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‫اﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﯿﺔ اﻟﺴﻌﻮدﯾﺔ‬

‫وزارة اﻟﺘﻌﻠﯿﻢ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ‬


‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ أم اﻟﻘﺮى‬
‫ﻛﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﺮﺑﯿﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎد اﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺴﻢ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ وﻋﻠﻮم اﻷﻃﻌﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ‬

‫ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻷﻁﻌﻤﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ‪ :‬ﺘﺨﺼﺹ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﺕ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﻕ ﺒﻥ ﺤﺴﻥ ﺠﻭﻫﺭﺠﻰ‬

‫ﺇﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ ﺤﺴﻥ ﺒﻥ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺀﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺃﺴﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻷﻁﻌﻤﺔ ﺒﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ ﺒﻤﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺭﻤﺔ‬

‫‪١٤٢٩‬ﻫـ ‪٢٠٠٨ -‬ﻡ‬

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Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of High Education
Umm Al-Qura University
Education college for home Economic
Department of Nutrition and Food Science

Effect of Date Pits on Biochemical Parameters of


Experimental Rats

A thesis Submitted to Nutrition and Food Science Department


in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Master in Home Economics (Applied Nutrition)

Prepared By
Monya Tawfek Hassan Jawharji

Supervised by

Dr. Hassan Abd El Raouf El- Hendy


Professor of Nutrition and food science
Education college for home Economic
Holy Makkah

1429H-2008D

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‫ﻭﺃﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺒﺸﻜﺭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺯﺭﻉ ﺒﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻤـل ﻓﻲ ﺠــﻭﺍﻨﺤﻲ ﻭﺴﺎﻨــﺩﻨﻲ ﺒﻌــﻁﻔﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺠـﺎﻫﻪ ﻭﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻻﺘﻔﻴﻪ ﺤﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﺩ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﻕ ﺤﺴﻥ ﺠﻭﻫﺭﺠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻟـﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤـﻨـﻭﻨـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻌﻲ ﺒـﻤـﺸﺎﻋـﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﺤﺎﺴﻴـﺴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺩﻋﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺍﺤﺘﻀﻨﺘﻨﻲ ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺭﻭﺕ ﻋـﻭﺩﻱ ﻤـﻥ ﺩﻤﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﺜﻡ ﺍﺤﺘﻀﻨﺕ ﺼﻐﻴﺭﻱ ﻭﻀـﻤﺘﹸﻪ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺼﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺠـﻤﻴﻊ ﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻜـﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻋﺎﺠﺯﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌــﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻨﻬـﺎ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺤﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯﺓ‬

‫ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻭﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻗﺩﻡ ﺸـﻜـﺭ ﻻﻴـﻔﻲ ﺒﺤـﻘـﻪ ﻓـﻘـﺩ ﻜــﺎﻨﺕ ﻟـﻪ ﺃﻟﻤـﺴﺎﻫـﻤﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﺜﺭ ﺍﻷﻋﻅﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻹﻜﻤﺎل ﻤﻬﻤﺘﻲ ﻓﻬﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﺫﻫﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻤل ﻟﻨﺠﺎﺤﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻗﺩﻡ ﺸﻜﺭﻱ ﻭﺭﺩﺍﹰ ﺠﻨﻴﺎﹰ ﻭﻋﻁﺭﺍﹰ ﻨﺩﻴﺎﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺭﺓ ﻋﻴﻨﻲ )ﻋﻤﺭ( ﻭﺃﺨﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﺨـﻭﺍﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﺯﺍﺀ ‪..‬ﻭﺍﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺩ ﻭﻭﺍﻟﺩﺓ ﺯﻭﺠﻲ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻗﺩﻤﻭﻩ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻭﻥ ﻭﺴﺅﺍل‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺸﻜﺭ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﺎﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻀﻼﺕ ﺃﺤﻼﻡ ﻭﻓﺎﻁﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺤﻁﺎﻨﻰ ﻭﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺯﻤﻴﻼﺘﻲ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻘـﺴﻡ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺠﻬﻭﺩﻫﻡ ﻭﻤﺴﺎﻨﺩﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﺘﻌﺎﻭﻨﻬﻡ ﺠﺯﺍﻫﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺨﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺍﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻻ ﻴﻔﻭﺘـﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻘــﺎﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺘـﻘــﺩﻡ ﺒﺎﻟـﺸﻜﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘـﺩﻴﺭ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗــﺸـﻴﻥ‬


‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺎﻀﻠﻴـﻥ ﺴﻌـﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﺤﻲ ﻭﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗـﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻭﺯﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺭﻓﻲ ﻟﺘﻜﺭﻤﻬﻡ ﺒﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻗﺩﻡ ﺨﺎﻟﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﻜـﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﻘﺩﻴـﺭ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤـﺩ ﻴـﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﻥ ﻟﻲ‪..‬ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﻡ ﻤـﻘـﺎﻡ ﺍﻤﺘﻨـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺭﻓﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﻀﻴﻕ ﻋﻥ ﺫﻜﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ ﻓﺈﻟﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺫﻜﺭﺕ ﻭﻤﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﺫﻜــﺭ ﻤﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺠﻪ ﻜﻠﻤﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺒﺩﻋﻭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻨﺼﺢ ﺃﻭ ﻗـﺩﻡ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗـﺘﺭﺡ ﺃﻤﺭﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺴﺄل ﺃﻭ ﺸﺠﻊ ﺃﻗﻭل ﻟﻜـﻡ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻗﻠﺏ ﻤﻠﺅﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﻓﺎﻥ ﺠﺯﺍﻜﻡ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻲ ﺨﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺍﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﺒﺘﻬل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺘﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻘﺒل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﻀﻊ ﺒﻘﺒﻭل ﺤـﺴﻥ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻴﺠﻌﻠـﻪ‬
‫ﺨﺎﻟﺼﺎﹰ ﻟﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﻡ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺨﻼﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ‪ :‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓـﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻯ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟـﻲ ﺒﻤﻜـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺭﻤـﺔ‬
‫)‪١٤٢٩‬ﻫـ ‪٢٠٠٨ -‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺹ‪ :‬ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻷﻁﻌﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻑ‪ :‬ﺃ‪.‬ﺩ ﺤﺴﻥ ﺒﻥ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺀﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‪ :‬ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﺕ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﻕ ﺒﻥ ﺤﺴﻥ ﺠﻭﻫﺭﺠﻰ‬

‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻯ ﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .-٣‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻤﻴـﺎﺕ ﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻫﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻤﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬ﻜﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺘﻀﺢ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺸـﺎﺭﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻟﻌﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺼﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺤﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ‬
‫ﻜل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟـﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨـﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ‬
‫ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪.‬ﻟﻡ ﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺘﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﻓـﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴـﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴـﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬

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Abstract
Title: Effect of Date Pits on Biochemical Parameters of
Experimental Rats
Place: Education College for Home Economics Holly Makkah
(1429H-2008D).
Department: Nutrition and Food science Applied Nutrition
Supervisor: Dr. Hassan Abd El Raouf El- Hendy
Student: Monya Tawfek Hassan Jawharji Degree: Master
Aim of Study:
1- Evaluated chemical analysis of date pits.
2- Effect of on date pits on appetite and body weight.
3- Effect of on date pits on sex hormones level.
4- Assessing feeding rats on some biochemical parameters.
Result:

The results of chemical analysis of date pits: The date pits contained
adequate amount of protein, fat, ash, fiber and carbohydrates, also amino and
fatty acid. There were no changes in body weight of male and female rat
during the experiment. The study pointed to the absence of significant
differences for the relative weight of the brain, liver, lung, kidney, heart,
testis, and uterus of male and female rat.
Results showed no significant changes in the level of total protein
and albumin in both groups of rat of both sexes. There was a significant
decrease in urea concentration of males and females, which fed on meals
containing 25% date pits. It did not show any significant difference in
concentration of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein between the
control group and experimental groups in both males and females.
The study showed a significant increase in the concentration of
hormone testosterone in treated group compared to the control group. A
significant decrease in the concentration of hormone estrogen and
progesterone in the blood serum of female rat in experimental groups
compared the control group,

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‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻭﺨﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬
‫‪٤‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺘﻪ‬
‫‪٤‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬
‫‪٤‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬
‫‪٥‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬
‫‪٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ‪ :‬ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺘﻪ‬
‫‪٣٠‬‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬
‫‪٣٠‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪٣٠‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪٣٠‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬
‫‪٣٠‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ‬
‫‪٣١‬‬ ‫‪ :١ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬
‫‪٣٢‬‬ ‫‪ :٢ -‬ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬
‫‪٣٦‬‬ ‫‪ :٣ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫‪٣٧‬‬ ‫‪ :٤ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫‪٣٩‬‬ ‫‪ :٥ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬
‫‪٤٠‬‬ ‫‪ :٦ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ‬
‫‪٤١‬‬ ‫‪ :٧ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪٤٣‬‬ ‫‪:٨ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪٤٤‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬

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‫ﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫‪٤٥‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬
‫‪٤٦‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ‬
‫‪٤٧‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬
‫‪٤٧‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ‬
‫‪٤٨‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ‬
‫‪٤٨‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ‬
‫‪٤٩‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل‬
‫‪٥٠‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻠﻴﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ‬
‫‪٥٢‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫‪٥٣‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫‪٥٤‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﺭﻴﺯ‬
‫‪٥٥‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﺭﻴﺯ‬
‫‪٥٥‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬
‫‪٥٦‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ‬
‫‪٥٧‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ‬
‫‪٥٧‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‪ :‬ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫‪٥٨‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺃﻭﻻﹰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻯ ﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬
‫‪٦٠‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬
‫‪٦٣‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬
‫‪٦٧‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎﹲ ﺘﺎﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﻪ‬
‫‪٦٧‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬
‫‪٦٩‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻟﻺﻨﺎﺙ‬
‫‪٧٢‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬

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‫ﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫‪٧٣‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬
‫‪٧٦‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬
‫‪٧٧‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬
‫‪٨٠‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬
‫‪٨١‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬
‫‪٨٤‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ‬
‫ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬
‫‪٨٥‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ‬
‫ﺩﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬
‫‪٨٩‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (AST‬ﻭﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ‬
‫ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (ALT‬ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬
‫‪٩٠‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (AST‬ﻭﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ‬
‫ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (ALT‬ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬
‫‪٩٤‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬
‫‪٩٦‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬
‫‪٩٩‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫‪١٠٣‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺨﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺨﺹ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬

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‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬
‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫‪٣١‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١‬ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫‪٥٩‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (٢‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫‪٦١‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (٣‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠ /‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ(‬
‫‪٦٥‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (٤‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪ /‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ(‬
‫‪٦٨‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(٥‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫)ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻴﻭﻡ(‬
‫‪٦٨‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(٦‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘـﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫)ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻉ(‬
‫‪٦٨‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(٧‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻤﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻐـﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤـﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﻭﺍﻟـﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬
‫‪٧٠‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(٨‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨـﺎﻭل ﻟﻺﻨـﺎﺙ ﺨـﻼل ﻓﺘـﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫)ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻴﻭﻡ(‬
‫‪٧٠‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(٩‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠـﺴﻡ ﻟﻺﻨـﺎﺙ ﺨـﻼل ﻓﺘـﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫)ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻉ(‬
‫‪٧٠‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(١٠‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐـﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤـﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﻭﺍﻟـﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻟﻺﻨﺎﺙ‬
‫‪٧٤‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١١‬ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟـﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﺘـﻡ‬
‫ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٧٥‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٢‬ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨـﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﺘـﻡ‬
‫ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٧٨‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٣‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ‬
‫ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘـﻭﻯ ﻨـﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

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‫‪٧٩‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٤‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ‬
‫ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘـﻭﻯ ﻨـﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٨٢‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٥‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٨٣‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٦‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٨٦‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٧‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟـﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠـﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺴـﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺭﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٨٧‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٨‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟـﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠـﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺴـﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺭﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٩٢‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ : (١٩‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺃﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻭﺃﻨـﺯﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐـﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٩٣‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(٢٠‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺃﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨـﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻭﺃﻨـﺯﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐـﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٩٥‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (٢١‬ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟـﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٩٧‬‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (٢٢‬ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

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‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬
‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫‪٥٩‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (١‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫‪٦٢‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (٢‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬
‫‪٦٦‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (٣‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬
‫‪٧٤‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٧٥‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐـﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٧٨‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل ) ‪ :(٦‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓـﻰ‬
‫ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘـﻭﻯ ﻨـﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٧٩‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل ) ‪ (٧‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓـﻰ‬
‫ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘـﻭﻯ ﻨـﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٨٢‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل ) ‪ : (٨‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٨٣‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :(٩‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴـﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٨٧‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :( ١٠‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟـﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠـﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺴـﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺭﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

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‫‪٨٨‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل )‪ : (١١‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟـﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠـﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺴـﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺭﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‪،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪%٢٥‬‬
‫‪٩٢‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل )‪ : (١٢‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺃﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨـﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻭﺃﻨـﺯﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘـﻡ ﺘﻐـﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٩٣‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل ) ‪ : (١٣‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺃﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻭﺃﻨـﺯﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐـﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪٩٥‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل )‪ : (١٤‬ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘـﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﻯ ﺴـﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺭﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪%٢٥‬‬
‫‪٩٧‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :(١٥‬ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻭﺨﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺃﺸﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻜﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺤﺘـل‬

‫‪ %٧٤‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺎﻜﻬﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻜﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ ‪ %٥٥‬ﻤﻥ ﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻜﻬـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺘﻌﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺼﻴل ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﻴـﺯﺓ‬

‫ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻅـﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺒﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺌﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻰ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺤﻘﻕ ﻁﻔﺭﺓ ﻜﺒﺭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻰ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﺼـﺒﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻭﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺃﺸﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ ٢٠‬ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺨﻠﺔ ﺘﻨـﺘﺞ ‪٤٠٠‬‬

‫ﺼﻨﻑ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﻋﻥ )‪ (٨٨٤‬ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﺜل ﻤﺎ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻥ‬

‫‪ %١٤‬ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻰ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻁﻥ ﺴـﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻋـﺎﻡ ‪٢٠٠٦‬ﻡ‬

‫)ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪ ، ٢٠٠١ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪.(٢٠٠٥‬‬

‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﻴﻥ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻤﻰ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻴﺅﻜـل ﻭﻴﻤﺜـل‬

‫‪ %٨٧-٨٥‬ﻤﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻤﺜـل ﻤـﻥ ‪ %١٥-١٣‬ﻤـﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻤﺜل ‪ ١٥٠ – ١٣٠‬ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ‪ /‬ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤـﻊ ﺫﻟـﻙ ﻻ ﻴـﺴﺘﻐل ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻐﻼل ﺍﻷﻤﺜل‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻭﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻭﺃﻤﻼﺡ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ‬

‫ـﻰ ‪%٦٥-٥٥‬‬
‫ـﻀﺎ ﻋﻠـ‬
‫ـﻭﺍﻟﻰ ﻭﺃﻴـ‬
‫ـﻰ ﺍﻟﺘـ‬
‫ـﻥ ‪ %٢-١ ، %٢٠-١٠ ، %١٠-٧ ، %٧-٥‬ﻋﻠـ‬
‫ﻤـ‬

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‫ﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺘﺎﻤﻴﻙ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺭﺘﻴﻙ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺠﻨﻴﻥ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻰ ﻨﺼﻑ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻭﻤﺎﺘﻭﺠﺭﺍﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻙ ﻓﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ‪ ، %٤٧,٧-٤١,٣‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ ﻭﺤﻤﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻤﺘﻴـﻙ ‪%٢٤,٢ -١٧,٤‬‬

‫‪ %١٠,٣-٩,٩ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭ ﻨـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺢ ﻤـﺼﺩﺭﺍ ﺠﻴـﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﺼـﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ )‪FAO 1999 ; Besbes, et al., 2004‬‬

‫; ‪.(Barreveld, 1993; Hussein, et al., 1998‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Ali, et al., (1999‬ﺃﻥ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻟﻤـﺩﺓ ‪ ٢٨‬ﻴﻭﻤـﺎ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٤ ، %٧‬ﺃﺩﺕ ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠـﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘـﺴﺏ‬

‫ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺯﻤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﻤﻘـﺩﺍﺭ ‪ ٥ ، ٣‬ﺃﻤﺜـﺎل ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﺍﻩ ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل ﺃﻭ ﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ‬

‫)‪ Luteinizing Hormone ( LH‬ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺇﻨﺎﺙ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ١٠‬ﺃﻴﺎﻡ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺍﻨﺨﻔـﺽ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﻻﺤﺘـﻭﺍﺀ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﻜﺏ ﻴﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺜﺒﻁ ﺇﻓﺭﺍﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻨﺎﺩﻭﺘﺭﻭﻓﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔـﺹ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻐﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ ﻴﺨﻤﺩ ﺇﻓﺭﺍﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﺽ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Aldhaheri, et al., ( 2004‬ﺃﻥ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺇﻨﺎﺙ ﻓﺌـﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، %١٢,٥‬ﻟﻤـﺩﺓ ‪ ٢٩‬ﻴﻭﻤـﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﻟﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠـﺴﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﺃﻴـﻀﺎ ﺘﺤـﺴﻥ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺼل ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐـﺫﺕ‬

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‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ) ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ( ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ ﺘـﻡ‬

‫ﺘﻐــﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠــﻰ ﻨــﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤــﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤــﺎ ﺍﻨﺨﻔــﺽ ﺘﺭﻜﻴــﺯ ﻫﺭﻤــﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺜــﺔ‬

‫) ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل( ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٤ ، %٧‬ﻟﻤـﺩﺓ ‪٣٠‬‬

‫ﻴﻭﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻌﺩﻡ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﺨﻔـﺽ‬

‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﺭﻜﺏ ‪ ) Malondialdehyde‬ﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺃﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ( ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺯ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜـﻭﺯ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺠﻠـﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴـﺔ ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺘﺎﺜﻴﻭﻥ ﻭﺤﻤـﺽ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺴﻜﻭﺭﺒﻴﻙ ﻭﻓﻴﺘﺎﻤﻴﻥ ﻫـ ﻜﻤﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻸﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﻓﻰ ﻜﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫)‪Ibrahim, (2005‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ) ‪ (٢٠٠٠‬ﺃﻥ ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺘﻤﺜل ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﻫﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻠﻤﻭﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﻴﻭﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘـﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻨـﻭﺍﺓ‬

‫ﻭﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻋﺭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﺤﻤﻴﺼﻪ ﻭﻁﺤﻨﻪ ﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﻗﺭﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻪ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘـﺩ‬

‫ﻟﺩﻯ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻋﺭﺍﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻜﻼ ﻤﻥ ﺯﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﺹ ﺒﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﺒﻥ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻋﻼﺠﺎ ﺸـﺎﻓﻴﺎ‬

‫ﻷﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﻤﺎﺘﻴﺯﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺭﺱ ﻭﺁﻻﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺼل ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺕ ﻜﺩﻫﺎﻥ ﻴﺩﻟﻙ ﺒﻪ ﻓـﻰ ﻤﻭﻀـﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﻡ ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﻜﺸﺭﺍﺏ ﺒﺩﻴل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻬﻭﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴـﺭﺓ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻘﻁﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺼﺤﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺯﻭﻟﺔ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﻜﻁﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻨﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﻓـﻰ ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﺀ‬

‫ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﻴﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﺜﻡ ﻴﻁﺒﺦ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻊ ﻤﻊ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺢ ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺒل‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬

‫ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺘﻪ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﻨﻅﺭﺍﹰ ﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻡ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻤـﺼﺎﻨﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﺜل ﻤﺸﻜﻠﻪ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻨﻅﺭﺍﹰ ﻟﻘﻠﺔ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺘﺭﺒﻁ ﻭﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﻭﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭﻩ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -١‬ﻤﺎﻫﻭ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ؟‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﻤﺎﻫﻭ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ؟‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﻤﺎﻫﻭ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ؟‬

‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻜﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺒﺩﻻ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻯ ﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .-٣‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٤‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ‪ :Biochemical Parameters‬ﻭﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻜل ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﺒـﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﺍﻟـﺩﻡ ‪،‬‬

‫ﺃﻴــﻀﺎ ﺘﻘــﺩﻴﺭ ﻤــﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟــﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴــﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟــﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨــﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴــﺔ‬

‫) ‪.( Tilkian, et al., 1983‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻨﺎﺩﻭﺘﺭﻭﻓﻴﻥ ‪ :Gonadotrophic Hormones‬ﺘﻔﺭﺯ ﺍﻟﻐﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬

‫ـﻭﻥ ‪Follicle Stimulating Hormone ( FSH) ,‬‬


‫ـﻰ ﻫﺭﻤـ‬
‫ـﺎﺩﻭﺘﺭﻭﻓﻴﻥ ﻭﻫـ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻨـ‬

‫)‪ . Luteinizing Hormone ( LH‬ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﺇﻓﺭﺍﺯ ‪ FSH‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﻴـﺴﺒﺏ‬

‫ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﻴﻀﺔ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺇﻓﺭﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻌﻴﻨـﺔ ﺘﺠﻌـل ﺍﻟﻐـﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺨﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﻘﻠل ﻤﻥ ﺇﻓﺭﺍﺯ ‪ FSH‬ﻭﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺇﻓﺭﺍﺯ ‪ LH‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻨﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﻜﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺔ ﻓﺘﺨﺭﺝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﺽ ﻟﺘﻠﺘﻘﻁﻬﺎ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﻓﺎﻟﻭﺏ)ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺒﺔ( ﻭﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﻴـﺴﺎﻋﺩ ‪ LH‬ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺘﻔﺠﻴـﺭ ﻜـﻴﺱ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺔ ﻭﻴﺤﺎﻓﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﺼﻔﺭ )‪.(Katt, et al., 1985‬‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ‪ : Sex Hormone‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺨﻠﻴﻕ ﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘـﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺠـﺎل‬

‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺨﻼﻴﺎ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ٠‬ﻭﻴﺸﺠ‪‬ﻊ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺭﺠﺎل ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺤﺎﻓﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺴﺘﺎﺘﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻴ‪‬ﻌﺘﹶﺒﺭ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺇﻅﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻷﻨﺜﻭﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻴـﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴـﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻤـﻊ ﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺏ )‪.( Lechan, 1987‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﻫﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻗﺩﻡ ﺍﻷﺸﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺯﺭﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ ﺃﻨـﻪ ﺒـﺩﺃ‬

‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺘﻪ ﻤﻨﺫ ‪ ٤٠٠٠‬ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻼﺩ )‪.(FAO, 1999‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل )‪ (Phoenix dactylifera L.‬ﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﹰ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﺜﻴـﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺏ ﻓﻰ ﺸﻤﺎل ﺃﻓﺭﻴﻘﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻟـﻪ ﺘـﺄﺜﺭﺍﹰ ﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺎﹰ ﻓـﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨـﺎﺥ ﺍﻟـﺼﺤﺭﺍﻭﻱ‬

‫)‪.(Ahmed, et al.,1995‬‬

‫ﻭﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﺨﻴل ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﺎﹰ ﻁﻭﻴﻼﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﻴـﺔ‪ .‬ﻓـﺫﻜﺭ ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﺁﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﺸﺠﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﻓﻰ ‪ ٢٠‬ﺁﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻰ ‪ ١٧‬ﺴﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺼل ‪ ١١٤‬ﺴﻭﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻜﻤـﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻰ ﻜﻼﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺸﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴـل‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﻡ ﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﺸﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﺒـ "ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺭﻜﺔ" ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﺴـﻭل )ﺼـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺴﻠﻡ( ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﺩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﻋﻤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﺩ ﺘﺒﻨﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺫﻉ ﺃﺸـﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴـل ﻭﻴـﺴﻘﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﺩ ﺒﺴﻌﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺸﺠﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﻓﻰ )ﺴﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﺭﻴﻡ( ﻗﺎل ﺘﻌﺎﻟﻰ‪*" :‬ﻓﺄﺠﺎﺀﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺨـﺎﺽ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬

‫ﺠﺫﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻠﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻴﺎﻟﻴﺘﻨﻰ ﻤﺕ ﻗﺒل ﻫﺫﺍ ﻭﻜﻨﺕ ﻨﺴﻴﺎﹰ ﻤﻨﺴﻴﺎﹰ* ﻓﻨﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻻ ﺘﺤﺯﻨﻰ ﻗـﺩ ﺠﻌـل‬

‫ﺭﺒﻙ ﺘﺤﺘﻙ ﺴﺭﻴﺎﹰ* ﻭﻫﺯﻯ ﺇﻟﻴﻙ ﺒﺠﺯﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻠﺔ ﺘﺴﻘﻁ ﻋﻠﻴﻙ ﺭﻁﺒﺎﹰ ﺠﻨﻴﺎﹰ* ﻓﻜﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﺸﺭﺒﻰ ﻭﻗﺭﻯ ﻋﻴﻨـﺎ‬

‫ﻓﺈﻤﺎ ﺘﺭﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭ ﺃﺤﺩﺍﹰ ﻓﻘﻭﻟﻰ ﺇﻨﻰ ﻨﺫﺭﺕ ﻟﻠﺭﺤﻤﻥ ﺼﻭﻤﺎﹰ ﻓﻠﻥ ﺍﻜﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺇﻨﺴﻴﺎﹰ*" )ﺴﻭﺭﺓ ﻤـﺭﻴﻡ‪،‬‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﻴﺔ‪.(٢٦ -٢٣ :‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﻡ ﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﺸﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﺃﻴﻀﺎﹰ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﻡ ﻗﺎل ﺘﻌﺎﻟﻰ‪*" :‬ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻀـﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﻸﻨـﺎﻡ*‬

‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﻜﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺨل ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﻤﺎﻡ*" )ﺴﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﻴﺔ‪.(١١-١٠ :‬‬

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‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﻲ ﻟﺸﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﻫﻭ ‪ ،Phoenix dactylifera L.‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﺴﻡ ﻤﻘﺘﺒﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﻡ‬

‫ﻓﻴﻨﻴﻘﻰ "‪ "phoenix‬ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﻨﻰ ﺸﺠﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴـل ﻭ‪ dactylifera‬ﻤـﺄﺨﻭﺫ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺎﻨﻴـﺔ‬

‫"‪ "daktulos‬ﻭﺘﻌﻨﻰ "ﺇﺼﺒﻊ" ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺸﻜل ﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﺸﺠﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل‪ .‬ﻴﻨﺘﻤﻰ ﺸﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺎﺌﻠﺔ ‪ ،Palmaceae‬ﻜﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺃﺤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻰ ‪ ٢٠٠‬ﻨﻭﻋـﺎﹰ‬

‫ﻭ‪ ١٥٠٠‬ﺠﻨﺱ )‪ .(Dowson,1982‬ﻭﺍﻟـ‪ Phoenix‬ﺃﻭ )‪ (Coryphoideae Phoeniceae‬ﻫﻭ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻤﻭﻁﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺼـﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨـﺎﻁﻕ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﺴﺘﻭﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺃﻓﺭﻴﻘﻴﺎ ﻭﺠﻨﻭﺏ ﺃﺴﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘـﺸﻤل ‪Phoenix dactylifera‬‬

‫‪.(Munier,1973) L.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﺃﺠﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻴﻨﺘﻤﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ Phoenix‬ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺤﻤل ﺜﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺼﺎﻟﺤﺔ ﻟﻸﻜل ﻏﻴـﺭ‬

‫ﺸﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺱ ﺃﺠﻨﺎﺱ ﻫﻡ‪ P. atlantica chev (١ :‬ﻭﺘﺯﺭﻉ ﻓﻰ ﻏﺭﺏ ﺃﻓﺭﻴﻘﻴـﺎ ﻭﺠـﺯﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﺭﻯ‪ P. reclinata Jacq (٢ :‬ﻓﻰ ﺃﻓﺭﻴﻘﻴﺎ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﻭﺍﺌﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻐﺎل ﻭﺃﻭﻏﻨﺩﺍ( ﻭﺃﺴﻴﺎ )ﺍﻟـﻴﻤﻥ(‪(٣ :‬‬

‫‪ P. farinifera Roxb.‬ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﻴﻭﻥ‪ P. humilis Royle (٤ :‬ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﻥ‪P. (٥ :‬‬

‫‪ acaulis Roxb‬ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩ ﻭﺒﻨﻐﺎل‪ .‬ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟـ ‪ P. sylvestris Roxb.‬ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻨﻁـﺎﻕ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩ ﻜﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﻴﻤﺯ ﺍﻟـ‪ Phoenix dactylifera L.‬ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻨـﺴﻴﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﻴﻥ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﺒﻌﺩﺓ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﻤﺜل ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻗﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻜﻨﺔ ﻭﻨﻤﻭ ﺃﻓﺭﻉ ﻟـﻪ ﻭﻟﺤﺎﺌـﻪ ﺍﻟـﺴﻤﻴﻙ‬

‫ﻭﻁﻭﻟﻪ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻗﻤﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻪ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻴﺼل ﻁﻭل ﺸﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ ٢٠‬ﻤﺘـﺭﺍﹰ( ) ‪FAO,‬‬

‫‪.(1999‬‬

‫ﺘﺸﻜل ﻨﺨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻟﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ ‪ %٩٠‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟـﻭﻁﻥ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻘﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺒﻨﺤﻭ ‪ ٣,١٣‬ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻁﻥ ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴﺸﻜل ‪ %٦٧‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﺩﺭ ﺒﻨﺤﻭ ‪ ٤,٦٥‬ﻤﻼﻴﻴﻥ ﻁﻥ )‪ ، FAO, 1999‬ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺼل ‪٢٠٠٣ ،‬ﻡ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻗﺩ ﺃﺩﻯ ﻻﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺜﻴـﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‪.‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻏﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻴﺤﺘـﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻤﻌﻅـﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼـﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻗﺩ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺭﺕ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺘﻪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ ﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠـﻪ ﺤﺘـﻰ ﺃﺼـﺒﺢ‬

‫ﺘﻌﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﻭﺭﺓ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻥ ‪ ٩٠‬ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻨﺨﻠﺔ ﺘﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﺘـﺩ ﻤـﻥ ﻨﻬـﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻨﺩﻟﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺎﻜﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺸﺭﻗﺎ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺠﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﺭﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﺍﻷﻁﻠﺴﻲ ﻏﺭﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﺎﺒﻴﻥ ﺨﻁﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ‬

‫‪ ٣٥ ، ١٠‬ﺸﻤﺎل ﺨﻁ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻤﺘﺩﺕ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺘﻪ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺜﻴـﺭ ﻤـﻥ ﺃﻨﺤـﺎﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻜﺠﻨﻭﺏ ﺇﻓﺭﻴﻘﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺭﺍﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻨﻭﺏ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ ) ﻏﻨﻴﻡ ‪١٩٩٣ ،‬ﻡ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ %٧٠‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺫﻭﺒﺎﻥ )ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﻜﺘﻭﺯ(‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻴﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻷﻁﻌﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻟﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺤﻠـﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻰ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭل‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ‬

‫ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ‪ ١٥‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ %٣٠‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻨﻤﻭﻫﺎ‪،‬ﻭﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻟﺤﻡ ﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻰ ‪ %٢,٥‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻭ‪ %٢‬ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ %٢‬ﻟﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ‪ .‬ﺘﻌﺘﺒـﺭ‬

‫ﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺠﻴﺩ ﻟﻠﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻭﺘﺎﺴﻴﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻭﻡ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﺘﺩﻟـﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﺴﻴﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔـﺴﻔﻭﺭ ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻩ ﻓﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻤﺵ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﺜﺭﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨـﺴﻴﻭﻡ‬

‫)‪٦٠٠‬ﻤﻠﻠﻴﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪ /‬ﻜﻴﻠﻭﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ(‪ .‬ﻭﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﻤﻔﻴﺩ ﻟﻠﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺘﺒﻌﻭﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻤﺎﹰ ﻏﺫﺍﺌﻴﺎﹰ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨـﺼﺭ )‪ ١‬ﻤﻠﻠﻴﺠـﺭﺍﻡ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ ﻟﻜل ‪١٠٠‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ(‪ .‬ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻴﻪ ﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻗﺩ ﺘﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ‪٣‬ﻤﻠﻠﻴﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﻟﻜـل‬

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‫‪ ١٠٠‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﻭﺼﻰ ﺒﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻬﺎ )‪ (RDA‬ﻟﻠﺭﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺠﻴﺩ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻓﻴﺘﺎﻤﻴﻥ )ﺃ( ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻴﺎﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻴﺒﻭﻓﻼﭭﻴﻥ ﻭﺤـﺎﻤﺽ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻜﻭﺘﻴﻨﻴﻙ )ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺴﻴﻥ( ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﻟﻴﻙ ﻭﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﺴﻜﻭﺭﺒﻴﻙ )‪.(FAO, 1999‬‬

‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻜﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻜﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺠﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻟﻡ‪ .‬ﻜﻤـﺎ‬

‫ﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻤﺜل ﻋﺠﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻁﺎﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻴﻜﻭﻻﺘﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﺒـﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﻭﺯﺒﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻋﺼﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﻷﻫﻤﻴﺘـﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻭﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨــﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴــﺔ ﺍﻷﺨــﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘــﻰ ﻴــﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻬــﺎ ﻓــﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒــﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴــﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻴــﺔ‬

‫)‪.(Ibrahim and Khalif,1993;.Ahmed, et al.,1995‬‬

‫ﺘﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﺩﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻜﺎﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺎﺌﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻴﺯﺭﻉ ﺒﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﻡ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺎﺭﺏ ‪ %١٥‬ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﻨﺨﻴل ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻌـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﻤﺎ ﺍﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭ ﺩﻋﺎ ﻟﻼﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨـﺏ ﺍﻟﺘـﺼﻨﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻭﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻜﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺨﺎﻡ‬

‫‪،‬ﻭﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻗﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻤﺠﺎل ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻟﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ ﺃﺼﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﻭﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻗﺩﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟـﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤـﺼﺩﺭﺓ ﻓـﻲ ﻋـﺎﻡ ‪٢٠٠٤‬ﻡ‬

‫)‪ ٤٧٥٣٤‬ﻁﻥ( )ﺍﻟﺭﺤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﻓﺭﺤﺎﺕ ‪٢٠٠٣،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺩﺍﻥ ‪٢٠٠٤،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪١٤٢٦،‬ﻫـ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺸﻬﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻋﻘـﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺨﻴـﺭﺓ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻭﻟﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤـﺎ ﻜﺒﻴـﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻗﺩﺭ ﻤﻌﻘﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻜﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻲ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺩﻭﻴﺔ‬

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‫ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻓﺭﺹ ﻋﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺤـﺩﻭﺙ ﻁﻔـﺭﺓ‬

‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﺘﺭﺘﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻻﻜﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺒل ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻓﺎﺌﺽ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺃﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘـﺎﺝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺸﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺼﻭل‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﻋﻡ ﻭﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﺃﻥ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺭﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺼﻭل ﻤﻥ ﻨﺤـﻭ‬

‫‪ ٢٦‬ﺃﻟﻑ ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٦٧‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ ١٤٨‬ﺃﻟﻑ ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ٢٠٠٤‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﻨﺤﻭ ‪ ١٨٨‬ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﺤﻭ ‪ ٩٤١‬ﺃﻟﻑ ﻁﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﺘـﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺘـﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤـﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﺍﻟـﺴﻌﻭﺩﻱ‬

‫ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺤﺘـل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜـﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺇﻴﺭﺍﻥ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ ) ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺴﻴﻨﻲ ‪٢٠٠٣ ،‬ﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪٢٠٠٥ ،‬ﻡ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺸﺠﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ ﺘﻜﻴﻔﺎ ﻤـﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺼﺤﺭﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺘﻬـﺎ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻔﺎﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺠﻌل ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻟـﻴﺱ ﻓﻘـﻁ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻏﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﻤﺯﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺭﻤﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺭﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﻗﺒل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭل ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﻭﻨـﻪ‬

‫ﻤﻅﻬﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻅﺎﻫﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺼﺎﺤﺒﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻔﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭﻟﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻱ‪٢٠٠٤ ،‬ﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪ ١٤٢٦ ،‬ﻫـ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻤﺘﺎﺯ ﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻏﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺃﺴـﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴـﺩ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻭﺘﻤﺸﻴﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ‬

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‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﻨـﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺒﺈﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﻪ ﻜـﺒﺭﻯ ﻟﻠﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤـﺩﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﺒﻜﺜﺭﺓ ﻭﺒﺴﻌﺭ ﺯﻫﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﺴﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻘﺘﺼﺭ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠـﺎل‬

‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﻌﺒﺌﺔ ﻭﺘﻐﻠﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﻜﺒـﺴﻬﺎ‪،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﺒﻘـﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻜﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻤﺜل ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﻰ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺩﺒﺱ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭﻱ ﻭﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺨل ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫـﺎ ﻭﻟﻜـﻥ ﻨﺠـﺩ ﺍﻥ ﺼـﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﻤﻭل ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻠﻰ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﻨـﻭﺍﺘﺞ‬

‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺘﺸﻜل ﻋﺏﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻠﻔـﺎﺕ ﻨـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ )ﺒﺎﺭﺍﻓﻴﻠﺩ‪.(١٩٩٤،‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻴﺏ ﻭﺁﺨﺭﻭﻥ )‪١٤٢٧‬ﻫـ( ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻜـﺎﻥ ﻴـﺘﻡ ﺘـﺼﻨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺘﻌﺩ ﻀﺌﻴﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ ﺇﺫ ﺘﻌﺎﺩل ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻰ ‪ %١٥‬ﻤﻥ ﺤﺠـﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘـﺎﺝ ﺍﻟـﺴﻨﻭﻯ‬

‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﺔ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻜـﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻤﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻠﺔ ﻓﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻓـﻰ ﻋـﺩﺩ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻷﻗﻔﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼل ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﺨﺸﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻥ ﺨـﻼل ﺍﻟﻔﺘـﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﺃﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﺤﻠـﺔ ﻨـﻀﺞ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻤﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻬﺎ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﻭﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺫﻫﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺘﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻴﻘﺒل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ‬

‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﺠﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺎ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺅﺩﻯ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴـﺘﻐﻼل‬

‫ﻓﺎﺌﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺎ ﻭﺘﻭﻁﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﺃﺴﻌﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﻌﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺩﻨﻰ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻬﺩﺩ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻨﻅﺭﺍﹰ ﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻡ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬

‫ﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﺜل ﻤﺸﻜﻠﻪ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻨﻬـﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻠﻑ ﻜﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻟﻸﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﻭﻓﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﻤﺜل ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻔـﺴﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻓﺽ ﻟﻠﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻠل ﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ ﺍﻹﺼـﺎﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺘﺼﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭﻱ )ﻤﺼﻴﻘﺭ‪١٤١٨،‬ﻫـ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻫﻭ ﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻨـﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫‪ Date Pits‬ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﺎﺒﻴﻥ ‪ %١٥ -١٣‬ﻤﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭﺓ )‪ .(Hussein, et al.,1998‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﻴـﺸﻴﺭ‬

‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ‪ ١٣٠‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ١٥٠‬ﺃﻟـﻑ‬

‫ﻁﻥ ‪ /‬ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻟﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ )ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪٢٠٠٥‬ﻡ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﺸﺎﺭ )‪ Ali, et al.(1999‬ﺃﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺨﺎﻡ ﻭﺩﻫـﻭﻥ ﺨـﺎﻡ‬

‫ﻭﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺨﺎﻡ ﻭﺭﻤﺎﺩ ﺒﻨﺴﺏ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ %٧-٥‬ﻭ‪ %١٠-٤‬ﻭ‪ %٢٧-١٢‬ﻭ‪ %٢-١‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘـﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﻜﺒﺩﻴل ﻟﻠﺤﺒﻭﺏ ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ ﻷﻨﻬـﺎ‬

‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٧٠-٥٥‬ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺨﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ )‪ Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE‬ﻭﻫـﻭ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺼﺭ ﻤﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﻟﻠﺫﻯ ﻴﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻭﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٧٣,٣-٥٥‬ﻤﻥ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤـﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺨـﺎﻟﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻴﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻨﺸﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻡ )‪ Al-Kinani and Alwash (1975‬ﺒﺈﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﻟﻭﺠﺒـﺎﺕ ﺨـﺭﺍﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺴﻰ ﺒﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺼﻔﺭ ‪ %٧٥ ، ٥٠ ، ٢٥ ،‬ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻜـﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺎ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺏ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻭﺠﺩ )‪ Rashid and Alawash (1976‬ﺃﻥ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟـﺫﻯ‬

‫ﻴﻘﺩﻡ ﻟﻠﺨﺭﺍﻑ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺤﺴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ‪،‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻴﺤـﺴﻥ ﻤـﻥ ﻤﻌـﺩل ﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻐـﺫﺍﺀ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺠﺭﻯ )‪ Kamel, et al. (1981‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﺠﺎﺝ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺘﺠﺭﺒﺘﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺃﻀﺎﻑ ﻤﻁﺤـﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ‪ %١٥ ، %١٠ ، %٥‬ﺒﺩﻻ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺨﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﻨﺨﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺓ ﻓـﻰ ﻭﺠـﻭﺩ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺯﻨﻙ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻀﻴﻑ ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﻜﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﺒﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ‪%١٠ ، %٥‬‬

‫‪ %١٥،‬ﺒﺩﻻ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺓ ﻜﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻟﻠﻁﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻤﺎﺜﻠﻪ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﻨﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻤـﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤـل‬

‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ‪ %١٥ ، %١٠ ، %٥‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﺠﺎﺝ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﻋﻁﻰ ﻨﻤﻭﺍ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﻗﻠل ﻤﻥ ﻜﻤﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل‪ ،‬ﺃﻜﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﺎﻤﻼ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﻴﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﺭﻨﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Mohamed, et al. (1987‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻁﺤـﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭﺓ ﻜـﺎﻤﻼ‬

‫ﻭﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻓـﺎ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﻭﺴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﺎﻤﻼ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫‪ %٢٥‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺭ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻴﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺸﺎﺭ ﺒﺎﺸﺎ )‪١٤١٢‬ﻫـ( ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻜل ‪ ١٠٠‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ ‪ ٨‚٥‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻭﺃﻜﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺠﻲ ﻟﻸﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻼﺝ ﺤـﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻤـﺴﺎﻙ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻨﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﻠﻌﺒـﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﻴـﺎﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﺍﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﻌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘـﺔ ﻜﺠﺭﻋـﺎﺕ ﻤﺭﻜـﺯﺓ‬

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‫ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺎﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﻭﻋﻼﺝ ﺍﻷﻋﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠـﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﺤﻤل ﺴﻜﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﻜﺘﻭﺯ ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻤـﺭﺽ ﺍﻟـﺴﺭﻁﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Shah, et al. (1982‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴـﺎﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺎﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﻫﻀﻤﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻲ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻊ‬

‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺒﺎﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Reiser (1987‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺫﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﺸـﺎﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ)‪ Kahlon, et al. (1989‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻟﻴـﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ ﺤﻴـﺙ ﻟـﻭﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻌﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻭﻤﻨﻬـﺎ‬

‫ﻨﺨﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﺍﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﻠﻭﺯ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻤﺎ )‪ Al-Asgah (1987‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍﻟﻪ ﺒﺨﻠـﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻤـﺢ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺭ ﺒﻤﻌﺩل ‪ %٧٥‬ﻓﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺴﻤﻙ ﺍﻟـ ‪ .cyprinus carpio L.‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻘﻠل ﻤﻥ ﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻙ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻨﺎﻗﺸﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Al-Mana and Mahmaud (1994‬ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﻜﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺒﺩﻴل ﻟﻸﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻡ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٨٠ ، %٧١‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺒـﺯ ﻭﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺘـﻪ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﺨﺒﺯ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺨﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٥٢‬ﺃﻟﻴـﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﺃﻅﻬـﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺒـﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻥ )ﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﻭﺨﺸﻥ( ﺃﻗل ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻩ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻥ ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴـﺎﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺌﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺌﺒﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﻪ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺯ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺨـﺸﻥ‬

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‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺯ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﻀﻌﺎﻑ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺴﻠﺒﻲ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺒﺯ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺯ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﻀﻌﺎﻑ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬

‫ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻡ‪.‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻲ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺯ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁ ﻭﺴﺠل ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤـﻪ‬

‫ﺤﺴﻴﺎﹰ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ – ﺍﻟﻨﻜﻬﺔ – ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺌﺤﺔ – ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺱ )‪ Pacheco, et al. (1994‬ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل ﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴـل ﻤﻨـﺯﻭﻉ ﺍﻟـﺩﻫﻥ‬

‫ﻜﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻏﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﻐﺭﺽ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻁﻌﻤﺔ ﻋﻼﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺒﻌـﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺒـﻭﺯﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺯ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﺴﺘﺒﺩل ﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٧١‬ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﺍﺌﺒﺔ ﻭ ‪ %٢‬ﺃﻟﻴـﺎﻑ‬

‫ﺫﺍﺌﺒﺔ ﻭ ‪ %١٩‬ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ )ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺎﻑ( ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺨﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺒـﺯ ﻭﺒﻌـﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺒـﻭﺯﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل ﻫﻲ ‪ %٦ ، %٤‚٥ ، %٣‬ﻓـﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺒﻭﺯﺍﺕ ﻭﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل ‪ %٥ ، %٢‚٥‬ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒـﺯ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒـﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺨﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ ﻜﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫‪ %٦‬ﻭ ‪ %٥‬ﻨﺨﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﻤﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺒﻭﺯﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﻤـﻊ ﻤﻼﺤﻅـﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ %١٠ - %٦‚٨‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺒﻭﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴـﺔ ﻭﻤـﺎ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬

‫‪ %٧ - %٥‚١‬ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺒﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻲ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻜﻼ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻋﻴﻥ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤـﺼﻨﻌﺔ‬

‫ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻤﻥ ‪ %٤٢‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ %٥٠‬ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺒـﻭﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴـﺔ ﻭﻤـﻥ‬

‫‪ %٣٤‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ %٣٦‬ﻟﻠﺨﺒﺯ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﻤـل‬

‫ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﻱ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺼﺎﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﻟـﻭﺤﻅ‬

‫ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻓﻬﺎ ﻟﻸﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺇﺠـﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴـﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤـﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻭل ﻟﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻡ ﻭﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟـﻨﻘﺹ ﺒﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬

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‫ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺌﺤﺔ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﻀل ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻟﻠﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴـل ﻋﻨـﺩ‬

‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺒﻭﺯﺍﺕ ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ‪ %٣‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ‪ %٢‚٥‬ﻟﻠﺨﺒﺯ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻷﺱ ﺍﻷﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ ‪pH‬‬

‫ﻓﻠﻡ ﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻱ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﺍﻩ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺒـﺴﻴﻁﺔ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺒﻭﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺘﺢ ﻟﻠﺨﺒﺯ‬

‫ﻴﻘل ﻤﻊ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻴﻌﻁﻲ ﺩﻗﻴـﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴـل ﺍﻟﻠـﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻏﻤﻕ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Toson, et al. (1995‬ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﻓـﻲ‬

‫ﻋﻼﺌﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ‪ ٣٢‬ﺃﺭﻨﺏ ﻗﺴﻤﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻏﺫﻴﺕ‬

‫ﻜل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻘﻪ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ‪ %١٦‚٨‬ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺨﺎﻡ‪ %٤‚٤٦ ،‬ﺃﻟﻴـﺎﻑ ﺨـﺎﻡ ‪%٣‚٠٧ ،‬‬

‫ﺩﻫﻥ ﻭ ‪ %٥‚٠٤‬ﺃﻤﻼﺡ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻀﻴﻑ ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٣٠ ، %٢٠ ، %١٠‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﻏـﺫﺍﺀ‬

‫ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ ﻜﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻘﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٢٠‬ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠـﺴﻡ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻭﻤﻌﺩل ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﻤﻥ ‪ ١٦ -٤‬ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﻭﺴﺠﻠﺕ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺌـﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ‪ %٣٠‬ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﺒﻴﺤـﺔ‪ .‬ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻨﻪ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻼﺌﻕ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻤﻴـﺔ ﺤﺘـﻰ ‪%٢٠‬‬

‫ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻭﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻲ ﻭﺼـﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺫﺒﻴﺤـﺔ ﻤـﻊ ﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ EL-Bogdady. (1995‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺨﻤﺱ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﺃﺤﻠﺕ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺼﻔﺭ ‪ %١٢ ، %٩ ، %٦ ، %٣ ، %‬ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒـﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ‬

‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻋﺩﺩ ‪ ٣٣٠‬ﺃﻨﺜﻰ ﻭ‪ ١٨٠‬ﺫﻜﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ‬

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‫ﻋﻤﺭ ‪ ٥‬ﺃﺴﺎﺒﻴﻊ ﻭﻗﺴﻤﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﻤﺠﺎﻤﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﻀﺎﹰ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴـﺎﹰ ﻓـﻲ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻹﻨـﺎﺙ‬

‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻲ ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ %١٢‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘـﺄﺜﺭ ﺇﻨﺘـﺎﺝ ﻭﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒـﻴﺽ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺫﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎﹰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺤﻼل ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬

‫‪ .%٦‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺤﻼل ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻼﺌﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺃﻗل ‪ %١٢‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻜـﺴﻲ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﻬﺩﻑ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ EL-Bogdady, et al. (1995‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺴﺏ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺼﻔﺭ ‪ %١٥ ،١٠ ، ٥ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﻜﺘﺎﻜﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﻡ ‪ ١٢٠٠‬ﻜﺘﻜـﻭﺕ‬

‫ﻋﻤﺭ ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻗﺴﻤﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻀﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻏﻴـﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﻏﺫﺍﺌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ‪ ٦‬ﺃﺴﺎﺒﻴﻊ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻭﻜﻤﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﻜﻭل ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻋﻴﺎﹰ ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ ﺫﺒﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻴﻭﺭ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻼﺤﻅـﺔ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٥‬ﺃﻋﻁﻰ ﺃﻗل ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﻗﻠﺔ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟـﺔ ﻏـﺫﺍﺀ‬

‫ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %١٠‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﻓﻀل ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﻴﺼﻠﺔ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﻭﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻤﺎ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻓﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻟـﻭﻥ ﻟـﻭﺤﻅ‬

‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬

‫ﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻁﻴﻭﺭ ﺒﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ %٥‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺤـﺩﻭﺙ ﺃﻱ‬

‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﺤﺴﻭﺴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺭﻏﻭﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻗﺎﺭﻨﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Vandepopuliere, et al. (1995‬ﻗﺎﺭﻨﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﻜﺎﻤﻼﹰ ﻭﻟﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺨﻠﻁ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺩﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﻥ ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺘﻘﻊ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ % ٣٤ – ٨‬ﻟﻠﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ‪ %٣٤ – ١٦‬ﻟﻠﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻤـﻥ ‪ %٢٧ – ٥‬ﻟﻨـﻭﻯ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﺠﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ‪ %٣٠ – ١٠‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﺎﻤﻼﹰ‬

‫ﻭﻤﻥ ‪ %٢٤ – ٨‬ﻤﻥ ﻟﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻤﻥ ‪ % ١٥ – ٥‬ﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻜﻭﻨـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺒﺎﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐـﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨـﺎﻭل‪ ،‬ﻜﻤـﺎ‬

‫ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ‪ %٣٠‬ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻴﻘﻠل ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐـﺫﺍﺀ ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ ﻋﻨـﺩ‬

‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ‪ %٢٤‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺘﺒﺩﻭ ﻤﺘﻘﺎﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺒﺤـﺙ )‪ Arvill and Bodin (1995‬ﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﻴـﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺌﺒـﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﻨـﻭﻉ‬

‫)‪ gluco-Mannans (GM‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ ٦٣‬ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎل ﺍﻷﺼﺤﺎﺀ ﻗﺴﻤﻭﺍ ﻋﺸﻭﺍﺌﻴﺎﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻏـﺫﺍﺀ ﻗﻴﺎﺴـﻴﺎﹰ ﻟﻤـﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻋﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ )‪(GM‬ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺨﻔﺽ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻜل ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ)‪ (LDL-C‬ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٧,٢‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٣‬ﻭﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﻨﻘﺒﺎﻀﻲ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪، %٢,٥‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺤـﺩﺙ ﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬

‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ )‪ (HDL-C‬ﺃﻭ ﻓـﻲ ﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﻭﺍﺠـﺩ ‪LDL-‬‬

‫‪ C/HDL-C‬ﺃﻭ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﻨﺒﺴﺎﻁﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻤـﻥ ﻫـﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻟﻴـﺎﻑ‬

‫)‪ (GM‬ﺘﻌﻤل ﻜﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﺨﻔﺽ ﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺕ )‪ Fernandez (1995‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺩﻭﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘـﻴﻥ‬

‫– ﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﺭ ﻭﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻭﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ)‪ (LDL-C‬ﻓـﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﻠـﻙ ﺍﻷﻟﻴـﺎﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ)‪ (LDL-C‬ﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻟﻜل ﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻔـﺽ‬

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‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﺩل ﻫﺩﻡ )‪ (LDL-C‬ﺃﻭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Elgasim, et al., (1995‬ﺃﻥ ﻜﻼﹰ ﻤﻥ ﻟﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﻬﻤـﺎ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﺴﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻅﻬﺭ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻗﺎﻤﻭﺍ ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻨﻰ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺘﺤـﻀﻴﺭ ﻭﺇﻀـﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﺎﺌﻰ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻤﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﻓﻰ ﺤﻤﺎﻡ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺤﻠـﻭل ﺩﻴﺠـﺎﻟﻭﻥ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ‪ °٣٧‬ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻰ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻌﻤـل ﻤـﺸﺎﺒﻪ‬

‫ﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻀﺎﻑ )‪ Vandepopuliere, et al., (1995‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺴـﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ، %١٥-٥‬ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺘﺠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺨﺼﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٥‬ﻗﺩ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﻀﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﺠﺭﻯ )‪ Vandepopuliere, et al.,(1995‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻴﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻨﻤـﻭ ﺍﻟـﺩﺠﺎﺝ ﻭﻨﻤـﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺘـﻡ ﺩﻤـﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺒﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ‪ ٨‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ %٤٣‬ﻟﺤﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ‪ ١٦‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ %٤٣‬ﻟﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤـﻥ ‪٥‬‬

‫ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ %٢٧‬ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ‪ ١٠‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ %٣٠‬ﺤﺒـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ‪ ٨‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ %٢٤‬ﻟﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ‪ ٥‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ %١٥‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺤﺴﻨﺕ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺠﺎﺝ ﻭﻤﻌﺩل ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻜـﺎﻥ ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ‬

‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻓﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ‪ %٣٠‬ﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Lia, et al.(1996‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ‬

‫ﻴﻭﻓﺭﻫﺎ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻰ ﺒﺄﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻀﺩ ﺍﻹﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺒـﺴﺭﻁﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻟـﻭﻥ‬

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‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻀﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺊ ﻟﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ ﻟـﻡ‬

‫ﺘﻤﺘﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﻌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺇﻓﺭﺍﺯﻫﺎ ﻓﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻭﺴﻁ ﺠﻴﺩ ﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻟﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻟـﺴﺭﻁﺎﻥ‪.‬ﻟـﺫﺍ‬

‫ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺯ‪.‬ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻴﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻤﺼﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺨﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ‪١٢‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ‪/‬ﻴـﻭﻡ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬ﻭﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻨﺨﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻭﻓﺎﻥ ﻴﻌﻁﻲ‪٢٩‬ﺠـﺭﺍﻡ ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻴـﻭﻡ ﺃﻟﻴـﺎﻑ‬

‫ﻏﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﻭﻓﺎﻥ ﻤﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﺘﺎ ﺠﻠﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫‪١٩‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻏﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‪.‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﺨﺒﺯ ﻏﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻟﻴـﺎﻑ ﺍﻟـﺸﻌﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬

‫ﻴﻭﻓﺭ‪٣٥‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪ /‬ﻴﻭﻡ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻏﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎ‪.‬ﻟـﺫﻟﻙ‬

‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺭ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﻀﺩ ﻤﺨـﺎﻁﺭ ﺘﻭﺍﺠـﺩ‬

‫ﻨﻭﺍﺘﺞ ﺍﻷﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻓﺽ ﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻤﺨﻠﻔـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬

‫)‪ Jwanny, et al. (1996‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺼﻤﻤﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﻏﺫﻴﺕ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ٨‬ﺃﺴﺎﺒﻴﻊ ﻜﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺨﺎﻟﻲ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﺃﺴﺘﺒﺩل ﻓﻴـﻪ ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺘﻴـﺔ ﺒﺄﻟﻴـﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ‪ Endomycopsis fibuligera‬ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﺃﻤـﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜـﺔ ﻓﻘـﺩ‬

‫ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺔ ‪ Endomycopsis fibuligera‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﻀﻲ‬

‫‪ ٦٠‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻀﻴﻥ ﻭﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟـﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠـﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻭﻟﺒﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒـﺭﺓ ﻓﻠـﻭﺤﻅ‬

‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﻭﻜـﺫﻟﻙ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫)‪ (LDL-C‬ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ ، %٤٨ – ٣٢‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻠـﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ‪ %٢٣‬ﻭ ‪ %٣٥‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ )‪ (HDL-C‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﻀﺎﹰ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺎﹰ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ‪ %٢‬ﻭ ‪ %٦‬ﻓﻲ ﻜﻠﺘـﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤـﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﻀﺎ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺎﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻭﻟﺒﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﻥ ‪ ٥١‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ %٥٦‬ﻓـﻲ‬

‫ﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺨﻼل ﻤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Jwanny, et al. (1996‬ﺃﻁﻬﺭﺕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎﹰ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻻﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ‬

‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻭﺴﻔﻭﻟﺒﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﹰ ﻫﺎﻤﺎﹰ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻔـﺽ ﻋﻭﺍﻤـل‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎﹰ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Yousif, et al. (1996‬ﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺤﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻴﺯﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬

‫)‪ %٤٠‬ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺨﺎﻡ( ﻭﺍﻷﻴﺯﻭﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻯ )‪ ١٨,٦‬ﻜﻴﻠﻭ ﭽﻭل ‪/‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ( ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻻﺨﺘﺒـﺎﺭ ﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻟﻠﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺼﻐﺎﺭ ﺴﻤﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻼﺒﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻁـﻲ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺨﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻯ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺃﻭ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺩﻋﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺒﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻴﺩﺍﺕ )ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﻓﻀل(‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺘﺠﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺩﻤﺞ ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓـﻰ ﻭﺠﺒـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﺴﻤﻙ‬

‫ﻜﻌﺎﻤل ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺃﻗل ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻙ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺫﻜﺭ )‪ Hussein, et al. (1998‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻟﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓـﻰ ﻭﺠﺒـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺠﺎﺝ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٨ ، %١٠‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ ﻗﺩ ﺤﺴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻋﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ‬

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‫ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺕ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺒﻴﻊ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻗﺩ‬

‫ﺘﺤﺴﻨﺕ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭ )‪ Ali, et al.(1999‬ﺃﻥ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺤـﻭﻥ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪%١٤ ، ٧‬‬

‫ﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ٢٨‬ﻴﻭﻤﺎ ﻗﺩ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻰ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٥٢ ، %٤٨‬ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٤، ٧‬ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺘـﻭﺍﻟﻰ‬

‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻜﺩﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Romero, et al. (1998‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺌﺒـﺔ ﻜﻌﺎﻤـل‬

‫ﻤﺨﻔﺽ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺸـﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Brown, et al. (1999‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻭﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ‪ ١٠ – ٢‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻴﻭﻡ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻘﺹ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل ﻓﻲ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ‪ ‚٠٤٥‬ﻤﻠﻠﻴﻤﻭل ‪/‬ﻟﺘـﺭ‬

‫ﻭﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Glitso, et. al. (1998‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺘﻴﺔ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻲ ﻭﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺯﻤﻥ‬

‫ﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺒﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻱ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻭﺩﺍﺭ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﻌﺎﺀ ﻤﺅﺩﻴﺎﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨـﺎﻭل‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺒـﺎﺕ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺍﺭﺘﻔـﺎﻉ‬

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‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻭﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬

‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﻀﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Schwesinger, et al. (1999‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻜﻌﺎﻤـل‬

‫ﺤﺎﻤﻲ ﻀﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺤﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻜﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺌﺒـﺔ ﻴـﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬

‫‪ (CDCA) Cholelihiases‬ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﺘـﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟـﺴﺘﺭﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻱ ﻟﻠــ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ‪ %١٠ – ٥‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺒﺎﻹﻀـﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬

‫ﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟـﺼﻔﺭﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺒـﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻤﺎ ﺍﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﻜﻌﺎﻤل ﻴﺤﻤﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺱ )‪ Toeller, et al. (1999‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨـﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻐـﺫﺍﺌﻲ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴـﺎﻑ ﻭﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻤﻊ ﺃﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻤﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻟـﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﺘـﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺃﺴـﺭﻱ‬

‫ﻜﻤﺭﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻤﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﻤﺘﺎﻋﺏ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻋﺎﺩﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺴـﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﺭﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭﻱ )ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل( ﺘﻡ ﺘﻘـﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨـﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻐـﺫﺍﺌﻲ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺌﺏ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺌﺏ ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺘـﻪ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ )‪ (HDL-C)-(LDL-C‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﻪ ﻋﺩﺩﻫﺎ ‪٩٢٦‬‬

‫ﺭﺠل ﻭ ‪ ٨٨١‬ﺴﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﻤﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬

‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺘﻪ ﺤﻴـﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨـﺎﻭل‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺎﹰ ﻭﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎﹰ ﻤﻊ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ )‪ (HDL-C‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺠـﺎل‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩٍ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻌﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺭﺽ ﺍﻟـﺴﻜﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻨـﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل‬

‫ﻟﻸﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻟﻭ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻤﻲ ﻟﻸﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻀﺩ ﺍﻹﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﺄﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻤﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺎﺀ‬

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‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻭﺹ ﻭﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴـﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﺨﻔـﺽ ﺨﻁـﻭﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﺄﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻤﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻀﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨـﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴـﺩ‬

‫ﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﺭﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻴﻌﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Freeman (2000‬ﻋﻥ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗـﺔ ﺃﻭﻀـﺤﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔـﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻤـﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻀﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻨﺔ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬـﺎ ﻤـﻥ ﺃﻤـﺭﺍﺽ‬

‫ﻭﺘﺭﺠﻊ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﺸﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺯ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻁﻴل ﻭﺘﻤﺩ ﺒﺎﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﻼﻓﺕ ﻟﻠﻨﻅﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻹﺸـﺒﺎﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤل ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴـﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸـﺭﺓ‬

‫ﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻤـل ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ ﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ ﺘﻠـﻙ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺎﻟﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺯﻭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺼﺎﺤﺏ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ ﻗـﺩ‬

‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺴﺒﺒﺎﹰ ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻊ ﺨﻼل ﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻀﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﻌﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺠﻬـﺔ‬

‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻟﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻓـﻲ ﺨﻔـﺽ ﻜﻤﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺩﻫﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺘﺼﺔ ﻻﺤﻘﺎﹰ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﻀﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻜﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ ﻻﺨﺘـﺯﺍل‬

‫ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﻌﺎﻡ ﻤﻊ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﻟﻸﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘـﺸﻤل‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻡ ﻭﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺯﻭﺠﺔ ﻜﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻘﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﻭﺇﻤﺴﺎﻜﻬﺎ ﻟﺠﺯﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻘﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻭﺘﺨﻤﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎﹰ‪ .‬ﻜل ﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﻅﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﻤﺘـﺼﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﻤـﻭﺍﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﺨﻁﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺤﻤـﻲ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻹﺼـﺎﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻤﻨﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻀﺒﻁ ﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻲ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼـﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ‪ .‬ﺃﻴﻀﺎﹰ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﻤﻊ ﻗﻠﺔ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـﺩﻫﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺒﻬﺎ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺍﻻﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺤﺏ ﻟﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻟـﺫﻟﻙ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﻤﻴﺯﺍﺕ ﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﻪ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Jenkins, et al. (2000‬ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻠﺯﻭﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻭﺒﺎﻥ ﻜﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻭﻤﺨﻔﺽ ﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻤﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻴﻘﻠل ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ ﺃﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺘﻪ ﺃﻨـﻭﺍﻉ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻤﺜل ﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﺭ ‪ ، Guar gum‬ﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﻤﺎﻨﻨﺯ ‪ ، Glucomannans‬ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘـﻴﻥ ‪، Pectin‬‬

‫ﺒﻴﺘﺎﺠﻠﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻭﻓﺎﻥ ‪ Oat betaglucan‬ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻭﻡ ‪ Psyllium‬ﻜﻌﺎﻤل‬

‫ﻤﺨﻔﺽ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﺩﻡ‪ .‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻅ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻨـﺎﻭل ﺍﻷﻟﻴـﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺌﺒﺔ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﻌﺎﺀ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺘﺤـﺴﻥ ﻁﺒﻴﻌـﺔ ﻭﺠـﻭﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺘﺨﻤﺭ ﺒﻜﺘﻴﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ‪ .‬ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﺭﺘﻔـﺎﻉ ﺩﻫـﻭﻥ ﺍﻟـﺩﻡ‬

‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻭل ﺍﻟـﺴﻜﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺩ‬

‫ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﺃﻴﻀﺎﹰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻨﺔ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻀﺒﻁ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺭﺘـﺒﻁ‬

‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ‪ HDL-C‬ﻟـﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻤﻜـﻥ ﺍﻟﻘـﻭل ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﻠﻴـل‬

‫ﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﻤﻊ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠـﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴـﺔ‬

‫ـﺴﻡ‬
‫ـل ﺍﻟﺠــ‬
‫ـﺎ ﺩﺍﺨــ‬
‫ـﻭﻱ ﻟﻬــ‬
‫ـﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﻟﺤﻴــ‬
‫ـﺩل ﺍﻟﺘــ‬
‫ـﺽ ﻤﻌــ‬
‫ـﻕ ﺨﻔــ‬
‫ـﻥ ﻁﺭﻴــ‬
‫ﻭﻋــ‬

‫)‪(Pick, et al.,1996 ; AL-Shagrawi, et al., 1999 ; Delzenne and Kok, 2001‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Al-Qarawi, et al. (2003‬ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺫﻜـﻭﺭ ﻓﺌـﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭﺏ‬

‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻟﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﺩﻯ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻬـﻀﻤﻲ ﻭﺴـﺭﻋﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺭﻋﺔ ﺘﺤﺴﻨﺕ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘـﻡ ﺘﻔـﺴﻴﺭ ﺫﻟـﻙ‬

‫ﺒﺎﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻓﻰ ﻟﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ )‪ (%١٠-٦‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ )‪ (%١٧-١٥‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻟـﻪ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻗﻭﻯ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻓـﺴﺭ )‪ Bubenik (2001‬ﺴـﺭﻋﺔ ﻤـﺭﻭﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻲ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻜﻤﻴـﺎﺕ ﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺒﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻼﺘﻭﻨﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺒﺎﺨﺸﻭﻴﻥ ) ‪ (٢٠٠٤‬ﺒﺈﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺢ ﺒﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ‪ %٤٠ ، %٢٠ ، %١٠‬ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻭﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻭﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ ﻹﻨﺘـﺎﺝ ﺒﻌـﺽ‬

‫ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺘﺯﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺘﻔﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﺴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺯ ﺍﻹﻓﺭﻨﺠﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٠‬ﻤﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻤﻌﻅـﻡ‬

‫ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﻴﺯ ﻤﻊ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻤﺎﺩ ﻭﻗـﺩ ﺘﻤﻴـﺯﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﻌﻤل ﻤﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﻊ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻨﻊ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺃﺼﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﻜـﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘـﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺸﺌﻴﻥ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺅﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻀـﺭﺍﺭ ﻓـﻰ ﺍﻷﺤﻤـﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟـﺩﻫﻭﻥ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺯﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺼﻨﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ‬

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‫ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻨﺸﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺫﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﻻﺒـﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻔﻘـﺩ‬

‫‪.‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺠﺯﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻤﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻤﺜل ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺯﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺭ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﻁﻌﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ ﻤﻬﻤـﺔ ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ )ﻗﻤﺼﺎﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻰ ‪.(٢٠٠٢،‬‬

‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺓ ﺠﺯﺀﺍﹰ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺎﹰ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤل ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﺠـﺴﻡ ﺤﻴـﺙ‬

‫ﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺘل ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺘﺘﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻴﺅﺩﻯ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟـﺸﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺤـﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ )ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻓﻰ ﻋﺼﺭﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻵﻟﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬

‫ﻟﻸﺸﻌﺔ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻔﺴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍل( ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﹰ ﻴﻀﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻭﻻﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺨﻤﺎﺩ‬

‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺓ ﻷﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﻴﺴﺒﺏ ﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻭﺘﻬﺎ ﺤﻴـﺙ ﺃﻨﻬـﺎ‬

‫ﺘﻬﺎﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺒﺏ ﺃﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻬﺎﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺃﻏﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻴﺎ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺨﻠل ﻓﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻱ ‪ DNA‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴـﺅﺩﻯ ﻟﻅﻬـﻭﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻁﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺠﺯﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺘﻌﻁـﻲ ﺇﻟﻜﺘـﺭﻭﻥ ﻟﻠـﺸﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺤـﺭﺓ‬

‫ﻭﺘﺤﻭﻟﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﺯﻱﺀ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻀﺎﺭ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﻬﻲ ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﻗﺒل ﺘﺤﻁﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴـﺔ ﺩﺍﺨـل‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻜﻬﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺍﺌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻡ ﻴﻜـﻥ‬

‫ﻏﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻰ ﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻫﻭ ‪ Phoenix dactylifera L‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻹﺤﺘﻭﺍﺌﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻤـﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜـﺴﺩﺓ ‪ Dactyliferic acid‬ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌـﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻤـﺔ‬

‫)ﺍﻟﺭﻀﻴﻤﺎﻥ ‪٢٠٠٥ ،‬ﻡ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻤﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻁﻌﻤﺔ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟـﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴـل ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺭﺓ ﻟﻸﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻁ )‪ .(Reactive Oxygen Species‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺸﻔﺕ ﻋﻠـﻭﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﺒﺌـﺔ ﻋـﻥ‬

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‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﻤﺜل ﺃﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠـﺏ ﻭﺍﻟـﺴﺭﻁﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻜﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻀﺭﺍﻭﺍﺕ ﻴﺼﺎﺤﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ ﺍﻹﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺒـﺎﻷﻤﺭﺍﺽ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨـﺎﻁﻕ ﻜﺜﻴـﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﻌـﺎﻟﻡ ﻭﻜﻐـﺫﺍﺀ‬

‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺘﺤﻤﻴﺹ ﻭﻁﺤﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﺇﻀﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻬﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒـﻲ ‪،‬‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻬـﺎ‬

‫ﻤﺭﺸﺢ ﻗﻭﻯ ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴـﺔ ) ‪Lindquist, et al., 2000 ; Eastwood,‬‬

‫‪.(1999‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ )‪ Ibrahim, et al. (2005‬ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻜﻤﻀﺎﺩ ﻟﻸﻜﺴﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻋﻤﺭ ‪ ٦‬ﺃﺴـﺎﺒﻴﻊ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﻔﺭ‪ %‬ﻭ‪ %٧‬ﻭ‪ %١٤‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺢ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ٣٠‬ﻴﻭﻤﺎﹰ‪ .‬ﺘـﻡ ﺘﻘـﺩﻴﺭ‬

‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﺍﺘﺞ ﺃﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻤﺎﻟﻭﻨـﺩﺍﻯ ﺃﻟﺩﻫﻴـﺩ )‪ ، (Malondialdehyde‬ﻭﻨـﻭﺍﺘﺞ ﺃﻜـﺴﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻜﺭﺒﻭﻨﻴﻠﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ )‪ .(Protein Carbonyls‬ﻭﻟﻘﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻤﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺘﺎﺜﻴﻭﻥ )‪ (Glutathione‬ﻭﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﺴﻜﻭﺭﺒﻴﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﺘـﺎﻤﻴﻥ‬

‫)ﻫــ( ﻭﺇﻨـﺯﻴﻡ ﺴـﻭﺒﺭ ﺃﻜـﺴﻴﺩ ﺩﺍﻴـﺴﻤﻴﻭﺘﻴﺯ )‪ ، (Superoxide disumutase‬ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺘـﺎﺜﻴﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺒﻴﺭﻭﻜﺴﻴﺩﻴﺯ )‪ ،(Glutathione peroxidase‬ﻭﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﻟﻴﺯ)‪ .(Catalase‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺸـﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ‪ %٧‬ﺃﻭ ‪ %١٤‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺢ ﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺃﺩﺕ ﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﻀـﺎﹰ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴـﺎ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﺍﺘﺞ ﺃﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻤﺎﻟﻭﻨﺩﺍﻯ ﺃﻟﺩﻫﻴﺩ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ﺍﻟـﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﻟﺩﻭﺭ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻁﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺴﺩﻯ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺃﻱ‬

‫ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻯ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﺍﺘﺞ ﺃﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻜﺭﺒﻭﻨﻴﻠﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺜﻤﺭﺓ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺠﻴﺩ ﻟﻤﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻘﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻁﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺘﺸﺒﻪ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴـﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻸﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﻭﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻟﻪ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻓﻰ ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻅـﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜـﺩﻱ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻡ ﻓﺎﻟﻭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤـﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺤـﺎﺙ ﻟﻠﺠـﺭﺍﺏ ‪ FSH‬ﻭﻟـﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻨﻊ ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﺼﻔﺭ )‪ (LH‬ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻨﻘﺼﻪ ﻴﺅﺩﻯ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﻫـﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻅـﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﻸﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﻴﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻤﻼﺡ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﻁﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟـﺭﺤﻡ‬

‫)ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﻤﺜﻴﺔ(‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻓﺭﺍﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻨـﺴﻭﻟﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻜﻤـﺎ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﻟﻸﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﻤﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﺄﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺃﺜﻨـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻤـل‬

‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻁﺎﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎل‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻭﻨﻘﻠـﻪ‬

‫)ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻴﻙ ‪ ١٤٢٣ ،‬ﻫـ(‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ‪ :‬ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ؛ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺸﻤل ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺤـﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﻤﺎﻨﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺘﻪ ﻭﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ ﻓﻬﺩ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺒﺠﺩﺓ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻲ ‪١٤٢٨-١٤٢٧‬ﻫـ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪٢٠٠٧ -٢٠٠٦‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ ﻓﻬﺩ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺒﺠﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺇﺘﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﺨﺫ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴـﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫـﺫﺍ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻨﺩﺨل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒـﻲ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﺤـﺩﻫﻡ ﻭﻨﺘـﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻅﺭﻭﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻲ )ﻋﺒﻴﺩﺍﺕ ‪٢٠٠٣،‬ﻡ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻑٍ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﻤﺤﻀﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺼـﻭﺍﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻐـﻼل‬

‫ﻭﻤﻁﺎﺤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﺠﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١‬ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒـﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬

‫)‪ (Basal diet‬ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ )ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ(‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬

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‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ )ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ( ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١‬ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫‪%٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ‪%١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﻪ‬

‫‪%١٦,٥‬‬ ‫‪%١٨,٢‬‬ ‫‪%٢٠‬‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ‬

‫‪%٤,٨‬‬ ‫‪%٤,٤‬‬ ‫‪%٤‬‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻥ‬

‫‪%٧,٧‬‬ ‫‪%٥,٦‬‬ ‫‪%٣,٥‬‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ‬

‫‪%٣,٥‬‬ ‫‪%٣,٥‬‬ ‫‪%٣,٥‬‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻼﺡ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪%١‬‬ ‫‪%١‬‬ ‫‪%١‬‬ ‫ﻤﺨﻠﻭﻁ ﻓﻴﺘﺎﻤﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬

‫‪%٦٦,٥‬‬ ‫‪%٦٧,٣‬‬ ‫‪%٦٨‬‬ ‫ﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻﹰ_ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻱ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻴل ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ‬

‫)‪.(A . O . A . C . 2000‬‬

‫‪Determination of Moisture‬‬ ‫‪ :١‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ‪:Procedures‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﻴﺸﻐل ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ‪٥ ١٣٥‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺃﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻥ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ١٥‬ﺩ‪‬ﻗﻴﻘﺔ ؛ ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺕ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﻭﻫﻰ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ﻭﻨﻅﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻔﻑ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺒﺭﺩ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ١٥‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺱ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﻥ ﻋﺸﺭﻴﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﺘﺴﺠل ﺃﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ (٦‬ﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ‪ ٣‬ـ ‪ ٥‬ﺠﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٧‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ‪ ١٣٥‬ﻡ‪ ٥‬ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ١٠٠‬ﻡ‪ ٥‬ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺜﻼﺙ ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٨‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺘﻭﻀ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻔﻑ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ١٥‬ﺩ‪‬ﻗِﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٩‬ﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺴﺠل‪.‬‬

‫‪ (١٠‬ﺘﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﺴﺒ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻨﺴﺒ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ = ) ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ( – ) ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ( × ‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻡ ‪ ١٠٠ /‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‬

‫‪Determination of Total Protein‬‬ ‫‪ :٢‬ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨِﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠِﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﺒﻐـﺭﺽ ﺘﻘـﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒـﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺨـﺎﻡ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ‬

‫ﻜﻠﺩﺍﻫل )‪ (Kyeldahl‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘِﻴﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠِﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺠﻭﺩﺍﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴـﺔ؛‬

‫ﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ )‪.(A . O . A . C ., 2000‬‬

‫_ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﹶﺭﻱ‪:‬‬

‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﻠﺩﺍﻫل ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ؛ ﺒﺎﺴﺘِﻌﻤ‪‬ﺎل‬

‫ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻤﻭﻨﻴـﺎ‪ ،‬ﺜـﻡ ﺘﻘﻁﻴـﺭ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﻨﻴـﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻘﺒﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻤﺽ؛ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟـﻙ ﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ ﺘﻘـﺩﻴﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬

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‫ﺃﻭﻻ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ ‪:Digestion‬‬

‫ﺘﺘﺄﻜﺴﺩ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﺤﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻜﺎﺴﻴﺩ؛ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺩﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺭﻭﺠِﻴﻥ ﻓﻴﺨﺘـﺯل‬

‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻤﻭﻨﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺎﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺤﻭﻟﻬـﺎ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬

‫ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪.‬‬

‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ‪: Procedures‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪ ٠,٢‬ـ ‪ ٠,٥‬ﺠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺎﺒﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ‪ ٨‬ـ ‪ ١٠‬ﺠﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺨﻠﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ )ﻋﺎﻤل ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩ(‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﺒﺒﻁﺀ ﻭﺤﺫﺭ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ ‪ ١٠‬ﻤل ﺤﻤﺽ ﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻴﺸﻐل ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﺎﹰ ﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ؛ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ‪٥ ٧٠‬ﻡ ﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ ﻴﻘﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺎﺒﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ ﺴﺎﺌﻠﺔ ﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺸﻭﺍﺌﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ )‪٢٦٠‬ـ‪٣٠٠‬ﻡ‪ (٥‬ﻓﻲ ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺼﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‪ ،‬ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ١٥‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﻴﻐﻠﻕ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺒﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎﹰ ‪ /‬ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻁﻴﺭ ‪:Distillation‬‬

‫ـ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﻅﹶﺭﻱ‪:‬‬

‫ﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘِﺞ ‪) NaOH‬ﻫﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ( ﻤﺭﻜﺯ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃ ـ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ )‪ (H 2SO4‬ﺍﻟﺯﺍﺌﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺏ ـ ﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻷﻤﻭﻨﻴﻭﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﻨﻴﻭﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﻨﻴـﺎ ‪ ،NH3‬ﺜـﻡ ﺘـﺴﺘﻘﺒل ‪NH3‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘِﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺠﻡ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺤِﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺭﻴﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺩﻟﻴل ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ‪: Procedures‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﺘﺒﺭﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ٢٠‬ﻤل ﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻘﻁﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺎﺒﻴﺏ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻁﻴﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ ﻤﻊ ‪ ٢٠‬ﻤل ﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺸﻐل ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺃﻭﻻﹰ ﺒﺎﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪) NaOH‬ﻫﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ( ﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ‪ ٣٠‬ـ ‪ ٥٠‬ﻤل‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻴﻭﻀ‪‬ﻊ ﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁﻲ ﺒﻪ ‪ ٣٠‬ـ ‪ ٥٠‬ﻤل ﺤِﻤ‪‬ﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺭﻴﻙ ‪ ٢ +‬ﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﺨﻠﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺩﻟﻴل‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻁﻴﺭ ﺒﺴﺭﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺜﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺘـﺸﻐﻴل‬

‫ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺜﻼﺙ ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ؛ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﻫﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ ﻤﻊ ﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘـﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﻨﻴـﻭﻡ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﻨﻴﺎ ‪ NH3‬ﻭﺘﺫﻭﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﹶﺔ ﻫﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﻨﻴﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺒﺨـﺭ ﻤـﻊ‬

‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﻜﺜﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺭﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻜﺜﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺭﻴﻙ‪.‬‬

‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜﺎ ‪ /‬ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ ‪:Titration‬‬

‫ـ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻱ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﻌﺎﺩل ﺍﻷﻤﻭﻨﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘِﺠﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﺤِﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ ‪ HCL‬ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ‪:Procedures‬‬

‫ﺘﻌﺎﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁﻲ ﺒـ ‪ 0.1 N HCL‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ؛ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ؛‬

‫ﻭﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﻨﻴﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ =‬

‫ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ‪ × HCL‬ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻤﺽ )‪ × (٠ ,٠١٤‬ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ× ‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠِﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ × ‪ ٦,٢٥‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﻭﻡ ﺃﻭ ‪٥,٧٥‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺤﺒﻭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻘﺎﹰ ﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ‪:‬‬
‫‪1 ) protein + H2 SO4‬‬ ‫‪SO3 + H2O + NH+4 + CO2‬‬

‫‪2) NH4 + H2 SO4‬‬ ‫‪( NH4)2 SO4‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻁﻴﺭ‪:‬‬

‫‪3) (NH4)2 SO4 + NaoH‬‬ ‫‪NH4OH+ Na2SO4‬‬

‫‪4) NH4OH‬‬ ‫‪NH3 + H2O‬‬

‫‪5) H3BO3 + 3 NH3‬‬ ‫‪( NH4)3BO3‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ‪:‬‬

‫‪(NH4)3BO3 + 3 HCL‬‬ ‫‪3 NH4Cl + H3BO3‬‬

‫)‪(A.O.A.C., 2000‬‬

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‫‪Determination of Total Fats‬‬ ‫‪ :٣‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫ـ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻱ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﻤﺘﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﻭﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺭﻜﺒ‪‬ﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺘﺫﻭﺏ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟـﺫﻭﺒﺎﻥ ﺒـﺎﻟﻜﺤﻭل؛ ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ‬

‫ﺘﺫﻭﺏ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﺯﻴﺞ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻨﻔﺭﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﺘﺘﻡ ﻋﻤﻠِﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺜﻴﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻜﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷَﺴِﻴﺘﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻭﺭﻭﻓﻭﺭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﺯﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺤـﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺤـﻭل‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﺘﺎﻨﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻴﺎﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﺜﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﻏﻠﻴﺎﻨﻪ ‪ ٣٥‬ـ ‪ ٤٥‬ﻡ‪. ٥‬‬

‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل )‪:(Procedures‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﻨﺸﻌل ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ‪ ١٣٥‬ﻡ‪ ٥‬ﻭﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺒﺎل ﻟﻨﺯﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ ﻟﻤـﺩﺓ ‪١٥‬‬

‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻔﻑ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺒﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻴﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺩ‪‬ﻭﺭﻕ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺴﺠل ﻭﺯﻨﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻴﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ )‪ ٣‬ـ ‪ ٥‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺤﻜﻡ ﻏﻠﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨـﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ‬

‫ﻜﺴﺘﺒﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺘﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺴﻭﻜﺴﻠﺕ(‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٦‬ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ‪ ٢٥٠‬ـ ‪ ٣٠٠‬ﻤل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺫﻴﺏ ﺍﻷﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺴﻭﻜﺴﻠﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٧‬ﻴﺭﻜﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺒﺄﺠﺯﺍﺌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺌﻲ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜـﺩ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺜﻑ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ (٨‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﺎﹰ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻴﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﺎﻥ ﺒـﺒﻁﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺒـﺩﺃ ﺘﻜﺜﻴـﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻴﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻔﻭﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٩‬ﺘﻜﺭﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ٦‬ـ ‪ ٨‬ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (١٠‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻴﺏ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺘﻁﺎﻴﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬

‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻤﻌﺘﺩﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (١١‬ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺯﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻥ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪٥ ١٠٠‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (١٢‬ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻔﻑ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺒﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻭﺯﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴـﺴﺠل ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺭﻕ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﺯﻴـﺕ‬

‫ﻭﺘﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ = ) ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺎﹰ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ( – ) ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺎﹰ (× ‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻡ ‪ ١٠٠ /‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‬

‫‪ :٤‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ‪Determination of Total Carbohydrates‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻱ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻷﻨﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ‬

‫ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻨﺎﺼـﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒـﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻴـﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻜـﺴﺠﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻜـﻭﻥ ﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﻜﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ )‪ (١ : ٢‬ﻭﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻤﻊ ﻜل ﺫﺭﺓ ﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺠـﺯﺉ‬

‫ﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺴﻜﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ )ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨـﺩﻱ‪ .(٢٠٠٢ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻲ‬

‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻻﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ؛ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬

‫ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ ‪ H2 SO 4‬ﺃﻭﻻ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ‪ ‬ﺘﺘﺤﻭل ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺴﻜﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺤﺎﺩﻴـﺔ ﺫﺍﺌﺒـﺔ‬

‫)ﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ( ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ‪ H2 SO 4‬ﺒﻜﺭﺒﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻴﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﺴﺩﺍﺴﻴﺔ؛‬

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‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﺯﻉ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺠﺯﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻤﺎﺀ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺭﻜـﺏ ﻴـﺴﻤﻰ‬

‫ﻫﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﺴﻰ ﻤﻴﺜﺎﻴل ﻓﻭﺭﻓﻭﺭﺍل؛ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺭ‪‬ﻜﺏ ﻴﺘﻜﺎﺜﻑ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﺒﻠﻭﻥ ﺒﺭﺘﻘـﺎﻟﻲ؛‬

‫ﻟﻪ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻭل ﻤﻭﺠﺔ ‪) ٤٩٠‬ﻨﺎﻨﻭ ﻤﻴﺘﺭ( ‪ .nm‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ‪:Procedure‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ ‪ /‬ﻋﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ )‪:(Preparation Of Standard Curve‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﺘﺤ‪‬ﻀﺭ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ‪ ١٠‬ـ ‪ ٨٠‬ﺠﺯﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩ‪‬ﺍﻡ ‪ ٠,١‬ﺠﻡ ﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻨﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﻴﻜﻤـل‬

‫ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ١٠٠‬ﻤل ﻓﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ‪ / ١٠٠٠‬ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ ‪ /‬ﻤل(‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻴﺅﺨﺫ ﻤﻥ ‪ ١‬ـ ‪ ٨‬ﻤل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺴﻌﺔ ‪ ١٠٠‬ﻤل‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻜﻤل ﺇﻟـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻤﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻁﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻴﺅﺨﺫ ‪ ١‬ﻤل ﻤﻥ ﻜل ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺒﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ١‬ﻤل ﻓﻴﻨـﻭل ‪ ٥ +‬ﻤـل ﺤﻤـﺽ‬

‫ﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻨﻘﻲ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺭﺝ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻴﺘﺭﻙ ﺍﻷﻨﺎﺒﻴﺏ ﻟﺘﺒﺭﺩ ﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ١٠‬ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺠﻬـﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻴـﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻠـﻭﻨﻲ‬

‫‪ Spectrophotometer‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻭل ﻤﻭﺠﻲ ‪) n m ٤٩٠‬ﻨﺎﻨﻭ ﻤﻴﺘﺭ(‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﻴﺭﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭﻴﻥ؛ ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺤﺩﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ؛ ﻤـﻊ ﻤﺭﺍﻋـﺎﺓ ﻋﻤـل ﺒﻼﻨـﻙ‬

‫‪) Blank‬ﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻲ( ﻟﻀﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬

‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﻴﻭﺯﻥ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ٠,١‬ﺠﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻀﺒﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺒﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬـﺎ ‪٣٠‬‬

‫ﻤل ﺤﻤﺽ ﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ ‪١‬ﻋﻴﺎﺭﻯ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ (٢‬ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻤﺎﻡ ﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ٤‬ـ ‪ ٦‬ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺘﺭﻓﻊ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤـﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﺘﺒﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﺘﺭﺸﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻜﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺴﻌﺔ ‪ ١٠٠‬ﻤل ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻁﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻴﺅﺨﺫ ‪ ١‬ﻤل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺒﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ١‬ﻤل ﻓﻴﻨـﻭل ‪+ %٥‬‬

‫‪ ٥‬ﻤل ﺤﻤﺽ ﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻨﻘﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﺘﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﺭﻙ ‪ ١٠‬ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٦‬ﺘﻘﺭﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ‪ Spectro‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻭل ﻤﻭﺠﻲ ‪ ٤٩٠‬ﻨﺎﻨﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٧‬ﺜﻡ ﻴﻘﺭﺃ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻭﺘﺴﺠل ) ‪.( A . O . A . C ., 2000‬‬

‫‪ :٥‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ‪Determination of Total Ash‬‬

‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ‪:Procedures‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﻴﺸﻐل ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ‪٥ ١٣٥‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺍﺘﻕ ﻨﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻥ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ١٥‬ﺩ‪‬ﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺕ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺍﺘﻕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺍﺘﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻔﻑ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺒﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺍﺘﻕ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﻷﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﺸﺭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺍﺘﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ‪ ١‬ﺠﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺘﻰ ‪ ٣‬ﺠﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٦‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻭﺍﺘﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﻥ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ ‪٥ ٥٠٠‬ﻡ ﺇﻟـﻰ ‪٥ ٥٥٠‬ﻡ ﻟﻤـﺩﺓ ﺴـﺕ‬

‫ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ؛ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻤﺎﺩ ﺒﻠﻭﻥ ﺭﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﺎﺘﺢ )ﺭﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺎﺌﺭ(‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٧‬ﺘﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺍﺘﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻔﻑ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺒﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٨‬ﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻭﺍﺘﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺴﺠل ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﺭ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻤﺎﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

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‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻤﺎﺩ = ) ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺘﻘﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ( – ) ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺘﻘﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ( ‪١٠٠X‬‬

‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻡ ‪ ١٠٠ /‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‬

‫‪Determination of Fibers‬‬ ‫‪ :٦‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ‬

‫_ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻱ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ )‪ (Crude Fiber‬ﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒ‪‬ﻘﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ؛ ﺒﻌـﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻠﻭﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴـﺼﺎﺤﺒﻪ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻫﻀﻡ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺘﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺍﺌﻬـﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻴﻭﻟﻭﺯ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﺘﻭﺯﺍﻥ؛ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻬﻀﻡ ﻤﻁﻠﻘﺎﹰ؛ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﻀﻡ ﺍﻷﻟﻴـﺎﻑ‬

‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺴﺎﹰ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺭﺍﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻭﺍﻜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺩﻯ ﻁﺭﺍﻭﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻨﻀﺠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﺒﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ‪:‬‬

‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺘﺴﺨﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨـﺔ ﺒﻌـﺩ ﺫﻟـﻙ‬

‫ﻨﺼﻑ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺤﻤﺽ ﻤﺨﻔﻑ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﻤﻊ ﻗﻠﻭﻱ ﻤﺨﻔﻑ ﺃﻴﻀﺎﹰ ﻨـﺼﻑ ﺴـﺎﻋﺔ؛‬

‫ﻭﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ‪:Procedure‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﻴﻭﺯﻥ ‪ ٢‬ﺠﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺄﺱ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ‪ ٢٠٠‬ﻤـل ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺤﻤﺽ ﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ ‪ ،%١,٢٥‬ﻭﺘﺘﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺸﻴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻤﻊ ﺒﻭﺨﻨﺭ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻤﻀﺨﺔ ﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻐﺴل ﻋﺩﺓ ﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻁـﺭ‬

‫ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻠﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺁﺜﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺤﻤﺽ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ (٣‬ﺘﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻡ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ‪ NaOH %١,٢٥‬ﻭﺘﺘﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻤـﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻨﺼﻑ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﺘﻐﺴل ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻠﻭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺁﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻭﻱ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﺘﻐﺴل ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒـ ‪ ٢٥‬ﻤل ﻜﺤﻭل ﺍﺜﻴﻠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٦‬ﻴﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺴﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺒﻭﺘﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺘﺠﻔﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ‪٥ ١٣٥‬ﻡ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٧‬ﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺘﻘﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٨‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺘﻘﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﻥ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ‪٥ ٥٥٠‬ﻡ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ٣-٢‬ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٩‬ﻴﺴﺠل ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺘﻘﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ = ) ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺘﻘﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ( ـ ) ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺘﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻕ( ‪١٠٠X‬‬

‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻡ ‪ ١٠٠ /‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‬

‫‪ :٧‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪Determination of Amino Acids‬‬

‫_ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻱ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻨﺤﻭ )‪ (٣٠٠‬ﺤﻤﺽ‬

‫ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺩﺨل ﻓﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻫـﻲ)‪ (٢٢-٢٠‬ﺤﻤـﺽ‬

‫ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻨﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺃﺤﻤـﺎﺽ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻴـﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺃﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻨﻬـﺎ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻟﺴﺩ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ ﻫـﻰ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬

‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻨﻲ ﻟﻬـﺫﻩ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻴﺘﺎﺒﻭﻟﻴﺯﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺜﻡ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺼﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﻨﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺤﻤﺽ ﺃﻤﻴﻨـﻲ ﺁﺨـﺭ )ﺃﺤﻤـﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨـﺩﻱ‪،‬‬

‫‪.(٢٠٠٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺎ )ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ( ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻴﻠـﺯﻡ ﺘﻘـﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤـﺎﺽ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻲ ﺜﻡ ﺘﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻜل‬

‫ﺤﻤﺽ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻲ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﺜﻴﻠﻪ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﻗل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺃﻷﻤﻴﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺒﺄﻗل ﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺃﻷﻤﻴﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻱ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺃﻷﻤﻴﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺃﻷﻤﻴﻨﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ )ﻨﻭﺍﺭ‪.(٢٠٠٤ ،‬‬

‫ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺒﺩﺀﺍﹸ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻫـﺫﺍ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻭﺴﻁ ﺤﺎﻤﻀﻲ )ﺤﻤﺽ ﻫﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ( ﺘﺤﺕ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻭﻓﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻏـﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺘﻭﻓﺎﻥ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﺒـﺎﻟﻘﻠﻭﻱ‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻲ ﻴﺘﺤﻁﻡ ﺘﺤﺕ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﺃﻟﺤﺎﻤﻀﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘـﺎﻟﻲ ﻻ ﻴـﺘﻡ‬

‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻲ ﺘﺭﺒﺘﻭﻓﺎﻥ )ﺃﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻴﻭﺴﻑ‪.(١٩٩٦ ،‬‬

‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪ Moore and Stein (1958‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‪:‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﻭﺯﻥ ‪ ١٠‬ﻤﻠﻴﺠﺭﺍﻡ )‪ ٠,٠١‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ( ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺃﻀﻴﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ١٠‬ﻤل ﻤﻥ ﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻬﻴـﺩﺭﻭﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ‬

‫)‪ ٦‬ﻋﻴﺎﺭﻱ( ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺘـﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻤﺭﻜـﺏ ﻤﻴﺭﻜﺎﺒـﺎﺘﻭ ﺇﻴﺜـﺎﻨﻭل ‪Mercapato-ethanol‬‬

‫)‪ ٥‬ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪١٠/‬ﻤل ﺤﻤﺽ ﻫﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ(‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻀﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ‪٥ ١١٠‬ﻡ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ٢٢‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﺘﻡ ﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺘﺭﺸﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺠﻔﻴﻔﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ (٤‬ﺇﺫﺍﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻔﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ ١‬ﻤل ﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﺴﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻡ )ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﻤﻭﻀﺔ ‪.(٢,٢‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﺘﺭﺸﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﺍﺒﺔ ﻭﺤﻘﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤـﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴـﺔ ‪Backman 119 CL‬‬

‫‪.Amino Acid Analyser‬‬

‫‪:٨‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ‪Determination of Fatty Acids‬‬

‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻟﺠﺯﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤـﻥ ﻜﺭﺒـﻭﻥ‬

‫ﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻭﺃﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻫﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﻭل ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻘـﺴﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻤﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺨﻠﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻡ ﺘﺨﻠﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻻﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻭﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻲ ﻟﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴـﻙ ‪Linoleic n-6‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻰ ‪ .Linolenic n-3‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﺸﺒﻊ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬

‫ﺃﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺘﺘﺼﻑ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﺭﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺒﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺉ ﺒﺎﻹﻀـﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻜﺴﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺜﻴل‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺭﺍﺒﻁـﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﺯﺩﻭﺠﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺉ ﻭﻴﻁﻠﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘـﺸﺒﻊ‬

‫ﻭﺃﺸﻬﺭﻫﺎ ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻙ ‪ Oleic acid‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺩ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺭﺍﺒﻁـﺔ ﻤﺯﺩﻭﺠـﺔ ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻬـﺎ‬

‫ﺤﻤﺽ ﻟﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﻙ ﻭﺤﻤﺽ ﻟﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﻨﻙ ﻭﺤﻤﺽ ﺃﺭﺍﻜﻴﺩﻭﻨﻴﻙ )ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﻱ‪.(٢٠٠٢ ،‬‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺇﺘﺒﺎﻉ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪ Chrestie, et al. (1970‬ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻷﻁﻌﻤـﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‪:‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﺨﻠﻁ ‪ ١‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ‪ ١٠‬ﻤل ﻤﺨﻠﻭﻁ ﻜﻠﻭﻟﻭﻓﻭﺭﻡ‪-‬ﺇﻴﺜﺎﻨﻭل )‪.(٢:١‬‬

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‫‪ (٢‬ﺘــﻡ ﺍﻟﺤــﺼﻭل ﻋﻠــﻰ ﺍﻟﺠــﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺌــﻕ ﺒﺎﺴــﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺠﻬــﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁــﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜــﺯﻱ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ‪ ٢٥٠٠‬ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ‪ /‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ١٠‬ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ‪ .‬ﺜـﻡ ﺍﻟﻐـﺴﻴل ﺒﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜـﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟـﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ‬

‫)‪.(%٠,٥‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ‪٥ ٣٥‬ﻡ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﺭ ‪.Rotary Evaporator‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﺇﺫﺍﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ‪ ٢‬ﻤل ﺒﻨﺯﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﺜﻡ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ‪ ٥‬ﻤل ﺤﻤﺽ ﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ )‪.(%١‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻠﻭﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ‪٥ ٩٠‬ﻡ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ٩٠‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ ‪ ٥‬ﻤـل ﻫﻜـﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﻘﻨﻬـﺎ ﻓـﻲ ﺠﻬـﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻔـﺼل ﺍﻟﻐـﺎﺯﻱ‬

‫‪.(GLC) Gas Liquid Chromatography‬‬

‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﺸﺘﻤﻠﺕ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ٣٦‬ﻓﺄﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺒـﺎﻟﻐﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺼـﺤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟـﺫﻴﻥ ﻻ‬

‫ﻴﻌﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺼﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻤﺭﺍﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺃﻟﺒﻴﻨﻭ ‪ Albino Rat‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﺃﻭﺯﺍﻨﻬﻡ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫‪ ١٥٠-١٠٠‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻭ‪‬ﻀِﻌﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻗﻔﺎﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺴـﺘﻴﻙ ‪ ، Cages‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﻭﻋِـﻲ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻜﻔل ﻟﻬﺎ ﺤﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻀ‪‬ﺒِﻁﺕ ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ ﺤـﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺠـﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼـﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻨﺩ ‪٢٤‬ﻡ‪ . ‬ﻭﻨﹸﻅﹼﻤﺕﹾ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ‪ ١٢‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻀﻭﺀ ‪ /‬ﻅـﻼﻡ‪ .‬ﺘـﻡ ﺘﻘـﺩﻴﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻊ ‪ .ad libitum‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻜﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻘـﺩ‬

‫ﻗﺴﻤﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻜل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ ١٢‬ﻓﺄﺭ )‪ ٦‬ﺫﻜﻭﺭ‪ ٦ ،‬ﺇﻨﺎﺙ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘـﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒـﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ )ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﻭﺭ(‬

‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺒﻴﻊ ﻭﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻋﻴﺎ ﻁﻭﺍل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ‪.‬ﻭﺘﻡ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻜل ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐـﺫﺍﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﻪ ﻟﻜل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻁﺭﺡ ﻭﺯﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐـﺫﺍﺀﻋﻥ‬

‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻗﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺘﻡ ﺫﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺼﻴﺎﻤﻬﺎ ‪ ١٢‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻡ ﺴﺤﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻠﺏ ﻜل ﻓﺄﺭ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺇﺒﺭﺓ ﺴﺤﺏ ﺍﻟـﺩﻡ ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓـﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ‪ .‬ﺘﻡ ﻓﺼل ﺒﻼﺯﻤﺎ ﺍﻟـﺩﻡ‬

‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ‪ ٤٠٠٠‬ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ‪ /‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻘـﺩﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻭﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺎﺒﻴﺏ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﻤﻨﻊ ﺘﺨﺜﹼـﺭ ﺍﻟـﺩﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ‪ ‬ﺘﺸﺭﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻘﻠـﺏ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺭﺌـﺔ ‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻁﺤﺎل ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻤﺦ – ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻴﺘﻴﻥ – ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﺯﻥ ﻜل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺓ ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻭﺯﺍﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎﹰ‪:‬ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺸﻤﻠﺕ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬

‫‪Quantitative determination of Total Protein‬‬


‫ﻴﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻷﺴﻤﻭﺯﻱ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺯﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺨﻠل ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴـل‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻲ‪.‬ﻭﻴﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺯﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻴﺒﺭﻴﻨﻭﺠﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻥ ﻴﻔﺘﻘـﺭ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺒﺭﻴﻨﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺩﺨل ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺠﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻭﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ ٨ – ٦‬ﺠﻡ ‪١٠٠ /‬ﻤل ) ﺍﻟﻭﻫﻴﺒﻲ ‪ ١٤٢٠ ،‬ﻫـ(‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ‪ ٧,٦ – ٥,٦‬ﺠﻡ ‪١٠٠ /‬ﻤل )‪. (Harkness and Wagner, 1989‬‬

‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﻴﻭﺭﻴﺕ ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ؛ ﺘﺒﻌﺎﹰ ﻟـ ‪.(1964)Weichselbaum‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﻘﹼﺩ ﻤﻠﻭ‪‬ﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨـﺘﹶﺞ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺃﻴﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﻨﺤﺎﺴﻴﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭ‪‬ﺠِﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘـﻭﻱ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ‪ CO- NH2‬ﺘﺘﹼﺤﺩ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺫﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘـﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬

‫‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺘﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﻁﻲ ﻟﻭﻨـﺎ ﺃﺯﺭﻕﹶ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺃﺭﺠﻭﺍﻨﻴﺎ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻭﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺴ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻲ ﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺒﻴﻭﺭﻴﺕ ﻤﺸﺘﻘﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴـﻡ ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﻴﻭﺭﻴﺕ‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ‪Albumin‬‬

‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﺍﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ‬

‫ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ ٥,٥ – ٣,٥‬ﺠﻡ ‪١٠٠ /‬ﻤل ﻭﻴﻘل ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺴﻭﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺴـﻭﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻻﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﻭﻜﺴل ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺯﻤﻥ ) ﺍﻟﻭﻫﻴﺒﻲ ‪ ١٤٢٠ ،‬ﻫـ( ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ ﻓـﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ‪ ٤ ,٨-٣, ٨‬ﺠﻡ ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل )‪. ( Harkness and Wagner, 1989‬‬

‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ‪ (1977 ) Doumas, et al‬ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻌﺘﻤـﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ‬

‫ـﻨﻅﻡ‬
‫ـﻭل ﺍﻟﻤـ‬
‫ـﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠـ‬
‫ـﻭﻜﺭﻴﺯﻭل ‪ . Bromocresol‬ﻓـ‬
‫ـﻀﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﻤـ‬
‫ـﻭﻥ ﺃﺨـ‬
‫ـﻭﺭ ﻟـ‬
‫ـﻰ ﻅﻬـ‬
‫ﻋﻠـ‬

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‫) ﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﺴﻜﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻭﻀﺔ ‪ ( ٤,٢‬ﻴﺘﺤﺩ ﺃﺨﻀﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﻤﻭﻜﺭﻴﺯﻭل ﻤـﻊ ﺍﻷﻟﺒـﻭﻤﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎ ﻤﻌﻘﺩﺍ‪ .‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺸﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻭل ﻤﻭﺠﺔ ‪ ٦٢٣‬ﻨﺎﻨﻭﻤﺘﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ‪Globulin‬‬

‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﻴﺸﻤل ﺃﻟﻔﺎ ﻭﺒﻴﺘﺎ ﻭﺠﺎﻤﺎ ﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ ٣,٦ -٢‬ﺠﻡ ‪١٠٠ /‬ﻤل ) ﺍﻟـﻭﻫﻴﺒﻰ ‪ ١٤٢٠ ،‬ﻫــ(‪.‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ‬

‫ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ‪ ٣ – ١ , ٨‬ﺠﻡ‪ ١٠٠/‬ﻤل ﺩﻡ ‪( Harkness and Wagner, 1989).‬‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ = ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ‪ -‬ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ‬

‫‪ -٤‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ‪Urea‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﻜـﻭﻥ ﻓـﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ﺜﻡ ﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺨﺭﺝ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻭل‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴـﺎ ﺘﺒﻌـﺎ ﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ ‪ ( 1977) Neumann and Ziegenhorn‬ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﺯﺓ ‪ Kits‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻭل ﻤﻭﺠﺔ ‪ ٣٧٦ - ٣٤٠‬ﻨﺎﻨﻭﻤﺘﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫‪Urea + H2O‬‬ ‫‪2NH4‬‬ ‫‪+ CO2‬‬


‫‪+‬‬
‫‪2Ketoglutarate+2NH4 + 2NADH‬‬ ‫‪GLDH 2L-glutamete + 2NAD +‬‬

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‫‪ -٥‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ‪Creatinine‬‬

‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﻓﻭﺴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﺴﻔﺎﺕ ﺜﻡ ﻴﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻡ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻰ ﻟﻴﺨـﺭﺝ ﻤـﻊ ﺍﻟﺒـﻭل‬

‫) ﺍﻟﻭﻫﻴﺒﻲ ‪ ١٤٢٠ ،‬ﻫـ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ‪ ( 1972) Bartels, et al.‬ﻭﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﺭﺴـﻴﺏ ﺒـﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﻟﻭﻨﺎ ﻤﻌﻘﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺸﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠـﺔ ﺍﻟـﻀﻭﺌﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ ٥٧٠ -٥٠٥‬ﻨﺎﻨﻭﻤﺘﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٦‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ‬

‫‪Quantitative determination of Glucose‬‬


‫ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻟﻠﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻨـﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠـﺴﻡ ﻭﻨـﺴﺒﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ ١١٠ – ٧٠‬ﻤﻠﺠﻡ ‪١٠٠ /‬ﻤل ﺩﻡ‪ .‬ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﻤل ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﺴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻡ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﻋﻤل ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻨﺴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﺎﺠﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺭﻴﻨﺎﻟﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﻜﻭﺭﺘﻴﺯﻭل ﻭﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻴﺭﻭﻜﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻓـﻊ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺴـﻜﺭ ﺍﻟـﺩﻡ‬

‫)ﺍﻟــﻭﻫﻴﺒﻲ‪١٤٢٠ ،‬ﻫـــ(‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘــﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻨــﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﻓــﻲ ﺴــﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌــﺭﺍﻥ ﻤــﻥ ‪–٥٠‬‬

‫‪١٣٥‬ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل )‪ .(Harkness and Wagner, 1989‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺴﻜﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬

‫‪.( 1969) Trinder‬‬

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‫ﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﺘﻡ ﺃﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﺩ ‪ -‬ﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ‪ D - Glucose‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﺃﻭﻜﺴﻴﺩﻴﺯ ‪Glucose‬‬

‫) ‪ oxidase ( GOD‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻟﺘﺎ ﺩ‪-‬ﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﻨﻭﻻﻜﺘﻭﻥ ‪ ό - D - Gluconolactone‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ‬

‫‪ TMB‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴ‪‬ﺅﻜﺴ‪‬ﺩ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺸﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ‪ . POD‬ﻭﺘﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺤﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨـﺔ ﺘﺤـﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻘﺎﺱ ﺤﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ‪ ٦٤٢‬ﻨﺎﻨﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﻴ‪‬ﻔﺴ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫‪GOd‬‬
‫‪D- Glucose + O2‬‬ ‫‪ό - D - Gluconolctone + H2 O2‬‬

‫‪ -٧‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل‬

‫‪Quantitative determination of Cholesterol‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺭﻜﺏ ﻋﻀﻭﻱ ﺩﻫﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﻟـﻪ ﺃﻫﻤﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺩﺨل ﻓﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻷﻏﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺯﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻼﻴﺎ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻴﺎ ﺒﺘﺼﻨﻴﻌﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺩﺨل ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠـﺴﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻷﻜﺴﺩﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺨﺯﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻴﺎ ﻜﺎﻟﺨﻼﻴـﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴـﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ‪ ٢٦٠ – ١٢٠‬ﻤﻠﺠﻡ ‪١٠٠ /‬ﻤل )ﺍﻟﻭﻫﻴﺒﻰ‬

‫‪ ١٤٢٠ ،‬ﻫـ(‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺼل ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻤﻥ ‪ ١٣٠ – ٤٠‬ﻤﻠﺠـﻡ ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤـل ‪(Harkness and‬‬

‫‪.(Wagner, 1989‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ‪.( 1984) Boehringer - Mannheim‬‬

‫ﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ‪:‬‬

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‫ﻴﺘﺤﻠل ﺍﺴـﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟـﺴﺘﺭﻭل ‪ Cholesterol‬ﻓـﻲ ﻭﺠـﻭﺩ ﺇﻨـﺯﻴﻡ ﻜﻭﻟـﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﺴـﺘﺭﻴﺯ‬

‫‪ Cholesterol esterase‬ﺘﺤﻠﱡﻼﹰ ﻤﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ :‬ﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ‪Cholesterol‬ﻭﺃﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺄﻜﺴﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ :‬ﻜﻭﻟﻴﺴﺘﻴﻨﻭﻥ ‪ Cholestenone‬ﻭﻓﻭﻕ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺸﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ‪ ، 5َ ، ٥ ، 3َ ،٣‬ﺭﺍﺒﻊ ﻤﻴﺜﻴـل ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻴـﺩﻴﻥ ) ‪- Tetramethyl benzidine ( TMB‬‬

‫'‪ 3,3' ,5 ,5‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ‪ POD‬ﻤﻌﻁِﻴﺎﹰ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﹰ ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺯﻩ ﻁﻴﻔﻴـﺎ ﻋﻨـﺩ‬

‫‪ ٦٤٢‬ﻨﺎﻨﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﻭﻀﺢ ﺫﻟﻙ ‪:‬‬

‫‪Cholesrol esters‬‬ ‫‪Cholesterol + ROCOOH‬‬


‫‪Cholestrol‬‬

‫‪E Sterase‬‬
‫‪Cholestrol‬‬
‫‪Cholesterol + O2‬‬ ‫‪Cholestenone + H2 O2‬‬
‫‪Oxidase‬‬

‫‪ -٨‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻠﻴﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ‬

‫‪Quantitative determination of Triacylglycerols‬‬


‫ﺘﺤﻤل ‪ %٩٠‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻠﻭﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻥ ) ﻭﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬

‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﻌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻨﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ( ﻭ‪ %١٠‬ﺘﺤﻤـل‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺸﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴـﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻫﺩﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻴﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻘﺹ ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺘﻴــﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘــﺼل ﻨــﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻓــﻲ ﺍﻹﻨــﺴﺎﻥ ﻤــﻥ ‪ ٦٠ – ١٠‬ﻤﻠﺠــﻡ ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤــل‬

‫) ﺍﻟﻭﻫﻴﺒﻲ ‪ ١٤٢٠ ،‬ﻫـ( ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻓﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ‪ ١٤٥ – ٢٦‬ﻤﻠﺠـﻡ ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤـل‬

‫)‪.( Harkness and Wagner, 1989‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ) ‪(Lang and Schettler, 1985‬‬

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‫ﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﺘﺤﻠل ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻴﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ‪ Triacylglycerols‬ﺘﺤﻠﱡﻼﹰ ﻤﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺇﻨـﺯﻴﻡ ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺭﻴﺯ‬

‫‪ Esterase‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﻠﻴﺴﺭﻭل ‪ Glycerol‬ﻭﺃﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺤﺭﺓ ‪ .‬ﺜـﻡ ﺘﺤـﺩﺙ ﻓـﺴﻔﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺠﻠﻴـﺴﺭﻭل‬

‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻴـﺴﺭﻭﻜﻴﻨﻴﺯ ) ‪ Glycerokinase ( GK‬ﻭ ‪ ATP‬ﻭﻴﺘﻜـﻭﻥ ﻟــ ‪ -‬ﺃﻟﻔـﺎ ‪-‬‬

‫ﺠﻠﻴﺴﺭﻭﻓﻭﺴﻔﺎﺕ ‪ L- a - Glyceolphsphate‬ﻴﺘﺄﻜﺴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺏ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ‬

‫ﻓﻭﺴﻔﺎﺕ ﻫﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﺴﻲ ﺃﺴﻴﺘﻭﻥ ‪ ، Hydroxyacetone phosphate‬ﻭﻓﻭﻕ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﻴـﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﻟـ ‪ -‬ﺃﻟﻔﺎ ‪ -‬ﺠﻠﻴﺴﺭﻭﻓﻭﺴﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻭﻜﺴﻴﺩﻴﺯ ‪Glycero phosphate oxidase‬‬

‫‪ ، ( GPO ) - L - a‬ﻭﻴ‪‬ﺅﻜﺴ‪‬ﺩ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺸﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓـﻲ‬

‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ‪ POD‬ﻓﻴﺘﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺸﻑ ﻤﻥ ﻜﺎﺸﻑ ﻋﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﺎﺸـﻑ ﺃﺯﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻠـﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬

‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻩ ﻁﻴﻔﻴﺎ ‪.‬‬


‫‪esterase‬‬
‫‪Triacylglycerols + 3H2O‬‬ ‫‪glycerol + 3Rcooh‬‬

‫‪GK‬‬
‫‪Glycerol + ATP‬‬ ‫‪L -a - Glycerolphosphate + ADP‬‬

‫‪GPO‬‬
‫‪L - a - Glycerolphosphate + O2‬‬ ‫‪hydroxyacetone phosphate + H2 O2‬‬

‫‪POD‬‬
‫‪Indicator ( colorless ) + H2 O2‬‬ ‫) ‪Indicator ( blue‬‬

‫ﻴﻘﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻁﻴﻔﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ‪ ٦٤٢‬ﻨﺎﻨﻭ ﻤﻴﺘﺭ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -٩‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫)‪High Density Lipoprotein ( HDL‬‬


‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺸﺘﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺘـﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻴـﻀﺎﹰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ ﻭﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٤٥ – ٢٥‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻹﻀـﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﺴﻔﺎﺘﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ﺤﻴﺙ‬

‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺃﻴﻀﺎﹰ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺠﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ ﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻨﻊ ﺤـﺩﻭﺙ ﻤـﺭﺽ‬

‫ﺘﺼﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﻴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻴﺩ ) ﺍﻟﻭﻫﻴﺒﻰ ‪ ١٤٢٠ ،‬ﻫـ(‪.‬‬

‫‪Fruchart‬‬ ‫ﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴـﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌـﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ ﻁﺒﻘـﺎ ﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ‬

‫) ‪ (1982‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﺴ‪‬ﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻭﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻨﺨﻔـﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ ‪ VLDL & LDL‬ﺒﻌـﺩ‬

‫ﻓﺼﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺘﺭﺴـﻴﺒﻪ ﺒﺤﻤـﺽ ‪ phosphotungstic‬ﻭﺃﻴﻭﻨـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﻴﺴﻴﻭﻡ ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻭﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ‪ HDL‬ﻓﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺌﻕ ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬

‫‪ HDL‬ﺒﺎﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺯﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺸﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﻭل ﻤﻭﺠﺔ ﻗـﺩﺭﻫﺎ ‪٥٠٠‬ﻨـﺎﻨﻭﻤﺘﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻘـﺩ‪‬ﺭ‬

‫‪ HDL‬ﺒﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ ) =HDL‬ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭﺓ ‪ /‬ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ × ‪١٠١ × ٥٠‬‬

‫= ﻤﻠﻴﺠﺭﺍﻡ ‪١٠٠ /‬ﻤل ﺩﻡ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -١٠‬ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫)‪Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL‬‬


‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴـﺔ ﻭﺘـﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻴـﻀﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺒﻴﺘﺎ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫‪ %٧٥- ٥٠‬ﻤﻨﻪ ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺯﺩﻴﺎﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻴﺅﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﻤﺭﺽ ﺘﺼﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﻁﻠﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺊ ) ﺍﻟﻭﻫﻴﺒﻲ ‪١٤٢٠ ،‬‬

‫ﻫـ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪ LDL‬ﺒﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ = LDL‬ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ‪ = ( HDL + VLDL ) -‬ﻤﻠﻴﺠﺭﺍﻡ ‪ ١٠٠ /‬ﻤل ﺩﻡ ‪.‬‬

‫) ‪( Weinsier and Morgan 1993‬‬

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‫‪ -١١‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﺭﻴﺯ‬

‫) ‪Quantitative determination of Aspartate Amino Transferase ( AST‬‬

‫ﺍﺘﺒﻌﺕ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ‪.( 1986 ) Bergmeyer, et al.‬‬

‫ﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ‪:‬‬

‫ﻴﺘﺤﻭل ﺃﻟﻔـﺎ ‪ -‬ﻜﻴﺘﻭﺠﻠﻭﺘﺎﺭﻴـﺕ ‪ a -Keloglutarate‬ﻭﺴـﻠﻔﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻻﻨـﻴﻥ ‪Alanine‬‬

‫‪ sulphinate‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ‪ AST‬ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺘﺎﻤـﺎﺕ ‪ Glutamat‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺭﻭﻓـﺎﺕ ‪Pyrovate‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﺘﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺭﻭﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﻨـﺯﻴﻡ ﺒﻴﺭﻭﻓـﺎﺕ ﺃﻭﻜـﺴﻴﺩﻴﺯ ) ‪Pyrovate oxidase ( PyOD‬‬

‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﹰ ﻓﻭﺴـﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴـﺘﻴل ‪ Acetyl phosphate‬ﻭﺜـﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻜـﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒـﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓـﻭﻕ ﺃﻜـﺴﻴﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺩﻟﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺭﻭ ﻜﺴﻴﺩﻴﺯ ) ‪ ( POD‬ﻭﻓـﻭﻕ ﺃﻜـﺴﻴﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺯﻟﺔ )ﻋﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ( ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻜﺴﺩﺓ )ﻟﻭﻥ ﺃﺯﺭﻕ( ﻭﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺘﻜﻭ‪‬ﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻐﺔ ﺘﻨﺎﺴ‪‬ﺒﺎ ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺎ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ‪ ، AST‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻜـﻭﻴﻥ ﻋﻨـﺩ ‪ ٥٦٧‬ﻨـﺎﻨﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻴ‪‬ﻘﺩ‪‬ﺭ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺒﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻜل ﻟﺘﺭ ‪ IU/L‬ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ‪١٤٠‬ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬

‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ْ‪37‬ﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﹸﻘﺭ‪‬ﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻴﺜﻴﻭﻡ ﻫﻴﺒﺎﺭﻴﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫‪GOt‬‬
‫‪a -Ketoglutarate + Alnine sulphinate‬‬ ‫‪Pyruvate + glutamate + SO3 2-‬‬

‫‪3-‬‬ ‫‪PyOd‬‬
‫‪Pyruvate + PO4‬‬ ‫‪+ H2O + O2‬‬ ‫‪Acetylphosphate + CO2 +H2O2‬‬

‫‪POd‬‬
‫) ‪H2O2 + Inedicator ( red‬‬ ‫‪Indicator ( ox ) + H2O‬‬

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‫‪ -١٢‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﺭﻴﺯ ‪:‬‬

‫)‪Quantitative determination of Alanin Amino Transferase ( ALT‬‬


‫ﺃﺘﺒﻌﺕ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ‪.(1986) Bergmeyer, et al‬‬

‫ﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ‪:‬‬

‫ﻴﺘﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺩﻟﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺭﻜﺏ ﻋﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﻜﺏ ﻤﻠﻭﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨـﺯﻴﻡ‬

‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻩ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﻭﻀﺢ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ‪:‬‬

‫‪GPT‬‬
‫‪a-Ketoglutarate + Alanine‬‬ ‫‪Pyruvate + glutamate‬‬

‫‪3-‬‬ ‫‪PYOD‬‬
‫‪Pyruvate + PO4‬‬ ‫‪+ O2 +H2O‬‬ ‫‪Acetyl phosphate +CO2 +H2O2‬‬

‫‪POD‬‬
‫) ‪H2O2 + indicator ( red‬‬ ‫‪indicator ( ox. ) + H2O‬‬

‫ﺘﹸﻘﺎﺱ ﺤﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﺩ ‪ ٥٦٧‬ﻨﺎﻨﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻘﺩﺭ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺒﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻜل ﻟﺘﺭ ‪ U/L‬ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ‪ ، ١٤٠‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ْ‪37‬ﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﹸﻘﺭ‪‬ﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤ‪‬ﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﺜﻴﻭﻡ ﻫﻴﺒﺎﺭﻴﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -١٣‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬

‫‪Determination of Estrogen level‬‬


‫ﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺘﺒﻌـﺎﹰ ﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ ‪ .(1992) Lichtenberg, et al.‬ﻴ‪‬ﻌﺘﹶﺒـﺭ‬

‫ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭل ﻋﻥ ﺇﻅﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻷﻨﺜﻭﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻤﻊ‬

‫ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻨﺎﺙ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺴـﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻫـﻭ ‪١٧‬‬

‫ﺒﻴﺘﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل ‪ 17 B. estradiol‬ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﻴﺌﻲ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﻫﻭ ‪ ٢٧٢‬ﺩﺍﻟﺘﻭﻥ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﺎﺕ ‪ -‬ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎ ‪ -‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﺽ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ‪ .‬ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻴﻤﺔ ‪ .Placenta‬ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ ‪ %٩٨‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل ‪ ،‬ﻴـﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﻤـﻊ ﺒـﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻨﻘـﺎل ‪( Sex‬‬

‫) ‪hormone binding globulin‬‬

‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺭﻜـﺏ ‪Estradiol-Specific Biotinylated‬‬

‫‪ ، Antibody‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩ‪‬ﻱ ﻟﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥٍ ﻤﻌﻘﹼﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺴﺘﹸﺨﺩِﻤﺕ ﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺠﺎﻫﺯﺓ ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻤـﻥ ﺸـﺭﻜﺔ ‪Roche‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -١٤‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ‬

‫‪Determination of Progesterone level‬‬


‫ﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ‪ (1987) Guillaume. et al.‬ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒـﺭ ﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺯﻴﺌﻲ ‪ ٣٤١,٥‬ﺩﺍﻟﺘـﻭﻥ ‪ .‬ﻴﺘﻜـﻭﻥ ﻫـﺫﺍ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻥ ‪ -‬ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎ ‪ -‬ﻓﻲ ﺨﻼﻴﺎ ﺍﻷﺠﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﻴﻤﺔ ‪ .‬ﻴـﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬

‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺘﻁـﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺠـﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟـﺼﻔﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴـﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺘﻘـﺩﻴﺭ ﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺸﺨﻴﺹ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻭﺒﺔ ﻻﻜﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻭﻴﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﺼﻔﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺴﺘﹸﺨﺩِﻤﺕ ﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺠﺎﻫﺯﺓ ‪ Kits‬ﻤﻥ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ‪ Roche‬ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘـﺩﻴﺭ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭﻡ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -١٥‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ‬

‫‪Determination of Testosterone level‬‬


‫‪ .(1995) Wheeler‬ﻭﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘـﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﺘﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬

‫)‪ (17 B- hydroxy androstenone‬ﺫﺍﺕ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺯﻴﺌﻲ ‪ ٢٨٨‬ﺩﺍﻟﺘﻭﻥ ‪ .‬ﻴـﺘﻡ ﺘﺨﻠﻴـﻕ ﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺨﻼﻴﺎ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﺨﺼﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺇﻓﺭﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ‬

‫) ‪ . ( Luteinizing hormone‬ﻭﻴﺸﺠ‪‬ﻊ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ‪LH‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻱ ﻟﻠﺭﺠﺎل ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺤﺎﻓﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺴﺘﺎﺘﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻭﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺘـﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ‬

‫ﻤﻊ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ‪. Sex hormone - binding globulin‬‬

‫ﺍﺴﺘﹸﺨﺩِﻤﺕ ﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺠﺎﻫﺯﺓ ‪ Kits‬ﻤﻥ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ‪ Roche‬ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬

‫ﺃﺠﺴﺎﻡ ﻤﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺃﻗل ﻓﺭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻱ‪ .‬ﺘـﻡ‬

‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻭﺍﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤل )‪ . (Steel and Torrie , 1980‬ﺘـﻡ ﺇﺠـﺭﺍﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ )‪ .(SAS, 1995‬ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠـﺎﻤﻴﻊ ﺘـﻡ‬

‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺘﻪ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻗل ﻓﺭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺜﻘﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪.٠,٠٥‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻﹰ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻯ ﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬

‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ،٢‬ﺸﻜل ‪ (١‬ﺃﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﻴﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ % ٠,٠٣ ± ٦,٨٦‬ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒـﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟـﺩﻫﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻤـﺎﺩ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ )ﻋﻠﻲ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠـﺎﻑ( ﻫـﻭ ‪٠,٠٦ ± ٧,١٧ ، ٠,٠١ ± ٥,٩٣‬‬

‫‪ ٠,٨٩ ± ٦٥,٤٠ ، ١,٠٥ ± ٢٠,٢٤ ، ٠,٠٣ ± ١,٢٦،‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻷﻤﻼﺡ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤـﻥ ‪، %١٠-٧ ، %٧-٥‬‬

‫‪ %٢-١ ، %٢٠-١٠‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ ﻭﺃﻴـﻀﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ‪ %٦٥-٥٥‬ﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴـﺩﺭﺍﺕ ) ; ‪FAO 1999‬‬

‫‪.(Besbes, et al., 2004‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Salarmoini and Fooladi (2006‬ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﺤﻠﻴـل ﻨـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻹﻴﺭﺍﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﻫﻰ ‪ .%٨٩,٥‬ﻭﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻫـﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻤـﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴـﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٦٢,٧ ، %١,٩ ، %٨,٥ ، %٢٠ ، %٦,٩‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Aldhaheri, et al. (2004‬ﺃﻥ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﻼﺡ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴـﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪، %١٣,٥ ، %٨ ، %٦‬‬

‫‪ %٧١,٥ ، %١,٠‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻴﺏ ﻭﺁﺨﺭﻭﻥ )‪١٤٢٧‬ﻫـ( ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺯﻴﺕ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻰ ‪ %٨‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻴﻌﺩ ﺼﺎﻟﺤﺎ ﻟﻼﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻵﺩﻤﻲ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (٢‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ‪١٠٠ /‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ‬


‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻲ‬

‫‪٦٥,٤٠‬‬ ‫‪٢٠,٢٤‬‬ ‫‪١,٢٦‬‬ ‫‪٧,١٧‬‬ ‫‪٥,٩٣‬‬ ‫‪٦,٨٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫‪±‬‬ ‫‪±‬‬ ‫‪±‬‬ ‫‪±‬‬ ‫‪±‬‬ ‫‪±‬‬

‫‪٠,٨٩‬‬ ‫‪١,٠٥‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٣‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٦‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠١‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٣‬‬

‫اﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑ ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮوﺗﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺪھﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻣﺎد‬ ‫اﻷﻟﯿ ﺎف‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮھﯿ ﺪرات‬

‫‪70‬‬

‫‪60‬‬

‫‪50‬‬

‫‪40‬‬

‫‪30‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫‪0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (١‬ﻣﺤﺘﻮى ﻧﻮى اﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻ ﺮ اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﯿ ﺔ‬

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‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬

‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (٣‬ﻭﺸﻜل )‪ (٢‬ﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ‪ ٥,٢٢ ، ٥,٦٠ ، ٥,٠٠ ، ٤,٥٠ ، ١٥,٩٦ ، ٥,٢٩ ، ٤,١٨‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻸﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻻﻴﺴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻭﺴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﻴل ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺜﺭﻴﻭﻨﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻴﺯﻭﻟﻭﺴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻴﻥ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻤﺜﻴﻭﻨﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪ FAO‬ﻭﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻜل ﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻨﺠﺩ‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﺤﻤﺽ ﻻﻴﺴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺜﺭﻴﻭﻨﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻴﺯﻭﻟﻭﺴﻴﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻗل ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ ﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٥١,١٧‬ﻭﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻲ‬

‫ﻭﺠﻠﻭﺘﺎﻤﻴﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺴﺒﺎﺭﺘﻴﻙ ‪،‬ﺃﺭﺠﻨﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺴﻴﺭﻴﻥ ‪،‬ﻭﺠﻠﻴﺴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺴﺘﺩﻴﻥ ‪،‬ﻭﺘﻴﺭﻭﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪% ٦,٦٧، ٦,٢٥، ٤,٤١، ٨,٤٨، ٣,٠٣، ٩,٥١ ، ٤,٧٩، ٨,٣‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬

‫)‪ Al-Hooti, et al. (1998‬ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴـﺔ ﻤﺜﻴـﻭﻨﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻴﺯﻭﻟﻭﺴـﻴﻥ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺜﺭﻴﻭﻨﻴﻥ ﻫﻡ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﻓﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺫﻜﺭ )‪ Hussein, et al. (1998‬ﺃﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺤﻤـﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴـﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺘﺭﻜﻴــﺯ ‪ ٠,٢٢ ، ٠,٢٧ ، ٠,٣٥ ، ٠,١٧ ، ٠,٠٥، ٠,١٨ ، ٠,٢٧ ، ٠,٠٩‬ﺠــﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠــﻡ‬

‫ﻟﻸﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺜﻴﻭﻨﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻻﻴﺴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺜﺭﻴﻭﻨﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺘﺭﺒﺘﻭﻓﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻴﺯﻭﻟﻭﺴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻭﺴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﻴل‬

‫ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺭﺒﺘﻭﻓﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺜﻴﻭﻨﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻴﺯﻭﻟﻭﺴﻴﻥ ﻫـﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ ﻓﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (٣‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠ /‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ(‬

‫‪FAO‬‬
‫*ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪%‬‬

‫‪٤٫١٨‬‬ ‫‪٠٫٢٣‬‬ ‫‪٥٫٥‬‬ ‫ﻻﻴﺴﻴﻥ‬

‫‪٥٫٢٩‬‬ ‫‪٠٫٣٧‬‬ ‫‪٧٫٠‬‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬

‫‪١٥٫٩٦‬‬ ‫‪٠٫٣٠‬‬ ‫‪١٫٨٨‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻨﻴل ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ‬

‫‪٤٫٥٠‬‬ ‫‪٠٫١٨‬‬ ‫‪٤٫٠‬‬ ‫ﺜﺭﻴﻭﻨﻴﻥ‬

‫‪٥٫٠٠‬‬ ‫‪٠٫٢٠‬‬ ‫‪٤٫٠‬‬ ‫ﺃﻴﺯﻭﻟﻴﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬

‫‪٥٫٦٠‬‬ ‫‪٠٫٢٨‬‬ ‫‪٥٫٠‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻴﻥ‬

‫‪٥٫٢٢‬‬ ‫‪٠٫١٢‬‬ ‫‪٢٫٣٠‬‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻴﻭﻨﻴﻥ‬

‫‪٤٥٫٧٤‬‬ ‫‪١٫٦٨‬‬ ‫‪٢٩٫٦٨‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬


‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ‪%‬‬

‫‪٨٫٠٣‬‬ ‫‪١٫٠٢‬‬ ‫‪١٢٫٧٠‬‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺽ ﺠﻠﻭﺘﺎﻤﻴﻙ‬

‫‪٤٫٧٩‬‬ ‫‪٠٫٤٦‬‬ ‫‪٩٫٦٠‬‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺽ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺭﺘﻴﻙ‬

‫‪٩٫٥١‬‬ ‫‪٠٫٥٨‬‬ ‫‪٦٫١٠‬‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺠﻨﻴﻥ‬

‫‪٣٫٠٣‬‬ ‫‪٠٫٢٣‬‬ ‫‪٧٫٦٠‬‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺭﻴﻥ‬

‫‪٨٫٤٨‬‬ ‫‪٠٫٢٨‬‬ ‫‪٣٫٣٠‬‬ ‫ﺠﻠﻴﺴﻴﻥ‬

‫‪٤٫٤١‬‬ ‫‪٠٫٢٦‬‬ ‫‪٥٫٩٠‬‬ ‫ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ‬

‫‪٦٫٢٥‬‬ ‫‪٠٫١٥‬‬ ‫‪٢٫٤٠‬‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﺩﻴﻥ‬

‫‪٦٫٦٧‬‬ ‫‪٠٫٢٨‬‬ ‫‪٤٫٢٠‬‬ ‫ﺘﻴﺭﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬


‫‪٥١٫١٧‬‬ ‫‪٣٫٢٦‬‬ ‫‪٥٨٫٠٢‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮع‬
‫×‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺃﻷﻤﻴﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫*ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬
‫‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺃﻷﻤﻴﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ‪FAO‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ =‬

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‫ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬٢ ‫ﺸﻜل‬

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‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬

‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (٤‬ﻭﺸﻜل )‪ (٣‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴـﺔ‪ .‬ﺤﻴـﺙ ﻜـﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ‪ .% ٥٠,٢٠‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻟﻸﺤﻤـﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺒﻌﺔ‬

‫ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻰ ﺤﻤﺽ ﻟﻭﺭﻴﻙ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺴﺘﻴﻙ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺘﻴﻙ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ % ١٢,٤٢ ، ١٢,٤٣ ، ١٩,٩٦‬ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻊ ‪.% ٤١,٧٢‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺤﻤـﺽ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻙ )‪ . %٤١,٢٩ (C18:1 n-9‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺩﻴـﺩﺓ ﻋـﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘـﺸﺒﻊ‬

‫‪ % ٨,٠٨‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻲ ﻟﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﻙ )‪ (C18:2 n-6‬ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪.%٧,٩٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻘﺎﺭﺒﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬

‫‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺒﻪ )‪ Al- Showiman (1998‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟـﺫﻯ‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫‪ ٤٨,٧ – ٤٠,١‬ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﺩﻫﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﺤﻤﺽ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻴﺘﻭﻟﻴﻙ ﻭﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻙ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ‪ ٥٠,٢ – ٤٣,١‬ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﺩﻫﻥ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜـﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺸﺒﻊ )ﻟﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﻨﻴﻙ( ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ‪ ٤,٧ – ٢,٢‬ﺠﻡ‬

‫‪ ١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﺩﻫﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﺨﺘﻠﻔﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﺠﺭﺍﻫﺎ‬

‫)‪ Al-Hooti et al. (1998‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻨﻭﻯ ﺨﻤﺴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ‪ ٣٣,٨ – ٢٦,١‬ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠـﻡ‬

‫ﺩﻫﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻊ )ﺤﻤﺽ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻴﺘﻭﻟﻴـﻙ ﻭﺤﻤـﺽ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴـﻙ(‬

‫ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ‪ ٦٩,٩ – ٦٩,٠‬ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﺩﻫﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻰ ﺤﻤﺽ ﻟﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﻙ ﻭﺤﻤﺽ ﻟﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﻨﻙ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ‪ ١٣ – ١٠,٨‬ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﺩﻫﻥ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺃﻭﻀﺢ ﻜل ﻤﻥ )‪ Al-Shahib and Marshall, (2002‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺜﻤـﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴـل ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺤﺘـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﻭﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻨـﺴﺒﻪ ﻋﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ )ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ، (%٨٨-٤٤‬ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻥ )‪ ، (%٠,٥-٠,٢‬ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ )‪(%٥,٦-٢,٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﻪ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ )‪ .(%١١,٥-٦,٤‬ﻜﻤﺎﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻟﺤﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٠,٥-٠,٢‬ﺩﻫﻥ‬

‫‪.‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٩,٧ – ٧,٧‬ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻤﻴﺘﻭﻟﻴـﻙ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻻﻭﻟﻴﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﻨﻙ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﻤـﻥ ‪%٥٨,٨- ٤١,١‬‬

‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﻤﺼﺩﺭﺍﹰ ﺠﻴﺩﺍﹰ ﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻙ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Besbes, et al.(2004‬ﺃﻥ ‪ %٩٢‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻰ ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﺃﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻤـﺽ ﺍﻟـﺩﻫﻨﻲ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﻴـﻙ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪، %٤١,٣‬‬

‫ﻭﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ، %١٧,٨‬ﻭﺤﻤﺽ ﻟﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﻙ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ، %١٢,٢‬ﻭﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻤﺘﻴـﻙ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ ، %١٠,٩‬ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍ ﺤﻤﺽ ﻤﺭﺴﺘﻴﻙ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٩,٨٤‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺒﻌﺔ‬

‫‪ ، %٤٤,٣‬ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻊ ‪ %٤١,٤٥‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻤﺠﻤـﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤـﺎﺽ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ‪.%١٤,٠‬‬

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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (٤‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪ /‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ(‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻰ‬
‫‪٠,٢٢‬‬ ‫‪C8:0‬‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺒﺭﻟﻴﻙ‬
‫‪٠,٣٢‬‬ ‫‪C10:0‬‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺒﺭﻴﻙ‬
‫‪١٩,٩٦‬‬ ‫‪C12:0‬‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺭﻴﻙ‬
‫‪٠,٠٣‬‬ ‫‪C13:0‬‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺍﻯ ﺩﻴﻜﺎﻨﻭﻴﻙ‬
‫‪١٢,٤٣‬‬ ‫‪C14:0‬‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺴﺘﻴﻙ‬
‫‪١٢,٤٢‬‬ ‫‪C16:0‬‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺘﻴﻙ‬
‫‪٠,٠٤‬‬ ‫‪C16:1‬‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻴﺘﻭﻟﻴﻙ‬
‫‪٠,٠٨‬‬ ‫‪C17:0‬‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺭﺠﺭﻴﻙ‬
‫‪٣,٨١‬‬ ‫‪C18:0‬‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻴﺎﺭﻴﻙ‬
‫‪٤١,٢٩‬‬ ‫‪C18:1 n-9‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﻴﻙ‬
‫‪٧,٩٣‬‬ ‫‪C18:2 n-6‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﻙ‬
‫‪٠,٠٨‬‬ ‫‪C18:3 n3‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﻨﻙ‬
‫‪٠,٤٦‬‬ ‫‪C20:0‬‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺍﻜﻴﺩﻴﻙ‬
‫‪٠,٣٩‬‬ ‫‪C20:1 n-9‬‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺩﻭﻟﻴﻴﻙ‬
‫‪٠,٠٤‬‬ ‫‪C20:3 n-6‬‬ ‫ﺇﻴﻜﻭﺯﺍﺘﺭﺍﻯ ﺇﻴﻨﻭﻴﻙ‬
‫‪٠,٠٣‬‬ ‫‪C20:4 n-6‬‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﻜﻴﺩﻭﻨﻴﻙ‬
‫‪٠,٣١‬‬ ‫‪C22:0‬‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻜﻭﺯﺍﻨﻭﻴﻙ )ﺒﻬﻴﻨﻴﻙ(‬
‫‪٠,١٦‬‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻜﻭﺯﺍﻨﻭﻴﻙ )ﻟﻴﺠﻨﻭﺴﻴﺭﻴﻙ( ‪C24:0‬‬
‫‪٥٠,٢٠‬‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ‬

‫‪٤١,٧٢‬‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻊ‬

‫‪٨,٠٨‬‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻊ‬

‫‪٦٥‬‬
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‫ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ‬٣ ‫ﺸﻜل‬

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‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎﹲ‪:‬ﺘﺎﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﻪ ﻭﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬
‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (٥‬ﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺨـﻼل ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺕ ‪ ٢٨‬ﻴﻭﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺠﻬـﺔ ﻭﻤـﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٢٥ ، %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻫـﻭ ‪ ١٠,٤٠ ± ٣٦,٨٨ ، ٩,٨٧ ± ٣٥,٠٣ ، ١٠,٣٢ ± ٣٧,٧٠‬ﺠـﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻴـﻭﻡ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (٦‬ﻟﻌﺩﻡ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜـﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻫﻭ ‪٢٠٧,١٧‬‬

‫‪ ٥١,١٦ ± ٢٠٠,٧١ ، ٤٨,٨٨ ± ٢٠٤,٥٤ ، ٤٧,٠٥ ±‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ‪ /‬ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‬

‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ ﻁﻭﺍل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ﺍﻟـﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬

‫)‪ ٦٨,٣٢ ± ٩٨٢,٣٣‬ﺠﻡ( ﻭﻴﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺘـﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ‪%٢٥‬‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ )‪ ٧٠,٨٧ ± ٩٦٢,٥٠‬ﺠﻡ( ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ )‪ ٦٠,٧٧ ± ٩٠٩,١٧‬ﺠﻡ( ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤـﻥ ‪.(٠,٠٥‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤـﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪٢,٧٢ ± ١٠٨,٦٧‬‬

‫ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﺇﻟـﻰ ‪١,٤٣ ± ١١٨,٨٣ ، ٤,٨٦ ± ١١٣,٨٣‬‬

‫ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﻭﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺘـﻭﺍﻟﻰ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻌﺕ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴـﺙ‬

‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ‪ ٠,٠٢ ± ٠,١٢٣ ، ٠,٠٥ ± ٠,١٢٥ ، ٠,٠٤ ± ٠,١١١‬ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬

‫‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪.(٧‬‬

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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(٥‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ )ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻴﻭﻡ(‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٢٢,٧٢‬‬ ‫‪٢٣,٧٥‬‬ ‫‪٢٤,١١‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل‬

‫‪٣٦,٦٧‬‬ ‫‪٣٤,٥٧‬‬ ‫‪٣٨,٠٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ‬

‫‪٤٠,٨١‬‬ ‫‪٣٣,٩٥‬‬ ‫‪٣٩,٤٨‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬

‫‪٤٧,٣١‬‬ ‫‪٤٧,٨٣‬‬ ‫‪٤٩,١٧‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬

‫‪١٠,٤٠ ± ٣٦,٨٨‬‬ ‫‪٩,٨٧ ± ٣٥,٠٣‬‬ ‫‪١٠,٣٢ ± ٣٧,٧٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(٦‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ )ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻉ(‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٨,١٦±١٤٠,١٧‬‬ ‫‪٦,٩٠±١٤٤,٠٠‬‬ ‫‪٨,٩٤ ±١٤٥,٣٣‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل‬

‫‪١١,١٩±١٨٢,٠٠‬‬ ‫‪١٢,٤٨ ±١٩٠,٣٣‬‬ ‫‪٩,١٤ ± ١٩٨,٦٧‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬

‫‪١١,١٥±٢٢١,٦٧‬‬ ‫‪١٣,١٩±٢٢٦,٠٠‬‬ ‫‪١٢,٦٨±٢٣٠,٦٧‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬

‫‪٩,٨٨±٢٥٩,٠٠‬‬ ‫‪١٨,٧٨±٢٥٧,٨٣‬‬ ‫‪٦,٠٣±٢٥٤,٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬

‫‪٥١,١٦±٢٠٠,٧١‬‬ ‫‪٤٨,٨٨ ±٢٠٤,٥٤‬‬ ‫‪٤٧,٠٥ ±٢٠٧,١٧‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(٧‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬

‫‪٧٠,٨٧ ± ٩٦٢,٥٠‬‬ ‫‪٦٠,٧٧ ± ٩٠٩,١٧‬‬ ‫‪٦٨,٣٢ ± ٩٨٢,٣٣‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ )ﺠﻡ(‬

‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺝ‬
‫‪١,٤٣ ± ١١٨,٨٣‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬
‫‪٤,٨٦ ± ١١٣,٨٣‬‬ ‫‪٢,٧٢ ±١٠٨,٦٧‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ )ﺠﻡ(‬

‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺏ‬
‫‪٠,٠٢ ± ٠,١٢٣‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬
‫‪٠,٠٥ ± ٠,١٢٥‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٤ ±٠,١١١‬‬ ‫ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬


‫ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺝ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

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‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻟﻺﻨﺎﺙ‬
‫ﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴـﺙ ﻜـﺎﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺘـﻭﺍﻟﻰ ﻫـﻭ ‪، ٣,٢٣ ± ٢٤,١٣ ، ٠,٩٠ ± ٢٤,٦٤‬‬

‫‪ ٣,١٥ ± ٢٦,٢٧‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪ /‬ﻴﻭﻡ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪.(٨‬‬

‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒـﺔ ) ﺠـﺩﻭل ‪، (٩‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ‬

‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻫـﻭ ‪، ٢٠,٢٦ ± ١٥٥,٢٥ ، ١٩,٢٠ ± ١٥٧,٠٠‬‬

‫‪ ٢١,٢٦ ± ١٥٧,٠٠‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﻁﻭﺍل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟـﺕ‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻴﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒـﺔ‬

‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ ، (٠,٠٥‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﻫﻭ ‪ ٣٣,٥٤ ± ٦٣١,٨٣ ، ١٥,١٨ ± ٦٤٠,٦٧ ، ٤٨,٥٦ ± ٧٣٧,٨٣‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪.(١٠‬‬

‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬

‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﻓﻘﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ‬

‫ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘـﺴﺏ ﺒـﺎﻟﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﻫـﻭ ‪± ٤٤,٣٣‬‬

‫‪ ٢,٢٦ ± ٤٨,٠٠ ، ٢,٨٧ ± ٤٦,٣٣ ، ٢,٩٩‬ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ‪%٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻗﻴﻡ ﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻴﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫‪٦٩‬‬
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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(٨‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻟﻺﻨﺎﺙ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ )ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻴﻭﻡ(‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٢٤٫٧٢‬‬ ‫‪٢٠٫٨٩‬‬ ‫‪٢٤,٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل‬

‫‪٢٦٫٨٦‬‬ ‫‪٢٨٫٥٠‬‬ ‫‪٢٣,٧٤‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ‬

‫‪٣٠٫٤٠‬‬ ‫‪٢٤٫٢٩‬‬ ‫‪٢٥,٤٨‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬

‫‪٢٣٫١١‬‬ ‫‪٢٢٫٨٣‬‬ ‫‪٢٥,٣٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬

‫‪٣,١٥± ٢٦٫٢٧‬‬ ‫‪٣٫٢٣ ±٢٤٫١٣‬‬ ‫‪٠,٩٠ ± ٢٤,٦٤‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(٩‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻺﻨﺎﺙ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ )ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻉ(‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪١٣١,٣٣‬‬ ‫‪١٣٢,٨٣‬‬ ‫‪١٣٦,٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل‬

‫‪١٤٨,٨٣‬‬ ‫‪١٤٥,٦٧‬‬ ‫‪١٤٨,١٧‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬

‫‪١٦٨,٥٠‬‬ ‫‪١٦٣,٣٣‬‬ ‫‪١٦٣,٥٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬

‫‪١٧٩,٣٣‬‬ ‫‪١٧٩,١٧‬‬ ‫‪١٨٠,٣٣‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬

‫‪٢١,٢٦ ±١٥٧,٠٠‬‬ ‫‪٢٠,٢٦±١٥٥,٢٥‬‬ ‫‪١٩,٢٠ ± ١٥٧,٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(١٠‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻟﻺﻨﺎﺙ‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬

‫‪٤٨,٥٦±٧٣٧,٨٣‬‬ ‫‪٣٣,٥٤±٦٣١,٨٣‬‬ ‫‪١٥,١٨±٦٤٠,٦٧‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ )ﺠﻡ(‬

‫ﺃ‬
‫ﺏ‬
‫‪٢,٢٦±٤٨,٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺃﺏ‬
‫‪٢,٨٧±٤٦,٣٣‬‬ ‫‪٢,٩٩±٤٤,٣٣‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ )ﺠﻡ(‬

‫ﺏ‬
‫ﺝ‬
‫‪٠,٠٤٧±٠,٠٦٥‬‬ ‫ﺃ‬
‫‪٠,٠٦٨ ±٠,٠٧٣‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠١٩ ±٠,٠٦٩‬‬ ‫ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬


‫ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺝ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

‫‪٧٠‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﻭﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪،‬ﻭﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ‬

‫‪ .(٠,٠٥‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐـﺫﺍﺀ ‪± ٠,٠٦٥ ، ٠,٠٦٨ ±٠,٠٧٣ ، ٠,٠١٩±٠,٠٦٩‬‬

‫‪ ٠,٠٤٧‬ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ )ﺠـﺩﻭل‬

‫‪.(١٠‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ )‪ Kamel, et al. (1981‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﺸـﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻀـﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﻁﺤـﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ‪ %١٥ ، %١٠ ، %٥‬ﺒﺩﻻ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺨﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﻨﺨﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺓ ﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺠﺎﺝ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺒﻴﻊ ﻗﺩ ﺤﺴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻤﻭ ﻜﺘﺎﻜﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺠﺎﺝ‪ .‬ﻭﻜـﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻅﻬـﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Elgasim, et al. (1995‬ﺃﻥ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺨﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺴﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺏ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﻗﺩ ﺃﺩﻯ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ‪.‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Hussein, et al. (1998‬ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺠﺎﺝ ﻗﺩ ﺤﺴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘـﺴﺏ‬

‫ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﺠﺭﻴـﺕ ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ ‪Aldhaheri, et al.‬‬

‫)‪ (2004‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺩﺩ ‪ ٩٠‬ﻤﻥ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ %٢٥ ، %١٢,٥‬ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ٢٩‬ﻴﻭﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻟـﻡ ﻴﻜـﻥ ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ‬

‫ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻓﻰ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴـﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﻠﻔﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺤـﺩﻭﺙ‬

‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺴـﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟـﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻨـﺎﺙ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻟﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬

‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻜﻼﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺇﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﻠﻔﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Al-Asgah (1987‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻭﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺴـﺘﺒﺩﺍل ﺨﻠـﻴﻁ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺭ ﻓﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺼﻐﺎﺭ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﻙ ﺍﻟـﺸﺒﻭﻁ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٧٥، ٥٠، ٢٥‬ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﺃﺩﻯ‬

‫ﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﻌﻨـﻭﻯ ﻓـﻰ ﻜﻤﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻐـﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻴـﻭﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤـﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ ﺃﺸـﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬

‫)‪ Vandepopulier, et al. (1995‬ﺃﻥ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ‪ %٢٧-٥‬ﻤﻥ ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﻟﻭﺠﺒـﺎﺕ ﻜﺘﺎﻜﻴـﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺠﺎﺝ ﺃﺩﻯ ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤـﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻜـﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻭﻀـﺤﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ‪Ali, et‬‬

‫)‪ al.(1999‬ﺃﻥ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺤﻭﻥ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٤ ، ٧‬ﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻓﺌـﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭﺏ‬

‫ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ٢٨‬ﻴﻭﻤﺎ ﻗﺩ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻰ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٥٢ ، %٤٨‬ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٤، ٧‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ‪ %٧‬ﺃﻭ ‪ %١٤‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠـﺎﺭﺏ ﺃﻱ ﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬

‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺯﺍﺌﺩ ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻋﻴﺎﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟـﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬

‫ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺕ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ٣٠‬ﻴﻭﻤﺎ )‪.(Ibrahim, et al.,2005‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١١‬ﻭﺸﻜل ) ‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪.%٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻤﺦ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟـﺫﻜﻭﺭ ‪٠,٠٨ ± ٠,٧٦ ، ٠,٠٥ ± ٠,٧٤ ، ٠,١١ ± ٠,٦١‬‬

‫ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴـﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟـﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴـﺔ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﺇﻻ‬

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‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﻟﻌﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ ﺘـﻡ‬

‫ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺒﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺘﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻴﺔ ) ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ، ١١‬ﺸﻜل ‪ .( ٤‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻁﺤـﺎل ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥، ١٢,٥‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻁﺤـﺎل ‪٠,٠٣ ± ٠,٢١ ، ٠,٠٣ ± ٠,١٩ ، ٠,٠٢ ± ٠,١٩‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ) ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ١١‬ﻭﺸﻜل ‪.(٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬

‫ﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ،١٢‬ﺸﻜل ‪ (٥‬ﻟﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟـﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤـﺦ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺤﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨـﺴﺒﻲ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻁﺤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻓﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐـﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨـﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻁﺤـﺎل‬

‫‪ ٠,٠١ ± ٠,٢٣ ، ٠,٠٢ ± ٠,٣٠ ، ٠,٠٣ ± ٠,٢٣‬ﺠﻡ ‪١٠٠ /‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻏﺫﻴﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Kamel, et al. (1981‬ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﻁﺤـﻭﻥ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ‪ %١٥ ، %١٠ ، %٥‬ﺒﺩﻻ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺨﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﻨﺨﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺓ‬

‫‪٧٣‬‬
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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١١‬ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬
‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬
‫‪١١,٤٨±٢٣٨,٦٦‬‬ ‫‪٢٣,٨٨±٢٤٥,٦٦‬‬ ‫‪١٧,٧ ± ٢٥٧,١٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﺒﺢ )ﺠﻡ(‬
‫‪٠,٠٨ ± ٠,٧٦‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٥ ± ٠,٧٤‬‬ ‫‪٠,١١ ± ٠,٦١‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺦ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫‪٠,٢٧ ± ٣,٣٧‬‬ ‫‪٠,٢٥ ± ٣,١٨‬‬ ‫‪٠,٢٣ ± ٣,٢٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫‪٠,٢٠ ± ٠,٦٦‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٤ ± ٠,٥٦‬‬ ‫‪٠,١٣ ± ٠,٥٣‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﺔ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺃ‬
‫‪٠,٠٣ ± ٠,١٩‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٢ ± ٠,١٩‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٣ ± ٠,٢١‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺤﺎل )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫‪٠,٠٤ ±٠,٧٨‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٨ ± ٠,٧٨‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٨ ± ٠,٧٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫‪٠,٠٣ ± ٠,٣٦‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٢ ± ٠,٣٦‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٤ ± ٠,٣٤‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫‪٠,٠٧ ± ١,٥٣‬‬ ‫‪٠,١٥ ± ١,٤١‬‬ ‫‪٠,٢١ ± ١,٥١‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻴﺔ)ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

‫‪3.5‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪2.5‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪1.5‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪0.5‬‬

‫‪0‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬
‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

‫‪٧٤‬‬
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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٢‬ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬
‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

‫‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬


‫‪١٠,٤ ±١٧٢,١٦‬‬ ‫‪١٨,٨ ± ١٦٦,٨٣‬‬ ‫‪٩,٥ ± ١٧١,٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﺒﺢ )ﺠﻡ(‬
‫‪٠,٠٦ ± ٠,٩٤‬‬ ‫‪٠,١٧ ± ١,٠٢‬‬ ‫‪٠,١ ± ٠,٩٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺦ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫‪٠,٤٦ ± ٣,٣٣‬‬ ‫‪٠,١٧ ± ٣,٤٧‬‬ ‫‪٠,٣ ± ٣,٣٩‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫‪٠,٠٥ ± ٠,٧١‬‬ ‫‪٠,١٢ ± ٠,٧٥‬‬ ‫‪٠,١ ± ٠,٦٧‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﺔ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺏ‬
‫‪٠,٠١ ± ٠,٢٣‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٢ ± ٠,٣٠‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٣ ± ٠,٢٣‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺤﺎل)ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫‪٠,٠٩ ± ٠,٨٢‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٧ ± ٠,٨٣‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٦ ± ٠,٨٢‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫‪٠,٠٢ ± ٠,٣٩‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٥ ± ٠,٤٣‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٣ ± ٠,٤١‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫‪٠,٠٢ ±٠,٢٩‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٤ ±٠,٢٨‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠١ ±٠,٣٢‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻡ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ(‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

‫‪3.5‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪2.5‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪1.5‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪0.5‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻡ‬

‫شﻜل )‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬
‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

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‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Ali, et al.(1999‬ﻟﻌﺩﻡ ﺤـﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﻐﻴـﺭ ﻓـﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺇﻨﺎﺙ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ١٠‬ﺃﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Aldhaheri, et al. (2004‬ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺃﻯ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬

‫ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻡ ﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬

‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ )‪ Elgasim, et al., (1995‬ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺍﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻡ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﺨﺘﻠﻔﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Ali, et al. (1999‬ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺫﻜﺭﺕ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %١٤‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﺩﻯ ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ‬

‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﺨﺘﻠﻔﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻁﺤـﺎل ﻓـﻲ‬

‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﻭﺠﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥، ١٢,٥‬ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻁﺤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻓﻰ ﻜل‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬

‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻊ )‪ Aldhaheri, et al. (2004‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻟـﻡ ﻴﺘﻐﻴـﺭ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺤـﺎل ﻓـﻰ ﻜـﻼ ﺍﻟﺠﻨـﺴﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪:‬ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٣‬ﻭﺸﻜل )‪ (٦‬ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴـﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐـﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

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‫ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻭﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻟﻌﺩﻡ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬

‫)ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ‪، ٥,٣٨ ، ٥,٣٣‬‬

‫‪ ٥,٥٥‬ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ‪ %٢٥، ١٢,٥‬ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ‪ ١,٢٦ ، ١,٢١ ، ١,٢٥‬ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﺜﻼﺙ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻭﻜـﺎﻥ ‪، ٤,١٦ ، ٤,٠٨‬‬

‫‪ ٤,٢٨‬ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬

‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ،١٤‬ﺸﻜل‪ .( ٧‬ﻭﻗـﺩ ﻜـﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ‪ ٠,١٥ ± ٥,٤ ، ٠,١٧ ± ٥,٤ ، ٠,١٧ ± ٥,٦‬ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ %٢٥، ١٢,٥‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ‪١,٢٨ ، ٠,٠٦ ±١,٣٠‬‬

‫‪ ٠,٢١ ± ١,٢٠ ، ٠,٠٧ ±‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺤـﺩﺙ‬

‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻯ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ‬

‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟـﺕ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻘـﻴﻡ ‪ ٠,١٤ ± ٤,٠١ ، ٠,١١ ± ٤,١١ ، ٠,١٢ ± ٤,٢٣‬ﺠـﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤـل‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ،١٤‬ﺸﻜل ‪.(٧‬‬

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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٣‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬

‫‪٠,٣٢ ± ٥,٥٥‬‬ ‫‪٠,٢٤ ± ٥,٣٨‬‬ ‫‪٠,٣٨ ± ٥,٣٣‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫‪٠,١٠ ± ١,٢٦‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٧ ± ١,٢١‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٨ ± ١,٢٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫‪٠,٢٤ ± ٤,٢٨‬‬ ‫‪٠,٢١ ± ٤,١٦‬‬ ‫‪٠,٢١ ± ٤,٠٨‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬


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‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺸﻜل ) ‪ :(٦‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٤‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬
‫‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬

‫‪٠,١٥ ± ٥,٤٠‬‬ ‫‪٠,١٧ ± ٥,٤٠‬‬ ‫‪٠,١٧ ± ٥,٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫‪٠,٢١ ± ١,٢٠‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٧ ± ١,٢٨‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٦ ± ١,٣٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺃ‬


‫‪٠,١٤ ± ٤,٠١‬‬ ‫‪٠,١١ ± ٤,١١‬‬ ‫‪٠,١٢ ± ٤,٢٣‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬


‫ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬


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‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ )ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺸﻜل ) ‪ (٧‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

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‫ﻭﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻊ )‪ Aldhaheri, et al. (2004‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘـﻡ ﺘﻐـﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻤﺎﻋﺩﺍ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒـﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻓﻘﻁ‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٥‬ﻭﺸﻜل )‪ (٨‬ﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٢٥، ١٢,٥‬ﻟﻡ ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤـﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﺒـﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ٤,٤٦ ± ٤١,٥٤ ، ٣,٨٨ ± ٣٩,٩٤‬ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ٨,٩ ± ٣٠,٠٣) %٢٥‬ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ﺍﻟـﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴـﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ‪± ٠,٣١‬‬

‫‪ ٠,٠٤ ± ٠,٣٢ ، ٠,٠٤ ± ٠,٣١ ، ٠,٠٤‬ﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟـﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬

‫‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ١٥‬ﻭﺸﻜل ‪.(٨‬‬

‫ﺃﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﺘﻤـﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ‬

‫ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻴﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜـﻭﺯ ‪، ٨٣,٦١ ، ٧٤,٢٤‬‬

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‫‪ ١٠٠,٠١‬ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ١٥‬ﻭﺸﻜل ‪.(٨‬‬

‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬

‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٦‬ﻭﺸﻜل )‪ (٩‬ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒـﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٢٥، ١٢,٥‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪(٠,٠٥‬‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴـﺎ ‪± ٣٨,١٣ ، ٢,٤٣ ± ٤٢,٠٤ ، ٣,٣٦ ± ٤٤,١‬‬

‫‪ ٤,٨٧‬ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐـﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻭﺠﺒـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ، ١٦‬ﺸﻜل ‪(٩‬‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺍﻟـﺩﻡ ﻜـﺎﻥ ‪٠,٠٧ ± ٠,٣١ ، ٠,٠٥ ± ٠,٢٧ ، ٠,٠١ ± ٠,٢٥‬‬

‫ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨـﺎﺙ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬

‫ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٢٥‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ‪١٦,٠١ ± ٩١,٤٥، ٧,٥٩ ± ٦٩,٩١، ٧,١٧ ± ٨٧,٥٧‬‬

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‫ﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘـﻭﺍﻟﻰ )ﺠـﺩﻭل ‪، ١٦‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل ‪.(٩‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٥‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬


‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

‫‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬

‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺃ‬


‫‪٨,٩ ± ٣٠,٠٣‬‬ ‫‪٤,٤٦ ± ٤١,٥٤‬‬ ‫‪٣,٨٨ ± ٣٩,٩٤‬‬ ‫)ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ‬

‫‪٠,٠٤ ± ٠,٣٢‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٤ ± ٠,٣١‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٤ ± ٠,٣١‬‬ ‫ﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ)ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺃﺏ‬ ‫ﺏ‬


‫‪١٧,٩ ± ١٠٠,٠١‬‬ ‫‪١٢,٩٧± ٨٣,٦١‬‬ ‫‪٨,١٧ ± ٧٤,٢٤‬‬ ‫ﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬


‫ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬


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‫ﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬ ‫ﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل( ×‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺸﻜل ) ‪ : (٨‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٦‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

‫‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬

‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﺏ‬ ‫ﺃ‬


‫‪٤,٨٧ ± ٣٨,١٣‬‬ ‫‪٢,٤٣ ± ٤٢,٠٤‬‬ ‫‪٣,٣٦ ± ٤٤,١‬‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫‪٠,٠٧ ± ٠,٣١‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠٥ ± ٠,٢٧‬‬ ‫‪٠,٠١ ± ٠,٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺃ‬


‫‪١٦,٠١± ٩١,٤٥‬‬ ‫‪٧,٥٩ ± ٦٩,٩١‬‬ ‫‪٧,١٧ ± ٨٧,٥٧‬‬ ‫ﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬


‫ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬


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‫ﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠ /‬ﻤل(‬ ‫ﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل( ×‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺵﻜل )‪ :(٩‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻴﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

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‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟـﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨـﺎﺙ‬

‫ﺍﺘﻀﺢ ﺇﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻼﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺎﺙ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪%٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻴـﻀﺎ ﻟـﻡ ﻴﺘـﺎﺜﺭ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻼ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ‪%٢٥‬ﻨـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺎﺙ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﻪ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺤـﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨـﺴﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﻪ‬

‫ﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Jenkins, et al. (2000‬ﺃﻥ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﻌﺎﺀ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﻨـﺸﺎﻁ‬

‫ﺘﺨﻤﺭ ﺒﻜﺘﻴﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ‪ .‬ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻭﺤﻅ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤـﺼﺎﺒﻴﻥ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﻭل ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻴـﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﻤـﻊ‬

‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻡ ﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Ibrahim, et al. (2005‬ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﻟﻌـﺩﻡ‬

‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٧‬ﻭ‪ %١٤‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ٣٠‬ﻴﻭﻤﺎﹰ‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ ( ١٧‬ﻭﺸﻜل )‪ ( ١٠‬ﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻜل ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟـﺴﺘﺭﻭل ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠـﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻓﻰ‬

‫ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺘﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ‬

‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

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‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻯ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻗـل ﻤـﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﻓـﻰ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ‪± ٤١,٨٢‬‬

‫‪ ٥,٣٧ ± ٣١,٠٦ ، ٦,٧ ± ٤٥,١٠ ، ٥,٩٩‬ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬

‫‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ) ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ، ١٧‬ﺸﻜل ‪.(١٠‬‬

‫ﻟﻡ ﺘﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓـﻰ ﺴـﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪، ١٢,٥‬‬

‫‪ .%٢٥‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﻟﻌﺩﻡ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻟﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﻭﻋﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺴـﻴﺭﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﻡ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ ‪، ١,٨١ ± ١٩,٠٢ ، ٢,٣٧ ± ١٩,٤٥‬‬

‫‪ ١,٧٢ ± ١٨,٩٤‬ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ‪، ١,٥ ± ٩,٧٩‬‬

‫‪ ١,٨٧ ± ٩,٠٢ ، ٢,١١ ± ٩,٩٢‬ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬

‫ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ،١٧‬ﺸـﻜل‬

‫‪.(١٠‬‬

‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬

‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٨‬ﻭﺸﻜل )‪ (١١‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟـﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠـﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐـﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓـﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴـﺔ‬

‫)ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐـﺫﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟـﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ ‪،‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ٠,٦٦ ± ٨,٢٨ ، ٠,٢٤ ± ٨,٨٩ ، ٠,٥٢ ± ٧,١٩‬ﻤﻠﺠـﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤـل‬

‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٧‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ‬


‫ﻭﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬
‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

‫‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬

‫‪٣,٣٧ ± ٥٨,٩٩‬‬ ‫‪٣,٨٢ ± ٦١,٧‬‬ ‫‪١٠,٣٢ ± ٥٩,٩٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺃ‬


‫‪٥,٣٧ ± ٣١,٠٦‬‬ ‫‪٦,٧ ± ٤٥,١٠‬‬ ‫‪٥,٩٩ ± ٤١,٨٢‬‬ ‫)ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ‬

‫‪١,٧٢ ± ١٨,٩٤‬‬ ‫‪١,٨١ ± ١٩,٠٢‬‬ ‫‪٢,٣٧ ± ١٩,٤٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬

‫‪١,٨٧ ± ٩,٠٢‬‬ ‫‪٢,١١ ± ٩,٩٢‬‬ ‫‪١,٥ ± ٩,٧٩‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬


‫ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

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‫‪70‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬

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‫‪20‬‬

‫‪10‬‬

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‫اﻟﻜﻮﻟﺴﺘﺮول‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻠﺴﺮﯾﺪات اﻟﺜﻼﺛﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮوﺗﯿﻨﺎت اﻟﺪھﻨﯿﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮوﺗﯿﻨﺎت اﻟﺪھﻨﯿﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫)ﻣﻠﺠﻢ‪١٠٠/‬ﻣﻞ(‬ ‫)ﻣﻠﺠﻢ‪١٠٠/‬ﻣﻞ(‬ ‫)ﻣﻠﺠﻢ‪١٠٠/‬ﻣﻞ(‬ ‫)ﻣﻠﺠﻢ‪١٠٠/‬ﻣﻞ(‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :( ١٠‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (١٨‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ‬


‫ﻭﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬
‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

‫‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬

‫‪١١,٢٢ ± ٦٨,٦٦‬‬ ‫‪١١,٢٣ ± ٦٩,٥١‬‬ ‫‪٣,٥ ± ٦٤,٥٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل)ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ‬

‫‪١٢,٠٤ ± ٤٨,٣٠‬‬ ‫‪٥,٥٧ ± ٤٧,٩٧‬‬ ‫‪٣,٥ ± ٤٣,٧٥‬‬ ‫)ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ‬

‫‪٣,٠٦ ± ٢٠,١٨‬‬ ‫‪٢,٠٢ ± ٢١,٧٤‬‬ ‫‪١,٣٦ ± ٢١,٢٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬

‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺏ‬


‫‪٠,٦٦ ± ٨,٢٨‬‬ ‫‪٠,٢٤ ± ٨,٨٩‬‬ ‫‪٠,٥٢ ± ٧,١٩‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ )ﻤﻠﺠﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬


‫ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

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‫‪70‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬

‫‪60‬‬

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‫‪0‬‬
‫اﻟﻜﻮﻟﺴﺘﺮول‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻠﺴﺮﯾﺪات اﻟﺜﻼﺛﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮوﺗﯿﻨﺎت اﻟﺪھﻨﯿﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮوﺗﯿﻨﺎت اﻟﺪھﻨﯿﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫)ﻣﻠﺠﻢ‪١٠٠/‬ﻣﻞ(‬ ‫)ﻣﻠﺠﻢ‪١٠٠/‬ﻣﻞ(‬ ‫)ﻣﻠﺠﻢ‪١٠٠/‬ﻣﻞ(‬ ‫)ﻣﻠﺠﻢ‪١٠٠/‬ﻣﻞ(‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ :(١١‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺰ اﻟﻜﻮﻟﺴﺘﺮول واﻟﺠﻠﺴﺮﯾﺪات اﻟﺜﻼﺛﯿﺔ واﻟﺒﺮوﺗﯿﻨﺎت اﻟﺪھﻨﯿﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ وﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺳﯿﺮم دم اﻟﻔﺌﺮان اﻹﻧﺎث اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺘﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ وﺟﺒﺎت ﺗﺤﺘﻮى ﻧﻮى اﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢٫٥‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﺎﺜﺭ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺎﺙ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﻪ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻴـﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪% ٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﺭﺠـﻊ ﺘﺤـﺴﻥ‬

‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻴﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻔﺽ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻴﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﺎﺜﺭ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺎﺙ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Fernandez (1995‬ﻟﻠﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺨﻔـﺽ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ)‪ (LDL-C‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟـﺩﻡ ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺘﻐﺫﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺘﺠﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﻟﻴـﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺨﻔـﺽ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ)‪ (LDL-C‬ﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻟﻜل ﻨـﻭﻉ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﻫـﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺨﻔـﺽ ﻨـﺸﺎﻁ ﺘـﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﺩل ﻫﺩﻡ )‪ (LDL-C‬ﺃﻭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Jwanny, et al. (1996‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬

‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﺨﻔﺽ ﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺤﻴـﺙ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌـﺎﻤﻼﺕ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬

‫ﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻴﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ %٣٢‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺨﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻤﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻴﺅﻜﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻤﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒـﺎﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻟﻴـﺎﻑ‬

‫ﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺘﻨـﺎﻭل ﻭﺠﺒـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٢٣‬ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺨﻔـﺽ ﻤﻜﻭﻨـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﹰ ﻫﺎﻤﺎﹰ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﻔﺽ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎﹰ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Ibrahim, et al. (2005‬ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ ﺃﺸـﺎﺭﺕ ﻟﻌـﺩﻡ‬

‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒـﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٧‬ﻭ‪ %١٤‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪ ٣٠‬ﻴﻭﻤﺎﹰ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠـﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻯ ﻓﻰ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠـﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (AST‬ﻭﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪(ALT‬‬


‫ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (AST‬ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ) ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪(٠,٠٥‬‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬‬

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‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ %٣٠‬ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٦٢‬ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٢٥‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻹﻨﺯﻴﻡ‬

‫‪ ٥,٧٢ ± ٢٩,٠ ، ٨,٣٨ ± ٥٣,٥ ، ٤,٣٩ ± ٧٦,١٧‬ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪/‬ﻟﺘﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‬

‫)ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ، ١٩‬ﺸﻜل ‪ .(١٢‬ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (ALT‬ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨـﺯﻴﻡ‬

‫‪ ٦,٦٢ ± ٦١,٥٠ ، ٦,١٥ ± ٦٥,٦٦ ، ٦,٧٢ ± ٦٩,٠‬ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ‪/‬ﻟﺘـﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ، ١٩‬ﺸﻜل ‪.(١٢‬‬

‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (AST‬ﻭﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪(ALT‬‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬

‫ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ، ٢٠‬ﺸﻜل ‪ (١٣‬ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻓﻰ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴـﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٧,٥‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ، %٢٥‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺯﺍﺩ‬

‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٨‬ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ ﻨـﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨـﺯﻴﻡ‬

‫‪ ٢,٤٦ ± ١١٠,٥ ، ٥,١٧ ± ٨٦,٦٦ ، ٦,٢٥ ± ٩٣,٦٦‬ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪/‬ﻟﺘﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ﺍﻟـﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٦‬ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ‬

‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٧١,٣‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ،٢٠‬ﺸﻜل ‪.(١٣‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Aldhaheri, et al. (2004‬ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﻟﻌﺩﻡ ﺤـﺩﻭﺙ‬

‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (ALT‬ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (AST‬ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺇﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻨـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٢٥‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﻠﻔﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨـﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (AST‬ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻹﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٦٢، ٣٠‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (ALT‬ﻓـﻰ ﺴـﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ‬

‫ﺇﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯﻩ ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ : (١٩‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺃﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻭﺃﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻓﻰ‬
‫ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

‫‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬


‫ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ‬
‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺃ‬
‫‪٥,٧٢ ± ٢٩,٠‬‬ ‫‪٨,٣٨ ± ٥٣,٥‬‬ ‫‪٤,٣٩ ± ٧٦,١٧‬‬ ‫)‪) (AST‬ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪/‬ﻟﺘﺭ (‬

‫ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ‬


‫‪٦,٦٢ ± ٦١,٥٠‬‬ ‫‪٦,١٥ ± ٦٥,٦٦‬‬ ‫‪٦,٧٢ ± ٦٩,٠٠‬‬ ‫)‪) (ALT‬ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪/‬ﻟﺘﺭ(‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬


‫ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ‪،‬ﺝ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬


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‫‪0‬‬
‫ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪) (AST‬ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪/‬ﻟﺘﺭ(‬ ‫ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪) (ALT‬ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪/‬ﻟﺘﺭ(‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ : (١٢‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺃﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻭﺃﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ :(٢٠‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺃﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻭﺃﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ ﻓﻰ‬
‫ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

‫‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬

‫ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ‬

‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺏ‬


‫‪٢,٤٦± ١١٠,٥‬‬ ‫‪٥,١٧ ±٨٦,٦٦‬‬ ‫‪٦,٢٥ ± ٩٣,٦٦‬‬ ‫)‪) (AST‬ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪/‬ﻟﺘﺭ(‬

‫ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ‬

‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺏ‬


‫‪٨,٨١ ± ٨٣,٦٦‬‬ ‫‪٨,٧٣ ± ٦٧,٣٣‬‬ ‫‪٦,٧٧ ± ٧١,٣٣‬‬ ‫)‪) (ALT‬ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪/‬ﻟﺘﺭ(‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬


‫ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ‪،‬ﺝ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬


‫‪120‬‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫‪80‬‬

‫‪60‬‬

‫‪40‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫‪0‬‬
‫ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪) (AST‬ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪/‬ﻟﺘﺭ(‬ ‫ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪) (ALT‬ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪/‬ﻟﺘﺭ(‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ : (١٣‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﺸﺎط أﻧﺰﯾﻢ أﺳﺒﺮﺗﺎت أﻣﯿﻨﻮ ﺗﺮاﻧﺴﻔﯿﺮﯾﺰ وأﻧﺰﯾﻢ آﻻﻧﯿﻦ أﻣﯿﻨﻮ ﺗﺮاﻧﺴﻔﯿﺮﯾﺰ ﻓﻰ ﺳﯿﺮم دم اﻟﻔﺌﺮان اﻹﻧﺎث اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺘﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ وﺟﺒﺎت‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮى ﻧﻮى اﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢٫٥‬‬

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‫ﺭﺍﺒﻌﺎﹰ‪:‬ﺘﺎﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺒﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﻪ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬

‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ،٢١‬ﺸﻜل ‪ (١٤‬ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﻓﻰ‬

‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘـﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ‪%٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤـﻭﻥ ‪± ٥,٢٢ ، ٠,٩٦ ± ٢,١٤‬‬

‫‪ ١,٣٤ ± ٦,٧٧ ، ١,٨٩‬ﻨﺎﻨﻭﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ٣,٢ ، ٢,٥‬ﻤﺭﺓ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺘﻔﻘﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Ali, et al. (1999‬ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﺸـﺎﺭﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ٥ ، ٣‬ﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻰ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﻀﻴﻑ ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٤ ، ٧‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Aldhaheri, et al. (2004‬ﻋﺩﻡ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺃﻯ ﺍﺨـﺘﻼﻑ‬

‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻯ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﻓﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩل ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫‪.%٢٥، ١٢,٥‬‬

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‫ﺟﺪول )‪ (٢١‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮى ھﺮﻣﻮن ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

‫‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬

‫ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺏ‬


‫‪١,٣٤ ± ٦,٧٧‬‬ ‫‪١,٨٩ ± ٥,٢٢‬‬ ‫‪٠,٩٦ ± ٢,١٤‬‬ ‫)ﻨﺎﻨﻭﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬


‫ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ )ﻨﺎﻨﻭﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻤل(‬


‫ﺸﻜل )‪ : (١٤‬ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﻯ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

‫‪٩٥‬‬
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‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‬

‫ﺃﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜـﺎﻥ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤـﻭﻥ ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ١٢,٣٧ ± ١٠٦,٥٥‬ﺒﻴﻜﻭﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻤل ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺇﻟـﻰ ‪، ١٠,٦٦ ± ٩٠,٤١‬‬

‫‪ ١٢,٦٢ ± ٧٤,٩٩‬ﺒﻴﻜﻭﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻤل ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻨـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ‬

‫ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﺃﻯ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٣٠ ، ١٥‬ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ، ٢٢‬ﺸﻜل ‪.(١٥‬‬

‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ )ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ ، ٢٢‬ﺸﻜل ‪ (١٥‬ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔـﺎﺽ ﻓـﻰ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌـﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ .%٢٥‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜـﺎﻥ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤـﻭﻥ ‪± ٥٣,٢٩‬‬

‫‪ ٨,٦٦ ± ٣١,٦٥ ، ١٤,٦٤ ± ٥٠,٣٣ ، ١١,٣٥‬ﻨﺎﻨﻭﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻤل ﺒﺎﻟﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ﺍﻟـﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٤٠‬ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒـﺎ‬

‫ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺕ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ )‪ Ali, et. (1999‬ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﺸـﺎﺭﺕ ﻟﺤـﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔـﺎﺽ‬

‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻯ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل ﻓﻰ ﺒﻼﺯﻤﺎ ﺩﻡ ﺇﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻤـﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺃﻅﻬـﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ )‪Aldhaheri, et al. (2004‬‬

‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻯ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺇﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻭﻗـﺩ‬

‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺎ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓـﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒـﺎﺕ‪ ، .‬ﻭﻗـﺩ ﻴﺭﺠـﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل ﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻤـﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ‪ /‬ﺃﻭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺒﻭﺜﺎﻻﻤﻴﺱ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (٢٢‬ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

‫‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬

‫ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل‬

‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺃ‬


‫‪١٢,٦٢ ± ٧٤,٩٩‬‬ ‫‪١٠,٦٦ ± ٩٠,٤١‬‬ ‫‪١٢,٣٧ ± ١٠٦,٥٥‬‬ ‫)ﺒﻴﻜﻭﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺃ‬


‫‪٨,٦٦ ± ٣١,٦٥‬‬ ‫‪١٤,٦٤ ± ٥٠,٣٣‬‬ ‫‪١١,٣٥ ± ٥٣,٢٩‬‬ ‫)ﻨﺎﻨﻭﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ‪ ±‬ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬


‫ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﺏ ‪،‬ﺝ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪٠,٠٥‬‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬


‫‪120‬‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫‪80‬‬

‫‪60‬‬

‫‪40‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫‪0‬‬
‫ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ )ﺒﻴﻜﻭﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻤل(‬ ‫ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﺭﻭﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ )ﻨﺎﻨﻭﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﻤل(‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ :(١٥‬ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬
‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٢٥ ،١٢,٥‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭ )‪ Elgasim, et al. (1995‬ﺃﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻴﺤﺘـﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻤﺭﻜﺒـﺎﺕ ﺸـﺒﻴﻬﺔ‬

‫ﺒﻬﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺴـﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻰ ﻟﻨـﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﻴﻌﻴـﻕ ﺇﻓـﺭﺍﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻨـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻨﺎﺩﻭﺘﺭﻭﻓﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺹ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻐﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﺎﻤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﺅﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺨﻤﺎﺩ ﺇﻓﺭﺍﺯ ﺍﻷﺴﺘﺭﻭﺠﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﻴﻀﺎﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ)‪.(Garner and Hafez, 2000‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫* ﻻﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻰ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺘـﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻜﺎﻤل ﺜﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻠﻔـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ ﻴـﺴﺒﺏ‬

‫ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻬﺎ ﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫*‪ .‬ﺘﻭﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﺄﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺨﻔﺽ ﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ‪.‬‬

‫* ﺘﻭﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﺄﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻓﻰ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬

‫ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﺭﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ﻭﺘﺼﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﺭﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭﻯ‪.‬‬

‫* ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤـﺭ ﻓـﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺎﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺎﺜﻴﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻼ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ )ﺍﻟﺘﻴـﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ(ﻭﻓـﻲ‬

‫ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻨﻭﺜﻪ )ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ (‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ -١‬ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‪ ،‬ﺴﻤﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺤﺴﻥ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺀﻭﻑ )‪ .(٢٠٠٢‬ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻤﻜﺘﺒـﺔ ﺒـﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﻠﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﺃﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻁﻭﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﻴﻭﺴﻑ‪ ،‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ )‪ .(١٩٩٦‬ﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻤﻜﺘﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﺒﺎﺨﺸﻭﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺩ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ ) ‪ .(٢٠٠٤‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒـل ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﻴﺯ‪ .‬ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻰ‪.٥٣-٣٩ :(٢٥) ١ .‬‬

‫‪ -٤‬ﺒﺎﺭﺍﻓﻴﻠﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫــ )‪١٩٩٤‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺢ‪ ،‬ﻨﺸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ )‪ ،١٠١ (FAO‬ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٥‬ﺒﺎﺸﺎ‪ ،‬ﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺸﻤﺴﻲ )‪١٤١٢‬ﻫـ(‪ .‬ﺍﻷﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟـﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻁـﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺙ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﺠﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪. ٤١ – ٣٨‬‬

‫‪ -٦‬ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺩﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ )‪٢٠٠٤‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ ‪ ٣٥‬ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ ﻋﺸﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٧‬ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻴﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻁﻴﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺒﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺒﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ )‪١٤٢٧‬ﻫـ(‪ .‬ﻨﺨﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤـﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻷﺤـﺴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٨‬ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻴﻙ ‪ ،‬ﺠﻤﻴل ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺴﻰ )‪ ١٤٢٣‬ﻫـ(‪ .‬ﺘﺄﻤﻼﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻁﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﻋﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻰ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌـﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻋﺸﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٩‬ﺍﻟﺭﺤﺒﺎﻨﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻭ ﻓﺭﺤﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ) ‪٢٠٠٣‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺃﺼﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴـل‬
‫ﺒﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻵﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻤﺎﺘﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻰ ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﻟﻰ ﻟﻨﺨﻴـل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻁﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -١٠‬ﺍﻟﺭﻀﻴﻤﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺨﺎﻟﺩ ﻨﺎﺼﺭ ) ‪٢٠٠٥‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻤﻬﻡ ﻟﻤﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻴﺘﺎﻤﻴﻨـﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺭﺸﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺒﻭ ﻅﺒﻰ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﻤـﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -١١‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ ،‬ﺸﺤﺎﺘﺔ ﺍﺤﻤﺩ ) ‪٢٠٠٠‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﻤﻭﺴﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤـﻭﺭ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺌـﻊ ﻟﻠﻨـﺸﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -١٢‬ﻋﺒﯿﺪات ‪ ،‬ذوﻗﺎن ) ‪٢٠٠٣‬م(‪ .‬اﻟﺒﺤﺚ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﻔﮭﻮﻣﮫ أدواﺗﮫ أﺳﺎﻟﯿﺒﮫ‪ ،‬أﺷﺮا ﻗﺎت ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ واﻟﺘﻮزﯾﻊ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎض‪.‬‬

‫‪ -١٣‬ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻴل ﺃﺤﻤﺩ )‪٢٠٠٤‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ ‪ ٣٥‬ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬

‫‪ -١٤‬ﻏﻨﻴﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎل ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ )‪١٩٩٣‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒـﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻨﺩﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ ﻓﻴﺼل‪.‬‬

‫‪ -١٥‬ﻗﻤﺼﺎﻨﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻁﻪ ﺒﻥ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺨﺎﻟﺩ ﺒﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ) ‪٢٠٠٢‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﻤﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻜـﺴﺩﺓ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺽ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻰ ﺒﺠﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -١٦‬ﻤﺼﻴﻘﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ ﻋﺒﻴﺩ )‪١٤١٨‬ﻫـ(‪ .‬ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻁـﺭﻕ‬
‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ – ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ – ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤـﺩﺓ –‬
‫ﺩﺒﻲ – ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻡ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -١٧‬ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺡ ‪ ،‬ﺠﻼل ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻴﻨﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ )‪٢٠٠٣‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴـﺔ ﻟﻸﻨﻅﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﻓﻰ ﻭﺍﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺴﺎﺀ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -١٨‬ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪٢٠٠١) ،‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ – ﺇﻴﻁﺎﻟﻴـﺎ‪-‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﻤﺎ‬

‫‪ -١٩‬ﻨﻭﺍﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻴﺯﻴﺱ ﻋﺎﺯﺭ ) ‪٢٠٠٤‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﻭﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺒﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ – ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٢٠‬ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺼل ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ ﺼﺎﻟﺢ )‪٢٠٠٣‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﺍﻹﻜﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﺍﺜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻰ ﻟﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪ .‬ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻁـﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻁـﺭﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ ﺴﻌﻭﺩ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -٢١‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ) ‪ ١٤٢٦‬ﻫـ (‪ .‬ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌـﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴـﻊ – ﻭﻜﺎﻟـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﻟﺸﺅﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ ﻭﺍﻹﺤـﺼﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٢٢‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ )‪٢٠٠٥‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻋﺸﺭ – ﺇﻋـﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ‪ -‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٢٣‬ﺍﻟﻭﻫﻴﺒﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ ) ‪ ١٤٢٠‬ﻫـ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻴل ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻻﻻﺘﻬـﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻀـﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻤﻁـﺎﺒﻊ‬


‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺽ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻠﺨﺺ‬

‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻓﺌـﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻲ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻴـل‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺸﺘﻤﻠﺕ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ٣٦‬ﻓﺄﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺼـﺤﺎﺀ ﻤـﻥ ﻨـﻭﻉ‬

‫ﺃﻟﺒﻴﻨﻭ ‪ Albino Rat‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﺃﻭﺯﺍﻨﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ‪ ١٥٠-١٠٠‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻗـﺴﻤﺕ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺜـﻼﺙ‬

‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻜل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ ١٢‬ﻓﺄﺭ )‪ ٦‬ﺫﻜﻭﺭ‪ ٦ ،‬ﺇﻨﺎﺙ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒـﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ %٢٥ ، %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺒﻴﻊ ﻭﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺃﺴـﺒﻭﻋﻴﺎ ﻁـﻭﺍل ﻓﺘـﺭﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺘﻡ ﺫﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨـﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﻘـﺩﻴﺭ‬

‫ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻭﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻡ‪ .‬ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻌـﺽ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺩ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺭﺌﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻁﺤﺎل ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻰ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻤـﺦ – ﺍﻟﺨـﺼﻴﺘﻴﻥ –‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﺯﻥ ﻜل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺓ ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻭﺯﺍﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪% ٠,٠٣±٦,٨٦‬‬

‫ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻫﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻤﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴـﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫)ﻋﻠﻲ ﺃﺴـﺎﺱ ﺍﻟـﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠـﺎﻑ( ﻫـﻭ ‪، ٠,٠٣ ± ١,٢٦، ٠,٠٦ ± ٧,١٧ ، ٠,٠١ ± ٥,٩٣‬‬

‫‪ ٠,٨٩ ± ٦٥,٤٠ ، ١,٠٥ ± ٢٠,٢٤‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ‪١٠٠/‬ﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘـﻭﺍﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺩ ﻜـﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤـل‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ‪ ٥,٢٢ ، ٥,٦٠ ، ٥,٠٠ ، ٤,٥٠ ، ١٥,٩٦ ، ٥,٢٩ ، ٤,١٨‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺤﻤـﺎﺽ‬

‫‪١‬‬
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‫ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻻﻴﺴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻭﺴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﻴل ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺜﺭﻴﻭﻨﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻴﺯﻭﻟﻭﺴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜﻴﻭﻨﻴﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺤﻤﺽ ﻻﻴﺴﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺜﺭﻴﻭﻨﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻴﺯﻭﻟﻭﺴﻴﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ .‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ‪ .% ٥٠,٢٠‬ﻭﻜـﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﻤـﻭﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻊ ‪ .% ٤١,٧٢‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺩﻴـﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻊ ‪. % ٨,٠٨‬‬

‫ﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻟﻠﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﻜـل‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٢٥ ، %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬

‫ﻟﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ‬

‫ـﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋــﺔ ﺍﻟــﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‬


‫ـﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒــﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌــﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨـ‬
‫ـﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ ﻟﻠــﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻁــﻭﺍل ﻓﺘـ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤـ‬

‫ﻭﻴﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ ﻟﻺﻨﺎﺙ ﻁـﻭﺍل ﻓﺘـﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒـﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌـﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻴﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ )ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ (٠,٠٥‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟـﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻌـﺕ ﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻐـﺫﺍﺀ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻌـﺕ ﻓﻘـﻁ‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻟﻌﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒـﺩ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺼﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺤﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﻟـﻭﺯﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻁﺤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟـﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟـﻭﺤﻅ‬

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‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻁﺤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪%١٢,٥‬‬

‫ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻟﺒﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ‬

‫ﻜل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻯ ﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﺒﻴﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒـﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﻴﺎﺘﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺴـﻴﺭﻡ‬

‫ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ ﺘـﻡ‬

‫ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ‪.‬ﺃﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜﻭﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻓـﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ‪، ١٢,٥‬‬

‫‪ %٢٥‬ﺘﻤﻭﺭ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻭﻜـﻭﺯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴـﺎ ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻟﺴﺘﺭﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺴﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨـﻭﻯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٢٥‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻡ ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻺﻨﺎﺙ‪ .‬ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟـﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺴـﻭﺍﺀ ﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﻓﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺭﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (AST‬ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٧,٥ ، %٣٠‬ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒـﺎ‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨـﻭﻯ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻨـﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨـﺯﻴﻡ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٦٢‬‬

‫ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪.%٢٥‬‬

‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺯﻴﻡ ﺁﻻﻨﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﻴﻨﻭ ﺘﺭﺍﻨﺴﻔﻴﺭﻴﺯ )‪ (ALT‬ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ‬

‫ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻨـﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨـﺯﻴﻡ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ‪%٦‬‬

‫ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ %١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ ﺘﻐـﺫﺕ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪.%٢٥‬‬

‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘـﺴﺘﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﻓـﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %٢٥ ، ١٢,٥‬ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ٣,٢ ، ٢,٥‬ﻤﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻰ‪ .‬ﺃﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻫﺭﻤـﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴـﺘﺭﺍﺩﻴﻭل‬

‫ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻴﺭﻡ ﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜـﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %٣٠ ، ١٥‬ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺒﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻨﺨﻔـﺎﺽ‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺭﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺠﻴﺴﺘﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺎ ﻓﻘﻁ‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﻭﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪.%٢٥‬‬

‫‪٤‬‬
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SAMMARY
This search was conducted to study the effect of date pits on
biochemical parameters of experimental rats. Date pits obtained from the
remnants of date-palm plants have been evaluated by chemical analysis to
identify the content of various nutrients.

A sample was Included 36 Albino rats, male and female, adult and
healthy and their weight was ranged from 100-150 grams. The animals
were divided into three equal groups composed of 12 rats in each group
(6 males and 6 females). The first group was feeding on a standard meal
(the control group), while replacing the contents of the standard meal by
12.5% and 25% date pits in the second group and third group
respectively.

The experiment lasted for four weeks and the body weight were
recorded every week throughout the trial period to identify the increase in
the samples weight. At the end of the process the animals were
slaughtered and the standard biochemical parameters and the sex
hormones in the blood serum were assessed. Afterwards, some internal
organs: the liver, heart, lung, spleen, kidney, brain, testicles and the
uterus were taken out and weighed individually to estimate the proportion
of each sample's weight to the total weight of the samples.

The results of chemical analysis of date pits: The date pits


contained 6.86 ± 0.03% moisture. The contents of dates pits as to protein,
fat, ash, fiber and carbohydrates (based on dry weight) was 5.93 ± 0.01,
7.17 ± 0.06, 1.26 ± 0.03, 20.24 ± 1.05, 65.40 ± 0.89 grams / 100 grams,
respectively. The chemical factors for amino acids of date pits were 4.18,
5.29, 15.96, 4.50, 5.00, 5.60, 5.22 for the essential amino acids
particularly lysine, leucine, phenylalanine, threonine, isoleucine, valine

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and methionine, respectively. The lysine, threonine and isoleucine were
considered the first, second and third limited amino acid of. The total
saturated fatty acids were 50.20%. The total fatty acids of mono non-
saturated fats were 41.72%; while the total fatty acids of poly non-
saturated fats were 8.08%.

Convergence of the average food intakes for males and females in


the control group with each of the experimental group which fed on
12.5% and 25% date pits were observed. Also there have been no changes
in body weight of male and female rat during the experiment. The
quantity of food consumed over a period of experiment in male samples
were high for the first group, followed by the group of rat which fed the
meal of 25% dates pits, and then the set of 12.5% date pits. Whereas, the
quantity of food consumed for females throughout the trial period were
high for the group which dealt with 25% date pits, the first group
followed, and then the set of 12.5% date pits. However, the differences
were not significant (P < 0.05), whether in a male or female. The date pits
had improved the weight of the rat, both in males and females of the
experimental group. The increase in the quantity of date pits added to the
meals increased the efficiency of food intake for the experimental groups
compared to the control group in the male samples only, while in the
group of 12.5% dates pits had seen an increase for the female samples
only compared to the control group.

The study pointed to the absence of significant differences for the


relative weight of the brain, liver, lung, kidney, heart, testis, and uterus of
male and female rat. Whereas, there was a significant increase in the
relative weight of the spleen in the two experimental groups of males
compared to the control group. There was a significant increase in the
relative weight of the spleen in a group of females that have been feeding

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on 12.5% date pits compared to the control group and the group of 25%
date pits.

Results showed no significant changes in the level of total protein


and albumin in both groups of rat of both sexes. While there was a
significant decline of globulin particularly in female samples of the group
that dealt with 25% date pits compared with the control group and group
of 12.5% dates pits.

There was a significant decrease in urea concentration of males and


females, which fed on meals containing 25% date pits compared to the
control group. Creatiene had not changed in blood serum of rat, both
males and females in the control group or groups that have been feeding
the experimental date pits. Glucose increase was observed in the blood
serum of males in group fed with 12.5% and 25% of date pits in
comparison to the control group. While decreased in the blood serum of
females fed on 12.5% date pits compared to the control group.

It did not show any significant difference in concentration of total


cholesterol and high density lipoprotein between the control group and
experimental groups in both males and females.

There was a decrease in triglycerides in the male group of rat,


which fed the 25% date pits compared with the control group. There was
no significant difference observed in females. There was no significant
changed in the low density lipoproteins in the blood serum of males, both
in the control group or experimental groups. While there was a significant
increase in the blood serum of females in the experimental groups
compared to the control group.

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activity of the enzyme Aspartate amino transferase (AST) were decreased
by approximately 30% and 7.5% in male and female rat that fed a diet
containing 12.5% date pits, respectively compared to the control group
and also a decreased activity of the enzyme by almost 62% of the group
of male rats which were fed on meals containing 25% date pits.

The activity of the enzyme Alanine amino transferase (ALT) was


not affected in the blood serum of male rat which fed the diet of date pits
compared to the control group. But the enzyme activity decreased by
approximately 6% in blood serum of females in the group of 12.5% date
pits and increased in the group which fed the 25% date pits.

The study showed a significant increase in the concentration of


hormone testosterone in the group of rat that dealt with meals containing
12.5 and 25% date pits compared to the control group, an increase in
activity by 2.5 and 3.2 times, respectively. A significant decrease in the
concentration of hormone estradiol in the blood serum of female rat in
experimental groups compared the control group, which was reduced by
approximately 15% and 30% compared to the control group. Also there
was a decrease in the level of hormone progesterone in experimental
groups, but the significant decline was only in the group of rat that dealt
with meals containing 25% of date pits.

4
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‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺧﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﻪ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬

‫ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺗﻪ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺨﺺ‬

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SAMMARY

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