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DIMENSIONAL

ENGINEERING

1
Course Outline

1. Introduction
2. Symbols
3. Terms
4. General Rules
5. Datum's
6. Form Control
7. Orientation controls
8. Location controls
9. Run-out

2
Course Objectives
Participants will
• Be able to explain the main benefits of
GD&T
– Diametrical tolerance zone
– MMC
– Datum's specified in order of precedence
• Develop a solid foundation of GD&T
fundamentals
– Symbols
– Terms
– Rules
• Be able to properly apply frequently used
geometric controls
• Should be able to demonstrate the working
knowledge of application of positional
tolerance.

3
Introduction to GD&T

• GD&T is a symbolic language. It is used to


specify size, shape, orientation and location.
GD&T reflects the actual relationship between the
mating parts. Drawings with properly applied
geometric tolerance provide the best opportunity
for uniform interpretation.
• GD&T is a design tool
• GD&T communicates the design intent.
• Dimensioning & Tolerance ASME Y14.5
1994, is current authorities document specifying
the proper application of GD&T.
• Document as grown from
– ASA Y14.5 1957
– SAE, Automotive, Aerospace Drawing standards &
MIL-STD-8C 1963.
– USASI Y14.5 1966
– ANSI Y 14.5 1973
– ANSI Y14.5M 1982

4
When do we use GD&T

• When drawing interpretation must be


same.
• When features are critical to function
or interchangeability.
• When it is important to eliminate the
scrapping of perfectly good parts.
• When it is important to reduce the
drawing changes.
• When functional gauging is required.

5
Cylindrical Tolerance zone
Vs.
Rectangular Tolerance zone

6
SYMBOLS, TERMS and RULES are the
basics of GD&T. They are the alphabets,
definitions and syntax of this language.
You can’t expect to communicate in a
language if you don’t know its words,
symbols and how those words and
symbols fit together

7
Symbols
Symbols are essence of this graphic language. It is
important not only to know each symbol, but also
to know how to apply these symbols to drawings.

8
Datum feature symbols attached to
features

9
Feature control Frame

Geometric
Characteristic
symbol
Geometric Primary
tolerance Datum
Datum
Modifier

Geometric Primary Tertiary


tolerance zone Datum Datum

Modifier

10
Feature control Frame attached to features

11
GD&T Symbology

12
Terms
Basic Dimension is a numeric value used to
describe the theoretically exact size, or profile, or
orientation, or location of a feature or datum target.
Basic dimensions are used to define or position
tolerance zones. They are dimension without
tolerances

Datum is a theoretically exact point, line, or plane


derived from true geometric counterpart of a
specified datum feature. Datum's are the origin
from which the location of features are established.

Datum feature is a actual feature on part that is


used to establish a datum.
Datum feature simulator is a real surface of
adequacy precise form, such as a surface plate or
machine table used to contact datum features to
establish simulated datum's.

Feature is a physical portion of a part, such as a


surface, pin, hole, tab, or slot.

Feature of sizes are features that have a


dimension and a size tolerance. FOS is
•Cylindrical surface
•Two opposed parallel surfaces
•A special Surface
•Two opposite line elements
13
Maximum Material Condition (MMC) of a feature
of size is a maximum amount of material within
stated limits of the size; for example maximum
shaft diameter or minimum hole diameter.

Regardless of feature (RFS) is a term used to


indicate that a specified geometric tolerance or a
datum reference applies at each increment of size of
feature within its limits of size. Regardless of
feature size specifies that no bonus tolerance is
allowed.

True position is exact location of feature


established by basic dimensions. Tolerance zones
are located at true position.

Virtual condition for a tolerance specified at MMC


is constant boundary generated by the collective
effects of the MMC limit of size of feature and the
applicable geometric tolerance.

External Features Internal Features


VC = MMC + Geo. Tol. VC = MMC - Geo. Tol. at
at MMC MMC

14
Datum Plane

15
Maximum Material Condition

External Features (Pins)


Actual Feature Size MMC Bonus Geometric Total
(Difference) Tolerance Position
Tolerance
.600 .600 .000 .020 .020
.580 .600 .020 .020 .040
.540 .600 .060 .020 .080
.520 .600 .080 .020 .100

Internal Features (Holes)


Actual Feature Size MMC Bonus Geometric Total
(Difference) Tolerance Position
Tolerance
.600 .520 .080 .020 .100
.580 .520 .060 .020 .080
.540 .520 .020 .020 .040
.520 .520 .000 .020 .020

16
Rules
Rule#1:
When no geometric tolerance is specified, the
dimensional tolerance controls the geometric form
as well as the size. No element of the feature shall
extend beyond of perfect form. The form tolerance
increases as the actual size of the feature departs
from MMC towards LMC
Rule#2 (1994 standard):
RFS automatically applies to individual tolerances
and to datum feature of sizes. MMC & LMC must be
specified where required.

Rule#2 (1982 standard):


When using a position control in a feature control
frame, MMC, LMC or RFS must be specified for the
geometric tolerances and datum features of size.

Rule#3(1982 standard):
For all other geometric controls, RFS automatically
applies.

17
Rule#4:
All geometric tolerances specified for screw threads
apply to the axis of thread derived from pitch
diameter. Exceptions must be specified by a note
(such as MAJOR DIA, MINOR DIA or PITCH DIA) at
which each applies.

Rule#5:
Where datum feature of size is controlled by
geometric tolerance and is specified as secondary or
tertiary datum, the datum applies at virtual
condition with respect to orientation.

18
Rule#1

1. What is the straight tolerance is implied in the


.020
drawing above:_________

2. If the pins is produced at a dia. 1.010, it must be


.010
straight within the tolerance? _______

3. If the pins is produced at a dia. 1.015, it must be


.005
straight within the tolerance? _______

4. If the pins is produced at a dia. 1.020, it must be


0
straight within the tolerance? _______

5. If the pins is produced at a dia. 1.000, it must be


.020
straight within the tolerance? _______

19
Rule#5

Virtual condition Calculation

Internal External Features


Features
MMC 1.010 1.025
Geometric Tolerance -.010 + .010
Virtual Condition 1.000 1.035

20
Datum's

Datum's are theoretically perfect points, lines and


planes. These points, lines and planes exist within a
structure of three mutually perpendicular
intersecting planes called a datum reference frame.

21
Immobilization of part Datum features of a part
are oriented and immobilized in selected order of
preference relative to three mutually
perpendicular intersecting planes of datum
reference frame. To properly position the part on
the datum reference frame, the datum's must be
specified in the order of preference.
 Primary datum, contacts the datum reference
with minimum of 3 points of contact not in
the straight line.
 Secondary datum, feature contacts the datum
reference frame with minimum of 2 points of
contact
 Tertiary datum, contacts the datum reference
frame with minimum of 1 point of contact

Datum feature selection Datum features are


selected to meet design requirements:
They should be:
 Functional surfaces
 Mating surfaces
 Readily accessible
 Repeatable

22
Datum feature identification
Datum feature symbols are used to identify physical
features of a part. Datum feature symbols shall not
be applied to center lines, center planes or axes.
Datum's may be designated with any letter of
alphabet except I, O or Q.

23
Multiple datum features
When more than one feature is used to establish a
single datum reference letters are separated by a
dash and specified in one compartment of feature
control frame.

24
Datum Quiz
True or False

A Datum is theoretically exact geometric reference.

Datum exist on the part itself.

Simulated datum's are established by processing or


inspection equipment.

Surface plates, V-Blocks, may be used to establish the


simulated datum's.

Datum features are theoretically exact surfaces.

In datum reference frame consists of three mutually


perpendicular planes

Letters I, O or Q are not used as datum symbols

25
Establish Datum's

A D B

A B C

26
Datum's Exercise

27
Form Controls

Straightness Flatness

Circularity Cylindricity

28
Extreme Variations of Form
Allowed By Size Tolerance
25.1
25

25.1
25 (LMC)
(MMC)

25.1
(LMC)

MMC Perfect
Form Boundary
25
(MMC)

25.1
(LMC)

Internal Feature of Size 29


Extreme Variations of Form
Allowed By Size Tolerance
25
24.9

25
24.9 (MMC)
(LMC)

24.9
(LMC)

MMC Perfect
Form Boundary
25
(MMC)

24.9
(LMC)

External Feature of Size 30


Straightness
(Flat Surfaces)
0.5 0.1

25 +/-0.25

0.1 Tolerance

0.5 Tolerance

Straightness is the condition where an element of a


surface or an axis is a straight line

31
Straightness
(Flat Surfaces)
0.5 Tolerance Zone

25.25 max
24.75 min

0.1 Tolerance Zone

In this example each line element of the surface must lie


within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines
separated by the specified tolerance value applied to each
view. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of
size and the applicable straightness limit.

traightness tolerance is applied in the view where the


ents to be controlled are represented by a straight line 32
Straightness
(Surface Elements)
0.1

0.1 Tolerance Zone

MMC

0.1 Tolerance Zone

MMC

0.1 Tolerance Zone

MMC

In this example each longitudinal element of the surface must


lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines
separated by the specified tolerance value. The feature must
be within the limits of size and the boundary of perfect form at
MMC. Any barreling or wasting of the feature must not exceed
the size limits of the feature.
33
Straightness
(RFS) 0.1

0.1 Diameter
Tolerance Zone

MMC

Outer Boundary
(Max)
Outer Boundary = Actual Feature Size + Straightness
Tolerance

In this example the derived median line of the feature’s actual


local size must lie within a tolerance zone defined by a cylinder
whose diameter is equal to the specified tolerance value
regardless of the feature size. Each circular element of the
feature must be within the specified limits of size. However, the
boundary of perfect form at MMC can be violated up to the
maximum outer boundary or virtual condition diameter.

34
Straightness (MMC)
15
14.85
0.1 M

0.1 Diameter
15
Tolerance Zone
(MMC)

15.1 Virtual Condition

14.85 0.25 Diameter


(LMC) Tolerance Zone

15.1 Virtual Condition

Virtual Condition = MMC Feature Size + Straightness Tolerance

In this example the derived median line of the feature’s actual local size
must lie within a tolerance zone defined by a cylinder whose diameter is
equal to the specified tolerance value at MMC. As each circular element
of the feature departs from MMC, the diameter of the tolerance cylinder is
allowed to increase by an amount equal to the departure from the local
MMC size. Each circular element of the feature must be within the
specified limits of size. However, the boundary of perfect form at MMC
can be violated up to the virtual condition diameter.
35
Flatness
0.1

25 +/-0.25

0.1 Tolerance Zone

0.1 Tolerance Zone

25.25 max
24.75 min

In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance


zone defined by two parallel planes separated by the specified
tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the
limits of size and the flatness limit.

Flatness is the condition of a surface having all elements in


one plane. Flatness must fall within the limits of size. The
flatness tolerance must be less than the size tolerance.
36
Circularity
(Roundness)
0.1

90
0.1
90

0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone

In this example each circular element of the surface must lie within a
tolerance zone defined by two concentric circles separated by the
specified tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the
limits of size and the circularity limit.

Circularity is the condition of a surface where all points of the


surface intersected by any plane perpendicular to a common
axis are equidistant from that axis. The circularity tolerance
must be less than the size tolerance 37
Cylindricity

0.1

0.1 Tolerance Zone

MMC

In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance zone
defined by two concentric cylinders separated by the specified
tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of
size and the Cylindricity limit.

Cylindricity is the condition of a surface of revolution in which


all points are equidistant from a common axis. Cylindricity is a
composite control of form which includes circularity
(roundness), straightness, and taper of a cylindrical feature.
38
Orientation controls

Angularity

Perpendicularity

Parallelism

39
Angularity
(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

20 +/-0.5

0.3 A

o
30

A
19.5 min 20.5 max

o o
30 30

0.3 Wide 0.3 Wide


A Tolerance
A Tolerance
Zone Zone

The tolerance zone in this example is defined


by two parallel planes oriented at the
specified angle to the datum reference plane.

Angularity is the condition of the planar feature surface at a


specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum
reference plane, within the specified tolerance zone.
40
Angularity
(Feature Axis to Datum Surface)
NOTE: Tolerance applies
to feature at RFS

0.3 A

0.3 Circular
0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone
Tolerance Zone

o
60

A A
The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a
cylinder equal to the length of the feature, oriented
at the specified angle to the datum reference plane.

Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified


angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference plane,
within the specified tolerance zone.
41
Angularity
(Feature Axis to Datum Axis)

NOTE: Feature axis must lie


within tolerance zone cylinder
0.3 A

NOTE: Tolerance
applies to feature
at RFS

A 0.3 Circular
0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone
Tolerance Zone

45 o

Datum Axis A

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a


cylinder equal to the length of the feature, oriented at
the specified angle to the datum reference axis.

Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified


angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference axis,
within the specified tolerance zone.
42
Perpendicularity
(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

0.3 A

0.3 Wide 0.3 Wide


Tolerance Zone Tolerance Zone

The tolerance zone in this example is


A defined by two parallel planes oriented
A
perpendicular to the datum reference
plane.
Perpendicularity is the condition of the planar feature
surface at a right angle to the datum reference plane, within
the specified tolerance zone.
43
Perpendicularity
(Feature Axis to Datum Surface)

0.3 Diameter
Tolerance Zone

NOTE: Tolerance applies


to feature at RFS
C
0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone 0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone
0.3 C

The tolerance zone in this example is


defined by a cylinder equal to the length of
the feature, oriented perpendicular to the
datum reference plane.

Perpendicularity is the condition of the feature axis at a right


angle to the datum reference plane, within the specified
tolerance zone.
44
Perpendicularity
(Feature Axis to Datum Axis)

NOTE: Tolerance applies


to feature at RFS
0.3 A

A 0.3 Wide
Tolerance Zone

Datum Axis A

The tolerance zone in this example is


defined by two parallel planes oriented
perpendicular to the datum reference axis.

Perpendicularity is the condition of the feature axis at a right


angle to the datum reference axis, within the specified
tolerance zone.
45
Parallelism
(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

0.3 A

25 +/-0.5

0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone 0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

25.5 max 24.5 min

A The tolerance zone in this example


A
is defined by two parallel planes
oriented parallel to the datum
reference plane.
Parallelism is the condition of the planar feature surface
equidistant at all points from the datum reference plane,
within the specified tolerance zone.
46
Parallelism
(Feature Axis to Datum Surface)

NOTE: The specified tolerance


does not apply to the orientation of
the feature axis in this direction

NOTE: Tolerance applies


to feature at RFS 0.3 Wide
Tolerance Zone
0.3 A

A The tolerance zone in this example A


is defined by two parallel planes
oriented parallel to the datum
reference plane.

Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along


its length from the datum reference plane, within the specified
tolerance zone.
47
Parallelism
(Feature Axis to Datum Surfaces)

0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone

NOTE: Tolerance applies


to feature at RFS
0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone 0.3 Circular
Tolerance Zone
0.3 A B

The tolerance zone in this example is


A defined by a cylinder equal to the
A
length of the feature, oriented parallel
to the datum reference planes.

Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant


along its length from the two datum reference planes, within
the specified tolerance zone.
48
Parallelism
(Feature Axis to Datum Axis)
The tolerance zone in this example is
defined by a cylinder equal to the
length of the feature, oriented parallel
to the datum reference axis.

NOTE: Tolerance applies


to feature at RFS
0.1 Circular
Tolerance Zone 0.1 A

0.1 Circular Datum Axis A


Tolerance Zone

Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along


its length from the datum reference axis, within the specified
tolerance zone.
49
Location Controls

True Position

Concentricity

Symmetry

50
Positional Tolerance
A review of rules and definitions that apply to
positional tolerance
Maximum Material Condition (MMC) of a feature
of size is a maximum amount of material within
stated limits of the size; for example maximum
shaft diameter or minimum hole diameter.

Least Material Condition (LMC) smallest shaft


diameter or largest hole diameter.

Datum feature selection:


Functional surfaces
Mating surfaces
Readily accessible
Repeatable

Virtual condition for a tolerance specified at MMC


is constant boundary generated by the collective
effects of the MMC limit of size of feature and the
applicable geometric tolerance.

External Features Internal Features


VC = MMC + Geo. Tol. VC = MMC - Geo. Tol. at
at MMC MMC
Virtual condition is size of the part that results in worst case fit with mating
parts. Mating parts are designed to virtual condition; they must always
assemble. Functional gauges are made to the virtual condition of the parts
they are designed to inspect.
51
Rule#5:
Where datum feature of size is controlled by
geometric tolerance and is specified as secondary or
tertiary datum, the datum applies at virtual
condition with respect to orientation.

52
MMC

External Features (Pins)


Actual Feature Size MMC Bonus Geometric Total
(Difference) Tolerance Position
Tolerance
.800 .800 .000 .020 .020

.790 .800 .010 .020 .030

.780 .800 .020 .020 .040

.770 .800 .030 .020 .050

Internal Features (Holes)


Actual Feature Size MMC Bonus Geometric Total
(Difference) Tolerance Position
Tolerance
.800 .770 .030 .020 .050
.790 .770 .020 .020 .040
.780 .770 .010 .020 .030
.770 .770 .000 .020 .020

53
Zero Positional Tolerance

54
Zero Positional Tolerance- Exercise

4 X .750 - .830
φ .000M A B C

55
Project Tolerance Zone

The application of this concept is recommended


where the variations in perpendicularity of threaded
or press-fit holes could cause fasteners, such as
screws, studs, or pins, to interfere with mating parts.

56
57
Exercise

 Specify the positional tolerance of .020” for each threaded hole


 Include a project tolerance zone project 1.250 above through hole.
 Specify the projected tolerance project .750 above the blind hole

58
Multiple Patterns of the feature

SEPARATE REQUIREMENT SEPARATE REQUIREMENT

59
Location Tolerance

 What are the tolerances for datum hole D if produced at φ .525: Location
tolerance ? __________ Orientation tolerance? ______________
.015 + .010 = .025 .015 + .002 = .017
.500
Virtual conditions are, Location:_______ Orientation___________
.508

 What are the tolerances for the 4Xφ .380 holes if produced at φ .415
.040 .040 .375
Location:_______ Orientation_______ Virtual Condition__________
 For datum hole (D), what datum (s) determine (s)
A B&C
Orientation:___________ Location:____________
 For the φ .380 hole pattern what datum (s) determine (s)
A D B
Orientation:__________ Location: __________Clocking:_________
 If the gauge is used to check the φ .380 hole pattern: Datum D pin should
.510 - .002 = .508
be at what diameter_________
.375
The gauge pins for the φ .380 holes should be of dia:________
60
Composite Positional Tolerance

This provides a composite application of positional


tolerance for the location of feature patterns as well as
the interrelation (position and orientation) of features
within these patterns.

61
Location (Concentricity)
Datum Features at RFS

6.35 +/- 0.05


0.5 A
A

15.95
15.90

As Shown on Drawing
Means This: Axis of Datum 0.5 Coaxial
Feature A Tolerance Zone

Derived Median Points of


Diametrically Opposed Elements

Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median points of
diametrically opposed elements must lie within a 0.5 cylindrical
tolerance zone. The axis of the tolerance zone coincides with the axis of
datum feature A. Concentricity can only be applied on an RFS basis.
62
Location (Symmetry)
Datum Features at RFS

6.35 +/- 0.05


0.5 A
A

15.95
15.90

As Shown on Drawing
Means This: Center Plane of 0.5 Wide
Datum Feature A Tolerance Zone

Derived Median
Points

Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median
points of opposed elements must lie between two parallel planes
equally disposed about datum plane A, 0.5 apart. Symmetry can only
be applied on an RFS basis.
63
Runout

Circular Run out

Total Run
out

64
Features Applicable
to Run out Tolerance
Internal surfaces
constructed around a
datum axis

External surfaces
constructed around
a datum axis Angled surfaces
constructed around
a datum axis
Datum axis (established
from datum feature

Surfaces constructed
perpendicular to a
datum axis
Datum feature
65
Circular Run out
Total Circular run out can only be applied on an
Tolerance RFS basis and cannot be modified to
MMC or LMC.

Maximum Minimum

Full Indicator
Movement

Maximum Minimum
Reading Reading Measuring position #1
(circular element #1)
-
0
+

Full Part
Rotation

Measuring position #2
(circular element #2)

When measuring circular run out, the indicator must be reset to zero at each measuring
position along the feature surface. Each individual circular element of the surface is
independently allowed the full specified tolerance. In this example, circular run out can be used
to detect 2-dimensional wobble (orientation) and waviness (form), but not 3-dimensional
characteristics such as surface profile (overall form) or surface wobble (overall orientation).

66
Circular Run out
(Angled Surface to Datum Axis)

0.75 A

50 +/-0.25

o o
50 +/- 2
As Shown
on Drawing

Means This: The tolerance zone for any individual circular


element is equal to the total allowable movement
of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the
Allowable indicator true geometric shape of the feature surface when
reading = 0.75 max. the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum
( Full Indicator
Movement ) axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently
to each individual measuring position along the
-
0
+ feature surface.

Collect or Chuck
When measuring circular
runout, the indicator must
be reset when repositioned
Datum axis A
along the feature surface.

360 o Part
Rotation

NOTE: Circular run out in this example only


controls the 2-dimensional circular elements
Single circular (circularity and coaxially) of the angled feature
element surface not the entire angled feature surface
67
Circular Run out
(Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis)
0.75 A

50 +/-0.25

As Shown
on Drawing

Means This: The tolerance zone for any individual circular


element is equal to the total allowable movement
of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the
true geometric shape of the feature surface when
the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum
axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently
to each individual measuring position along the
Single circular feature surface.
element
-
0
+ When measuring circular run out, the indicator must
be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.

360 o Part Allowable indicator


reading = 0.75 max.
Rotation

Datum axis A

NOTE: Circular run out in this example will


only control variation in the 2-dimensional
circular elements of the planar surface (wobble
and waviness) not the entire feature surface

68
Circular Run out
(Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis)
0.75 A

50 +/-0.25

As Shown
on Drawing

The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal


Means This: to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a
position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature
surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum
axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each
individual measuring position along the feature surface.
-
0
+
When measuring circular run out,
Allowable indicator the indicator must be reset when
reading = 0.75 max. repositioned along the feature
surface.

Single circular element

360 o Part Datum axis A


Rotation

NOTE: Circular run out in this example will


only control variation in the 2-dimensional
circular elements of the surface (circularity and
coaxially) not the entire feature surface
69
Circular Run out
(Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis)
0.75 A-B

A B

As Shown
on Drawing

The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal


Means This: to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a
position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature
surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum
axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each
individual measuring position along the feature surface.
-
0
+
When measuring circular run out,
Allowable indicator the indicator must be reset when
reading = 0.75 max. repositioned along the feature
surface.

Machine
center
Single circular element
Datum axis A-B

Machine
center
360 o Part NOTE: Circular run out in this example will
Rotation only control variation in the 2-dimensional
circular elements of the surface (circularity and
coaxially) not the entire feature surface
70
Circular Run out
(Surface Related to Datum Surface and Axis)

A
B
0.75 A B

50 +/-0.25

As Shown
on Drawing

The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is


Means This: equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator
fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the
feature surface when the part is located against the datum
surface and rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. The
tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual
measuring position along the feature surface.
Single circular element
Allowable indicator
reading = 0.75 max.
Stop collar

360 o Part -
0
+
Collets or Chuck
Rotation

Datum axis B

When measuring circular run out,


the indicator must be reset when
repositioned along the feature
surface. Datum plane A
71
Total Run out
Total Total run out can only be applied on an
Tolerance RFS basis and cannot be modified to
MMC or LMC.

Maximum Minimum

Full Indicator
Movement

Maximum Minimum
Reading Reading

+
0
-

Indicator Full Part


Path Rotation

-
0
+

When measuring total run out, the indicator is moved in a straight line along the feature surface
while the part is rotated about the datum axis. It is also acceptable to measure total run out by
evaluating an appropriate number of individual circular elements along the surface while the
part is rotated about the datum axis. Because the tolerance value is applied to the entire
surface, the indicator must not be reset to zero when moved to each measuring position. In this
example, total run out can be used to measure surface profile (overall form) and surface
wobble (overall orientation).
72
Total Run out
(Angled Surface to Datum Axis)

0.75 A
A

50 +/-0.25

o o
50 +/- 2
As Shown
on Drawing

Means This: The tolerance zone for the entire angled surface is
equal to the total allowable movement of a dial
indicator positioned normal to the true geometric
When measuring total run out, the
indicator must not be reset when shape of the feature surface when the part is
repositioned along the feature rotated about the datum axis and the indicator is
surface. moved along the entire length of the feature
-
0
+ surface.

Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max.


-
0
+
(applies to the entire feature surface)

Collets or Chuck

Full Part Datum axis A


Rotation

NOTE: Unlike circular run out, the use of total run


out will provide 3-dimensional composite control of
the cumulative variations of circularity, coaxially,
angularity, taper and profile of the angled surface
73
Total Run out
(Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis)

0.75 A
10

35
50 +/-0.25

A
As Shown
on Drawing

Means This: The tolerance zone for the portion of the feature surface
indicated is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial
indicator positioned normal to the true geometric shape of the
feature surface when the part is rotated about the datum axis
and the indicator is moved along the portion of the feature
surface within the area described by the basic dimensions.

-
0
+
When measuring total run out, the indicator
10 -
0
+ must not be reset when repositioned along the
feature surface.

35 Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max.


(applies to portion of feature surface indicated)

Full Part
Rotation Datum axis A

NOTE: The use of total run out in this example


will provide composite control of the cumulative
variations of perpendicularity (wobble) and
flatness (concavity or convexity) of the feature
surface.
74
THANK YOU

75