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Krausz Hausz

Final Exam Concept Study Guide


A.

CHAPTER 5
1. Write the equation for photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
2. Define herbivore, omnivore, carnivore, and decomposer.
3. Describe how energy is transferred from one organism to another (Law of 10%).
4. Compare a food chain and a food web.
5. Explain the carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen cycles.
6. Describe the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria.
7. Explain how humans are affecting the carbon cycle.
8. List and compare the two types of ecological succession.
9. Explain how putting out forest fires may be damaging in the long run.
B. CHAPTER 3
1. Name and describe the compositional layers of the geosphere.
2. Explain the major effects of earthquakes.
3. Describe how volcanoes can have an effect on the climate.
4. Name and describe the compositional layers of the atmosphere.
5. Describe the composition of Earths atmosphere.
6. Explain the three mechanisms of energy/heat transfer.
7. Describe the role of greenhouse gases in Earths atmosphere.
8. Name the processes in the water cycle.
9. Name the two factors that confine living things to the biosphere.
10. Differentiate between open and closed systems.
C. GEOSPHERE
1. Compare the environmental costs of producing different types of foods.
2. Describe the structure and composition of fertile soil.
3. Explain why soil conservation is an important agricultural practice.
4. Compare the benefits and environmental impact of pesticide usage.
5. Explain how overharvesting affects the supply of fish.
6. List five factors that influence the value of a fuel.
7. Differentiate between coal, oil, and natural gas.
8. Explain how an electric generator works.
9. Describe how using fuel affects the environment.
10. Differentiate between nuclear fission and fusion.
11. List two advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy.
12. List two advantages and disadvantages of all forms of renewable energy.
13. Describe the differences between active and passive solar energy.
14. Explain how all renewable energy sources have their origin from the Sun.
15. Describe the difference in energy conservation and energy efficiency.
D. HYDROSPHERE
1. List two factors that determine where an organism lives in an aquatic ecosystem.
2. Compare plankton, nekton, and benthos.
3. List two environmental functions of wetlands.
4. Compare/contrast marshes and swamps.
5. Explain why estuaries are productive ecosystems and why they are vulnerable to
pollution.
6. Describe two factors that can damage coral reefs.
7. Describe the distribution of water on Earth.
8. Explain why fresh water is a limited resource.
9. Describe how water travels through rock.
10. Describe the six steps of the water treatment process.
11. Describe the benefits and costs of building dams.
12. List some things you can do to help conserve the worlds water supply.
13. Differentiate between point and nonpoint source pollution.
14. List the major types of water pollutants.
15. Describe why it is difficult to clean up water pollution.
E. ATMOSPHERE
1. Name the five primary air pollutants.
2. Describe the way in which smog forms.

F.

3. Explain how a temperature inversion traps pollutants near Earths surface.


4. Differentiate between short term and long term effects of air pollution.
5. Describe two ways in which indoor air pollution can be prevented.
6. Describe the health problems associated with noise pollution.
7. List several solutions for preventing light pollution.
8. Explain how acid rain forms.
9. Describe three ways in which acid rain affects humans.
10. Explain the difference between weather and climate.
11. Explain why different parts of the world have different climates.
12. Explain what causes the seasons.
13. Describe the process of how CFCs destroy ozone molecules.
14. List five harmful effects of UV rays on humans/other animals.
15. Explain why it will take years for the ozone hole to recover.
16. Name some possible consequences of a warmer Earth.
BIOSPHERE
1. Compare populations in terms of size, density, and dispersion.
2. Describe exponential population growth and carrying capacity.
3. Explain how reproductive behaviors can affect the growth rate of a population.
4. Calculate growth rate.
5. List four parts of an animals niche.
6. List, describe, and give examples of the five species interactions.
7. Describe how the size and growth rate of the human population has changed over the
last 200 years.
8. List and describe the four stages of demographic transition.
9. Describe three problems with rapid human population growth.
10. Compare/contrast developed and developing counties.
11. Compare the number of actual known species on Earth and the relative number of
species on Earth.
12. Describe the three levels of biodiversity.
13. Differentiate between endemic, exotic, and endangered species.
14. List areas of the Earth that have high levels of biodiversity.
15. Describe four types of efforts to save species worldwide.
16. List the main provisions of The Endangered Species Act.
17. Explain why scientists protect the entire habitat rather than the individual species.