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ABUEL, Romi Necq S.

VILLANUEVA, Lloyd L.

EXPERIMENT NO. 9
CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
FCD2, Group No. 9, Ms. Xyza Hannah Montaner
May 15, 2015

I. Abstract
Chemical equilibrium is an extremely important process in nature particularly in many industrial (e.g.
production of ammonia) and biological processes (production of hemoglobin in relation to altitude). Experiment 9,
chemical equilibrium, will determine how various stresses, according to Le Chateliers Principle, being introduced
in a system at equilibrium can alter the systems equilibrium position by shifting in direction to counteract the effect
of the stress. These stresses include increase or decrease in concentration, temperature, and pressure. To know
the effect of the change in concentration, different reactants are added in the initial mixture and for the
determination of the effect of temperature change, two mixtures with the same components are used: the
temperature in one of the mixtures is increased while the temperature in the other mixture is decreased.
For both set-ups, an undisturbed mixture is used as reference for the comparison in the color of the disturbed
mixtures. A darker disturbed mixture will mean a forward reaction, conversely, a lighter disturbed mixture will mean
a backward reaction. Again, the significance of this color change together with its corresponding shift in direction
is to tell that the reaction is going towards its natural state which is to be in equilibrium.
II. Keywords
Keywords: Chemical Change, Chemical Equilibrium, Concentration, Temperature, Le Chatelier's Principle, Shift

III. Introduction
When two reactants react together to form a
product, it is not usually an instantaneous process.
As time progresses, the concentration of the product
increases and when it becomes too concentrated,
the reactants may form back, and the reaction
becomes reversible. These kinds of reactions are
considered to be in the state of equilibrium.
Equilibrium is a state where the continuous
formation of the reactants and the product will
eventually become equal as the reaction progresses,
that is, it is constant in time and space. Chemical
reactions, particularly reversible reactions, have the
tendency to alter its conditions to achieve
equilibrium. At this chemical equilibrium, the rates of
the forward and reverse reactions are equal.
Furthermore, the concentrations of the products and
reactants remain constant.
Le Chateliers principle is used to predict the
direction or shift of the equilibrium position when
stress such as change in concentration, pressure,
volume, or temperature occurs in the reaction.
This experiment will determine how various
factors called stress, according to Le Chateliers
Principle being introduced in a system at equilibrium
can alter the systems equilibrium position by shifting
in direction to relieve the effect of the stress.
IV. Methodology

Twenty drops of 1 M Fe(NO3)3 solution and


twenty drops of 1 M KCNS solution were placed in a
10-mL test tube and 7-mL water was added. Then it
was shaken well. Eight test tubes were labeled from
1 to 8 and ten drops from the prepared solution were
placed in each. To the first six test tubes, ten drops
of the following reagents were added:
This table shows the amount and molarity of each reagent placed
in each corresponding test tubes.

Test tube no.

Reagent (10 drops)

1
2
3
4

Distilled water
0.1M Fe(NO3)3
0.1 M KCNS
0.1 M KCl

5
6

0.1 M AgNO3
A pinch of NAF

Test tubes 2 to 6 were observed using test tube


1 as reference. Changes were noted in intensity of
color or appearance of the mixture. The observations
recorded were accounted after the addition of each
reagent. For the next observation, test tubes 7 and 8
containing the ten drops of the prepared solution
were added with ten drops of distilled water.Test
tube 7 was placed in ice water while test tube 8 was
heated over a low Bunsen flame. They were both
compared to test tube 1 and observations were
recorded.

Changes in color (specifically intensity),


appearances and reactions should be observed and
taken note of throughout the experiment.
Chemistry 14.1, Chemical Equilibrium

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V. Results
This table shows the changes in color and corresponding
direction of shift

REAGENTS

OBSERVATION

0.1 M
Fe(NO)3

Darker

0.1 M KCNS

Darker

0.1 M KCl

Lighter

0.1 M
AgNO3
one pinch of
NaF
Increase in
temp.
Decrease in
temp.

Lighter
Lighter (cloudy
white)
Lighter
Darker

DIRECTION
OF SHIFT
Forward (to
the right)
Forward (to
the right)
Backward (to
the left)
Backward (to
the left)
Backward (to
the left)
Backward (to
the left)
Forward (to
the right)

VI. Discussion
The experiment involved taking note of
changes in color, appearance, and reactions of the
solutions made from different reagents. Following
the procedures carefully and adding the precise
amounts of reagents and solutions should be
observed as inaccurate amounts may affect the
reactions.
In the experiment, the prepared solution
consists of 20 drops of Fe(NO3)3 (orange) and 20
drops of KCNS- (colorless) dissolved in 7 ml of water.
After the solute had completely dissolved, a dark red
mixture was obtained. The reaction is:
Fe3+ + CNS- FeCNS2+.
In test tube #1, 10 drops of H2O was added.
There are no observable change in color of the
solution. Test tube 1 served as the reference for
comparison of color changes to other solutions.
In test tube #2, 10 drops of 0.1 M Fe(NO3)3
was added to 10 drops of the solution, producing a
darker hue in comparison to test tube 1.
In test tube #3, the addition of 10 drops of
0.1 M KCNS in the 10 drops of the solution produced
a darker color that also means a higher
concentration in the reactant. There is a forward shift
towards the product to attain equilibrium.
In test tube #4, 10 drops 0.1 M of KCl added
to 10 drops of the solution produced a lighter color.
This means that there is a backward (reverse) shift
in the reaction. Since KCl is a salt, it dissociated
completely in the solution, forming K+ and Cl- ions.
In the reaction: (Fe(CNS)3 + 3KCl FeCl3
+ 3KCNS ), K+ ions bonded with CNS-, so there is a
decrease in amount of reactant CNS-. To attain
equilibrium, the product 3KCNS is broken down to
increase the reactant, hence the cause of the
backward shift.
Chemistry 14.1, Chemical Equilibrium

In test tube #5, 10 drops of 0.1 M of Ag3NO3


was added in the mixture producing a lighter
mixture and a precipitate of an insoluble compound
AgCNS, causing a backward shift. This reaction can
be described by the following equation:
Fe(CNS)3 + AgNO3 AgSCN + Fe(NO3)3 . There is
a decrease in CNS in the reactants so the product
must be broken down to maintain equilibrium
(backward shift).
In test tube #6, a pinch of NaF was added
producing a lighter colored solution that caused a
backward shift. In addition to this, a cloudy white
solution. The reaction is described by the equation:
NaF + Fe- + SCN- ---> FeF3+ + NaSCN.
The formation of FeF3+ increased the solubility of
NaF.
Heating test tube #7 containing 10 drops of
the solution resulted in a solution of a lighter color,
indicating a backward shift.
Placing test tube #8 containing 10 drops of
the solution in an ice bath produced a darker color of
solution, indicating a forward shift.
The changes in color accounts for the
direction of shift in line with the Le Chateliers
Principle, which states that when changes in
condition are applied to change the current state of
equilibrium, then the position of equilibrium shifts to
a direction that will neutralize the change. Therefore,
when there is a backward shift, the direction is from
the product(s) to the reactants, and vice versa.
VII. Guide Questions and Answers
1. Explain your observations on the basis of Le
Chatelier's Principle.
When 10 drops of each of the reactants 0.1M
Fe(NO3)3 and 0.1 M KCNS were added to the test
tubes containing 10 drops of the prepared solution
(20 drops of 1 M KCNS and 20 drops of 1 M Fe(NO3)3
in 7-ml water) and decreasing the temperature of one
of the test tubes, the direction of the reaction shifted
forward. The forward shift of the reaction is caused
by increasing the concentration of the product and
decreasing the concentration of the reactant to attain
equilibrium.
When 10 drops each of 0.1 M AgNO3 and 0.1 M
KCl, one pinch of NaF were each added to test tubes
containing 10 drops of the prepared solution and
when the temperature was increased in one test
tube, the direction of the reaction shifted backward.
The backward shift is due to increase in
concentration of reactants and decrease in the
concentration of the products to attain equilibrium.

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VIII. Conclusion and Recommendations


Chemical equilibrium occurs in a chemical reaction
when the reactions on both sides, the reactant side
as well as in the product side have equal
concentration at the same rate. The experiment
showed how changes in concentration and
temperature affect the direction of equilibrium.
The Le Chateliers principle states that if
stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the
equilibrium will tend to shift in the direction which will
use up the excess substance and relieve the applied
stress. There are factors that may influence the shift,
such as concentration, temperature and pressure.
This shift in direction may be observed through
changes in color, appearance and reactions that may
be involved.
Moreover, the same principle is applied
when there is a change in the temperature since heat
is treated as either an agent which may be added in
the product or in the reactant side.

I hereby certify that I have given substantial


contribution to this report.

Romi Necq S. Abuel

Lloyd L. Villanueva

It is recommended to extend the experiment


further so as to discover more factors that are
capable of shifting the direction of reaction and to be
able to determine what reagents should be added in
a solution to cause a particular shift of direction.
It is recommended that the exact amount
and molarity of each reagent must be carefully
followed in order to avoid discrepancies of the
experimental results and the expected findings.
It is also recommended to extend the
experiment further so as to discover more factors
that are capable of shifting the direction of reaction
and to be able to determine what reagents should be
added in a solution to cause a particular shift of
direction.

IX. References
[1] No author. (2005). (Le Chateliers Principle.
http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicrevi
ew/bp/ch16/lechat.html.
[2] Lower, S. (2010). Introduction: reactions that go
both ways. Retrieved from
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/chemeq/Eq01.html#SEC1>
[4] Brown M., Lemay W., and Bursten S. (2015).
Chemistry: the central science (13th ed.). New
Jersey, USA: Pearson Education, Inc.
[5] Green, H. Equilibrium: Crash Course Chemistry
#28.
[Video
File].
Retrieved
from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g5wNg_dKsYY

Chemistry 14.1, Chemical Equilibrium

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