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Claes Johnson $2 Numerical solution of partial differential equations by the finite element method Ch 2,3 CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge New York New Rochelle Melbourne Sydney 2. Abstract formulation of the finite element method for elliptic problems 2.1 Introduction. The continuous problem We shall now give an abstract formulation of the finite element method for cliptic problems of the type that we have studied in Chapter 1. This is not goal in itself, but makes it possible to give a unified treatment of ‘problems in mechanics and physis so that we do not have to repeat inp the same argument in different concrete cases. Further the abstract form there is a constant y>0 such we wev, here isa constant a0 such that Wev. there is a constant A>0 such that wey, Let us now consider the following abstract minimization problem (M): Find uueV such that 24) Flu)=Min FO), 50 where Foy=baten)-L0), and consider also the following abstract variational problem (V): Find weV such that @5)— aluy)=L)_ eV. Let us now f prove: Theorem 2.1 The problems (244) if and only ifu sat uueV of these problems ar 4) and (2.5) are equivalent, ie, ueV satisties 26) jules. Proof Existence of a solution f f the Ries2’ represe 1d we leave the proof (utev)eV so that since w isa minimum, Flu)sF(uter) Vee, Using the notation g(e)=Flutev), e€R, we thus have i0)0. This is an example of a stationary place term corresponds to diffusion with diffusion coefficient and the first order derivatives correspond to convection in the direction 8=(B1, 62). Let us here assume that ¢=1 and that the size ‘of |p| is moders ‘Chapter 9). over Q and using to the following variational formulation of (2 (2.28) a(u,vJ=L() We, where Find weV such that we[(Vv- Vw: 4p Mave ds, Love. awe f(Ov- Vw See Re vwys, Leo)= fv ds tis clear that af, is V-lliptic since if veV, we have by Green's formula 30446, Myydien $s Zews a Bayi fhm fads ~ Joe By 48 Be yee fe) S04 pe My See Bh S48 Ba SE = fi Sethe Sa, 8v 5, yy anal {Gi Se +B Sov amb, so that atv, v)= {IV oP += a Existence of @ unique weak solution of (2.23) now follows from Remark 2.1. ‘Starting from (2.24) we may formulate the following finite element method for (2.23): Find wyeVy such that 2.25) atu, Y=LO) WweVn, ‘where Vp isa fnite-dimensional subspace of V. 1 Qu) isa basis to the linear system AE=b ). Note that in this case the By the V-elliptcity it follows that solutions of (2.25) are unique and thus A is non-singular so that AE=b admits a unique solution, ie, there exists a unique solution u of (2.25). By the same argument asin the proof of Theorem 2.3, we also have the error estimate (here @=1): |Ju—uslletteay