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Debian

: Debian 1993

Debian.
GNU/Linux ,
.
. ,

,
10- . ,
.
Advanced Packaging Tool (APT), Debian,
.
, ,
,
(
, ). ,
Debian .
:
64- (amd64)
32- (i386)
EABI ARM
PowerPC
Hard Float ABI ARM
SPARC
kFreeBSD 64- (amd64)
Intel Itanium IA-64
MIPS ( )
kFreeBSD 32- (i386)
IBM S/390
MIPS ( )
IBM System z
: Debian Linux FreeBSD
:
- hdparm (
), iptables
( ) setserial (
). /etc/init.d
init
.
:
,
, , (
).
: FTP- MC
Android

: Android ,

, , ,
, , , ,
Google[3], [4] .

Android Inc., Google.


: Android
Android
:
Linux,
.
Linux ,
Dalvik, -,
SQLite, Java API.
, , Google Android-.
, ,

.
: - ,
"". "" ,
(Ubuntu, Fedora, SuSe ..)
. ,
: "" .
""
, 2011 4-5 .
wakelocks
3.5.
: Android- Java,
, C++ ( C++). Google
. ,
Android x86, ARM Atom
: OS Android
, OS Windows.
. , ..
/ .
OS Windows, .
C .
/ /
, C
Windows 95

: 24 1995

Windows 95. 400


. beta- .
- Windows
95 1995 . :
Windows 95, ,
,

,
Designed for Windows 95. ,
Windows 95 , :
Windows 1990.
Windows 3.0.
,

, (dragand-drop),
.
.
: Windows 95
Windows, 32-
(API),
32- ,
,

.
,
16-
. Windows 95
. , 4 ,
, Windows 3.1,
.

- .
: Windows 95 32- . Kernel
32-. GDI , 32
, , TrueType
, 16- .
User 16-.
: 32-

.
: conventional ( 1 1M)
extended. 1M conventional (640K) 384K,
, BIOS
. .
DOS-.
: 1987 .
. FAT,
Microsoft Standalone Disk Basic
DOS,
. FAT
32 ,
PC.
,
DOS 4.0 -
.
DOS 4.0
128
;
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.
- , ,
, " ",
" ". ,
,

, 2,5 , -
2 ,
.
Windows XP
: Windows XP (

Whistler; Windows NT 5.1)


() Windows NT Microsoft. 25
2001 Windows 2000 Professional.
XP . experience (, [2])
Windows 2000,
, , Windows XP
.
:
- 32-
- 32-

( Kernel
User)

/
/

/
.
: Windows 2000/XP ,
.
:
(microkernel)2. , ,
. :
, . ;
(Hardware Abstraction Layer, HAL).

.
/ (Input/Output Manager).
.

, ,
;
, ,
;
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-
,
.

NTFS
, ,
FAT. NTFS


, , , ,
,
.
:
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, .
,
,
.
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: NTFS
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FAT.
NTFS
, , , ,
,
.
Windows Vista Business
:

Windows Vista Business


.
Windows Vista Business
,
.
Windows Vista Business
, -

.
: TCP/IP
IP, IPv4 IPv6
.
IPv4 IPv6 , IPv6
. TCP/IP

, TCP.
: ,
( ), ,
.
: Windows Vista
. Microsoft ,

. , ,
.
: 32- 4
. ,
. "Memory Mapped IO"
(MMIO). 4 ,

.
: (Encrypting File
System - EFS).
Windows Vista
. EFS ,
.
,
.
Windows 7 Pro
: Windows 7 Professional -

; ,
.
(Domain Join),

,
(Location Aware
Printing)
:
, ,
. ,
,
.
. NT
. ,
(HAL), (Executives),
(Kernel-mode drivers)
(User-mode drivers).
:
. . ,
.

.

.
: Windows 7
,
Windows Vista.
:
,
(. .
). 4096 , 128
.
:
Windows NT
:

. .
,
.
.

./
: x86 4 0
3, 0 3 .
3, 0.
RISC,
. ,
,
, ,
HAL.
32 ;
;
( );
, ;
;
:
(HAL).
: 32- 16-
, . .
:
,
(. .
). 4096 , 128
.
: NTFS
, ,
FAT.
NTFS
, , , ,
,
.
Windows Azure
:
Microsoft (Windows) Azure[1] Microsoft.

, -.
Windows Azure. 2014
Microsoft Azure.
Microsoft Azure
(Platform as a Service, PaaS) (Infrastructure
as a Service, IaaS). Windows Azure
- Microsoft.
:

abric- , ,

. , ,
,
.
Storage Stamp (SS). ,
N (rack) ,
.
Location Service (LS). SS
SS. LS

SS
.
.
Stream Layer (SL).

SS.
: Fabric Windows Azure Fabric
,
, , ,
, ,
.

: 32- 16-
, . .
:
,
(. .
). 4096 , 128
.
: NTFS
, ,
FAT.
NTFS
, , , ,
,
.
Windows Mobile
: Windows Mobile , Microsoft
Pocket PC ( ,
) Smartphone ().
: 2011
Windows Marketplace for Mobile[3]; 2011
My Phone 2011 [4]; 2012 Microsoft
Windows Marketplace for Mobile [5].
: ARM. Windows Mobile
.

, , S60,
. - , . , WM
,
.
: Windows CE
ARM
: 32- 16-

, . .

: Windows Mobile 5.0 64 RAM. 32


. ,
NOR ROM ( NOR ).
, , " ".
, RAM,
.
:

Windows 7 Home Basic


: Windows 7 Home Basic
, . , ,
.
Windows 7 .
: ,
, . ,
, .
. NT
. ,
(HAL), (Executives),
(Kernel-mode drivers) (User-mode drivers).
: .
. ,
.
.
.
: Windows 7

,
Windows Vista.
:
,
(. .
). 4096 , 128
.
:
Windows Vista Home Premium
: Windows Vista Home Premium
,
.
, -
.
: TCP/IP
IP, IPv4 IPv6
. IPv4 IPv6
, IPv6 .
TCP/IP
, TCP.
: ,

( ), ,
.
: Windows Vista
. Microsoft ,

. , ,
.
: 32- 4 .
,
. "Memory Mapped IO" (MMIO).
4 ,
.
: (Encrypting File System

- EFS).

Windows Vista
. EFS ,
.
,
.
Windows Vista Home Basic
: Windows Vista Home Basic
,
. ,
, Windows
Vista, ,
, . ,
, ,
, Windows
Vista Home Basic ,
.
: TCP/IP
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. IPv4 IPv6
, IPv6 .
TCP/IP
, TCP.
: ,

( ), ,
.
: Windows Vista
. Microsoft ,

. , ,
.
: 32- 4 .
,
. "Memory Mapped IO" (MMIO).
4 ,
.
: (Encrypting File System

- EFS).
Windows Vista
. EFS ,
.
,
.
ASP Linux
: ASPLinux (Application Service Provider Linux)
Linux, .
RPM, Fedora. ASPLinux
.
: KOI8-R, KOI8-U, CP1251, ISO 8859-5, UTF-8. 12,
( UTF-8)
, Anaconda.

: x86_64
ASPLinux Server, RHEL.
: Linux- 2.6.26. Linux
,
,
.
: ,
, ,
, ,
. OpenOffice.org
, ..
: Linux
4K. ,

. - , Linux
. Unix-
( Microsoft Windows)
, ,
(. . , ,
) .
: Linux Second Extended File System (ext2fs)
.

Linux Ubuntu
: Ubuntu , Debian GNU/Linux.
Canonical.
. Canonical, Ubuntu
20 . 4-
Linux -.[6] DistroWatch.com ( 2014 ) 2-
. Ubuntu
Debian
: x86_64
ASPLinux Server, RHEL.
: Linux- 2.6.26. Linux
,
,
.
: Ubuntu.
,
.
: Linux
4K. ,

. - , Linux
. Unix-
( Microsoft Windows)
, ,
(. . , ,
) .
: Linux Second Extended File System (ext2fs)
.

Linux Xp
: Linux XP ( -)

. Fedora.
, ,
Bug Fix.
:
Linux XP SMB Desktop
.
Linux XP Desktop 2008 Secure Edition
.
Linux XP SMB Live .
Linux XP Small
Linux XP SMB Desktop.
Linux XP SMB Server
, WEB- ,
, .
: x86_64
ASPLinux Server, RHEL.
: Linux- 2.6.26. Linux
,
,
.
: Windows, , Microsoft Office, Adobe Photoshop CS2 1
8.
, FlashGet, eMule, QIP, ACDSee, 7-Zip, Dreamweaver
.
: Linux
4K. ,

. - , Linux
. Unix-
( Microsoft Windows)
, ,
(. . , ,
) .
: Linux Second Extended File System (ext2fs)
.

Digital Unix
: Digital UNIX -
.
64- Digital UNIX .
,
-, Digital,
,
: , .
: 64- . Alpha
64 ,
. , NT - 32-
, Alpha. Digital UNIX,
, char - 1 , short
- 2 , int - 4 , long - 8 , 8
64- .
: OSF/1 , Unix, , Mach 2.5
:

: (,

).
: ,
UNIX System V
file system (s5fs).