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Unit Plan

Science 7
Unit D- Structures &
Forces

Willow Creek Composite High School


Claresholm, AB

Mary Quiring
Spring 2014

Table of Contents
Focusing Questions

Unit Summary

Key Concepts

Rationale

Topic Outline

Learning Outcomes

Unit Assessment Plan

10

Unit at a Glance

12

Daily Unit Schedule

14
16

Materials & Equipment


16
Learning Resources

UNIT D: STRUCTURES & FORCES


(Science & Technology Emphasis)

Focusing Questions
1. What forces act on structures and how do they affect the
strength and stability of structures?
2. What design characteristics contribute to structural strength and
stability?
3. How do science & technology link together to develop safe and
efficient structures?

Unit Summary
There are both natural and man-made structures that exist in our world
in many different forms that serve a variety of purposes. Students will
learn about different structures, their properties, materials used, and
the configuration of different components. They will test various
structures under different loads and forces and examine how those
forces affect strength and stability of the structures. Students will
describe the processes used in developing and evaluating structures.
They will examine structures in the past and present to discover how
science and technology work together to design safe and efficient
structures that meet the needs of humans.

Key Concepts
-

structural forms
material strength and stiffness
joints
forces on and within structures
direction of forces

deformation
structural stability
modes of failure
performance requirements
margin of safety

Rationale
I am teaching two groups of students the Structures and Forces unit,
but they each only have science every other day. This makes
scheduling a little difficult and there is less time to cover all of the
content. I have planned the unit over 6 weeks as best as I could by
trying to incorporate a variety of activities, and formative and
summative assessments. This unit is designed so that concepts build
on each other and students can gain further understanding of what
they already know. I have tried to include as many applications of the
concepts in real life to make this unit as relatable as possible for the
students. I have also taken their interests into account when providing
examples, as I had the students fill out an all about me worksheet on
orientation day.
I chose to use the Science Focus 7 textbook to teach the curriculum
outlined in the Alberta Program of Studies to my grade 7 science
students. This is the main source of content from which I will present to
the students. This is the textbook that the students have, and are used
to, which is why I chose to use it. Other resources such as the Tik Liem
Science Demonstration book, and video resources from PBS, and Bill
Nye the Science Guy will supplement it. There are some really
awesome activities and investigations in the Science Focus 7 textbook.
I will not be teaching straight out of the text, but I will be selecting the
content I wish to use to meet the outcomes. I will also be selecting
questions to formatively assess the students and guide my instruction.
My lessons will have a variety of direct instruction, using PowerPoints
as a visual. I have planned to incorporate demonstrations, hands on
activities, formative quizzes, and written work into the unit. I will also
bring in as many materials and example structures as possible to help
the tactile learners. I will try to include visual, written, and tactile
explanations of each concept to try and meet the needs of all students
in my classroom. After every two to three topics, I will have the
students complete a formative quiz so that I can check their
understanding and respond in my instruction accordingly. They will also
be required to do corrections so that they can see what they need to
work on before the unit test. These will act as good preparation for the
final unit test, as I will choose questions that are similar to the quizzes.
I have also included summative performance tasks that will make up
part of the students marks for the unit. Although students will be
working in a group for most of the activities, their marks will be
individual, based on follow-up questions. I chose activities that will
allow students to explore and investigate ideas, reinforce concepts,
and work collaboratively with one another. I will be creating the groups

so that I can account for students learning needs, interests, age, and
background.

Topic Outline
1. Types of Structures & Materials Used in Construction
a. Structural forms and materials used in construction
o Frame structures
o Shell structures
o Frame and shell structures
b. Variation and effectiveness in the design of structures
o Compare examples that share a common function
o Evaluate examples of different designs
c. Structures developed by different cultures and different times
o Functions
o Materials
o Aesthetics
d. Natural structures
o Structures of living things
o Structures created by animals
e. Points and modes of failure
o Natural structures
o Built structures
2. Forces Within and Applied to Structures
a. Measurements and units
o Units of force and mass
o Measure forces and loads
b. Frictional forces
o Examples
o Uses in structures
c. Forces within a structure and how they can cause a structure to
fail
o Tension
o Compression
o Shearing
o Bending
d. Properties of materials used in structures
o Importance to individual parts
e. Stability of structure affected by changes
o Distribution of mass
o Design of its foundation
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3. Properties of Materials used in Structures


a. Testing strength and flexibility
o Deformation
b. Flexible and fixed joints
o Evaluate different joints for particular application
c. Structural properties of different materials
o Natural materials
o Synthetic materials
d. Role of materials in plants and animals
o Plant structures
o Animal Structures
4. Developing, Evaluating, & Improving Structures
a. Increase strength
o Changes in design
b. Environmental factors
o Stability and safety
o How they are accounted for
c. Evaluate a design based on criteria
o Costs/benefits
o Safety
o Environmental impact

Learning Outcomes
STS and Knowledge Outcomes
Students will:
STSK-1. Describe and interpret different types of structures
encountered in everyday objects, buildings, plants and animals; and
identify materials from which they are made
STSK-1.1 recognize/classify structural forms and materials used
in construction
STSK-1.2 interpret variation in design of structures that share a
common function and evaluate effectiveness
STSK-1.3 compare example structures developed by different
cultures/ different times; and interpret differences in functions,
materials aesthetics
STSK-1.4 describe/interpret natural structures, including living
things
STSK-1.5 identify points and modes of failure in natural and built
structures
STSK-2. Investigate and analyze forces within and applied to
structures
STSK-2.1 recognize/use units of force and mass,
identify/measure forces and loads
STSK-2.2 identify examples of frictional forces and their use in
structures
STSK-2.3 identify tension, compression, shearing, bending
forces within a structure; describe how they can cause a
structure to fail
STSK-2.4 identify properties of materials that are important to
individual structure parts by analyzing a design
STSK-2.5 infer how changes in the distribution of mass and
foundation will affect stability of structure
STSK-3. Investigate and analyze the properties of materials used in
structures
STSK-3.1 use methods of testing the strength and flexibility of
materials used in a structure
STSK-3.2 identify points in a structure where flexible or fixed
joints are required, and evaluate the appropriateness of different
types of joints
STSK-3.3 compare structural properties of natural and synthetic
materials
STSK-3.4 describe the role of different materials found in plant
and animal structures
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STSK-4. Demonstrate and describe processes used in developing,


evaluating and improving structures that will meet human needs with a
margin of safety
STSK-4.1 demonstrate/describe methods to increase strength of
materials through changes in design
STSK-4.2 identify environmental factors that may affect
stability/safety of a structure, and how they are accounted for
STSK-4.3 analyze/evaluate a technological design using criteria
like costs, benefits, safety and potential impact on the
environment
Skill Outcomes (focus on problem solving)
Initiating and Planning
Students will:
IP. Ask questions about the relationships between and among
variables, and plan investigations to address those questions
IP-1 identify practical problems
IP-2 propose alternative solutions to a practical problem, and
develop plan
IP-3 select appropriate methods for collecting data to solve
problems
IP-4 formulate operational definitions of major variables and
other aspects of their investigations
Performing and Recording
PR. Conduct investigations into the relationships between and among
observations, and gather and record data
PR-1 research information relevant to a given problem
PR-2 organize data, using a format that is appropriate to the
task
PR-3 carry out procedures, controlling the major variables
PR-4 use tools and apparatus safely
Analyzing and Interpreting
AI. Analyze data, and develop and assess possible explanations
AI-1 compile and display data, in a variety of formats, including
diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs, line graphs and
scatterplots
AI-2 identify and evaluate potential applications of findings
AI-3 test the design of a constructed device or system
AI-4 evaluate designs and prototypes in terms of function,
reliability, safety, efficiency, use of materials and impact on the
environment
AI-5 identify/correct practical problems in the way a constructed
device functions
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Communication and Teamwork


CT. Work collaboratively on problems; and use appropriate language
and formats to communicate ideas, procedures and results
CT-1 communicate questions, ideas, intentions, plans and
results, using lists, notes in point form, sentences, data tables,
graphs, drawings, oral language
CT-2 work cooperatively with team members to develop and
carry out a plan, and troubleshoot problems

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Attitude Outcomes
Students will be encouraged to:
A1 Show interest in science-related questions and issues, and pursue
personal interests and career possibilities within science-related fields
A2 Appreciate that scientific understanding evolves from the
interaction of ideas involving people with different views and
backgrounds
A3 Seek and apply evidence when evaluating alternative approaches
to investigations, problems and issues
A4 Work collaboratively in carrying out investigations and in
generating and evaluating ideas
A5 Demonstrate sensitivity and responsibility in pursuing a balance
between the needs of humans and a sustainable environment
A6 Show concern for safety in planning, carrying out and reviewing
activities, referring to the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information
System (WHMIS) and consumer product labeling information

Unit Assessment Plan

Assessments
Title

Learning
Outcom
es

Type
(Formati
ve/Summ
ative)

Weig
hting
STSK-1.1
recognize/classify
structural forms and
materials used in
construction
STSK-1.2 interpret
variation of
structures with
common function
STSK-1.3 compare
example structures
developed by
different cultures/
times

Topic
1-2
Quiz

Topic
3-4
Quiz

Topic
5-7
Quiz

Golf
Ball
Bridg
e

Form
ative

Forma
tive

Forma
tive

Sum
mativ
e

Tradi
tion
al
Stru
ctur
es
Sum
mati
ve

20%

10%

One of these will be


worth 10% and
counted as summative

Exam
ining
Force
s Lab

Unit
Test

Sum
mati
ve

Sum
mati
ve

20%

40%

11

STSK-1.4
describe/interpret
natural structures,
including living
things
STSK-1.5 identify
points and modes of
failure in natural
and built structures

STSK-2.1 use units


of force and mass,
identify/measure
forces and loads

STSK-2.2 identify
examples of
frictional forces and
their use in
structures

STSK-2.3 identify
tension,
compression,
shearing, bending
forces
STSK-2.4 identify
properties of
materials that are
important
STSK-2.5 infer how
distribution of mass
and foundation
affect structure
stability

STSK-3.3 compare
structural properties
of natural and
synthetic materials

STSK-3.1 use
methods of testing
the strength and
flexibility of
materials
STSK-3.2 identify
points in a structure
where flexible or
fixed joints are
needed

12

STSK-3.4 describe
the role of different
materials found in
plants and animals

STSK-4.1 describe
methods to increase
strength of
materials through
design
STSK-4.2 identify
environmental
factors that may
affect
stability/safety
STSK-4.3
analyze/evaluate a
technological design
using criteria
IP-2 propose
alternative solutions
to a practical
problem, and
develop a plan
PR-3 carry out
procedures
AI-4 evaluate
designs
CT-2 work
cooperatively with
team members
PR-1 research
information
AI-3 test the design
of a constructed
device
AI-1 compile and
display data, in a
variety of formats
PR-2 organize data,
using a format that
is appropriate to the
task

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Unit at a Glance
Unit: Science 7 Structures & Forces
MONDAY
March 3
No Science
(INTRO)

Name: Mary Quiring


Dates: March 3-April 11

TUESDAY
4
No Science
(EPOP)

Book computers for


March 17-18

WEDNESDAY
5 (2) Science #1
7B

THURSDAY
6 (1) Science #1
7A

Intro to Unit- Bill Nye


Video

Intro to Unit- Bill Nye


Video

Guided Notes: Topic 1Types of Structures


(samples)

Guided Notes: Topic 1Types of Structures


(samples)

Textbook Questions

Textbook Questions

10 (1) Science
#2 7A

11 (2) Science
#3 7B

12 (1) Science #3
7A

13 (2) Science
#4 7B

Guided Notes: Topic 2Describing Structures


Sample Materials

Finish Topic 2
(Materials)
Textbook Questions

Golf Ball Bridge Activity

Finish Golf Ball Bridge

Textbook Questions

Start Golf Ball Bridge

Topic 1-2 Quiz


Start Topic 3

Math Lesson 1

Math Lesson 2

Review Mean, Mode

Review Median, Range

20

17 (2) Science
#5 7B

18 (1) Science #5
7A

19 (2) Science
#6 7B

Traditional Structures
Computer Research
Presentation

Traditional Structures
Computer Research
Presentation

Quiz corrections

**Bob Miller coming

NO SCHOOL
IPP Meetings

Guided Notes: Topic 3Mass & Forces


Textbook Questions

Math Lesson 4

Math Lesson 5

Math Lesson 6

Review Outliers
Choosing the best
measure

Review Circle Graphs

Review Circle Graphs

14

24 (1) Science
#7 7A

25 (2) Science #7
7B

26 (1) Science #8
7A

27 (2) Science #8
7B

Quiz Corrections

Demo- Drop a box of


glass
Guided Notes: Topic 4Forces, Loads, &
Stresses

Demo- Drop a box of


glass
Guided Notes: Topic 4Forces, Loads, &
Stresses

Topic 3-4 Quiz

Examining Forces
Lab/Demo

Examining Forces
Lab/Demo

Math Lesson 8

Math Lesson 9

Math Lesson 10

Math Lesson 11

Review Probability

Review Probability

Review Probability

Review Sample Spaces

31 (2) Science
#9 7B

1 (1) Science #10


7A

2 (2) Science
#10 7B

3 (1) Science
#11 7A

Corrections
Guided Notes: Topic 5
How Structures Fail

Corrections
Guided Notes: Topic 5
How Structures Fail

Guided Notes: Topic 6Designing with Forces


and 7- Stable
Structures

Guided Notes: Topic 6Designing with Forces


and 7- Stable
Structures

Paper Clip Activity


Textbook Questions

Paper Clip Activity


Textbook Questions

Center of Gravity
Activities
Textbook Questions

Center of Gravity
Activities
Textbook Questions

Math Lesson 13

Math Lesson 14

Math Lesson 15

Math Lesson 16

Theoretical &
Experimental
Probability

Theoretical &
Experimental
Probability

Theoretical &
Experimental
Probability

Theoretical &
Experimental
Probability

7 (1) Science 7A

8 (2) Science 7B

9 (1) Science 7A

10 (2) Science 7B

Topics 5-7 Quizformatively go over in


class (practice)

Corrections
Review/ Catch up

Unit Test

Unit Test

Math Lesson 18

Math

Math

Math

Theoretical &
Experimental
Probability- Checkup

Go over checkup

Strand Exam

Go over strand exam

Guided Notes: Topic 3Mass & Forces


Textbook Questions

Begin Topic 5

15

Unit Schedule

(March 5- April 11)

Class 7A
Date
Lesson #
Length
March 6
1
(90 min)

Content, Activities, Teaching


Strategies, Evaluation

Outcome
s
March 10
2
(90 min)

Intro to Unit- Bill Nye Video (25


min)
Amusement Park Rides
Structures in the Classroom/
sample structures (5 min)
Guided Notes: Topic 1- Types of
Structures (natural vs. manmade)
(20min)
Textbook Questions pg. 281 1-2
(35 min)

1 (90 min)

Content, Activities, Teaching


Strategies, Evaluation

Golf Ball Bridge pg. 276


Planning sheet (10 min)
Build the bridges (50 min)
Test the bridges (10 min)
Evaluate questions (15 min)

S1.1, 3.3, 3.4, 4.1, 4.2, A4

March 12

Guided Notes: Topic 2- Describing


Structures (6 categories) (30 min)
Sample Materials (10 min)
Textbook Questions pg. 296 3, 4
pg 297 4, 7 (20 min)
* extra time for golf ball questions

March 7

2 (66 min)

March 11

Finish Topic 2
Golf Ball Bridge pg. 276
Planning sheet (10 min)
Build the bridges (50 min)
Test the bridges (10 min)
Evaluate questions (15 min)

Finish Golf Ball Bridge if needed


Review & Topic 1-2 Quiz (45 min)
Corrections (15 min)
Traditional Structures pg. 294 (90
min)

3 (90 min)

Outcome
s

K1.2, 1.3, 2.4, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 4.1, 4.2,


4.3

March 14

Review & Topic 1-2 Quiz (45 min)


Corrections (15 min)

March 13
4 (90 min)

Traditional Structures pg. 294


(90 min)
o Computer Research (each
person in group takes 1
question)
o Complete Poster

March 17

4
(66 min)
March 18
5
(90 min)

Outcome
s

Intro to Unit- Bill Nye Video (25 min)


Amusement Park Rides
Structures in the Classroom/ sample
structures (5 min)
Guided Notes: Topic 1- Types of
Structures (natural vs. manmade)
(20min)
Textbook Questions pg. 281 1-2 (35
min)

K1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 2.4, 3.3, 3.4, 3.1, 4.2

Outcome
s

(90 min)

Class 7B
Date
Lesson #
Length
March 5

5 (90 min)

Guided Notes: Topic 2- Describing


Structures (6 categories) (30 min)
Sample Materials (10 min)
Textbook Questions pg. 296 3, 4
pg 297 4, 7 (20 min)

o
o

Computer Research (each


person in group takes 1
question)
Complete Poster

K1.3

16

March 20

6
(90 min)

Outcome
s
March 25
7
(90 min)

March 19

6 (90 min)

Demo: drop a box of glass (5 min)


Guided Notes: Topic 4- Forces,
Loads, & Stresses (20 min)
Sample Materials and Internal
Forces (5 min)
Examining Forces Lab/Demo (60
min)

March 24
7 (90 min)

March 26

March 31

(90 min)

Youtube clips of structures falling


(5 min)
Guided Notes: Topic 5 How
Structures Fail (30 min)
Paper Clip Activity (15 min)
Textbook Questions pg. 319 4
pg. 320 3, 5 (40 min)

Outcome
s

8 (90 min)

Topic 3-4 Quiz (45 min)


Corrections (15 min)
Begin Topic 5 (lesson 9) (30 min)

March 28

9 (66 min)

Youtube clips of structures falling (5


min)
Guided Notes: Topic 5 How
Structures Fail (30 min)
Paper Clip Activity (15 min)
Textbook Questions pg. 319 4
pg. 320 3, 5 (40 min)

K1.5, 2.3, 2.4

April 2

10
(90 min)

Outcome
s

Demo: drop a box of glass (5 min)


Guided Notes: Topic 4- Forces,
Loads, & Stresses (20 min)
Sample Materials and Internal
Forces (5 min)
Examining Forces Lab/Demo (60
min)

K2.1, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1, 3.3, 4.2, S1.1, 1.2,


1.3, 2.2, 3.1
Topic 3-4 Quiz (45 min)
Corrections (15 min)
Begin Topic 5 (30 min)

8
(90 min)

March 27

Guided Notes: Topic 3- Mass &


Forces (30 min)
Swimming Pool Imagination (5 min)
Textbook Questions pg. 304 1-3 (30
min)
Begin Topic 4 (20 min)

K1.2, 1.5, 2.1, 3.3

Outcome
s

Guided Notes: Topic 3- Mass &


Forces (30 min)
Swimming Pool Imagination (5
min)
Textbook Questions pg. 304 1-3
(30 min)
Begin Topic 4 (20 min)

Guided Notes: Topic 6- Designing


with Forces and 7- Stable
Structures (30 min)
Center of Gravity activities (20
min)
Textbook Questions pg. 341 5-7
(40 min)

April 1
10 (90
min)

Guided Notes: Topic 6- Designing


with Forces and 7- Stable Structures
(30 min)
Center of Gravity activities (20 min)
Textbook Questions pg. 341 5-7 (40
min)

K1.2, 1.4, 1.5, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5,


3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3
April 4
11
(66 min)

Topic 5-7 Quiz (45 min)


Corrections (15 min)

April 3
11 (90
min)

Topic 5-7 Quiz (45 min)


Corrections (15 min)

17

April 8
12
(90 min)

Review/Catch up Period

April 7
12 (90
min)

Review/ Catch up Period

Unit Test (90 min)

April 9
13 (90
min)

Unit Test (90 min)

April 10
13
(90 min)

April 11

Class party

14
(66 min)

*Each class has science every other day (7A & 7B have
different schedules)

18

Materials & Equipment


Date
March 5/6

Materials
Bill Nye Video, Lego, Egg Carton

March
10/11

Golf ball Bridge- per group: 20 straws, 15 paper clips, 30cm


masking tape, 1 golf ball, scissors, planning sheets

March 7/12

Sample Materials (fasteners- nails, screws, yarn, tetra pak)

March
13/14
March
17/18
March
24/25

Quiz

March
26/27
March
28/31
April 3

Quiz

April 9

Unit Test

Traditional Structures- Computers, 1 poster per group


Demo- Box of Glass
Examining Forces- 5 large marshmallows and 1 felt pen per
group, scissors, paper to tear, cloth, 2 buckets, water
Garlic Press, Cheese Grater, elastic band

30 Paper Clips
Quiz

Learning Resources
Print
Gue, D., Makar, D., Martin, J., Martin, T., Strachan, I., Bullard, J., et. al.
(2001).
Sciencefocus 7. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
Gue, D., Makar, D., Martin, J., Martin, T., Strachan, I., Bullard, J., et. al.
(2001).
Sciencefocus 7 Teachers Resource Binder. Toronto: McGraw-Hill
Ryerson.
Liem, T. (1987). Invitations to science inquiry. (2nd ed., pp. 326-327).
Chino Hills, California: Science Inquiry Enterprises.
Online

19

Building Big. (2004). Loads lab [Web]. Retrieved from


http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/phy03.sci.phys.mfe.bb
loads/loads-lab/

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