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Long Term Evolution

Technology training
(Part 1)

Outline

LTE and SAE overview


LTE radio interface architecture
LTE radio access architecture
LTE multiple antenna techniques

Part 1

LTE/SAE OVERVIEW

Mobile broadband (3GPP)


Release

Standardi
zed

3GPP R99

1999

Commerc
ial
2000

Major features
Bearer services
64 kbit/s CS
384 kbit/s PS
Location services
Call services: compatible with
GSM

3GPP R5

2002

2006

IP Multimedia Subsystem
(IMS)
IPv6, IP transport in UTRAN
Improvements in GERAN
HSDPA

3GPP R6

2004

2007

Multimedia broadcast and


multicast
Improvements in IMS
HSUPA
Fractional DPCH

3GPP R7

2007

2008

Enhanced L2
64 QAM , MIMO
VoIP over HSPA
CPC - continuous packet
connectivity
FRLC - Flexible RLC

3GPP R8

2008

2010

DC-HSPA+ (Dual Cell HSPA+)


HSUPA 16QAM

4 R8
3GPP
(LTE)

2008

2010

New air interface (OFDM/SCFDMA)

3G continues to evolve
Standardized through 3GPP
3G gracefully evolves into 4G
starting from R7 and R8
Date rates

R99: 0.4Mbps UL, 0.4Mbps DL


R5: 0.4Mbps UL, 14Mbps DL
R6: 5.7Mbps UL, 14Mbps DL
R7: 11Mbps UL, 28Mbps DL
R8: 50Mbps UL on LTE, 160 Mbps
DL on LTE, 42Mbps DL on HSPA

Two branches of the standards

HSPA : Gradual performance


improvements at lower incremental
costs
LTE: revolutionary changes with
significant performance
improvements (higher cost, first step
towards IMT advanced)

LTE Releases
Release

3GPP R8 (LTE)

3GPP R9 (LTE)

3GPP R10 (LTE)


LTE Advanced

Standardiz
ed

2008

Commerci
al

2010

Major features
Multi antenna support
Channel dependent scheduling
Bandwidth flexibility
ICIC (Intercell Interference Coordination)
Hybrid ARQ
FDD + TDD support

2009

Dual layer beam forming


Network based UE positioning
MBSFN (Multicast/Broadcast Single Frequency
Network)

2010

Multi antenna extension


Relaying
Carrier aggregation
Heterogeneous networks (HetNets)

LTE has an evolution path of its own


Evolution is towards IMT-Advanced (LTE advanced)
LTE advanced spectral efficiency 30bps/Hz (DL), 15bps/Hz (UL)
Note: This presentation focuses on R8 features

LTE requirements

Outlined in 3GPP TR 29.913


Seven different areas

Capabilities
System performance
Deployment related aspects
Architecture and migration
Radio resource management
Complexity, and
General aspects

Capabilities

DL data rate > 100 Mbps in 20 MHz


UL data rate > 50 Mbps in 20MHz
Rate scales linearly with spectrum
Latency user plane: 5ms (transmission of
small packet from UE to edge of RAN)
Latency control plane: transmission time
from camped state 100ms, transmission
time from dormant state 50 ms
Support for 200 mobiles in 5MHz, 400
mobiles in more than 5MHz

System performance

Baseline is HSPA Rel. 6


Throughput specified at 5% and 50%
Maximum performance for low mobility
users (0-15km/h)
High performance up to 120 km/h
Maximum supported speed 500km/h
Cell range up to 100km
Spectral efficiency for broadcast 1 b/s/Hz

Throughput requirements relative to


baseline

Performance
measure

DL target
relative to
base line

UL target
relative to
baseline

Average
throughput per
MHz

3-4 times

2-3 times

Cell edge user


throughput per
MHz

2-3 times

2-3 times

Spectrum
efficiency
(bit/sec/Hz)

3-4 times

2-3 times

LTE requirements (2)

Deployment related aspects

LTE may be deployed as standalone or


together with WCDMA/HSPA and/or
GSM/GPRS
Full mobility between different RANs
Handover interruption time targets
specified

Spectrum flexibility

Both paired and unpaired bands


IMT 2000 bands (co-existence with
WCDMA and GSM)
Channel bandwidth from 1.4-20MHz

Handover interruption time


Non-real time
services (ms)

Real time
services (ms)

LTE to WCDMA

500

300

LTE to GSM

500

300

LTE duplexing options


7

LTE requirements (3)

Architecture and migration

Single RAN architecture


RAN is fully packet based with support
for real time conversational class
RAN architecture should minimize
single points of failure
RAN should simplify and reduce
number of interfaces
Radio Network Layer and Transport
Network Layer interaction should not
be precluded in interest of performance
QoS support should be provided for
various types of traffic

Radio resource management

Support for enhanced end to end QoS


Support for load sharing between different
radio access technologies (RATs)

Complexity

LTE should be less complex than


WCDMA/HSPA

SAE design targets

SAE Service Architecture Evolution


SAE = core network
Requirements placed into seven categories

High level and operational aspects


Basic capabilities
Multi-access and seamless mobility
Man-machine interface aspects
Performance requirements for Evolved 3GPP system
Security and privacy
Charging aspects

SAE requirements mainly non access related


(highlighted ones have impact on RAN)

Basic principles Air interface

Downlink OFDM
OFDM = Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing
OFDM = Parallel transmission on
multiple carriers
Advantages of OFDM

Avoid intra-cell interference


Robust with respect to multi-path propagation
and channel dispersion

Disadvantage of OFDM

Uplink DFTS-OFDM (SC-FDMA)


DFTS = DFT spread OFDM
SC-FDMA = Single carrier FDMA
Advantages (all critical for UL)

High PAPR and lower power amplifier


efficiency

Signal has single carrier properties


Low PAPR
Similar hardware as OFDM
Reduced PA cost
Efficient power consumption

Disadvantage

Equalizer needed (not critical from UL)


UL
modulation

10

DL

Basic principles Air interface

Shared channel transmission


Only PS support
No CS services

Fast channel dependent


scheduling
Adaptation in time
Adaptation in frequency
Adaptation in code

Scheduler takes
the advantage of
time-frequency
variations of the
channel

Hybrid ARQ with soft combining


Chain combining
Incremental redundancy

11

ARQ reduces
required
Eb/No

One shared
channel simplifies
the overall
signaling

Basic principles air interface

MIMO support
MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output
Use of multiple TX / RX antennas
Three ways of utilizing MIMO

Outline of spatial
multiplexing idea

RX diversity/TX diversity
Beam forming
Spatial multiplexing (MIMO with space time
coding)

MIMO transmission in Rayleigh fading


environment increases theoretical
capacity by a factor equal to number of
independent TX RX paths
As a minimum LTE mobiles have two
antennas (possibly four)
12

Note: Rayleigh fading decorrelates the paths and


provides multiple
uncorrelated channels

Basic principles air interface

ICIC Inter-cell interference


coordination
LTE affected by inter-cell
interference (more than HSDPA)
In LTE interference avoidance
becomes scheduling problem
By managing resources across
multiple cells inter-cell
interference may be reduced
Standard supports exchange of
interference indicators between
the cells

13

One possible
implementation of
ICIC. Cell edge
implements N=3. Cell
interior implements
N=1.

SAE-Architecture

SAE flat architecture

Single element simplifies RAN


No single point of failure

Core network provides two planes

LTE Network layout

RAN consist of single elements:


eNode B

Core network,
RAN

User plane (through SGSN)


Control plane (through MME)

Interfaces

S1-UP (eNode B to SGSN)


S1-CP (eNode B to MME)
X2 between two eNode Bs (required for
handover)
Uu (UE to eNode B)

SAE = System Architecture


Evaluation
14

UE user equipment (i.e. mobile)


eNode B base station
SGSN Support GPRS Serving Node
GGSN Gateway GPRS Serving Node
MME Mobility Management Entity
PCRF - Policy and Charging Rules
function

LTE protocol-control plane

NAS Non Access Stratum


RRC Radio Resource Control
PDCP Packet Data Convergence
Protocol
RLC Radio Link Control
MAC Medium Access Control
15

S1-AP S1 Application
SCTP Stream Control Transmission
Prot.
IP
Internet Protocol
Note: LTE control plane is almost
the same as WCDMA (PDCP did
not exist in WCDMA control
plane)

LTE protocol- user plane

PDCP Packet Data Convergence


Protocol
RLC Radio Link Control
MAC Medium Access Control
16

GTP-U - GPRS Tunneling Protocol


Note: LTE user plane is identical to
UMTS PS side. There is no CS in LTE
user plane is simplified.

LTE protocol X2

Connects all eNodeBs that are


supporting end user active
mobility (handover)
Supports both user plane and
control plane
Control plane signaling
required for handover execution
User plane packet forwarding
during handover

Control
plane

GTP-U: GPRS tunneling protocol


STCP: Stream Transmission Control
Protocol
17

User plane

Channel structure

Channels defined on Uu

Logical channels

Transport channels

Formed by MAC
Characterized by how the data are
organized

Physical channels

18

Formed by RLC
Characterized by type of information

Formed by PHY
Consist of a group of assignable radio
resource elements

Uu interface

Note: LTE defines same types of channels as


WCDMA/HSPA

LTE - channel mapping

19

Logical channels

BCCH Broadcast Control CH

PCCH Paging Control CH

User data

MCCH Multicast Control CH

User specific signaling and control

DTCH Dedicated Traffic CH

Access information during call establishment

DCCH Dedicated Control CH

Paging information when addressing UE

CCCH Common Control CH

System information sent to all UEs

Signaling for multi-cast

MTCH Multicast Traffic CH

20

Multicast data

Red common, green shared, blue dedicated

LTE Channels

Transport channels

BCH Broadcast CH

PCH Paging CH

Used for multicast transmission

UL-SCH Uplink Shared CH

Transport of user data and signaling.


Used by many logical channels

MCH Multicast channel

Transport for PCH

DL-SCH Downlink Shared CH

Transport for BCCH

Transport for user data and signaling

RACH Random Access CH

Used for UEs accessing the network

Red common, green shared


21

LTE Channels

PHY Channels

PDSCH Physical DL Shared CH

PBCH Physical Broadcast CH

Uplink user data and signaling

PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel

Information required by UE so that PDSCH can be


demodulated (format of PDSCH)

PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel

Reports status of Hybrid ARQ

PCIFIC Physical Control Format Indicator

Carries mainly scheduling information

PHICH Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator

Data and signaling for multicast

PDCCH Physical Downlink Control CH

Broadcast information necessary for accessing the network

PMCH Physical Multicast Channel

Uni-cast transmission and paging

Reports Hybrid ARQ acknowledgements

PRACH Physical Random Access Channel

Used for random access

LTE Channels
22

Red common, green shared

Time domain structure

Two time domain structures

Type 1: used for FDD transmission (may be full duplex or half duplex)
Type 2: used for TDD transmission

Both Type 1 and Type 2 are based on 10ms radio frame

Radio
frame :
Type 1

Radio
frame :
Type 2
23

TDD frame configurations

Different configurations
allow balancing between
DL and UL capacity
Allocation is semi-static
Adjacent cells have same
allocation
Transition DL->UL
happens in the second
subframe of each halfframe

Note: TDD frame


structure allows coexistence between
LTE TDD and TDSCDMA
24

Allocatable resources
LTE radio resource = time-frequency chunk
Resource Block (RB) =
12 carriers in one TS
(12*15KHz x 0.5ms)

25

Time domain
1 frame = 10 sub-frames
1 subframe = 2 slots
1 slot = 7 (or 6) OFDM
symbols
Frequency domain
1 OFDM carrier = 15KHz

Note: In LTE resource management is


along three dimensions: Time,
Frequency, Code

Bandwidth flexibility

LTE supports deployment from 6RBs to 110 RBs in 1 RB increments


6RBs = 6 x 12 x 15KHz = 1080KHz -> 1.4MHz (with guard band)
110RBs = 110 X 12 X 15KHz = 19800KHz -> 20MHz (with guard band)
Typical deployment channel bandwidths: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz
Straight forward to support other channel bandwidths (due to OFDM)

UE needs to support up to the largest bandwidth (i.e. 20MHz)

26

UE States

UE may be in three states

Detached: not connected to the network


Idle: attached to the network but not active
Connected: attached and active

UE tracking

27

Note: Both the UE states and


UE tracking are simpler than in
UMTS

Detached state: UE position unknown


Idle state: UE position know with the Tracking Area (TA) resolution
Connected: UE location known to the eNodeB resolution

3GPP Specifications

All 3GPP specs are available at http://www.3gpp.org

RAN 1
RAN2
RAN3
RAN4
RAN5

36.2xx series
36.3xx series
36.4xx series
36.1xx series
36. 5xx series

Example specs
organization

28

PHY layer
Layers 2 and 3
S1 and X2 interfaces
Core performance requirements
Terminal conformance testing

Section review
1. What are 3GPP broadband
cellular technologies?
2. What releases of 3GPP standard
contains LTE?
3. What were target DL and UL
throughputs for LTE?
4. What does SAE stand for?
5. What are components of the CS
part of the LTE core network?
6. What is the access scheme used
on the DL?
7. What is the role of fast scheduler
on LTE DL?
8. What is the smallest allocateable
resource in LTE DL?
29

9. What is Radio Block (RB)?


10. What are spectrum bandwidth
deployment options for LTE?
11. How many radio blocks are in
20MHz deployment?
12. Does LTE support TDD
deployment?
13. What are three UE States
supported by LTE?

Part 2

LTE RADIO ACCESS

30

Overview

31

Overview of OFDM/OFDMA
LTE Downlink transmission
Overview of DFTS-OFDM
LTE Uplink transmission
Multi-antenna transmission

Single carrier transmission

Data are used to modulate amplitude/phase (frequency) of a single carrier


Higher data rate results in wider bandwidth
Over larger bandwidths ( > 20KHz), wireless channel is frequency selective
As a result of frequency selectivity the received signal is severely distorted
Channel equalization needed
Complexity of equalizer increases rapidly with the signal bandwidth requirements

Transmission of
single carrier in
mobile terrestrial
environment

32

Note: over small


portion of the
signal spectrum,
fading may be
seen as flat

Multi-carrier transmission

Channel fading over smaller frequency bands flat (no need for equalizer)
Divide high rate input data stream into many low rate parallel streams
At the receiver aggregate low data rate streams

Signal for each


stream
experiences flat
fading

33

FDM versus OFDM

OFDMA minimizes separation between


carriers
Carriers are selected so that they are
orthogonal over symbol interval
Carrier orthogonality leads to frequency
domain spacing f=1/T, where T is the
symbol time
In LTE carrier spacing is 15KHz and
useful part of the symbol is 66.7 microsec

Note: orthogonality
between carriers in time
domain allows closer
spacing in frequency
domain.
34

FDM versus OFDM

OFDM transmitter/receiver

35

Practically OFDM TX/RX is implemented using IFFT/FFT


Use of the IFFT/FFT at the baseband means that there is no need for
separate oscillators for each of the OFDM carriers
FFT (IFFT) hardware is readily available TX/RX implementation is simple

Guard time

36

Duration of the OFDM symbol is chosen to be much longer than the multi-path
delay spread
Long symbols imply low rate on individual OFDM carriers
In multipath environment long symbol minimizes the effect of channel delay spread
To make sure that there is no ISI between OFDM symbols guard time is inserted

OFDM symbols without guard


time

OFDM symbols with guard


time

Cyclic prefix

37

Guard time eliminates ISI between OFDM symbols


Multipath propagation degrades orthogonality between carriers within an
OFDMS symbol
To regain the orthogonality between subcarriers cyclic prefix is used
Cyclic prefix fills in the guard time between the OFDM symbols

Block diagram of full OFDM TX/RX

38

LTE supports numerous AMC schemes


AMC adds additional level of adaptation to the RF channel
Size of CP depends on the amount of dispersion in the channel
Two CP are used: normal (4.7 us) and extended (16.7 us)

OFDMA time-frequency scheduling

Minimum allocateable resource in


LTE is Resource Block pair
Resource block pair is 12 carriers
wide in frequency domain and lasts
for two time slots (1ms)
Depending on the length of cyclic
prefix RB pair may have 14 or 12
OFDM symbols
PHY channels consist of certain
number of allocated RB pairs
Overhead channels are typically in a
predetermined location in time
frequency domain
Within a RB different AMC scheme
may be used
Allocation of the radio block is done
by scheduler at eNode B
39

Part 3

LTE DOWNLINK
TRANSMISSION
40

LTE OFDM
Parameter
Bandwidth
(MHz)

Value
1.4

10

Frame
/subframe
duration

10/1 ms

Subcarrier
spacing

15KHz

Useful symbol
part

66.7us

15

20

FFT size

128

256

512

1024

1536

2048

Resource blocks

15

25

50

75

100

Number of used
subcarriers

72

180

300

600

900

1200

Cyclic prefix
length

Normal: 5.1us for first symbol in a slot and 4.7us for other symbols ,
Extended: 16.7us

OFDM
symbols /slot

7 (normal CP), 6 (extended CP)

Basic timing unit: Ts = 1/(2048 x 15000) ~


coding ns
1/3 convolutional (signaling); 1/3 turbo (data)
41 Error
23.552

Detailed time domain structure


Need for two different CP:
1. To accommodate
environments with large
channel dispersion
2. To accommodate MBSFN
(Multi-Cast Broadcast
Single Frequency
Network) transmission

TCP: 160Ts (5.1us) for first symbol, 144Ts


(4.7us) for
other six symbols
TCP-e: 512 Ts (16.7 us) for all symbols
42

In case of MBSFN it may be


beneficial to have mixture
of sub-frames with normal
CP and extended CP.
Extended CP is used for
MBSFN sub-frames

Exercise OFDM data rate capability at


the PHY
Case 1. Normal CP (no MIMO)
Resource block: 12 carriers x 14 OFDM symbols = 168 resource elements
Each resource element carries one modulation symbol
For 64 QAM: 1 symbol = 6 bits
Number of bits per subframe = 168 x 6 = 1008 bits/subframe
Raw PHY data rate = 1008/1ms = 1,008,000 bits/sec/resource block
(180KHz)
For 20MHz, Raw PHY data rate = 100 RB x 1,008,000 bits/sec/RB =
100.8Mbps
Case 2. Extended CP (no MIMO)
Resource block: 12 carriers x 12 OFDM symbols = 144 resource elements
Each resource element carries one modulation symbol
For 64 QAM: 1 symbol = 6 bits
Number of bits per subframe = 144 x 6 = 864 bits/subframe
Raw PHY data rate = 864/1ms = 864,000 bits/sec/resource block (180KHz)
For 20MHz, Raw PHY data rate = 100 RB x 864,000 bits/sec/RB =
86.4Mbps
Note: with the use of MIMO the rates are increased
43

Downlink reference signals

For coherent demodulation terminal needs channel estimate for each subcarrier
Reference signals used for channel estimation
There are three type of reference signals

1. Cell specific DL reference signals

Every DL subframe
Across entire DL bandwidth

2. UE specific DL reference signals

Sent only on DL-SCH


Intended for individual UEs

3. MBSFN reference signals

Support multicast/broadcast

Note: Reference signals are


staggered in time and frequency.
This allows UE to perform 2-D
complex interpolation of channel
44 time-frequency response

Cell specific reference signals


Two port TX

DL transmission may use up to four antennas


Each antenna port has its own pattern of reference signals
Reference signals are transmitted at higher power in multiantenna case
Reference signals introduce overhead

4.8% for 1 antenna port


9.5% for 2 antenna ports
14.3 % for 4 antenna ports

Four port TX

Reference symbols vary from position to position and


from cell to cell cell specific 2 dimensional sequence
Period of the sequence is one frame

One port TX

45

Cell specific reference signals (2)

There are 504 different Reference Sequences (RS)


They are linked to PHY-layer cell identities
The sequence may be shifted in frequency domain 6 possible shifts
Each shift is associated with 84 different cell identities (6 x 84 = 504)
Shifts are introduced to avoid collision between RS of adjacent cells
In case of multiple antenna ports only three shifts are useful
For a given PHY Cell ID - sequence is the same regardless of the bandwidth used
UE can demodulate middle RBs in the same way for all channel bandwidths

Shifts for
single port
transmissi
on
46

UE Specific RS

UE specific RS used for beam forming


Provided in addition to cell specific RS
Sent over resource block allocated for DL-SCH (applicable only
for data transmission)
Note: additional reference
signals increase overhead. One
of the most beneficial use of
beam forming is at the cell edge
improves SNR

47

PHY channels supporting DL TX

SCH allows mobile to synchronize


to the DL TX during acquisition
PBCH used to broadcast static
portion of the BCCH
PDSCH carries user information
and signaling from upper layers of
protocol stack
PDCCH channel used by MAC
scheduler to configure L1/L2 and
assign resources (DL scheduling
and UL grants)
PCFICH explains to the UE the
format of the DL transmission
PHICH support for HARQ on the
uplink
PUCCH support for HARQ on the
downlink
48

Channels required for DL


transmission

Summary of PHY DL channels


L1/L2 signaling
L1/L2 Control

Coding scheme

PHY
Channel

Modulation

CFI (Channel
format Indicator)

Block code R=1/16

PCFICH

QPSK

HI (HARQ
information)

Repetition 1/3

PHICH

BPSK

DCI (Downlink
control
Information)

Convolutional 1/3
with rate matching

PDCCH

QPSK

Services to upper
layers

49

Transport
channel

Coding scheme

PHY
Channel

Modulation

DL-SCH

Turbo 1/3

PDSCH

QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM

BCH

Convolutional 1/3

PBCH

QPSK

PCH

Turbo 1/3

PDSCH

QPSK

MCH

Turbo 1/3

PMCH

QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM

Downlink L1/L2 signaling

Signaling that supports DL transmission


Originates at L1/L2 (no higher layer data
or messaging)
Consists of

Scheduling assignments and associated


information required for demodulation and
decoding of DL-SCH
Uplink scheduling grants for UL-SCH
HARQ acknowledgements
Power control commands

L1/L2 signaling is transmitting in first 1-3


symbols of a subframe control region
Size of control region may vary
dynamically always whole number of
OFDM symbols (1,2,3)
Signaling beginning of the subframe

50

Reduces delay for scheduled mobiles


Improves power consumption for non-scheduled
mobiles

Three different PHY channel types


1. PCFIC (PHY Control Format Indicator
Channel)
2. PHICH (PHY Hybrid ARQ Channel)
3. PDCCH (PHY Downlink Control

PCFICH

PCFICH PHY Channel Format Indicator Channel


Indicates to UE the size of the control region (1,2 or 3 OFDM symbols)
PCFICH value may be 1, 2 or 3 (0 is reserved for future use)
Decoding of PCFICH is essential for UE operation

Encoded with 1/16 repetition code


Uses QPSK modulation
Mapped to the first symbol of each subframe
16 resource elements in 4 groups of 4 (RE Groups)
Location of the resource elements depends on cell identity

Processing of PCFICH

51

Note: REGs of the PCFICH are spread in


frequency domain to achieve frequency
diversity

PHICH

PHICH = PHY Hybrid-ARQ Indicator Channel


HARQ acknowledgements for UL-SCH transmission
As many PHICH channels as the number of UEs in the cell
A set of PHICH channels is multiplexed on the same resource elements (8 normal
CP, 4 extended CP)
Transmitted in the first OFDM symbol of the subframe
Occupies 3 resource element groups (REGs) = 12 resource elements (RE)
PHICH response comes 4 sub-frames after PU-SCH

Processing
of PHICH
52

PDCCH

PDCCH = Physical Downlink Control Channel


Used for

53

DL scheduling assignments
UL scheduling grants
Power control commands

PDCCH message occupies 1,2,4 or 8 Control Channel Elements (CCEs)


CCE = 9 Resource Element groups (REGs) = 36 Resource Elements (REs)
One PDCCH carrier one message with a specific Downlink Control Information (DCI)
Multiple UE-s scheduled simultaneously -> Multiple PDCCH transmissions in a subframe

PDCCH DCIs

54

PDCCH carrier Downlink Control Information (DCI)


Multiple DCI formats are defined based on type of information
Content

DCI formats of
PDCCH
# of bits

Form
at

Purpose

UL PUSCH grant

RB assignment, MCS, hopping flag, NDI, cyclic shift of


DM-RS, CQI,

44

DL PDSCH grant for single


code word

Resource allocation header, RB allocation, MCS, HARQ,


HARQ PID,

55

1A

Compact DL PDSCH grant


of single code word

Similar to format 1, but with smaller flexibility

44

1A

RACH initiated by PDCCH


order

Localized/distributed VRB assignment flag, preamble


index, PRACH message mask index

44

1B

Compact DL PDSCH grant


with pre-coding information

Similar to 1, but with distributed VRB flag, reduced RB


allocation flexibility, transmit PMI and pre-coding

49

1C

Very compact DL PDSCH


grant

Reduced payload for improved coverage, always uses


QPSK on associated PDSCH, restricted RB assignment,
No HARQ,

31

1D

Compact DL PDSCH grant


with pre-coding information
and power offset

Same as 1, but with reduced RB allocation flexibility


and addition of distributed VRB transmission flag.
Transmit PMI information for pre-coding, DL power
offset

49

MIMO DL grant

Same as 1, but for MIMO transmission

76

2A

Compact MIMO DL grant

Same as 1A, but for MIMO transmission

68

2-bit UL power control

TPC for 14 UEs plus 16 bit CRC

44

(FDD)

PDSCH

DL-SCH = DL Shared channel


Used for user data coming from upper
layers (both signaling and payload)
Optimized for low latency and high data rate
Individual steps in the processing chain
operate on data blocks enables parallel
processing
Many different adaptation modes

55

Modulation
Coding
Transport block size
Antenna mapping (TX diversity, beam forming,
spatial multiplexing)

Time/Frequency location of PBCH and


SS - FDD

PBCH = Physical Broadcast


Channel

SS = Synchronization Signal

56

Note: PBCH and SS use innermost part of


the spectrum. This way the system
acquisition is the same regardless of

Used for BCH transport channel


P-SS = Primary Synchronization
Signal
S-SS = Secondary
Synchronization Signal
SS are used only on Layer 1 for
system acquisition and Layer 1
cell identity

Time/Frequency location of PBCH and


SS - TDD

PBCH = Physical Broadcast


Channel

SS = Synchronization Signal

57

Note: The position of the P-SS is different in


TDD and FDD. By acquiring P-SS, the UE
already knows if the system is FDD or TDD.

Used for BCH transport channel


P-SS = Primary Synchronization
Signal
S-SS = Secondary
Synchronization Signal
SS are used only on Layer 1 for
system acquisition and Layer 1
cell identity

Synchronization Channel (SCH)

SCH first channel acquired by UE


Based on SCH, UE determines eNode B PHY cell identity
504 possible PHY layer cell IDs
168 groups with 3 identities per group
SCH consist of 2 signals

PSS (Primary Synchronization Signal)


SSS (Secondary Synchronization Signal)

3 possible PSS sequences: NID(2) = 0,1, 2


168 possible SSS sequences: NID(1) = 0,1, , 167
Cell ID: NIDcell = 3* NID(1) + NID(2)

For FDD (frame type 1)


PSS is transmitted on OFDM symbol 7 in the first time slot of subframe 0 and 5
SSS is transmitted on OFDM symbol 6 in the first time slot of subframe 0 and 5
For TDD (frame type 2)
PSS is transmitted on OFDM symbol 3 in the first time slot of subframe 1 and 6
SSS is transmitted on OFDM symbol 6 in the first time slot of subframe 0 and 5
58

PBCH

PBCH = PHY Broadcast Channel


PBCH provides PHY channel for static part
of Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
BCCH carriers RRC System Information
(SI) messages
SI messages carry System Information
Blocks (SIBs)
SI-M is a special SI that carrier Master
Information Block (MIB)
In LTE BCCH is split into two parts

59

Primary broadcast: Carriers MIB and provides UE


with fast access to vital system broadcast
information. Primary broadcast is mapped to PBCH
Dynamic broadcast: Carries all SIBs that contain
quasi-static information on system operating
parameters. Dynamic broadcast is mapped to
PDSCH

Mapping of the BCCH


information

PCH

PCH = Paging Channel


Transmitted over PDSCH (messages), PDCCH (paging indicator)
LTE support DRX (UE sleeps between paging occasions)

LTE defines DRX cycle


UE is assigned to P-RNTI (Paging Radio Network Temporary Identifier)
P-RNTI is set on PDCCH
UE that finds set P-RNTI reads PCH on PDSCH to determine if it is being paged

DRX cycle compromise

Long cycle: good battery life, higher paging delay


Short cycle: faster paging response, shorter UE battery life

DRX and
paging

60

Mapping
of PCCH

Section review
1. Explain the main idea behind
OFDM?
2. How is OFDMA different from
FDMA?
3. What is the role of cyclic prefix
(CP) in OFDM?
4. What are DL reference signals?
5. How are cell specific reference
signals linked to cells physical
identity?
6. What is the role of PCFICH?
7. What is the role of PHICH?
8. What is the channel used for user
data and higher layer signaling?

61

9. What is SCH?
10. What portion of the time-frequency
resources is occupied by SCH?
11. What is the duration of LTE
frame?
12. How many subframe are in LTE
frame?
13. What is the time duration of one
LTE time slot?

DFTS-OFDM

DFTS-OFDM = DFT Spread OFDM


Also known as s Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA)
Used on RL of LTE
Advantages:

Lower PAPR than OFDM (4dB for QPSK and 2dB for 16-QAM)
Orthogonality between the users in the same cell
Low complexity TX/RX due to DFT/FFT

Disadvantage:

Needs an equalizer at the Node B RX


Need for some synchronization in time domain

Outline of the
DFTS-OFDM
62

Note: In DFTS-OFDM,
M<N

DFTS-OFDM TX/RX chain

63

Note: the TX/RX of DFTS-OFDM is almost the same as OFDM.


The DFT pre-coding / decoding and equalization are done in
software

Uplink user multiplexing

Two ways of mapping the output of the DFT


Consecutive carriers: Localized DTFS-OFDM
Distributed carriers: Distributed DTFS-OFDM

Distributed OFDM has benefit of frequency diversity

Note 1: Mapping
between output of the
OFDM and carriers is
performed by MAC
scheduler
Note 2: Spectrum
bandwidth may be
allocated in dynamic
fashion
Localized DFTS-OFDM
64

Distributed DFTS-OFDM

Uplink frame format


Need for two different CP:
1. To accommodate
environments with large
channel dispersion
2. To accommodate MBSFN
(Multi-Cast Broadcast
Single Frequency
Network) transmission
Note: UL and DL frame
formats are identical
TCP: 160Ts (5.1us) for first symbol, 144Ts
(4.7us) for
other six symbols
TCP-e: 512 Ts (16.7 us) for all symbols
65

PHY channels supporting UL TX

PRACH initial random access and


UL timing alignment
PUSCH channel used for
transmission of user data and upper
layer signaling
PUCCH uplink control channel
used for scheduling requests for
synchronized UEs
PDCCH uplink scheduling grants
PHICH HARQ feedback channel
supporting UL transmission

66

Uplink reference signals (1)

Used for uplink channel estimation


Two types of sequences

Data demodulation Reference Signal (DM-RS)


Sounding Reference Signal (SRS)

DM-RS

Sent on each slot transmission to help


demodulate data
Occupies center part of the slot transmission
(symbols 4) in both transmission slots
Use same bandwidth as the UL data (multiples
of 12 carrier RBs)
Properties of DM-RS sequences

67

Small power variations in frequency domain


Small power variations in time domain

Uplink reference signals (2)

SRS

Allow network to estimate channel quality


across entire band
Used by MAC scheduler to perform
frequency dependent scheduling
Optional implementation
UE can be configured to send SRS
sequence at time intervals from 2ms to
160ms
Two modes of operation

68

Wideband SRS UE send the sequence across


the entire spectrum
Hopping SRS UE sends narrowband
sequence that hops across different parts of the
spectrum

PUSCH

PUSCH = PHY Shared channel


PUSCH carries UL-SCH (user data/higher
layer signaling)
During data transmission L1/L2 signaling also
mapped o PUSCH preserve single carrier TX
Resources allocated to the UE on per
subframe basis
Allocation is done in PRB (12 carriers by 1 ms)
Modulation used may be QPSK, 16-QAM or
64-QAM (optional)
Allocated PRBs may be hopped from subframe
to subframe
Two modes of hopping

Intra subframe and inter subframe


Only inter subframe

Hopping may be on the basis of explicit grants


from Node B or following predefined cellspecific mirroring patterns
69

Example: 2 UEs, 10MHz (50 RB)

Note: Frequency hopping provides


frequency diversity and
interference averaging for the UL
transmission

PUCCH

PUCCH = PHY Uplink Control Channel


Used for L1/L2 signaling

Used only when there is no scheduled


PUSCH transmission (single carrier TX)
Uses PRBs at the very end of the
allocated channel bandwidth

Scheduling request
ACK/NACK/DTX for DL-SCH transmission
Feedback on DL channel quality (CQI/PMI/RI)

Increases frequency diversity


Allows scheduling of larger resource chunks for
uplink transmission

Number of PRBs is configured by the


network in a semi-static manner
Bandwidth of a single resource block in a
subframe is shared by several UEs

70

Economical use of allocated resources


Reduces signaling overhead

Note: PUCCH performs


frequency hopping between
two slots of a subframe

PUCCH formats
PUCCH format

Modulation

Purpose

Bits/subframe

On/off keying

Scheduling requests

N/A

1a

BPSK

ACK/NACK for SIMO

1b

QPSK

ACK/NACK for MIMO

QPSK

CQI/PMI/RI

20

2a

QPSK+BPSK

CQI/PMI/RI+ACK/NACK
for SIMO

21

2b

QPSK+QPSK

CQI/PMI/RI+ACK/NACK
for MIMO

22

Note 1: There are 2 formats: Format 1 (1, 1a and 1b) and Format 2
(2, 2a and 2b)
Note 2: PUCCH power offset depends on the PUCCH format
71

PUCCH Format 1

Small in size (1 or 2 bits)


Used for

DL HARQ ACK/NACK for MIMO/SIMO


Scheduling request

By using different cyclic shifts and


different covers sequences, multiple
users may be multiplexed on the same
PUCCH resource
Typically there are 6 shifts and 3 cover
sequences 18 UEs per PUCHH
resource

Note: Format 1
is repeated in
two
corresponding
slots in the
subframe
72

PUCCH Format 2

Larger in size (20, 21 or 22 bits)

10 bits for CQI report


2 bits for ACK/NACK

Used for
DL HARQ ACK/NACK for MIMO/SIMO
Scheduling request
CQI/PMI and RI information

By using different cyclic shifts of


the CAZAC sequence multiple
UEs may be multiplexed on one
PUCCH resource
Format 1 and 2 share the same
basic format

Note: for Format 2, both CQI


report and ACK/NACK
information are sent
73

Processing of CQI
report

PRACH

PRACH = PHY Random Access Channel


Physical channel used in support of random
access
In LTE initial access is handled only on PHY, all
the signaling is sent through UL-SCH (PUSCH)
PRACH carries one of 64 preambles
Available preambles are signaled in SIB-2
UE selects a preamble based on the amount of
data it needs to send on UL-SCH (this way Node
B knows how to reserve resources)
PRACH preamble is sent over PRACH time
frequency resource

74

Occupies middle 1.08MHz of spectrum


Same spectrum regardless of total LTE bandwidth
PRACH access subframe may occur every 1, 2, 5, 10 or
20 ms (20 ms optional, only in synchronized networks)
Subframe allowed for access signaled on SIB-2,
paremeter PRACH_Configuration index

UL time frequency
resources for PRACH

Section review
1. Why is OFDM not suitable for UL
transmission?
2. What is PAPR?
3. What is DFTS-OFDM?
4. What are two types of UL
reference signals?
5. Why is there need for sounding
reference signals?
6. How often can a mobile configured
to send SRS signals?
7. What is PUSCH?
8. What is PUCCH?
9. What are PUCCH formats?

75

10. What information is carried on


PUCCH?
11. What is PRACH?
12. How does UE learn what
preamble sequences are available
for PRACH?

Part 3

MULTIPLE ANTENNA
TECHNIQUES
76

Multi antenna configuration

LTE uses of multiple antennas at


both communication ends
LTE standard requires support for

TX diversity
Beam forming or SDMA
Spatial multiplexing

Uplink MIMO

77

Reception/transmission diversity
Beam forming
Spatial multiplexing (MIMO antenna
processing)

Downlink MIMO

4 antennas at the eNodeB


2 antennas at the UE

Multiple antennas may be used in


three principle ways

Downlink
MIMO

Multi user MIMO (SDMA)

Uplink MIMO
Note: UL MU MIMO
avoids use of
multiple PAs at the
UE

DL transmit diversity

Two implementations

CDD

Multiple antenna elements are used to


introduce additional versions of the
signal that are cyclically delayed
UE perceives these signals as
additional multi-paths
Assuming low correlations between TX
antennas created multi-paths fade
independently source of diversity

CDD TX
diversity

STTD

78

Cyclic Delay Diversity (CDD)


Space-Time Transmit Diversity (STTD)

Uses Space-Frequency Block Codes


Special encoding (SFBC) makes the
channel matrix unitary (full rank)
Reference symbols are used to
estimate and invert channel matrix

SFBC TX
diversity

TX Diversity - CDD

OFDM is robust with respect


to multi-path propagation
(within CP interval)
CDD simulates multi-path
propagation
No modification in RX signal
processing UE sees single
antenna transmission in
dispersive environment
Note: Extension of CDD to
more than 2 antennas is
straightforward. Each
antenna has its own cyclic
delay.
79

Processing in case of 2 antenna CDD


TX diversity

TX Diversity 2 TX SFBC

Data sent to different antenna are encoded using SFBC

2 symbols at the time for 2 antennas TX diversity


Open loop

SFBC in case of 2
TX diversity
r2 n h1
r h*
2 n 1 2
sn
80

h2
h1*

1
2

h1 h2

a2 n
a * Hs n
2 n 1

h1*

*
h2

h2

h1

r2 n
r
2 n 1

Note 1: UE needs to have good


estimate of the channel estimate
obtained using PHY reference
sequences

TX Diversity 4 TX SFBC

Data sent to different antenna are encoded using SFBC

4 symbols at the time for 4 antennas TX diversity


TX diversity operates on a resource element group (REG)
Open loop

SFBC in case of 4
TX diversity
Note 1: 4 TX SFBC diversity may
be seen as two 2 TX SFBC
diversity transmissions
multiplexed in time
81

Spatial multiplexing

Basic idea: fading channel


provides uncorrelated parallel
paths for data transmission

Capacity benefit of SM
MIMO

C
N S
N L log 2 1 R
BW
NL N

N L min N T , N R

NT
NR

- number of TX antennas
- number of RX antennas
12.00
10.00

Example: 2 by
2

h
h
r 11 12
h21 h22

82

8.00
6.00

s1 n1
s n
2 2

s1
1r s1 H 1n

Wr

H
s
s
2
2

Spectral efficiency (bps/Hz)

C/W (1,1)

4.00

C/W (1,2)

2.00

C/W (2,2)

0.00
10
0 20

S/N (dB)

Spatial multiplexing in LTE

Two types
Open loop (used high speed scenarios)

Large delay Cyclic Delay Diversity (CDD)

Closed loop (used in low speed scenarios)

Mobile provides channel feedback to eNode B

Feedback

Closed loop spatial multiplexing

Open loop spatial multiplexing

PMI (Pre-coded
matrix indicator)

PMI feedback from UE based on


instantaneous channel state

No feedback from UE. Fixed pre-coding


at eNode B implementing cyclic delay
diversity (CDD)

CQI (Channel
quality indicator)

Separate CQI for each code word

Aggregate CQI (one value)

RI (Rank
indicator)

Based on the rank of estimated channel


matrix
(indicates number of spatial channels)

Based on the rank of estimated channel


matrix when SFBCs are used

83

Closed loop
spatial
multiplexing

Code word layer mapping

LTE uses either 1 or 2 code words


Code words are mapped onto layers

Number of modulation symbols in


each layer is the same

1 layer for 1 codeword


2, 3 or 4 layers for 2 code words

Mapping between codewords and layers

Accomplished through numerous


transport-block formats and sizes

Through a pre-coding matrix the


layers are mapped onto the antennas

84

There is a set of pre-defined pre-coded


matrices
Through PMI, UE recommends to eNodeB
which pre-coded matrix to use
eNodeB may not follow UEs
recommendation informs UE about precoding matrix through explicit signaling

Note: layers are mapped to


antennas one symbol at the
time

Antenna configurations

85

Transmissi
on modes

Description

Comments

Single antenna (Port 0)

Used for SISO and SIMO


transmission

Transmit diversity

Used in low SNR and high


mobility

Open loop spatial multiplexing


(large delay CDD)

Beneficial in high SNR and rich


multipath environment

Closed loop spatial multiplexing


(Rank 2, 3 or4)

Beneficial in high SNR and rich


multipath environment

Multi-user MIMO

Beneficial in high SNR


environment for interference
reduction

Closed loop Rank = 1

Beneficial in low SNR


environments

Single antenna port (Port 5)

Used for beam forming of


antenna arrays

SIMO/MIMO mode selection

Note: Detection of the


environment type and best
use of MIMO/SIMO is one of
the tasks for scheduler
major differentiating factor
between different equipment
86
vendors

Section review
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

What is MIMO?
What is receive diversity?
What is transmit diversity?
What is beam forming?
What is SDMA?
What is spatial multiplexing?
How much is capacity of link
increased using spatial
multiplexing?
8. What is CQI?
9. What is RI?
10. How is RI used by the scheduler?

87

11. What is the main idea behind


SFBC?
12. What is CDD?
13. Explain the main idea behind
CDD?