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Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States

1 January 20151
Never Published, Never Registered Works2
TypeofWork

CopyrightTerm

Whatwasinthepublic
domainintheU.S.asof1
January20153

Unpublishedworks

Lifeoftheauthor+70years

Worksfromauthorswhodied
before1945

Unpublished

120yearsfromdateofcreation

Workscreatedbefore1895

120yearsfromdateofcreation5

Workscreatedbefore18955

anonymousand
pseudonymous
works,andworks
madeforhire
(corporate
authorship)
Unpublishedworks
whenthedeathdate
oftheauthorisnot
known4

Works Registered or First Published in the U.S.


Dateof
Publication6

Conditions7

CopyrightTerm3

Before1923

None

None.Inthepublicdomaindue
tocopyrightexpiration

1923through1977

Publishedwithoutacopyrightnotice

None.Inthepublicdomaindue
tofailuretocomplywithrequired
formalities

1978to1March1989

Publishedwithoutnotice,andwithoutsubsequentregistrationwithin5years

None.Inthepublicdomaindue
tofailuretocomplywithrequired
formalities

1978to1March1989

Publishedwithoutnotice,butwithsubsequentregistrationwithin5years

70yearsafterthedeathof
author.Ifaworkofcorporate
authorship,95yearsfrom
publicationor120yearsfrom
creation,whicheverexpiresfirst

1923through1963

Publishedwithnoticebutcopyrightwasnotrenewed8

None.Inthepublicdomaindue
tocopyrightexpiration

1923through1963

Publishedwithnoticeandthecopyrightwasrenewed8

95yearsafterpublicationdate

1964through1977

Publishedwithnotice

95yearsafterpublicationdate

1978to1March1989

Createdafter1977andpublishedwithnotice

70yearsafterthedeathof
author.Ifaworkofcorporate
authorship,95yearsfrom
publicationor120yearsfrom
creation,whicheverexpiresfirst

1978to1March1989

Createdbefore1978andfirstpublishedwithnoticeinthespecifiedperiod

Thegreaterofthetermspecified
inthepreviousentryor31
December2047

From1March1989

Createdafter1977

through2002

70yearsafterthedeathof
author.Ifaworkofcorporate
authorship,95yearsfrom
publicationor120yearsfrom
creation,whicheverexpiresfirst

From1March1989

Createdbefore1978andfirstpublishedinthisperiod

through2002

Thegreaterofthetermspecified
inthepreviousentryor31
December2047

After2002

None

70yearsafterthedeathof
author.Ifaworkofcorporate
authorship,95yearsfrom
publicationor120yearsfrom
creation,whicheverexpiresfirst

Anytime

WorkspreparedbyanofficeroremployeeoftheUnitedStatesGovernment

None.Inthepublicdomainin

aspartofthatperson'sofficialduties.21

theUnitedStates(17U.S.C.

105)

Works First Published Outside the U.S. by Foreign Nationals or U.S. Citizens
Living Abroad9
DateofPublication Conditions

CopyrightTerminthe
UnitedStates

Before1923

Inthepublicdomain(Butsee

None

firstspecialcasebelow)

WorksPublishedAbroadBefore197810
1923through1977

PublishedwithoutcompliancewithUSformalities,andinthepublicdomainin
itssourcecountryasof1January1996(butseespecialcases)

1923through1977

Inthepublicdomain

20

PublishedincompliancewithallUSformalities

95yearsafterpublicationdate

(i.e.,notice,renewal)11
1923through1977

Solelypublishedabroad,withoutcompliancewithUSformalitiesor

95yearsafterpublicationdate

republicationintheUS,andnotinthepublicdomaininitshomecountryas
of1January1996(butseespecialcases)

1923through1977

PublishedintheUSlessthan30daysafterpublicationabroad

UsetheUSpublicationchartto
determineduration

1923through1977

PublishedintheUSmorethan30daysafterpublicationabroad,without

95yearsafterpublicationdate

compliancewithUSformalities,andnotinthepublicdomaininitshome
countryasof1January1996(butseespecialcases)

WorksPublishedAbroadAfter1January1978
1January19781
March1989

Publishedwithoutcopyrightnotice,andinthepublicdomaininitssource
countryasof1January1996(butseespecialcases)

20

1January19781

Publishedwithoutcopyrightnoticeinacountrythatisasignatorytothe

March1989

BerneConventionandisnotinthepublicdomaininitssourcecountryasof
1January1996(butseespecialcases)

1January19781
March1989

Inthepublicdomain

20

PublishedwithcopyrightnoticebyanonUScitizeninacountrythatwas
partytotheUniversalCopyrightConvention(UCC)

70yearsafterthedeathof
author,orifworkofcorporate
authorship,95yearsfrom
publication

70yearsafterthedeathof
author,orifworkofcorporate
authorship,95yearsfrom
publication

After1March1989

PublishedinacountrythatisasignatorytotheBerneConvention

70yearsafterthedeathof
author,orifworkofcorporate
authorship,95yearsfrom
publication

After1March1989

PublishedinacountrywithwhichtheUnitedStatesdoesnothavecopyright

Inthepublicdomain

relationsunderatreaty

SpecialCases
1July1909through

InAlaska,Arizona,California,Hawaii,Idaho,Montana,Nevada,Oregon,

Treatasanunpublishedwork

1978

Washington,Guam,andtheNorthernMarianaIslandsONLY.Publishedina

untilsuchdateasfirst

languageotherthanEnglish,andwithoutsubsequentrepublicationwitha

UScompliantpublication

copyrightnotice12

occurred

Priorto27May1973

PublishedbyanationalofTurkmenistanorUzbekistanineithercountry19

Inthepublicdomain

After26May1973

PublishedbyanationalofTurkmenistanorUzbekistanineithercountry19

Maybeprotectedunderthe
UCC

Anytime

CreatedbyaresidentofAfghanistan,Eritrea,Ethiopia,Iran,Iraq,orSan

NotprotectedbyUScopyright

Marino,andpublishedinoneofthesecountries13

lawuntiltheybecomepartyto
bilateralorinternational
copyrightagreements

Anytime

WorkswhosecopyrightwasonceownedoradministeredbytheAlien

NotprotectedbyUScopyright

PropertyCustodian,andwhosecopyright,ifrestored,wouldasofJanuary1,

law

1996,beownedbyagovernment14
Anytime

Ifpublishedinoneofthefollowingcountries,the1January1996dategiven

aboveisreplacedbythedateofthecountry'smembershipintheBerne
ConventionortheWorldTradeOrganization,whicheverisearlier:

Andorra,Angola,Armenia,Bhutan,Cambodia,Comoros,Jordan,
DemocraticPeople'sRepublicofKorea,Laos,Malaysia,Micronesia,
Montenegro,Nepal,Oman,PapuaNewGuinea,Qatar,Samoa,Saudi
Arabia,SolomonIslands,Sudan,Syria,Tajikistan,Tonga,UnitedArab
Emirates,Uzbekistan,Vanuatu,Vietnam,Yemen

Sound Recordings
(Note: The following information applies only to the sound recording itself, and not to any copyrights in underlying

compositions or texts.)
Dateof
Conditions
Fixation/Publication

Whatwasinthepublic
domainintheU.S.asof1
January20153

UnpublishedSoundRecordings,DomesticandForeign
Priorto15Feb.1972

Indeterminate

Subjecttostatecommonlaw
protection.Entersthepublic
domainon15Feb.2067

After15Feb.1972

Lifeoftheauthor+70years.Forunpublishedanonymousand

Nothing.Thesoonestanything

pseudonymousworksandworksmadeforhire(corporateauthorship),120

entersthepublicdomainis15

yearsfromthedateoffixation

Feb.2067

SoundRecordingsPublishedintheUnitedStates
Dateof
Conditions
Fixation/Publication

Whatwasinthepublic
domainintheU.S.asof1
January20153

Fixedpriorto15Feb.

Subjecttostatestatutoryand/or

None

1972

commonlawprotection.Fully
entersthepublicdomainon15
Feb.2067

15Feb1972to1978

Publishedwithoutnotice(i.e, ,yearofpublication,andnameofcopyright

Inthepublicdomain

owner)15
15Feb.1972to1978

Publishedwithnotice

95yearsfrompublication.2068
attheearliest

1978to1March1989

Publishedwithoutnotice,andwithoutsubsequentregistration

Inthepublicdomain

1978to1March1989

Publishedwithnotice

70yearsafterdeathofauthor,or
ifworkofcorporateauthorship,
theshorterof95yearsfrom
publication,or120yearsfrom
creation.2049attheearliest

After1March1989

None

70yearsafterdeathofauthor,or
ifworkofcorporateauthorship,

theshorterof95yearsfrom
publication,or120yearsfrom
creation.2049attheearliest

SoundRecordingsPublishedOutsidetheUnitedStates
Priorto1923

None

Subjecttostatestatutoryand/or
commonlawprotection.Fully
entersthepublicdomainon15
Feb.2067

1923to1March1989

Inthepublicdomaininitshomecountryasof1Jan.1996ortherewasUS

Subjecttostatecommonlaw

publicationwithin30daysoftheforeignpublication(butseespecialcases)

protection.Entersthepublic
domainon15Feb.2067

1923to15Feb.1972

Notinthepublicdomaininitshomecountryasof1Jan.1996.Atleast

Enterspublicdomainon15Feb.

oneauthoroftheworkwasnotaUScitizenorwaslivingabroad,and

2067

therewasnoUSpublicationwithin30daysoftheforeignpublication(but
seespecialcases)
15Feb.1972to1978

Notinthepublicdomaininitshomecountryasof1Jan.1996.Atleast

95yearsfromdateof

oneauthoroftheworkwasnotaUScitizenorwaslivingabroad,and

publication.2068attheearliest

therewasnoUSpublicationwithin30daysoftheforeignpublication(but
seespecialcases)
1978to1March1989

Notinthepublicdomaininitshomecountryasof1Jan.1996.Atleast

70yearsafterdeathofauthor,or

oneauthoroftheworkwasnotaUScitizenorwaslivingabroad,and

ifworkofcorporateauthorship,

therewasnoUSpublicationwithin30daysoftheforeignpublication(but

theshorterof95yearsfrom

seespecialcases)

publication,or120yearsfrom
creation

After1March1989

None

70yearsafterdeathofauthor,or
ifworkofcorporateauthorship,
theshorterof95yearsfrom
publication,or120yearsfrom
creation

SpecialCases

Fixedatanytime

CreatedbyaresidentofAfghanistan,Eritrea,Ethiopia,Iran,Iraq,orSan

NotprotectedbyUScopyright

Marino,andpublishedinoneofthesecountries13

lawbecausetheyarenotpartyto
internationalcopyright
agreements

Fixedpriorto1996

WorkswhosecopyrightwasonceownedoradministeredbytheAlien

NotprotectedbyUScopyright

PropertyCustodian,andwhosecopyright,ifrestored,wouldasof1

law

January1996 beownedbyagovernment14
Fixedatanytime

Iffixedorsolelypublishedinoneofthefollowingcountries,the1January

1996dategivenaboveisreplacedbythedateofthecountry's
membershipintheBerneConventionortheWorldTradeOrganization,
whicheverisearlier:

Algeria,Andorra,Angola,Armenia,Bhutan,Cambodia,Comoros,Jersey,
Jordan,DemocraticPeople'sRepublicofKorea,Laos,Malaysia,
Micronesia,Montenegro,Nepal,Oman,PapuaNewGuinea,Qatar,
Samoa,SaudiArabia,SolomonIslands,Sudan,Syria,Tajikistan,Tonga,
UnitedArabEmirates,Uzbekistan,Vanuatu,Vietnam,Yemen

Architectural Works16
(Note: Architectural plans and drawings may also be protected as textual/graphics works)
Dateof
Design

DateofConstruction

CopyrightStatus

Priorto1

Notconstructedby31Dec.

Protectedonlyasplansordrawings

Dec.1990

2002

Priorto1

Constructedby1Dec.1990

Protectedonlyasplansordrawings

Priorto1

Constructedbetween30Nov.

Buildingisprotectedfor70yearsafterdeathofauthor,orifworkofcorporateauthorship,

Dec.1990

1990and31Dec.2002

theshorterof95yearsfrompublication,or120yearsfromcreation17

From1

Immaterial

Buildingisprotectedfor70yearsafterdeathofauthor,orifworkofcorporateauthorship,

Dec.1990

Dec.1990

Notes

theshorterof95yearsfrompublication,or120yearsfromcreation17

1.ThischartwasfirstpublishedinPeterB.Hirtle,"RecentChangesToTheCopyrightLaw:CopyrightTermExtension,"ArchivalOutlook,
January/February1999.Thisversioniscurrentasof1January2015.Themostrecentversionisfoundat
http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/resources/publicdomain.cfm.Forsomeexplanationonhowtousethechartandcomplicationshiddeninit,see
PeterB.Hirtle,"Whenis1923GoingtoArriveandOtherComplicationsoftheU.S.PublicDomain,"Searcher(Sept2012).
ThechartisbasedinpartonLauraN.Gasaway'schart,"WhenWorksPassIntothePublicDomain,"at<http://www.unc.edu/~unclng/publicd.htm>,
andsimilarchartsfoundinMarieC.Malaro,ALegalPrimerOnManagingMuseumCollections(Washington,D.C.:SmithsonianInstitutionPress,
1998):155156.AusefulcopyrightdurationchartbyMaryMinow,organizedbyyear,isfoundat
<http://www.librarylaw.com/DigitizationTable.htm>.A"flowchart"forcopyrightdurationisfoundat<http://sunsteinlaw.com/practices/copyright
portfoliodevelopment/copyrightpointers/copyrightflowchart/>,andatreeviewchartoncopyrightisat<http://chart.copyrightdata.com>.Several
U.S.copyrightdurationcalculatorsareavailableonline,includingthePublicDomainSherpa(http://www.publicdomainsherpa.com/calculator.html)
andtheDurationator(inbetaathttp://www.durationator.com/).Europeanaspublicdomaincalculatorsfor30differentcountriesoutsideoftheU.S.
(athttp://www.outofcopyright.eu/).TheOpenKnowledgeFoundationhasbeenencouragingthedevelopmentofpublicdomaincalculatorsformany
countries:seehttp://publicdomain.okfn.org/calculators/.SeealsoLibraryofCongressCopyrightOffice.Circular15a,DurationofCopyright:
ProvisionsoftheLawDealingwiththeLengthofCopyrightProtection(Washington,D.C.:LibraryofCongress,2004)
<http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ15a.pdf>.FurtherinformationoncopyrightdurationisfoundinChapter3,"DurationandOwnershipofCopyright,"
inCopyrightandCulturalInstitutions:GuidelinesforDigitizationforU.S.Libraries,Archives,andMuseums,byPeterB.Hirtle,EmilyHudson,and
AndrewT.Kenyon(Ithaca,NY:CornellUniversityLibrary,2009)availableforpurchaseathttp://bookstore.library.cornell.edu/andasafree
downloadathttp://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/14142.
2.Treatunpublishedworksregisteredforcopyrightpriorto1978asiftheyhadbeenpublishedintheUS(thoughnotethattheonlyformalitythat
appliedwastherequirementtorenewcopyrightafter28years).Unpublishedworksregisteredforcopyrightsince1978canbeconsideredasifthey
werean"Unpublished,UnregisteredWork."
3.Alltermsofcopyrightrunthroughtheendofthecalendaryearinwhichtheywouldotherwiseexpire,soaworkentersthepublicdomainonthefirst
oftheyearfollowingtheexpirationofitscopyrightterm.Forexample,abookpublishedon15March1923willenterthepublicdomainon1January
2019,not16March2018(1923+95=2018).
4.Unpublishedworkswhenthedeathdateoftheauthorisnotknownmaystillbecopyrightedafter120years,butcertificationfromtheCopyright
Officethatithasnorecordtoindicatewhetherthepersonislivingordiedlessthan70yearsbeforeisacompletedefensetoanyactionfor
infringement.See17U.S.C.302(e).
5.Presumptionastotheauthor'sdeathrequiresacertifiedreportfromtheCopyrightOfficethatitsrecordsdisclosenothingtoindicatethattheauthor
oftheworkislivingordiedlessthanseventyyearsbefore.
6."Publication"wasnotexplicitlydefinedintheCopyrightLawbefore1976,butthe1909Actindirectlyindicatedthatpublicationwaswhencopiesof
thefirstauthorizededitionwereplacedonsale,sold,orpubliclydistributedbytheproprietorofthecopyrightorunderhisauthority.
7.Notallpublishedworksarecopyrighted.WorkspreparedbyanofficeroremployeeoftheUnitedStatesGovernmentaspartofthatperson'sofficial
dutiesreceivenocopyrightprotectionintheUS.Formuchofthetwentiethcentury,certainformalitieshadtobefollowedtosecurecopyright
protection.Forexample,somebookshadtobeprintedintheUnitedStatestoreceivecopyrightprotection,andfailuretodepositcopiesofworks
withtheRegisterofCopyrightcouldresultinthelossofcopyright.Therequirementsthatcopiesincludeaformalnoticeofcopyrightandthatthe
copyrightberenewedaftertwentyeightyearswerethemostcommonconditions,andarespecifiedinthechart.
8.A1961CopyrightOfficestudyfoundthatfewerthan15%ofallregisteredcopyrightswererenewed.Forbooks,thefigurewasevenlower:7%.See

BarbaraRinger,"StudyNo.31:RenewalofCopyright"(1960),reprintedinLibraryofCongressCopyrightOffice.Copyrightlawrevision:Studies
preparedfortheSubcommitteeonPatents,Trademarks,andCopyrightsoftheCommitteeontheJudiciary,UnitedStatesSenate,Eightysixth
Congress,first[second]session.(Washington:U.S.Govt.Print.Off,1961),p.220.Agoodguidetoinvestigatingthecopyrightandrenewalstatus
ofpublishedworkisSamuelDemasandJennieL.Brogdon,"DeterminingCopyrightStatusforPreservationandAccess:DefiningReasonable
Effort,"LibraryResourcesandTechnicalServices41:4(October,1997):323334.SeealsoLibraryofCongressCopyrightOffice,Howtoinvestigate
thecopyrightstatusofawork.Circular22.[Washington,D.C.:LibraryofCongress,CopyrightOffice,2004].TheOnlineBooksPageFAQ,
especially"HowCanITellWhetheraBookCanGoOnline?"and"HowCanITellWhetheraCopyrightWasRenewed?",isalsoveryhelpful.
9.ThefollowingsectiononforeignpublicationsdrawsextensivelyonStephenFishman,ThePublicDomain:HowtoFindCopyrightfreeWritings,
Music,Art&More.(Berkeley:Nolo.com,2012).ItappliestoworksfirstpublishedabroadandnotsubsequentlypublishedintheUSwithin30days
oftheoriginalforeignpublication.WorksthatweresimultaneouslypublishedabroadandintheUSaretreatedasiftheyareAmericanpublications.
10.Foreignworkspublishedafter1923arelikelytobestillundercopyrightintheUSbecauseoftheUruguayRoundAgreementsAct(URAA)modifying
theGeneralAgreementonTariffsandTrade(GATT).TheURAArestoredcopyrightinforeignworksthatasof1January1996hadfallenintothe
publicdomainintheUSbecauseofafailuretocomplywithUSformalities.OneoftheauthorsoftheworkhadtobeanonUScitizenorresident,
theworkcouldnothavebeenpublishedintheUSwithin30daysafteritspublicationabroad,andtheworkneededtostillbeincopyrightinthe
countryofpublication.SuchworkshaveacopyrighttermequivalenttothatofanAmericanworkthathadfollowedalloftheformalities.Formore
information,seeLibraryofCongressCopyrightOffice,HighlightsofCopyrightAmendmentsContainedintheUruguayRoundAgreementsAct
(URAA).Circular38b.[Washington,D.C.:LibraryofCongress,CopyrightOffice,2004].
11.USformalitiesincludetherequirementthataformalnoticeofcopyrightbeincludedintheworkregistration,renewal,anddepositofcopiesinthe
CopyrightOfficeandthemanufactureoftheworkintheUS.
12.ThedifferingdatesisaproductofthequestionofcontroversialTwinBooksv.WaltDisneyCo.decisionbythe9thCircuitCourtofAppealsin1996.
ThequestionatissueisthecopyrightstatusofaworkonlypublishedinaforeignlanguageoutsideoftheUnitedStatesandwithoutacopyright
notice.IthadlongbeenassumedthatfailuretocomplywithUSformalitiesplacedtheseworksinthepublicdomainintheUSand,assuch,were
subjecttocopyrightrestorationunderURAA(seenote10).ThecourtinTwinBooks,however,concluded"publicationwithoutacopyrightnoticeina
foreigncountrydidnotputtheworkinthepublicdomainintheUnitedStates."Accordingtothecourt,theseforeignpublicationswereineffect
"unpublished"intheUS,andhencehavethesamecopyrighttermasunpublishedworks.ThedecisionhasbeenharshlycriticizedinNimmeron
Copyright,theleadingtreatiseoncopyright,asbeingincompatiblewithpreviousdecisionsandtheintentofCongresswhenitrestoredforeign
copyrights.TheCopyrightOfficeaswellignorestheTwinBooksdecisioninitscircularonrestoredcopyrights.Nevertheless,thedecisionis
currentlyapplicableinallofthe9thJudicialCircuit(Alaska,Arizona,California,Hawaii,Idaho,Montana,Nevada,Oregon,Washington,andGuam
andtheNorthernMarianaIslands),anditmayapplyintherestofthecountry.
13.SeeLibraryofCongressCopyrightOffice,InternationalCopyrightRelationsoftheUnitedStates.Circular38a.[Washington,D.C.:Libraryof
Congress,CopyrightOffice,2011].
14.See63Fed.Reg.19,287(1998),LibraryofCongressCopyrightOffice,CopyrightRestorationofWorksinAccordanceWiththeUruguayRound
AgreementsActListIdentifyingCopyrightsRestoredUndertheUruguayRoundAgreementsActforWhichNoticesofIntentToEnforceRestored
CopyrightsWereFiledintheCopyrightOffice.
15.CopyrightnoticerequirementsforsoundrecordingsarespelledoutintheCopyrightOffice'sCircular3,"CopyrightNotice,"availableat
http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ03.pdf.Hereistheexacttext:
Thecopyrightnoticeforphonorecordsembodyingasoundrecordingisdifferentfromthatforotherworks.Soundrecordingsaredefinedas"works
thatresultfromthefixationofaseriesofmusical,spokenorothersounds,butnotincludingthesoundsaccompanyingamotionpictureorother

audiovisualwork."Copyrightinasoundrecordingprotectstheparticularseriesofsoundsfixedintherecordingagainstunauthorizedreproduction,
revision,anddistribution.Thiscopyrightisdistinctfromcopyrightofthemusical,literary,ordramaticworkthatmayberecordedonthephonorecord.
Phonorecordsmayberecords(suchasLPsand45s),audiotapes,cassettes,ordisks.Thenoticeshouldcontainthefollowingthreeelements
appearingtogetheronthephonorecord:
1.Thesymbol

and

2.Theyearoffirstpublicationofthesoundrecordingand
3.Thenameoftheownerofcopyrightinthesoundrecording,oranabbreviationbywhichthenamecanberecognized,oragenerally
knownalternativedesignationoftheowner.Iftheproducerofthesoundrecordingisnamedonthephonorecordlabelorcontainerandif
noothernameappearsinconjunctionwiththenotice,theproducer'snameshallbeconsideredapartofthenotice.
4.Example:

2004X.Y.Z.Records,Inc.

16.Architecturalworksaredefinedas"thedesignofabuildingasembodiedinanytangiblemediumofexpression,includingabuilding,architectural
plans,ordrawings.Theworkincludestheoverallformaswellasthearrangementandcompositionofspacesandelementsinthedesign,butdoes
notincludeindividualstandardfeatures."ArchitecturalworkswereexpresslyincludedincopyrightbyTitleVIIofPub.L.101650.
17.Whatconstitutes"publication"ofabuildingisaveryinterestingquestion.AstheCopyrightOfficehasnoted,"Aworkisconsideredpublishedwhen
underlyingcopiesofthebuildingdesignaredistributedormadeavailablepublicbysaleorothertransferofownership,orbyrental.Constructionofa
buildingdoesnotitselfconstitutepublicationregistration,unlessmultiplecopiesareconstructed."SeeitsCircular41,"CopyrightClaimsin
ArchitecturalWorks,"availableathttp://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ41.pdf.
19.TurkmenistanandUzbekistanmayhaveinheritedUCCobligationsandprotectionsfromtheUSSR,whichjoinedtheUCCon27May1973.See
PeterB.Maggs,"PostSovietLaw:TheCaseofIntellectualPropertyLaw,"TheHarrimanInstituteForum5,no.3(November1991).Theyhavenot
asyet,however,fileda"NotificationofSuccession"withtheUCC.Seehttp://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php
URL_ID=1814&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmlforsignatoriestothetwoUCCtreaties.
20.Ifthesourcecountry'sfirstadheredtoeithertheBerneTreatyortheWTOafter1January1996,thentherelevantdateistheearliestdateof
membership.Dateofmembershipistrackedathttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/list_of_parties_to_international_copyright_agreements
21.Contractorsandgranteesarenotconsideredgovernmentempoyees.Generalytheycreateworkswithcopyright(thoughthegovernmentmayown
thatcopyright).SeeCENDIFrequentlyaskedQuestionsaboutCopyright:IssuesAffectingtheU.S.Government.ThepublicdomainstatusofU.S.
governmentworksappliesonlyintheU.S.

200415PeterB.Hirtle.Lastupdated3January,2015.UseofthischartisgovernedbytheCreativeCommons
Attribution3.0License.
CornellCopyrightInformationCenter<http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/>