Concrete Washout Systems, Inc.
EE 8 CENTRAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY, COOPERATIVE CLIMATE:
ENERGY EFFICIENCY ACTION IN EAST ASIA 26 HT 19 Morphosis Architects
(Taishi Sugiyama and Stephanie Ohshita ed., International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2006)
Available at: http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2006/climate_cooperative.pdf HT 20 Jim Naureckas, Photographer

EE 15 THE CITY OF NEW YORK, PLANYC: A GREENER GREATER NEW YORK, 103 (2007) EF 1 Building model diagram courtesy of Umit Sirt,
Available at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/downloads/download.shtml PE, Community Environmental Center, http://www.cecenter.org.

EE 24 WORLD BUSINESS COUNCIL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, EF 6 Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division,
THE CEMENT SUSTAINABILITY INITIATIVE: PROGRESS REPORT 10 (June 2005) Detroit Publishing Company Collection, [LC-D4-15953]
Available at: http://www.wbcsdcement.org/pdf/csi_progress_report_2005.pdf
EF 11 NYC Office Of The Mayor
BR 9 NEW YORK CITY PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE, CLIMATE RISK INFORMATION 17 (February 17, 2009)
Available at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/downloads/download.shtml EF 14 Big Sue LLC.

RC 2 ANNE CHOATE, HENRY FERLAND, U.S. EPA, EE 4 Leeds Metropolitan University - Stamford Brook Project - Final report page 51
WASTE MANAGEMENT AND ENERGY SAVINGS: BENEFITS BY THE NUMBERS
Available at: epa.gov/climatechange/wycd/waste/downloads/energy.pdf EO 4 Building Management System: Building Systems Integration Specialists.
(last visited January, 22, 2010) Products, design, engineering and support.

WE 2 Flushmate, The ABCs of Toilets: Conservation, BR 4 ©2007-2010 Architecture 2030/ 2030, Inc., Data Source: USGS IOM DEM.3
Available at: http://www.toiletabcs.com/toilet-water-conservation.html
BR 8 ©Nicholas Noyes
(last visited January 22, 2010)
SW 5 New York City Department of Environmental Protection
EF 3 Data provided by National Association of Home Builders
and US Department of Housing and Urban Development UE 3 Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects
Available at: http://www.oldhouseweb.com
Data on Curtain Wall life provided by Urban Green Research UE 5 http://mcbrooklyn.blogspot.com - MK Metz

81 NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY URBAN GREEN URBAN GREEN NYC GREEN CODES TASK FORCE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 82
Laurie Kerr/Jennifer Kinon/Hank Kita/Aaron Koch/
John Kovacs/Peter Krass/Joan Krevlin/Gary
LaBarbera/Lorne LaMonica/Karen Lee/Val Lehr/
Richard Leigh/Richard Leland/Robert Leon/Murray
L. Levi/John Leys/Angela Licata/Warren Liebold/
Commissioner Robert LiMandri/Daniel Liswood/
Mark Loeffler/Michael Loughran/Mark MacCracken/
Patrick G. Macdonald/Brett Malak/Irina Maldenova/
Paul Mankiewicz/Ellen Martin/Kim V. Martin/
Charlotte Matthews/Zindzi McCormick/Roberta M.
McGowan/Hayden McKay/Brendan McKeon/Michael
Mehl/Melanie Meyers/Thomas Molnar/Daniel Nall/
Gita Nandan/Zydnia Nazario/Gayle Nicoll/Signe
Nielsen/Guy Nordenson/Michael F. Northrop/
Michele O’Connor/Tom O’Connor/Jay Orfield/Colin
E. Parkes/Ketki Patel/Kaarin Patterson/Thaddeus
Pawlowski/Rafael Pelli/Ashley Peng/James Perise/
Kevin Phillips/Larsen Plano/Laura Popa/Leslie
Powell/Adam Putter/Ramesh Raman/David Reese/
Frank P. Ricci/John B. Rice/Paul Rode/Raynor
Rodgers/Nicole Rodriguez/Stephen M. Ross/Steven
Roth/Margie Ruddick/Fred Sachs/Tom Sahagian/
David Salazar/Thomas Scarola/Mary-Jo Schlachter/
John Sexton/Jeffrey Shumaker/Abby Jo Sigal/
Gaston Silva/Esther Siskind/Deputy Mayor for
Operations Edward Skyler/Howard S. Slatkin/Jerry
I. Speyer/Jessica Spiegel/Brian Stacy/Zygmunt
Staszewski/James Stawniczy/Bill Stein/Paul Stoller/
Carter H. Strickland Jr./Deborah Taylor/Dahlia
Thompson/Daniel R. Tishman/Rebecca Truelove/
Clarence Tsung/Adrian Tuluca/Russell Unger/Willard
L. Warren/Alexandros Washburn/Hershel Weiss/
David White/Charlie Whitney/Alex Wilson/Don
Winston/Margot Woolley/Kathryn S. Wylde/Patricia
Zander/Marc Zuluaga/Andrew Zumwalt-Hathaway