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2.

2 Water
Essential Idea: Water is the medium of life.

-Water is an inorganic compound that plays an important role in living


organisms
-main component of blood and cytoplasm
-provides habitat
-controls global climate/temperatures

Structure
-One O and 2 H, covalent bonding (shared electrons)
-Oxygen atoms nucleus exerts a stronger pull on the shared electrons from
the 2 hydrogen atoms (electronegativity)
-results in unequal sharing of electrons, with oxygen taking a bit more of
them
-This unequal sharing of electrons results in partially negatively charged O
and partially positively charged Hs
-Becomes a polar molecule

-Water has 2 poles (dipolarity)


-due to this unique structure they form hydrogen bonds, which is a
relatively weak bond (intermolecular force)

-In hydrogen bonding, the oxygen atom of one water molecule is attracted to
the hydrogen atom of other water molecules
-Due to waters structure and hydrogen bonding, water has unique properties

Cohesive
-Water molecules tend to be attracted to other water molecules
-results in surface tension (insects float on the surface of water)
-In blood, cohesion helps with the suppression of dissolved molecules, even
distribution
-In plants, water molecules can be transported up through cohesion:
transpiration (evaporation) of water out of leaves causes other water
molecules to be pulled up

Adhesive
-Hydrogen bonds can form between water and other polar molecules
-Water can adhere to polar surfaces, eg: adhesion between water molecules
and cellulose in plant/cell walls
-If water evaporates out of a leaf, adhesive forces will cause other water
molecules to come out of plant tissues to keep cell walls moist

-this is needed for efficient gas transport (eg: carbon dioxide into plant
cells)
Thermal
-Due to the large number of hydrogen bonds, water has a high specific heat
capacity (the amount of energy required to raise the temperature by 1 C for
1 gram of a substance)
-For water, it is 1.00 cal/g C or 4.186 J/g C
-this is higher compared to most simple molecules
-Water has the ability to absorb large amounts of heat before the
temperature rises appreciably
-this protects organisms from rapid temperature changes, helps to regulate
body temperatures
- allows large bodies of water to maintain a relatively constant temperature
-Water also needs to lose a relatively large amount of energy to cool down
-the temperatures of water dont fluctuate dramatically, which is crucial for
organisms living in aquatic habitats
-Water has a high latent heat of vaporization
-it is relatively high for water because all the hydrogen bonds that need to
be broken require a lot of energy
-helps organism regulate body temperatures through sweating
-Water has a relatively high boiling point due to the hydrogen bonds
-water is able to remain as a liquid through a large temperature range

Solvent
-Water is an extremely useful solvent
-both inorganic and organic compounds dissolve in water to some extent
-water molecules surround charged parts of a compound and break it apart
(the partial charges of O and Hs)
-water then surrounds the components of the compound so it cannot
reform

Other Uses
-Because cytoplasm is made of primarily water, it is the medium for many
metabolic reactions
-Blood is largely made up of water, so it is ideal for the transport of soluble
materials (such as carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.)

Words that describe Solubility


Hydrophilic:
-Substances that are attracted to water, can be dissolved in water
-eg: all ionic compounds, polar compounds, ions
-Substances that adhere to water also are hydrophilic
-eg: glucose, sodium ions

Hydrophobic:
-Substances that are not attracted to water, compounds that are non-polar
(no charges)

-They are insoluble in water because water molecules are more strongly
attached to each other than to the other compound (hydrogen bonding)
-eg: lipids

Applications
The Use of Water as a Coolant in Sweat:
-Body temperature is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain
-it receives information from receptors that monitor skin and blood
temperatures
-If body gets too heated, hypothalamus stimulates sweat glands in the skin
to produce sweat
-ducts then carry sweat to surface of skin
-Heat is needed to evaporate the water in sweat
-this heat comes from the skin, therefore cooling the skin
-blood flowing through skin is also cooled (when the body is too hot, blood
vessels tend to dilate and increase blood flow to skin)
-Effective way to cool body because water has such a high latent heat of
vaporization

Transfer of Substances in Blood Plasma:


-Transport depends on the solubility of the substance in the plasma
-Glucose is a polar molecule that is soluble and dissolves easily
-Amino acids have positive and negative charges and are soluble in water
-some have groups attached to it that are hydrophobic
-Sodium Chloride is an ionic compound that is completely soluble
-Oxygen is non-polar, but it is a small molecule so it dissolves slightly in
water
-gets saturated at very low concentrations
-Fats and cholesterols are hydrophobic and not soluble in water
-carried by lipoprotein complexes that are made up of phospholipids and
proteins