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DIRECT OBJECT

PR
O

NO

UN

DIRECT OBJECTS
The object that directly receives the action of the
verb is called the direct object.
Mary kicked the ball.
"Ball" receives the action of the verb kicked."

Sherry reads the book.


"Book" receives the action of the verb "reads."

DIRECT OBJECTS
The direct object can also be a person.
Mary kicked the Joe. (direct object =JoeJoe received the action)

DIRECT OBJECTS
The direct object answers the question
"what?" or "whom?" with regard to what the
subject of the sentence is doing .
Mary kicked the ball.
Mary kicked what?
Mary kicked the ball.
Mary kicked Joe.
Mary kicked whom?
Mary kicked Joe.

When the pronoun replaces the


name of the direct object, use
the following pronouns:

lo, la

(it)

los, las

(them)

In an affirmative statement with one


verb, the direct object pronoun comes
immediately before the conjugated verb.
Tengo = I have
Tengo la pluma. = I have the pen.
La tengo. = I have it.

The pronoun (la)


comes immediately before the
verb (tengo).

Notice that if the subject of the


sentence changes, this does not affect
the direct object pronoun.

Juan la tiene.

Juan tiene = John has


Juan tiene la pluma. = John has the pen.
Juan la tiene. = John has it.

However, if the direct object of the


sentence changes to a masculine noun, the
masculine pronoun must be used.
Tengo = I have
Tengo el libro. = I have the book.
Lo tengo. = I have it.

Likewise, if the direct object of the


sentence changes from singular to plural,
the plural pronoun must be used.
Tengo = I have
Tengo los libros. = I have the books.
Los tengo. =them.

Remember, if the direct object of the


sentence changes from singular to plural,
the plural pronoun must be used.
Juan tiene = John has

Juan tiene las plumas. = John has the pen.s


Juan las tiene. = John has them.

Look at how Spanish and English are different.


"Lo tengo" and "La tengo" BOTH mean "I have it."
Differences:
"It" has two forms in Spanish: lo, la
"Tengo" one word in Spanish = two words in English (I have)
The word order is different. In Spanish, the pronoun (lo, la)
comes before the verb; in English, the pronoun (it) comes
after the verb.

When you try to translate literally from English to Spanish,


sometimes it works very well:
John eats the soup.
John = Juan
John eats = Juan come
John eats the = Juan come la
John eats the soup = Juan come la sopa

Sometimes, when you try to translate literally, you run into


much bigger problems:
I eat it. (the soup - la sopa)
I = Yo
I eat = Yo como
I eat it. = Yo como la.
This is completely incorrect!

The correct translation would be:


I eat it. (the soup)
La como.

As you can see, directly translating


sentences with direct object
pronouns doesn't work, so ...

don't do it!

There is a better, easier way.


Learn to translate groups of words, rather
than individual words. The first step is to
learn to view two Spanish words as a
single phrase.

Try to think of each line as a single phrase, not two


separate words:
la como
lo como
la leo
lo leo
la veo
lo veo
la tengo
lo tengo

Read each line again. Before you do, glance at the


translation beneath it. Then, read each line thinking
of it as a phrase that has the same meaning as the
English phrase below it.

la como
I eat it (feminine DO - la sopa, la comida, etc.)
lo como
I eat it (masculine DO - el pollo, el arroz, etc.)

la leo
I read it
lo leo
I read it
la veo
I see it
lo veo
I see it
la tengo
I have it
lo tengo
I have it

Juan la come. (la comida)


Juan eats it.
Mara lo tiene. (el libro)
Mara has it.
El chico la compra. (la pluma)
The boy buys it.
La chica lo ve. (el edificio)
The girl sees it.
Ustedes lo leen. (el peridico)
You-all read it.

Juan come dos sndwiches.


Los come. or Juan los come.
Mara tiene tres libros.
Los tiene. or Mara los tiene.
El chico compra dos revistas.
Las compra. or El chico las compra.
La chica ve dos coches.
Los ve. or La chica los ve.
Ella compra dos televisiones.
Las compra. or Ella las compra.
Tenemos dos mesas.
Las tenemos. or Nosotros las
tenemos.