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ISSN 2227-8451

THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES


NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

MONGOLIA:
Area and Culture Studies
Vol. 3 (421), 2015
Edited by Bat-Ireedui Jantsan

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


EDITOR IN CHIEF
BAT-IREEDUI Jantsan, National University of Mongolia, IMS
BOOK REVIEW EDITOR
Yu. Munkh-Amgalan, Dankook University, Korea
. Saruul-Erdene, National Foreign Affairs Training Center, USA
EDITORIAL BOARD

Charles Bawden, Emerutes Professor,


University of London, UK
D.Tumurtogoo, International Association for
Mongol Studies
Christopher Atwood, Indiana University
Agnesh Birtalan Otvosh Lorand University of
Budapest, Hungary
Klaus Koppe,University of Leipzig
Sh.Choimaa, National University of Mongolia
S.Dulam, National University of Mongolia
L.Bold, Mongolian Academy of Science
P.Delgerjargal, National University of
Mongolia
Li Narangoa, Australian National University
K.Okada, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
D.Otgontsetseg, Hankuk University of
Foreign Studies, South Korea
D.Bum-Ochir, National University of Mongolia
U.Erdenebat, National University of Mongolia
M.Bayarsaikhan, National University of
Mongolia
D.Bayarsaikhan, National University of
Mongolia
Jan Rogala, University of Warsaw
Alena Oberfalzerova, Karl University of Praha
Ch.Boldbaatar, National University of Mongolia
J.Gerelbadrakh, Mongolian State University
of Education
Yu.Boldbaatar, Mongolian University of
Science and Technology

Zoriktuev Bulat Radnaevich, Institute for


Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies, Russia
Bayarmendu, Inner Mongolian University,
China
Alicia Campi, Mongolia Society, USA
Monika Charette, University of London
S.Baigalsaihan, National University of
Mongolia
Ines Stolpe,University of Bonn
N.Jantsannorov, National Union of Mongolian
Music Compositors
Jan-Olof Svantesson, Lund University
Kim Ki-Sun, Hankuk University of Foreign
Studies, South Korea
Peter K.March,California State University,
East Bay, USA
Elisabetta Ragagnin, University of Gottingen
Maria Katharina Lang, Austrian Academy of
Sciences
Sharad Soni, Jawaharlal Nehru University,
New Delhi
Koichi Matsuda, Osaka International
University, Japan
Takashi Matsukawa, Otani University
O.Batsaikhan, Mongolian Academy of Science
N.Altantsetseg, National University of
Mongolia
Husel Borjigin, Showa Woman's University,
Japan

Printed by NUM Press Publishing



.- 7
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15

1960-1980-

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31

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49

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183

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203

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223

CONTENTS
MONGOLIAN CULTURE
Otgon-Erdene. E

THE PECULIARITY OF CONCEPT "TIME"


IN MONGOLIAN COGNITION

Dorjpagma.Ya
TEACHING METHODOLOGY AT MONGOLIAN

NATIONAL FOLK SONGS MANNER IN MORIN HUUR 15

MONGOLIAN HISTORY
Ulzii.Ts

ON SOME ISSUES RELATED TO FOREIGN RELATION OF


MONGOLIAN EDUCATION FROM 1960 TO MID 1980S 19

Baasandorj.L

MERITS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF MOTHER HOELUN


/OELUN/ 31

Ser-Od.G UGEDEI KHAN AND ABOUT OF RELATIONSHIPS



BETWEEN MONGOLIA AND TIBET 39
Undarmaa.U

SETSEN KHAN MAHA-SAMADI SHOLOI IN NORTH


KHLKH AND ORIGINATION OF SETSEN KHAN
PROVINCE
49
MONGOLIAN LINGUISTICS

Dashdavaa.V

ANAPHORS IN MONGOLIA 57

Baigalmaa. B

COMPARATIVE RESEARCH OF CHINESE AND


MONGOLIAN IDIOMS 61

Zayatai
Khosbayar

Goo

The tradition of writing version of


myth "Nomulun khatan" 69

Jee Young Lee


A STUDY OF THE ETYMOLOGY OF THE BASIC WORD


TONGUE IN KOREAN AND MONGOLIAN LANGUAGE 81

Sumber

COMPARISON MEANING OF MONGOLIAN AND CHINESE


PHRASES WHICH INCLUDE THE PEOPLES NAMES
89

FOR MANCHURIAN AND MONGOLIAN REPORT BOOKS


OF MINISTRY OF STATE AFFAIRS OF OUTER MONGOLIA
IN THE INITIAL TIME OF MANCHU DYNASTY

75

Ju Su Hyon COMPARING THE VERBS IN KOREAN AND



IN MONGOLIAN 93
Sukhmaa. A

THE TRANSLATION OF THE MONGOLIAN IDIOMS


WITH THE WORD HORSE INTO ENGLISH 105

Otgonsuvd.T

ABOUT DIFFERENTIATING MONGOLIAN SYNONYMS


FAR AND NEAR MEANING 109

Urantsetseg.B

SOME TRANSLATION ISSUES ON MONGOLIAN AND


ENGLISH ABBREVIATIONS 115

Sumber

COMPARING THE MENTALITY AND NATIONAL TRADITIONAL


CULTURE DIFFERENCES OF MONGOLIAN AND CHINESE
PHRASES MEANING THAT INCLUDED A WORD ASFACE

Nyamjav.B

ELISION AND CONTRACTION IN ENGLISH 127

Battulga.Ch

ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF TEN COMPETENCES OF


MONGOLIAN MEN 133

Tsengelmaa.Ts
Otgontuya.D

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE


TEACHING 141

Bat-Ireedui.J

USAGE AND SITUATION OF MONGOLIAN LANGUAGE AND


LETTERS

121

151

MONGOLIAN LITERATURE
Galbayar.G

SOME PECULIARITIES OF CONTENTS AND CHARACTER


DESCRIPTIONS OF D.BODOOS UZEMJIT UGUULEL 157

Nandinbilig.G

HUMOR TECHNIQUES IN MONGOLIAN ORAL TALE 171

Khishigsukh.B

HISTORICAL FICTION NEEDS TRUE HISTORY:


REASONS AND FACED PROBLEMS 177

Batjargal.D

THE RCHNESS OF MONGOLIAN 183

Akyedil. T
Altangul. B

Purevdelger.B

ON THE THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES


OF TURKISH AND MONGOLIAN MYTHODOLOGY 187

uchir

THE WORLD OF BLACK AND YELLOW 203

Bolormaa.G

CHOISURENGIIN DAGWADORJ AS A MAIN REPRESENTATIVE


OF KHOTGOID LITERATURE 209

BIOGRAPHY STUDIES OF NIICH TOIN WHICH NAMED


CHINDAMANI ERIHE, IN INNER MONGOLIA 195

Oyunchimeg.G ABSURD'S THEATRE IN MONGOLIA


Basbish.S

Wu Xiu Hua

219

INNER MONGOLIAN LITERATURE SHOWN HARMFUL


EFFECTS OF OPIUM 223
REVIEWS, NOTES AND NEWS

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(7-14)



THE PECULIARITY OF CONCEPT "TIME" IN MONGOLIAN COGNITION
.-
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http://www.archives.gov.mn

13

Resume
The article introduces the concept time in Mongolian mind and thought throughout the
research from the different kinds of aspects such as philosophy, symbolism, chronology,
traditional method to understand the time and its custom.Mongolian understanding of time
bounds up cultural behavior, nomadic culture, climatic conditions, geography and individual
ideology.Language and cognition mutually influence one another and are both embedded in
experiences and environments of its users. Thus particular attention is paid to manifest Mongolian way of thinking time using methods of cognitive linguistics. Furthermore, we have
addressed not only relationship between language and cognition but also to reveal concept
time and its frames throughout metaphors, proverbs, idioms and other language aspect in
Mongolian literature. In our future research we intend to concentrate on how Mongoliansexpress concept of time both in experiences and language because thought of human-beings
is alwaysalterable.

14

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(15-18)

,

TEACHING METHODOLOGY AT MONGOLIAN NATIONAL FOLK SONGS
MANNER IN MORIN HUUR
.
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1. . .,1998
2. .
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Abstract

Delicateness of playing musical instruments is Mongolian traditional classic style. It is a


flake science which specifically develops human intellection and enriches musicians` skills.
Mongolian folk music and songs have unique specifics by creating new style or tendency,
enriching precious melodies with own methods of playing musical instruments and singing
songs which supports musician`s orientalism.
At present time teaching the methods or skills of performing Mongolian folk-tune and
songs to a new generation is not based traditional teaching methods such as from teacher to
students or by local dialects. It is just based on books or hand-outs, which limits development
of creativeness of musicians. Therefore scientific studies on traditional methods and styles of
folk-tune and songs are very important.

18

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(19-30)

1960-1980-

ON SOME ISSUES RELATED TO FOREIGN RELATION OF MONGOLIAN
EDUCATION FROM 1960 TO MID 1980S
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1.
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(II) 12., 2014
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1951-2006. ., 2006
. 1962.2.10. 41 (8148)
http://www.mzv.cz/ulaanbaatar/mn
http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/49.htm
Abstract

Mongolians began to study in the Soviet Union and West Germany from 1921. On the
contrary, early 1950s Chinese, Northern Korean and Albanian students came to study in
Mongolia. They werethe first students from abroad to Mongolia. From these times, foreign
relation of Mongolian education has been developed up to date. From the early 1950s until
the late 1980s, foreign relation of the Mongolian Peoples Republics education was in relation
with those countries such as Soviet Union,Peoples Republic of China, North Korea, Albania,
Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Poland, Romania, Cuba,
Great Britain, France, Japan, India, Ethiopia, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos.
Therefore, foreign relations of Mongolian education more widened that exchanging teachers,
students and researchers with Great Britain, France,India and Japan since Mongolia joined
UNESCO in 1962. Before 1962, students from above mentioned countries came to study in
Mongolia, since that time Mongolians have a chance to learn and specialize in these countries.
Otherwise, foreign relation of vocational education gained a momentum. Teachers from Soviet
Union came to teach Russian in Mongolian middle schools, Mongolian and Russian pupils
wrote a letters each other and some middle schools became named after Jos Mart, Ho Chi
Minh and Moscow etc Mongolian Renaissance, education and cultural development in XX
century naturally belongs to foreign relation especially educational foreign relation.
Keywords: Mongolian education, foreign relation of Mongolian education, development
ofMongolian education,Mongolian students in abroadand foreign students in Mongolia.

30

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(31-38)


MERITS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF MOTHER HOELUN /OELUN/
.
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.

.

.

.
,
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.


.

32

. .

. [7] . .
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34

,

. XI, XII
.
.
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.
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. :
- : ...
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() .
[11] .
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(:) }
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35

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.

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?
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.
.



.


.
.
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.

36


[1] , (., -
), , 1985, 9, 10 .
[2] , (., -
), , 1985, 10 .
[3] (
.), :., (
), .,1990. (79 )
[4] (
), .,2002, 43, 44 .
[5] , ( ,
.), ,
(76 ), .,2006, 38 .
[6] ( ), (

., ., .), ,
.,2006, 32 .
[7] . , .,1991, 28 .
[8] . , , 100 ,
, , .,1999, 27 .
[9] - , ,
( , : -), .,2003, 29 .
[10] ( ,
: ), .,2001, 64 .
[11] ( ,
, , .),
, .,2006, 60 .
[12] ( ,
, , ., .),
, .,2006, 38 .
[13] ( , ,
(Ph.D), .), ,
.,2006, 19 .
[14] , ( ,
.), ,
(61-66 ), .,2006, 28-30 .
[15] , ( ,
.), ,
(9 ), .,2006, 14-15 .

37

Abstract
This novel narrates about the great deals of Temuujin and significant contributions made
by the Mother Hoelun in the establishment of the Great Mongolian Empire, as well as describes about the fact that Hoelun was the first wife (queen) of the Yesukhei Baatar. Even
though the queen Hoelun was firstly taken away by force from her beloved husband and
became a member of Borjigin family, later she dedicated all her thoughts and feelings for the
future of Borjigin family.Historicmerit of Hoelun mother is the fact that she could firmly
retain the position, authority and priority of Borjigin family in unity with the political activities of Mongolian provinces and tribes in XIII century. This novels narrates about Mother
Hoeluns participation in political life of Mongolia, how she could overcome obstacles and
hard situations thanks to her wisdom and psychological powers and howshe educated his
sons and made them highly intelligent aristocrats. Also this novels implies that wisdom,
good judgment, high psychological potentiality of Hoelun Mother stands behind the Temujins outstanding success.

Key words: Mother Hoelun, aristocratic/noble boy, knowledge and wisdom

38

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(39-48)

,

UGEDEI KHAN AND ABOUT OF RELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN MONGOLIA AND TIBET
.-
()
:
. 1229-1241
.
***
XIII , ,
, ,

, .
, - 105, 106, 126, 127, 179, 180, 181, 183, 190, 194, 196, 238,
259, 265, 275- .
, , , ,
, [1] .
1229-1241

/ , /
. .
:

, - 42 ,
47
[2], - ,
.
. .
. ... .
:
,
.
1
2

. /, ./.., 2003, 245 .


. / ./.., 1960, 41 .

39

, .
, [3] .
, -
1234

. -

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.

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..., /1235/

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.
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(11471216)-
...[10] ,
.
. /.. ./ ., 1960, 41 .
XYII .1957, /
../. -.,-44-45
5
// 1973, .// ,
..//..,-246, . .1990,/,
/. .,1990, 149 .
6
/ ,
/./, ./ ., 2001, 82 .
7
.1999,
. ., .1992,
/./..,
1984 /, /. ., .1997,
..
8
. / .../.., 2000,19, 36-37 .
9
. / /.., 1989, 360 .
10
.. / /.., 1989, 84 .
3
4

40


.
, ,
.
[11]- . 1215 -


[12]
[13] . .


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.
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.
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10 ,
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,


,
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//., ./ /.., 2004,
12
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13
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14
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15
. /../.., 2002, 42 .
11

41


,

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1244 ,
.
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-
.

: ... /1240/
.... /
mdo smad/, /mdo khams/, , /sog chu/
. . /rgyal
lha khang/ , /so ston/
. /bri gung/-
. -
. , ., 1999, 208 .
. 100 , ., 1991, 100 .
18
.. / /, ., 1991, 93-98 .
19
Van Jan Bei, Nyama Jiab Tsian. The historical status of Chinese Tibet, Beijing., 1981, p-12
20
..2010, / 3/, .,104 .
21
. , ., 2009, 55 .
22
. , ., 1996, 28 .
16
17

42

:



...[23]

... /1240/
/dam/-
:
.
.
.
.
.
. , :
- .
. :
?:

.
.
.

[24]
.
, 1240
, ,
, .
, -
...
,
,
, .
...[25] ,
,

.
?
,
,
- [26]
.
.
Dpao gtsaug lag phreng ba, Chos byung mkhas pai dga ston/ , /. 1416-1417 .
Deb ther ong p / /. 375-376 .
25
Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho. Bod kya deb ther dpyidkyi rgyal moi glu dbyangs / /. 91-92 .
26
www.berzin.com//Tibetian lamas and Mongol patrons//
23
24

43

1244 .
: ,
.
. . .


? ?
.
8 30.[27] .

.


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,
.



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. :

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-
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,
,
,
.
Van Jan Bei, Nyama Jiab Tsian.1981, The historical status of Chinese Tibet. Beijing., p-22
Van Jan Bei, Nyama Jiab Tsian.1981,The historical status of Chinese Tibet. Beijing., p-23
29
. . . .,2012. .
27
28

44

[30] .
,
. ,
,
. XI ,
/1034-1102 / .
/1092-1158 /, /1142-1182 /, /1147-1216
/, /1182-1251 /, /1235-1280 /
,
.

,
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.


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. ...
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.
[32]
.


<< >>

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[33]
.

, ,
.


.
. . ., 1991, 458 .
. . ., 1996, 28 .
32
. 78 .
33
Ngag dbang kun dga bsod nams, sa skya gdung rabs./ /. .135-140 .
30
31

45


, ,
,
,

,

. 13 ,
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.

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

. . .,1993
. . .,2005
.. . .,1990
..
/ 840
..,2002..33-42/
.. ,
.//Mongolica.vol.18(39)//..,2006.-88-99.
..
.//
800
//. .,2006.-23-31.
.. //Mongolica.
vol.18(39). .,2006.-23-34.
.. , / II /..,1995
.. / III /..,2002
.. ..,2008
.. ,
. ., 1988
.. ., 1996
. /, ./..,1960
.. / /..,1970, 1978
/, /. ., 1984
.. . /1206-1260 /..,1994
. ..,1994
.
./ ./..,1991.-21
.. IX -
. // . 27//..,1994
.. ,..,1999// ?//
... ..,1990// .
188//

46

. /, ./.., 1960
. /, /. .,1999
. / /. .,1989
.. .
.,2006
26. .. , .
.,1974
27. .. , ..,1986//
. 1/14/.
28. . //,
//.,1992.- 300-324-
29. . /, /..,1990
30. . / /.//
, ..//..,1973
41. /, / /.
.,1985
42. /, . /..,1990
43. , / III XX
/ I, II ..1995
44. / /. ., 2000
45. . / /. ., 2005
46. /I,II,III /. .,1995
47. .. . .,2014
48. .. ..,1978
49. .. ..,1991
50. .-. XIII-XIY , .
.,2003
51. .. / /.., 2012
52. .. ..,1978
53. . ./ I,II /.., 2005
54. .. .., 2012
55. ., .. .., 2010
56. .. ..,1990// 266//
57. . /I,II /..,1985
58. . 100 ..,1995
59. ., .. / I,II /.., 2002
60. , , . , .
.,1999
61. . / (1206-1271).
.,1998
62. . ,
. // ., 2002. . 58-64//
63. .. ..,1993
64. .. .., 2006
65. .. , /I,II /.., 2000, 2014

22.
23.
24.
25.

47

66. XYII ./
../.-.,1957
Abstract

Ugedei is 2nd Great khan of the Great Mongol state. Beside that Ugedei king continued
Chinggis khaans campaign and war, as well as he was close relation with the monk of the
Tibet nations.
gdeis Chinese adviser, Yel Chucai, convinced him to reverse previous Mongol policy.
Instead of leveling North China and all its inhabitants in the usual Mongol manner, he preserved the country in order to utilize the wealth and skills of its inhabitants. That decision not
only saved Chinese culture in North China but it also gave the Mongols access to the Chinese
weapons that later enabled them to conquer the technologically superior Song. Knowledge
of governmental techniques gained from the people of North China made it possible for the
Mongols to be rulers as well as conquerors of China.
It is known, however, that the grandson of Genghis Khan and second son of gedei Khan,
Prince Godan was granted an appanage at Liangzhou (in present-day Gansu) in 1239. In
1240 he sent an invasion force under Dorta into Tibet. The Mongols reached the Phanyul Valley north of Lhasa, killing some 500 monks and destroying and looting monasteries, villages
and towns. The Gyal Lhakhang Monastery went up in flames and many monks of the Reting
Monastery were slaughtered by the horsemen. The Drigung Monastery was saved, ostensibly since the Mongols believed that a sudden avalanche of stones could be attributed to the
supernatural powers of the lamas. When Dorta reached Dam, the Reting Monastery itself
escaped destruction and its abbot suggested the Mongols to contact Sakya Pandita, who was
a famous author and religious figure and could represent the Tibetans vis--vis the Mongols.

48

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(49-56)



SETSEN KHAN MAHA-SAMADI SHOLOI IN NORTH KHLKH AND
ORIGINATION OF SETSEN KHAN PROVINCE
.
( )
: , , C , , .
: XVII ,
, .

.
, -
.
***
XVI , XVII
,
. 1580 , *
, ,
. 1581
1586 ,

.
,
(1562-1586/7)- .
1585 , . 1587 ,
, , . 1596
- , ,
(1596-1650 )-
.
,
XVII 30- ,
-

49

. ,
. XVI

, .

,
. . ,
.
,
() , , ,
. (1577) .
, **
.
, .
. , 1.
,
, ,
2
. 1630-
, , ,
.
,
. , - (
)-, 17 ,
, .
. ,
3 .
, ,
.
-
.
XVII
. - ,
,
. 1685
* , .
Byamba-yin Asarai neret (-yin) teke / /. . ,
., /Lee seong-gyu/. ., 2002. 52.
. XVII . , ...
-, 1957, 136.
** Asarai neret (-yin) teke. 60. ,
.; . . 155, ,
. 234 , ; ..
. . ., 2002, 179 ,
, , .
1
. 247-248 .
2
.. , (), . 1990
, 107,359, 359 . . , ,
, , 2002 , 30 .
3
- 53 37 .

50

,
. ,
,
.
, 1686
- ,
, ,

. ,
, ,
.
1687 ,
.
,
,
.
, :
.... Dalai jinong-dur aqar aba-a-yin oruul olan irged qaan ola daudasan-dur seen
qaan ber-iyen emiyej manu eige-dr oruul noyad namayi tasiju gaqan ola daudaju
bainam. bi ber-iyen edgsen busu blge bayituai gekle bayiy-a kemegsen-dr manu
eige qaan ni mauilaqu gei erten- yosuar-iyan yabu kemej uridaki yosuar-ian
yabuuluad qaan ola-yi-u bayilasan gei yambar yaum-a-du manu eige qaan-n
jarli-aa dabal gei yabusan bila .4
XVII 20, 30-
. XVII ,
, 1616 (
)- ,
,

. , ,
,
, ,
.


5 .
1627

, ,
.
1627
,
.

. 1627-1628
4
5

. 6 25 . .
.. ... ., 2007, 67 ; ..

51

. , ,
,
. ,
, .
, ,

.
,
.
?

. , -
.
- 4289-4293- , 1634
,
. :
01. Om suwasdi iddam :: 6
02. Olan-a erggdegsen maq-a samadi. 7
03. Seen qaan-I jarli
04. Tayiqu erke keken8, jeim-e darqan noyan teriglen kedn jayisang-ud-tu biig gbe.

Urida i bulusa
05. qung noyan-i bariju gi. geben kndleleji, yileben btgeleji yabula.

qoyina i bolusa
06. gem gei tryin samaqu-tu inasi inasi ese yabulala. Bide tusdan ngge

gem gei siy-e
07. kiaq-a gei bile. Qaqan deged trldegen gede bolji, ta bgde-yi ayisui

geki-yi
08. sonusi. amurai qayiqul-iyar bolqaji bayila9. qan-tu trl bile. qaraus tan-du ejen bile10.
09. saqad gei ireltei bainam. ama degelei gekd taiqu: mini qatun-tu kin deg bile.

bisin-tu
10. eim gekle. trgsen-iyer i. Sidar mini ene bile. basa basa doturaban ergiglj
mede11
.
- .
.
, ,
- .
8
, ,
.
9
1634 , .
1635 4-5 .
10
(1577-1652)
. 1633 ,
, - ,
. ,
(qan-tu trl bile) , ,
(qaruas tan-du ejen bile) .
11
,
, (busud-tur eim gehle trr i, trgsen-iyer i8 sidar mini ene bile, basa basa doturaban ergiglj mede mede) , , ,
.
6
7

52

11. eli-yin mini nere, garma anbui bandida, bunsu kiy-a qoyar bui. Beleg nige

mori bui :: mang alam:: 12
9- (1635)- ,
. ,
,
. 1635
4 20 ,
, -
.
, -
13, - . -
Mahsammatah , ,
Mang pos bkur ba rgyal po, ,
Mo he san mo duo, Da san mo duo wang 14.
-
.
,
, , 1500
, 1635 9- -
.
, , 1639 4-
, 15
.
16, ,
:
.
,
,
. ,
,
.
,
. ,


. .
. 1969
4292-4293
. .
12
: , .
13
23 , 5 bing zi
, - ( ),
. 1985 .
14
. . 77 .
15
, 37 21
16
. 1691). - .
., 2008.

53

.
- , 1639
, , Lin Zhi gong , .
,
.
.
. - 23
, ,
,
.
,
-
,
.
17, - ,
. , ( guo que)
83- - 48- 4- ,
( zhong gen er) , ,
, - . ,
. -
(1619) 8-
,
- .
36 .
, surasan kid-i bayilaju, dahin mongol-dur mordaulju
.
-
, . -
, - .
14- ,
.
, , , , ... -
,
,
, .
, -
.
,
. ,
.
, .
, ,
.
1627 ,
17
. - . , 1998 2 . 16-25 .

54

1628
. 17 20-
30-
.
, , ,
. ,
, ,
,
3
.
-
.
, 1660- ,
. ,
.
, -
.
.
,
. -
.
,
.
, XVII
4 5 ,
XVII 20- 30-

, -

.

55


1. -. , ,
, 2001 , 1 .
2. . . -

. 2005 , 5 , 1-9 .
3. . Qiaoji .

. 1980
4. .. , , . ,
2010
5. . ,

1987
6. .

. -

, 1999 1- . Ts.Tserendorj. On the

name Ger(e)sen(g) je jalayir quntaiji. Acta Historica. T.VI.UB. 2005. p, 81-83.
7. . -

. - , 1998.16-25 .
8. . 45-
9. (Haoweimin)


10. .

. 1985
11. . . , 2005
12. . 2006
13. . . . ,

1983
14. . XVII . , ,

... -., . 1009
15. . -

. - , 1998. 16-25 .

Abstract
However, researching the life and activities of well-known historical figures of Mongolia
is ongoing these days, some of them are still not researched.
There were pretty a lot historical figures who were playing some roles in social and political
history, also could leave their own status in history of Mongolia in 17th century. One of them
was named Sholoi who was well-known as Setsen khan and was one member of dayan
khan Batmunkhs direct ethnicity.
He was the prince of Khalkh Mogul, was exalted as the Maha-Samadi wise king, was
ruling the Setsen khan province and owned a large part of Mongolia. He is the historical
figure who was leadering the country with his own political concepts and activities about
public policy during that time.

56

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(57-60)

1
ANAPHORS IN MONGOLIA
.
()
To

R&R - ,
, .
1- , 2- S&S-
, 3- ,
4- ,
.
I.
. (1981) (1986) 2
Reinhart and Reuland (1991,1993), Safir (2004), Polinsky (2012)
. Reinhart Reuland (1991,1993) (
R&R ) ( local) ,
(non -local) 2 . ,

(himself), (zichzelf) ,
(zich), (seg)
. SE (simplex expression) ,
, .
II.
R&R(1993) self SE
.
:
. (syntactic)
.
. (2008) .
Binding Theory .(1981)
. . (2008)
, [
.
].
. (2013) .
1
2

57

. (semantic) .
:
(1) - (syntactic) :
. .
. - .
(- - 3
- (syntactic argument) .
(2) ,
(rgument) - - (semantic) .
(3)
.
(4) - - SELF

.

.
(5) haat zichzelf.
(6)*Max haat zich
(Max hates SELF/*SE)
R&R-
. , SELF
. 5- zichzelf SELF
haat (hate) (argument) .
6- zich haat (hate) (argument)4
SE .
SE
. R&R-
o
. .
(III)
.
Pica- (Pica1987) e SE
self .

, -2 5 .

. Hestvik (1992)

.
. -2
3
external argument subject
.
4
Theta role theta , argument- " .
. (2013) thematic role- .
5
,
. -2 .

58

. O
.
(7) i i .
(8) i i i .
7,8-
,
. (1992)
. Pica(1987)- 7-
. ,
. ,
(9) * .
TP

Spec

VP

DP

IV.

.
(10) [IP ai[CP[IP j k *i/j/*k
.
10- -2 -
-
. , .

-
.
.
(11) i i .
R&R- (1991,1993)
.
self , .
.
(12) i [i ] .
(13) i [i ] .
12,13 , -2
(NP) .
-
* . .

59

(14) i [CP[IP i ] ] .
(15) [CP[IP i i ] ] .
14-
- 15-
-
.
.

( 1981)

R&R-
.
,

.


D.Buring. 2005 Binding Theory. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
N.Chomsky. 1981. Lectures on Government Binding. Foris Dordrecht.
A.Hestvik. 1992, LF Movement of Pronouns and Anti-subject Orientation. Linguistic Inquiry
14,395-420
P.Pica. 1987, On the Nature of Reflexivizations Cycle. NELS17, 483-499
M.Polinsky. 2011 Theoretical Syntax in Experimental Setting. Paper presented at the 13 th
Seoul International Conference on Generative Grammar
.. 2013, ( ) Pixels printing.
T.Reinhart and E.Reuland 1993. Reflexivity. Linguistic inquiry 24,657-720
K.Safir. 2004.The Syntax of Anaphora. Oxford: Oxford University Press
D.Tserenpil. 2008, Universal Grammar and Mongolian
.. 2013, , ,

Abstract
Reinhart and Reuland (1989,1993) claims that anaphors are divided into local and non-local anaphors. They argue that anaphors like self in English are polymorphemic , local
and non-subject oriented. On the other hand, anaphors like zichself in Dutch are monomorphemic , non-local , and subject oriented. But our analysis of Mongolian anaphors in
this paper is not compatible with the above mentioned hypothesis (Reinhart and Reuland
(1989,1993). The organization of this paper is as follows. Section 2 will display R&Rs approach to anaphora. Section 3 will present monomorphemic and polymorphemic anaphors.
Section 4 will be focused on anaphors in Mongolian.

60

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(61-68)



COMPARATIVE RESEARCH OF CHINESE AND
MONGOLIAN IDIOMS
.
( )
I.

,
.
.
. .
. .
, ( ) , ,
,
.

. ,
, ,
. ,

.

. , ( ),
( ) .
. , ,
, .


. . : , ,
,
. . ( ,
) : .
. , . ( ,
) .

61

II.
. -
,
, .
. ,
,
. , (
), ( ) .

. ,
( ) .
.

.
,

. , (
),( )
.

. : .

.
. .
. ,
5000 .

. , ( ),(
) .

. : :
. . .
... ( ),
(.), , (.)
.


. , ( , ), (, - ..

, . :
, , ..
.
.
: (1001 )- , (
)- , ( )-
, ( )- , (

62

, ) 19-
.
.
, , ,
, , , .
. ,

, . ,
( - , ,
, , , ,
( - ..

. :
( ), (
), ( )
.
III.

, ,
, , , .
.


.
: .
,

. , ( )- ,
( )- .

.
, ( )- ,
( )- , (
)- , ( ) - ,
, ( )- ,
( ) ()-
.
. , ( )- ,
( )- .
. ,
( )
( ).
, ,
. , ,
.:

63

I.
.
: 1. ,
2. ,
. .
: 1. , ,
,
. ,
: 1. , , 2. ,
,
. .
: 1. , 2. ,

II.
. . : -
, -
. . : - ,
-
. . : -
,
. . : -
, -
. . :
, ,
.
. : - , -
III.
.
. .
,
. ,
( )-

.


. : ( ) -
-
.
. (
)-

.

64

.
,
,
. , , , ,
, , ,
. ,
- ,
, - , - ,
- .
.

. , ( ),
( )
. (
), ( )
.
.
.
: - , - ,
- .
.

.
. ,
(
)
.
, , , , ,

. ,
, / /-
,
. - ,
- , - , - ,
-
.
.



. , , ,
, .
, ( ), (
)

. , ,
..

65

IV.
. ,
.

.
. ,
- ,
.
:
.
.
. ,
.


. ,
, () .
.
,
.

.
.
, ,
,
. (
)
. (
- ) ,
( )-

.
.
.
.
, ( )
, .

( )
.
.
.
, (
), ( ),
( ), ( )
. ( ), ( ,

66

) ,
. (
- ) .

. ,
, , ,
.
.

. : (
- ), ( ),
( )
. (202 9)-
, ,

. , ( - ),
( - ) .
(
- ), ( )
.

. , (
- )
, ( ),
- , - ,
.

, , - ,

, -
.

, , ,
. ,
,
.
,
.
,
.

67


1. .. , 1982.
2. .. , 2006.
3. .- . o ,
, TUFS, "Area and culture stadies" 78, 2006.
4. .. - , 1966.
5. .
. , 1995.
6. . , , 2007.
7. . , , 1963.
8. . . , 1999.
Abstract
Idioms are not only one of the most important parts of the vocabulary but also they may contain
special features of the customs, culture and religion. In this article we have compared some idioms
defenitions, origin and cultural contents in Chinese and Mongolian languages.

68

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(69-74)



The tradition of writing version of
myth "Nomulun khatan"

( )

( )
:

,
.
: , ,


.
XII
,
, .


.
.

.
, ,
, , ,
, .

.
. .
.


-
.

69

:
1.
.
2.
.
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. , .
8. .
9.
.
10. , .
11. .
12. , .
13. , ,
.
14. ,
.
15. ,
.
16. , .
17. , .
18. .
19. ,
.
20. , .
21. .
22. ,
.
23. , .
24. , .
25. , .



.
.

, ,
, . " "-

.
, ,

.

70


- XVII
, .
, , ,
, ,
. , ,

,
,
.
.
,
, ,
XVII
,
. ,

.

. " "
" " .
,

. .
,
, .
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
.
: ,
, ,
, ,
, , . ,

. ,
.

71

(1)


(2)


(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)


1.

2.

3.

4.

-8

5.

6.

7.

.
.

,
.

, ,

.
.

, .

.
,
.
. (
, , ,
).
.

72


.
1. ,
,
.
2.
- , -
, - ,
-
.
3.
- 9 7
.
4. - , 8
, -
6 , .
5. -
, , ,
, - , -
.
6.
-
.
7. -
, - ,
.

-

. , , ,
, ,

.
.


- ,
.

- -
.

73


1. 1983
2. 1976
3. . . . 1998
4. , . . . 1984
5. , - . . . 1985
6. . . . 1988
7. , . . . 1987
8. .
. . 1989

74

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(75-80)

FOR MANCHURIAN AND MONGOLIAN REPORT BOOKS OF MINISTRY OF


STATE AFFAIRS OF OUTER MONGOLIA IN THE INITIAL TIME OF MANCHU
DYNASTY

( )

-
, , ,
n , -tan/-ten
,
,
.
: , , .
I.

.
, , 1613
, 24 ,
. ,
(1636) 2 ()- ,
. 3-
(1638)
, 32- (1906) -
.
,
, , , , ,

.

75

,
,
.
, , , ,
, ,
, , , ,
,
,
. [1]

.[2]
,
.
() () .
,
. ,
2 ,
2
.
2
., ,
, 2009
- 1631
.
II. 3-


.
.
20- 50-



.

5606
10- (1653)-
24- (1898) 245 .
:

149
119
649
799
1154

11
685
232
244

76

149
130
1334
1334
1398

284
343
638
4135

132
85
82
1471

416
428
720
5606


,
1613

, . 24 ,
.
.
-
,
,


, ,

,
,
, .

.
3

III. -
.

,
.

,
,
. ,
, .
, ,
, .

,
[3] .

,
. ,
, ,
.
.

77


. 22-
/1683/ , 60- /1795/
. 17- 18-
, 17- 18-
.
.
(A) , , n , , n-tan/-ten
17, 18-
, , 2 . n
17,18- , 2
. ,
. n , 2 .
, FileeeeecI /01-463/, HorbEa /01-526/, Neimea /01-257/, NeUsle& /09262/, FE*T /01-463/, FukEa /01-445/, FEeeemeoa /09-413/, JeleeemjileeeoleeO /13-411/
- , n
, :

22-
/1683/
26-
/1687/
30-
/1687/

/1736/
45-
/1780/
60-
/1795/

65

27

19

28

67

56

20

47

104

51

216

248

547

89

120

17

169

90

37

710

592

640

48

131

,
. 17,18- ,
, .
n
.
n 2
.
(B) -tan/-ten
-tan/-ten
2 .
,

.

78

.
: Femoeeoleeit dea /01-440/, bEedI /01-463/, NeieedeI Dea /02-50/, Ferebdea Dea /02-106/,
Nesidoa Dea /09-76/, Lersea Dea /07-344/
, FlcI dea /01-440/ .
-tan/-ten .
(C)
17- ,
.
.
. ,

Hea

Jiyoia

Jeehcoa

Siyea

SodesO

BO Dieit QA

Weeit {I Zea

Foehnigooa

Geejoo*

He%

kuioia

Jiieehkuioia

kuiea

SoidesO

BO Dieit Wo

Weeit SA Zea

Foehniiooa

Heejoo*

/23624/

/01444/

/01450/

/01451/

/01445/

/01-451/

/01-452/

/01-515/

/18500/

,
. ,
SoidesO o, u
.
- i , Y 2 ,
( 6- i 341 , Y 3-
) s

, d D d 2 ,
-tu/-t -un/ -n(-u/- , n
.)
.
17,18- . 4
, , , ,
.
, , , n, y, s -tu/-t
-un/ -n
17,18-
. , .
n 2

.
i , Y 2 , Y
. -tan/-ten ,
.
4


.

79


[1]. ,

, 2009
, 1.
[2]. , : ,
,
, 2008 , 236.
[3].

, 2012
2- , 57.
Abstract
The article concluded and explained about Ministry of State Affairs of Mongolia,
briefness and content of report books, writing of , , n consonants with and without drop in
report books, meaning of suffix such as tan (-ten), writing of Mongolian words with impact
of Manchurian language and moreover explained about that some writing of Mongolian
words in Report Books has very much difference in comparison to other source scriptures.
Keywords: The initial time of Manchurian dynasty, report books and research cost.

80

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(81-88)

C [kela kele] [hyeo]



A STUDY OF THE ETYMOLOGY OF THE BASIC WORD TONGUE
IN KOREAN AND MONGOLIAN LANGUAGE
- ()
( )
I. PA
A. c


.
. .
(G.J.Ramstedt)
, , , ,

. (N.Poppe)
,
.
(1996, 2005),
,
, ,
, .

.

,
.
,
,
1 [hyeo]
(basic vocabulary)
.
(Glottochronology)- M. Swadesh-
-

81

[kela kele]- ,
, .
B.
-
.
,

.

,
. M.Swadesh-
(1971)
A 44 tongue,
[hyeo] [kela kele]- .
C.
,
8-
. 2-
, , , - g, d, b, l . - k
g- .
- xaa, .
. C
[ ] .

. [ ] [ , ,
] .
II. COOOCOO X X
A. [hyeo, x]
[hyeo, x]
, ,
. [hyeo, x]
.
(1) [hyeo] 2<-c19-7>3

[hyeo]4 <- . >5
- .

.
, M. Sewadesh-
.
2
-(2012, oop), , , 604.
3
-(); 28 (1446) -
29-31 .
4
a-(1997), o- , o ,1406 .
5
- (Hunmin chngm, ) 1446 9
, -
, , .

82

[hye]6 <-c19:38>
[hye]6 <- xE 4>7

[hyeo, x, ]
[hyeo, x] [hye, ] .
-c- [hyeo, x] [hye, x]
. [hye, x]
. [hye, x]-
.8
-
[hyeo, x, ]- [heol, ] > [hyeol, ] > [hyeo, x]
. -
[hyeo, x, ] [halh-da, xaxa, ]
[halh-da, xaxa, ] [halh, xax]
[hal, xa] [hyeo, x, ] . [haltda, xaa] [hal, xa, , ] [halh, xax]-
.9
(2) [seol-wal-heol] <K->10

[hal] <- 9:35>11

[hal] () <---E 54>12
12- K K-- ()[seol-walheol, c-Ba-x] , [hyeo, x, ]- [heol, x]
. - [hal, xa]-
13. -
- ()[gal, ka]
, - (Hunminchngm, ) -
[hyeo, x] .14
1103 K-- 350
K , K
. , K--
a-(1997), Op. cit., p.1406.
- (Hunmin chngm, ) .
-- . .
8
-, - -x ( 2009), , Xa
xa , pp.143- .
[he, x]; K , XBaxE , , .
[hae, xE]; K . [he, x] [hae, xE] [hye, x]- -ye

-e -ae .
9
-(2000), , , 555 .
10
K- 1103 xaa
11-
.
11
- - - -- o xaa 5-
(1459)- c -- .
12
o xaa 16- (1690)- .
13
- (2000), Op. cit., 556 .
14
-(1985),K- K ,
, 223-224 .
6
7

83

20
. -, - K-
, [heol, x]-
(x xopxo) [heol, ], (x xopxo) [gal, ka]
- [hyeo, x]
h-- [heol, x] ()-
.
B. X [kela kele]
[hyeo, x]
- . kela, po kele .
[kela kele] kele(kela) .15
[kela kele]-

.
(3)

xlj~xusu

kl

kela (kele)
()
()

kelen

()

kilin

()

kl~ ti ()

kele- k- xlj-
x k- .
.p kele(),
[hyeo, x] . A
--, , x k- h-
aa xa ayy . .p
a c .16
, ,
[hada, xaa, ] . , [kih]
[hyeo, x, ], [hada, xaa, ]-
.
.

Kele

hyeo, x

kih

hada, xaa

h(x)

h(x)

., .. , ., 2008, 812 .
.. , , ., 1975,
169-170 .
15
16

84

(4) [kele] a [hyeo, x].


- [k]- [hyeo, x]
[h]- , ()- [h]-
- [k]- . , [h]-
k-, -, g-- .
(5) kiha aa
honja

xx

a

gem


heum


giyre- px
17
heoulug-

, [hyeo,
x]- [heol, x], [gal, ka]
[kele]- .
--,
--- .
, [gal, ka]-
[g, k]- , [heol, x]-
[h, x]- k- aa xa
ayy .
[hyeo, x]-
[heol, x], [gal, ka]- [kele]
.
C. [mal, a]
[kele] a
, 18
-
[kele]- [mal, a]-
, ---, --
.
k-, [m]- . k- m-
. m k- xap xp
.
m-
p- .
k->t->p-
p-
m-
. c m- k- .
.
(6) gilik x
molda

aida aax
mojalada

-. c x ,
(Sc.D.)- , , ., 2001, 76 .
18
.. " ", ., 2013, 1039 .
17

85

[hyeo, x, ]
[kele]-
.
[kela kele]- xx [keleK
kelek]19 . [malhada,
axaa]. [mal, a] - .
[kele] [mal, a]
.20
III.
[kela kele]
[hyeo, x]
.
12- [hyeo, x,
]- [heol, x] [gal, ka]
[kele],
, , ,
, .
[kela kele]
[mal, a, ] , ,

.

.
[hyeo, x, ], [heol, x], [gal, ka],
[mal, a, ],
[malhada, axaa, xx] [kela kele]
xx [keleK kelek] .

19
. (2013), Op. cit., p.1044.- , xx
xx .
(haplology) kelek .
20
Jaroslav Vacek(2002), Dravidian and Altaic Water-Viscsity-ColdAn Etymological Typological Model, Studia Orientalia Pragensia XXII, Charles University in Prague, pp.32-33.-
xx[kelek]-
. Manchu, Manchu-Tungus, Evenk, Chuv
Tamil .
Manchu. klkka to ask
Manchu-Tungus. KL
to ask,
Evenk. klto ask, beg, beseech
Oro.

klito invite
Chuv.
klto beg, beseech
Tamil.

klto ask, inquire

86


1. -(1985), K- K ,

.
2. K -(2010), Cc oo, ,
.
3. -(2012, oop), ,

.
4. a-(1997), o- , o .
5. -, - - x ( 2009), ,
Xa xa .
6. -(2001), c x ,
(Sc.D.)- ,
, .
7. -(2000), , ca.
8. .(1975), ,
,
9. . , . (2008), ,.
10. . (2013), , .
11. E.V. () , (2004),
, 24, , pp.355-378.
12. (2005), ,
Vol.32, , pp.265-295.
13. (1996), :

, Vol.5, , pp.91-111.
14. . (1999), x YE, ca ,
, C, C Cypyy, .
15. . (2009), C ap x
axyy oox , Xaa oo Opy a,
x xooo ay, MC, , pp.73-86.
16. . (2013), Xaaap
xa yyaap cpx , -
, .
17. Jaroslav Vacek(2002), Dravidian and Altaic Water-Viscsity-Cold An Etymological
Typological Model, Studia Orientalia Pragensia XXII, Charles University in Prague.
18. (1997), , .
19. (2001), , .
20. (Nicholas Poppe) / (1992), , .
21. G.J (Ramstedt) /P. Aalto / (1985),
, .
22. Paul Pelliot(1925), Les Mots, A H Initial, Aujourdhui Amuie, Dans Le Mongol Des
XIII Et XIV Sicles, Journal Asiatique, Avril-Juin, pp.193-263.
23. N. Poppe(1969), Outue Initial H Yugn-chaopi-shih-CYYY, Bulletin of Institute of
History and Philology (Akademig Sinica) 39, pp.207-275.
24. (1990), , , , China.
25. (Oaa o)(1958), Op - ,
, .
26. coii^Lobseekjebt (1992),foa, MoeGo& biciit oa Hedeme& DolI, feekeea b keble&, MoeGo& biciit keble& oa HoriI t , Folegeebegedo* .

87

Abstract
The goal of this study is to illustrate a close affinity between Korean and Mongolian
language. The basic words; [hyeo, x, ], [heol, x], [gal, ka], [mal,
a, ], [malhada, axaa, xx], [kela, kele], xx[keleK kelek] of
two languages as the research objects of this study are etymologically cognate since they
are verified their similarities of phonological structures and the lexical parallels of word roots
through the phonological correspondence approach.
Keywords: tongue, etymology, Protolanguage, Korean, Mongolian, [kela, kele], xx
[keleK kelek], [hyeo], [mal]

88

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(89-92)



MEANING COMPARISON OF MONGOLIAN AND CHINESE PHRASES
WHICH INCLUDE THE PEOPLES NAMES

()
.

, .
, ,
.
,
, .
,
, .
,
, .
[1], [2],
[3], [4]
.

.
, ,
.
, .
:
, , ,
, .
,

.
.
,
.
[1] .
[2] .
[3], - .
[4] , .

89

. .
.

.
.

.
/ bn mn nn f /: [5] . .
, . . - .
,
.
/sn chu p jin, si u zh lin /:
, , , ,
, , ,[6] .
- .
[7] - [8]-
[9]-
[10] . - 20
, .
- -
. -
, ,
. -
. ,

.
/ d y zh shu /:[11] . .
. .
[12]-
13 , ,
.
,
.
, ,

.
[13]
[5] , . 507444
, , .
[6] , . 181234
, , , , .
[7] , .
[8] , 175210 .
[9] , 155220 , ,
, , .
[10] / co chun ji jin/.
[11] , .
[12] / hun h/.
[13]/sn guji mn r br/.

90

.
/ kn rn rn l /:[14] . .
. . - 4
.
-,
,
. , :
? :
.
, ,
.
/ xin zhun w jin, y zi pi n /: [15]
. . , , .
. [16] . -
- . 208 [17]
400 [18]- [19]-
. [20] - [21]- . - -
- - , -
-
.

. - [22]
.
/ mn lu sn shn /: . . [23]
. - .
. 24- ,
.
. ,
.
, :
, - [25] .
[14], 153208 .
.
[15] , - .
[16] , - .
[17] , 232202 ,
..
[18] , , () .
[19] , 256195 .
.
[20] , - .
[21] , ,
().
[22] / hn mn yn/.
[23] , .
[24]/ sn cho /
[25]:/ji Mn jn ch sh sn shn, xin ln gn zi sn shn
wi/.

91

, ,
,
.

,
,
,
, , , ,

.

:
2000 , , .
., 2008 , , .
., 1982 , , .
., 2010 , , .
, 2002 , , .
www.holvoo.net
:
2005
2005
1979
2010 ,
201003
2010
www.baidu.com
Summary
The phrases consisted of the human names are relevant to the main character and roles in
the story, fairy tales and legends as well the titles, historical life of the famous peoples names
had been inherited in the ancient time sutras and sources from time to time as the education,
intelligence, doctrine and lessons learned; the phrases consisted of names or the idiomatic
expression which shall be followed all the time of lifetime and shall be inherited to the next
generation.

92

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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(93-104)



COMPARING THE VERBS
IN KOREAN AND IN MONGOLIAN

()
[1]
,
, , .
,
,
,
.

.
,
. ,
.
,
,
.

. ,
.
[2] .
( *1(1974)), (
2 (1975)), ( 3 (1984)) .
.
( ), The Korean Verb ha and Verb Complementation (1974), 10-1. 6-82 .
( , 10-1. 46-82 )
* ., .
.
., (2006), .
2
( ), '-' , : ( - , :
)
3
( ), , , pp.31-63 (,-
, 31-63 )
1

93

.1

/ /

( )

- (1975)
( -
)

- (empty morpheme**)
(pro-verb***) .
1.


.
2. -

.

( )

,
(1984)
(,-

)


.
-

.

-
. -
. -
/empty morpheme/ / /
.

,
.
, .4 (1992), .5 (2009), .-6 (2011)
.
.2

/ /


, (1992)


. , , , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , , , (), ,
, .

.

.-


, ,
(2009)

,
, , , ,
.

** (linguistics) A purely formal morpheme with no semantic content. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/empty_morpheme


*** In grammar, a pro-verb is a word or phrase that stands in place of a verb (for example, in order that the verb not need
to be repeated). Who can tell? -No-one can [tell]. Why cant he do it? -He can [do it], he just wont [do it]. I like pie, as
does he [like pie]. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro-verb)

., , (1992). III, IV, V. .


.- , , , , ., 2009.
6
.-, ,
, (2011), - Acta Mongolica
, 11(366), ., 67-84 .
4
5

94

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(2011)

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98

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(2013) , , 11. ( (2013) ,
, 11. ).
9
(empty morpheme)

. -
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) http://stdweb2.korean.go.kr/main.jsp
8

101


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, ,
11 .
.
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)+( : )+( : )+(: ) . ,
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.

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,
. (

) http://stdweb2.korean.go.kr/main.jsp
12
. (
) http://krdic.naver.com/detail.nhn?
docid=15697800
13
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) http://krdic.naver.com/detail.nhn?docid=26261500

102

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.
- .

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.

M.. (1992). . III,IV,V. .
.- 2009, , , . .
.-. 2011. ,
-
Acta Mongolica , 11(366), . 67-84
(1974) The Korean Verb ha and Verb Complementation, 10-1. pp.46-82
( (1974) ,
10-1. 46-82)
(1975) - , :
( (1975) - , : )
(2013) , , 11.
( (2013) , , 11.
)
(1984) , , vol.9. pp.31-63
( (1984) ,-
vol.9, )
(2007), , 22.
. pp.123-140.
( (2007), - ,
22, , 123-140)
(2010) X , 84 pp.321-339
( (2010) X - ,
84 , 321-339)

103

, (2013) X X
35 pp.255-285
( , (2013)
, , 35 ,
255-285)

. , 1966.
, 1999. .
(
) http://stdweb2.korean.go.kr/main.jsp
, 2008. , UB.
( , , 2008,

- )
2008. , UB. ( ,

)
Abstract
A verb hada in Korean has several meanings. One of them is that it means prepare the
food/clothes/ firewood which compared to a verb hiih in Mongolian. While comparing
ithas a limited form for its usage relatively with few nouns. A verb hada has no meaning
of a container or to put in. A verb nutda (put into) or damda (put in) will be used in
order to express the exact meaning of to put in something in a container. Analyzing from
our study, a verb hiih in Mongolian has much concrete meanings than hada in Korean.
A verb of hada has an abstract meaning in Korean and its function is that a noun before it
makes a verb. A verb hada in Korean has similar meaning compared to hiih in Mongolian
such as act, make, prepare jewelry, or clothing. But there has quite difference in meaning
including to look, attitude or express , to eat food or drink beverages, to make out results, to buy or acquire something, to price on something , to act befitting expect , to
speak separately so on.
This MA thesis focuses on a verb hada in Korean which is empty morpheme or proverb in the study of linguistics, thus it will be interesting to study it in depth especially in
the study of cognate languages. Hada plays a role to connect substantives and converts it
to a verb. However, suffixes -la, -da usually form a verb in the Mongolian language; both
verbs hada and hiih need to be studied carefully.

104

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tom 3 (421)

(105-108)

,

THE TRANSLATION OF THE MONGOLIAN IDIOMS WITH THE WORD
HORSE INTO ENGLISH
.
()
: , , , , , ,
.
, ,

. ,
, ,
.
., ., ., ., .-,
., .- , , , ,
. . (2006:124) ... ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
. : //,
// ...1 . . (1999:3) ...

2 . .
(1970:3) ...

.

3 .
, ,

. Jennifer Seidl W. McMordie (1978:176) 4an idiom
. (2006)
. (1999)
3
. (1970)
4
Jennifer Seidl W. McMordie (1978) English idioms and how to use them
1
2

105

can be defined as a number of words which, when taken together, have a different meaning
from the individual meanings of each word. Rosamund Moon (1998:3) Idiom is an ambiguous term, used in conflicting ways. In lay or general use, idioms have two main meanings.
First is a particular manner of expressing something in language, music, art, and so on, which
characterizes a person or group: secondly, an idiom is particular lexical collocation or phrasal
lexeme, peculiar to a language. 5
,
.

.
, ,
,
.
,
:
-
.
set a beggar on horse and he will ride to the devil /
/
/ / .
that is a horse of another color another color
/ /
.
, to
go to bed with lamb and rise with the lark .
-, - .
:
,
to work like a navy, to work like a
nigger, to work hard .
eat like a horse
, .

be passed from hand to hand .
,
he looks as if butter would not melt in his
mouth, he would not hurt/harm a fly

-
.
,
.
.
5

Rosamund Moon (1998) Fixed Expression and Idioms in English

106

. (1970) ... ,

. , ,


,
, .
.
in a bad temper, a hard person to get along with, a bad egg ; - the fishermans horse
remains without water, the cobblers /shoemakers/ wife is the worst shod, the shoemakers
son always goes barefoot ; - to relieve oneself/nature, to be executed, to
leave the room ; - a bad beginning makes a bad ending
; , - he who sleeps catches no fish, penny-wise
and pound-foolish ; , start on a merry note, but finish on
a sad one, start somebody well and end badly, the mountain has brought forth a mouse, fast
beginner exhaust himself soon, the more haste, less speed, great cry and little wool, much
ado about nothing ; - too lazy to lift a finger to help oneself, no
cross, no crown, idleness is the mother of all vices, idleness is the root of all evil, idle brain is
the devils workshop ; it is never late to mend ;
, to stand on ones own bottom, come up in the
world, to grow up .

,

.
.
, - .
90 -
67, 172,
182 . ,
.
, ,
.

107

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

.. (1996) . .,
.. (1999) . .,
.. (1995) Pearl Rosary of Wisdom.,
.. (2006) . .,
.. . ., (1999) . .,
.. (2003) -
. .,
.. (2001) - , . .,
.. (1970) . .,
.. (1989) . .,
Bawden, Charles., (1997) Mongolian-English dictionary. Columbia University
Press, New York.
Jennifer Seidl, McMordie W., (1978) English idioms and how to use them. Oxford
University Press.
Rosamund Moon (1998) Fixed Expression and Idioms in English, Clarendon
Press, Oxford.
Abstract

One of the main problems when we face with while studying foreign languages is idioms.
Idioms are closely related to the custom, culture and lifestyle of any country, thus it is vital to
have sufficient knowledge about that country to study its idioms. Therefore, scholars are becoming more interested in this field. This paper discusses the translations of some idioms with
the word horse from the scientific works by some scholars.

108

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THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(109-114)



ABOUT DIFFERENTIATING MONGOLIAN SYNONYMS
FAR AND NEAR MEANING
.
()
: , , ,

,
.
,
.
,
. ,
,
. .
. ,
,
. ,
. ...
,
.
( ) - (,
1975, 74)
.
.
... , ,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,

(, 1986,
126-127)

109

.
. ,
.
.
,
, . : - , - , ,
, , (, 1988, 170-173)
.
.
, ()-
(, , ; , , , ,
),
(, ; , )
,
, ( , ) , ,
(, 2006, 364-365) .
.. ...
, ,
, (, 1974, 217)
,
. -
.
- ,
.
- . , ,
, ,
, - , -
- - , -
-- (, 1993, 723)
.

, .
, , , ,
, , , , ,
,
, .


,

()

, , ,
. , ,
,
. -,
- .

110


(, , )

, , ,
,
,
.

, , ,
.
()
. ,
, ,
- ,
- . ,
, , , ,
- , ,
.




(, )

, , ,
,

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, .

( )

111

( )


, .
, , ,

. - ,
.
.

()


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(, )

(, )

, ,
.
.

( )

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, , ,
, .
, , .
.
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( )-

, , ,

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.

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)


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112

, -
. :

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()

()

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.

,
.

113


... . . ., 1974
.. . ,
. ., 2006 (1969)
.. ( ,
). ., 1975
.. .
. ., 1986
.. . ., 1988 (1998, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2009)
. . . , 1993, 1996
Resume
From the point of this view, we define the sememe and meaning which is the semantic
composition of Mongolian synonyms, as result we consider that we find not only assimilation
and dissimilation of meaning, but also correctly meaning concord. As well as, it reveals the
language fact that the meaning of synonyms conform completely, except that the most of
sememes get along with them, their meanings are same, if not their synonyms meaning are
not same.

114

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tom 3 (421)

(115-120)

-

SOME TRANSLATION ISSUES ON MONGOLIAN AND ENGLISH
ABBREVIATIONS
.
()
:
, .
, ,

.

.
: , , , , , ,
, , .
() ,
. ,
,
, , .1
,
. , )
, ) , )

(, , ),
( , - ) .
, ,

(- ) .2
Abbreviation (hour=hr, noun=n.), Acronym (Algol=Algorithmic language), clipping (parachute=chute, you are= u r), contraction (do not= dont, that
is=thats), blending word (emoticon=emote+icon)
1
2

. , 1975, 165
, , 6-8

115

. abbreviation, acronym
.
. (
, 1964, , 18), . ( ,
1964, , 20), . ( , 1982),
. ( , 1990, ),
( , 1996, ), . (
),. ( , 1997, ,
1),. ( , 1998) . (
, 1999, ), . (2007), .-,
-, - (2006),
(Current Mongolian Abbreviations, 1967, The Mongolia
Society Bulletin), (Mongolian Abbreviations, 1984, International Congress
of Mongolists, 2nd volume), . ( , ,
2012), . ( , 2012) .
, , ,
. 15-
17-
, .

Algeo
John3
Acronym and its Cornegers, Linguistics 24,725-753 (1975), Blends, structural and systemic
view American speech 52, 47-64 (1977), Adams Valerie Introduction to Modern English word-formation (1973), Berman (1961), Garland Cannon Historical Change
And English Word-Formation(1987)Abbreviation and Acronym in English word-formation (1977), Blends in English word-formation American speech vol64 2 (Summer 1989),
Bauer Laurie English word-formation Cambridge (1983), Marchand, Kreidler,
Charles, Wales Katie (1991) , , ,
, , , ,
.
, ,

.
, , , ,
. ,
-
The National University of Mongolia- NUM,
-
The Institute for Mongolian Studies- IMS,
, -
Ministry of Education and Science-MEDS,
,, -
Information Technology,Post and Telecommunications Authority- ITPTA .
,


3

John Algeo (1930)

116

.

,
,
. , Agency, Authority,
Office, Directorate, Bureau, Department .
Ministry, Board, Office, Home

. : Foreign office , Department
of Justice , Ministry of Defense

.4

, ,
.
,
,
.
,
.

Office

Directorate

Authority

Agency

Bureau

Department

-1

:

.
- (.
, 133- )
Agency, Office, Directorate, Authority
Government Agencies
( ), ( )
. :


Ulaanbaatar City Prosecutors OFFICE

State Professional Inspection DIRECTORATE

Dependent AUTHORITY against Corruption

General Intelligence AGENCY

. , , 1996

117


Law Advice BUREAU


. ,

Department

Section

Branch

Division

-2

.

.
Department-
Branch- .




DEPARTMENT of Human Resources Management

DEPARTMENT of Nature and development

Association

Federation

Union

-3


,

Citizen Services SECTION
:
- , (.
, 685 )
Association - ,
Union-



Asian Pacific Parliamentary ASSOCIATION



West European UNION

,

118


International FEDERATION of Red Cross and Red Crescent

School

University

College

Institute

societies .

.

-4

School-
University-
College- , , , ,
College , ,
College, University .
Institute-

,
SCHOOL of Construction Engineering and Architecture



Mongolian UNIVERSITY of Arts and Culture

,

Mongolia-Korea Technical COLLEGE


INSTITUTE of Finance and Economic

.
.
.
, ,
. ,
.





.

, Office, Directorate, Authority, Agency, Bureau, House

119


,
.
,

.

.


1. . ,., 2012
2. . -, -, -

, 2006
3. ., . ,
2003
4. . ,

, ., 2012
5. . , , 1975
6. . -, , ,, , , 2007
7. . ,., 1983
8. . . (1983)
9. . , , ., 1996
10. . , .,
11. Gale, Acronyms, Initialism, and Abbreviations dictionary, 1987
12. Bauer, Laurie English word formation Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

1983
13. Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary, 2009 Third Edition

1. Abbreviations.com
2. Acronymfinder.com
3. Thesaurus.com

Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to reveal the difference of translations Mongolian abbreviations into English. We translate one general component word of abbreviations like into
English translations like office, directorate, authority, agency, bureau, department etc. At
first we translate Mongolian abbreviation with many ways into English and then we also
abbreviate these into English translations. Especially, in Mongolian-English abbreviation,
we made that mistake. Translation is important one in the level of its translation. So I reveal

120

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tom 3 (421)

(121-124)

,
,
Comparing mentality and national traditional culture
differences of Mongolian and Chinese phrases meaning that
included a word as Face

()
:
.

.
: , , , / Mongolian, Chinese, face, phrases
1. ,

.
,
.

, .
. ,
,
.
,
,
,
, , ,
.
600 .
. :
,

,
,
. , .

121

,
.
,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
. ,
- 1
.
? . :

.
, , -, -, , -, -, -
. ,
(Value)
, . (Etalon)- .

,
2 .
2.

,
,
,
.

. .

, . ,
, ,
, , ,
3
.
,
. ,
, ,
, , .
,
,
.
,
, ,
.. , , Acta Mongolica,
, , Volume 3(215), , 2004.
2
..
, .,
3
.. , ., 2010, 3 .
1

122


, .

.
,
. , ,
, , , , , , ,
. ,
, .
, ;

.

.
; , ;

.
, ,
.
, ,
.

.
/yu f qi / ( ) / f qi d / ( ) .
,
.

. .
,

, .
/d dng min
g,b qio bi hu lu/ .
, ,
.

.
,
.
.
,

.
, .
, ;
, ,
.

123

/rn hu min zi sh hu p/
, .
.

, ,
,
.

. ,
, .
, ?
.
.
, ; (), ;
, , ;
, ; .
.
,
.


, , ,
.
,
, ,
.
,
,
,
,
, . ,
, ,
, , , , ,


,
4
.
.
,
. .
. , ,
19-21 .

.. , , , ., 2002, 52 .

124


, ,
,

.
,
.
, .
,

, , , ,
, , , ,
; ,
, , ;

,
, ,
, , , .

:
.. , ., 1982 .
.. , ., 2001.
.. , , ., 2010 .
.-. , , , ., 2007 .
.. , . ,
, , , . I(220),
., 2003 .
.. , ,

, ,
, ., 2006-2008 .
.. , , ., 2002 .
.. , , Acta Mongolica,
, , Volume 3(215), ., 2004 .
, , ., 2001 .
.. , ., 2008 .
. , ., 2013 .
.. , ., 2010 .
.. ,
, ., 2004 .
. , , ., 2002 .
www.holvoo.net

125

:
2005
2005
,
201003
1996
1520140819
1979
2014
2001
2007
1996
www.baidu.com

126

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tom 3 (421)

(127-132)

Elision and contraction in English


.
()
People who speak any languages need to recognize different kinds of produced words
or phrases in their reduced form every day and every time. In other words, when people
speak fast or informally, they often reduce or contract sounds, sometimes, words because of
linguistic economy principle. So, this paper focuses on studying linguistic reduction forms,
such as, elision and contraction which are interesting phenomena in spoken English.
Key words: elision, contraction, sound, reduction, omission, combination, spoken
English, classifying
Human language is a combination of form and content. The form is a sound and the
content is a meaning. Sounds and letters express the meaning. Some people find it difficult to
understand the meaning when the speaker says the sounds fast. It is usually caused from the
reduction, especially in American spoken English.
If the question What do you think that you are going to have to say to them? is spoken
slowly or written down, the foreign learner might have little trouble in understanding it.
However, when spoken at natural speed as inWhaddaya think that cher gonna hafta say
da em?, the question often becomes an incomprehensible stream of sounds. Gillian Brown
(1990) calls this the acoustic blur of natural spoken English. In order to keep up with the
speed of informal spoken English, we need to be able to distinguish where word boundaries
lie within the stream of sounds.
Insomuch as, Linguistic reductions are a part of natural English and a phenomenon to
lose sounds in words or phrases in flow of speech or gush. Although they happen in spoken
English, almost never in writing, they cannot be considered as slang or improper. James
Dean Brown and Ann Hilferty (2001) use the term reduced forms to refer collectively to
the processes of contraction, elision, assimilation, and reduction. Also, AmericanresearcherNina
Wienstien states that the statistically significant cause for reduced forms is not a sort of
uneducated kind of speech or informality but speed of speech. Though in informal speech we
tend to speak more quickly, and people think its the informality, but actually its the speed
of speech. From this we can consider that it is more related to the speed of speech rather than
informality. Because when people speak, generally do anything, they usually tend to do it
fast in order to save time and labour, which influence on their speaking too. It is called an
economy principle.
There are several basic forms of reductions, such as, contraction, elision and word stress
etc. Even though they are distinguished from each other, the result they cause is same for

127

the reason that they create a reduced form. In some cases, some reduced words are result of
several of them. It means two or three of them share same functions. For example, elisions
and contractions bear enough similarities that they are usually considered as synonyms. Nevertheless, there is a slight difference between them.
An Elisionordeletionis the omission of one or more sounds, such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable in a word or phrase, producing a result that is easier for the speaker
to pronounce. When it comes to the written form, the missing parts may be replaced by an
apostrophe. When it happens, the resulting word is usually one type of contraction. An example of this would be the word cant, which is an elided version of the phrase can not.
However, there are other types of contractions that do not use the apostrophe, but instead
blend together words from a phrase creating one word. This is the case when can not
becomes cannot. Cannot is a contraction, but because you pronounce all of the sounds,
it is not an elision. The other thing to mention is that elisions are not always turned into
contractions in written form. When spoken, words such as laboratory generally sound like
labratory, eliding the central syllable. The spelling of the word does not change, despite
the change in pronunciation.
A contraction is a word that is made up of two or more words that are connected
together. One or more sounds are removed from the words when they are connected. One
or more apostrophes are added in the location letters are removed in informal written form.
For example, an apostrophe goes in place of the o innotwhen do not is shortened to
dont. Englishhas a number of contractions, mostly involving the elision of a vowel which
is replaced by anapostrophein writing, as inImfor I am and sometimes other types of
changes are occured as well, as inwontfor will not. These contractions are commonly
used in speech and in informal writing, though tend to be avoided in more formal writing.
By simply looking at contraction and elision examples, people would think they two
are similar. Some tried to tell apart these two terms, but their explanation is not thoroughly
obvious and sure because of the confusing examples. Therefore, we have tried to distinguish
them based on our study and examples we have collected. We have observed following similarities they have in common:
1. They both omit one or more letters or whole syllable in a word or phrase.
2. The missing parts may be replaced by an apostrophe in written form.
3. They both are the combination of two or more words to form a shorter word.
Bur what makes them slightly different is that:
1. Elision is the omission of one or more sounds in single word or phrase. But Contraction is the combination of two or more words to form a shorter word. If there is an omission
in single word like Comfterble for comfortable, it is surely elision not contraction.
2. Can notcan be contracted like cannot or cant. It means both the cannot
and cant are contraction. Also, cant is an elision but cannot is not. In other words
cannot is a contracted form of two separate words formed by blending together them from
a phrase creating one word but because you pronounce all of the sounds, it is not an elision.
Judging from this, elision can be contraction and contraction can be elision because of
their similarities. However, all elisions cannot be contraction and all contractions cannot be
elision because of their distinctions.
Types of Elision
Elision can be classified as follows according to the location of the omitted sound in a
word:
1. The elision of vowels between consonants is called Syncope.For instance:
Comfortable after elision it sounds [kmftbl] (the sound o between consonants

128

f and r is elided).
Vegetable after elision it sounds [vttbl] (the sound e between consonants

g and t is elided).
Fifth after elision it sounds [f] (the sound f between vowel i and consonant

th is elided).
Temperature after elision it sounds [tmprt] (the sound e between consonants

p and r is elided).
2. The elision of a sound at the beginning of a word (generally of an unstressed vowel)
is called Apheresis. For instance:

Him after elision it sounds im. Tell him is said, Tellim.

Her after elision it sounds er. Give her is said, Giver.

Them - after elision it sounds em. Hug them is said, Huggem.
3. The loss of a sound at the end of a word is called Apocope. For example:
Photographphoto, synchronizationsync,synch,syncro, orsynchro, AlexanderAlex
and thousand thousan. A thousand people is said, a thousan people.
Just jus and It was just me is said, It was jusme, last las and last week
becomeslas week. One more example is nice shot becomingni (s)shot.
Forms of contraction
As we mentioned above contraction is the combination of two or more words to form a
shorter word. If the words lose one or more sounds when we contract them, they are elision
too. We can classify them as follows according to their forming, involved categories:
1. Contractions involving auxiliaries
Auxiliary verbs are contracted as follows:
mforam, inIm(forI am)
sforis, as inits(forit is),the mans(forthe man is, although the same form is used
for the possessive), whassup for what is up?
reforare, mostly inwere,youreandtheyre
vefor auxiliaryhave, mostly inIve,youve,weveandtheyve. Apart from these,
have is contracted as follows when it is preceded by modal verbs:
- coulda for could have
- mighta for might have
- musta for must have
- shoulda for should have
- woulda for would have
sfor auxiliaryhas(the examples given above foriscould also be intended asit
hasandthe man has)
dfor auxiliaryhad, mostly inId,youdetc. andwhod(including in the expression had better), and similarly forwould
llforwill(sometimes interpreted as shall)
2. Contractions involving negations
Contractions of auxiliary verbs in negative form in English are formed by reducing the
negative grammatical particle not to nt. The nt may form a separate syllable, as in isnt and
wouldnt (which are two-syllable words), or may become part of the preceding syllable, as in
the monosyllables dont, arent and werent.
The standard contractions for negation of auxiliaries are as follows:
From forms ofbe:isnt,arent,wasnt,werent

129

From forms ofhave:havent,hasnt,hadnt


From forms ofdo:dont,doesnt,didnt, donno or dunno for do not know
From modal verbs: cant (the full form is the single word cannot),couldnt,
maynt (rare), mightnt, mustnt, shant (for shall not), shouldnt, wont (forwill not),
wouldnt, darent, neednt, oughtnt.
3. Contraction involving prepositions to and of
a lotta for a lot of
kinda for kind of
outta for out of
sorta for sort of
gonna for going to
gotta for got to
hafta for have to
hasta for has to
wanna for want to
oughta for ought to
trynna for trying to
4. Contractions involving pronouns and question words
letsforlet uswhen used to make first-person plural imperatives
tforit, archaic except in stock uses such as Twas the night before Christmas.
emforthemin askem (ask them)
im,er,is, etc. forhim, her, his
- Whatser for what is her
- Whatsiz for what is his
- Meetiz for meet his
- Tellim for tell him
- Shower for show her
yall, foryou all, used as a plural second-person pronoun, mainly in the Southern
United States. Generally, you is contracted in various ways depending on ending sound of
the words precede it. For instance:
- betcha for bet you
- doncha for dont you
- getcha for get you
- gotcha for got you
- howarya for how are you
- howdya for how do you
- howjya for how did you
- howujya for how would you
- jya for did you
- waddaya for what are you or what do you
- whatcha for what are you or what have you
- wancha for want you
- whajya for what did you
- whenjya for when did you
- wherjya for where did you
- whojya for who did you
- woujya for would you
- jeet for did you eat


130

- jev for did you have


- jever for did you ever
- whassup for what is up
- whassat for what is that
When objective pronoun me is said with some verbs like give and let, ending sounds of
the verbs become similar to an adjacent sound m according to the assimilation process in
linguistics as follows:
- gimme for give me
- lemme for let me
Listed below are some common contractions in informal spoken English. When we use
a contraction we may also use other contractions in the same sentence, or even drop some
words completely. For example:
What are you going to do? Whatchagoing to do? Whatcha gonnado?
Do you want a beer? Do youwannabeer? Dyou wannabeer? Dya
wannabeer? Jya wannabeer? Ya wannabeer? Wannabeer?
It is a good day. Its a good day. Itsa good day. Itsa guday. Itsa gday.
Dont you come here? Doncha come here? Doncha cuhmeer?
5. Other words formed by contraction
In the flow of speech two or more words are combined under one stress forming a single
phonetic word. Some of them gradually become usual as independent words. For example:
Today is a contracted form of to day/to dge (with a meaning on this day) of Old
English.
Tomorrow is a contraction of to morewe, from Old English to morgenne on the
morrow (dative of morgen morning morn, also morrow )
Tonight is a contraction of to niht (with a meaning in the coming night) of Old
English.
Because is a contraction of by cause of Middle English which influenced by the Old
Frenchpar cause deby reason of.
Hello is a contracted form of the Old English for whole be thou
Goodbye is a contracted form of god be with you, influenced by good day, good
evening, etc. We suppose that the transformation process of this word conducted as follows:
God be with you God be wy you God buy God buy Goodbye
Daisy is a contracted form of days eye
Shepherd is a contracted form of sheep herd
Lord is a contracted form of loaf-ward
Fortnight was originally fourteen-night
Whiskey is the shortened form of whiskeybae, which comes from the Old
Englishusquebae, derived from two Gaelic words:uisce (water) andbethu (life). Thus,
whiskey literally means water of life.
oclockwas originally of (the) clock (o is originally a contraction of the wordsof (the))
In conclusion, when native speaker speak at natural speed, separate words are combined, sounds in the words are reduced, as a result, the learners learning English as a second
language find it very difficult to understand. This is related to elision and contraction which
are natural phenomena, largely occur in spoken English due to the economic principle in any
languages. Although elision and contraction share same examples, they are not exactly the same.

131

An Elisionis the omission of one or more sounds in a single word or phrase whereas
contraction is the combination of two or more words to form a shorter word. It is not about
a single word. So, elision can be contraction and contraction can be elision because of their
similarities. However, all elisions cannot be contraction and all contractions cannot be
elision because of their distinctions.
Contracted words can be classified into five general classes based on their similar forms
and involved categories, such as, contraction involving auxiliaries, contraction involving
negations, contraction involving prepositions to and of, contraction involving question
word and pronoun and independent usual words formed by contraction.


, , ,
.

.
.
,
, .
elision , contraction .


.

.. , ., 1984.
G.Brown.Listening to Spoken English. Second Edition. London: Longman, 1990.
J.Brown and A. Hilferty. Listening for reduced forms, 1986. TESOL QuarterlyXX/4:
759-763
J.Brown and A. Hilferty. The effectiveness of teaching reduced forms for listening
comprehension, 1982. Paper presented at the TESOL convention, Honolulu, Hawaii
J.Brown. Authentic communication: Whyzit importan ta teach reduced forms?, 2006.
University of Hawaii at Manoa
... Using Reduced Forms in Spoken American English, , 2010.
/7. , ,
W.Robert. Norris. Keeping up with Native Speaker Speed: An Investigation of Reduced
Forms and Deletions in Informal Spoken English, 1994. Article published inStudies in
Comparative Culture,No. 25: 72-79
.. , ., 2004.
.. -- , ., 2003.
N.Weinstein. Whaddaya say? Guided practice in relaxed speech (2nd ed.), London,
2001.
http://www.etymonline.com/
http://en.wikipedia.org/

132

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(133-140)



ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF TEN COMPETENCES OF
MONGOLIAN MEN
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137



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Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology-JAPAN
http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/new-cs/pamphlet/ icsFiles/afieldfile/2011/07/26/1234786 1.pdf

Summary
Awareness Ten wisdom of the man is not only a general model of right person but a basic principle
of the Mongolian folk pedagogy. According to the physical, lingual and mental features of modern day
children, virtue of morale and temperament are humane, humble, honesty, loyalty, generosity, amity, collectivity and friendliness. Right person is a person with these characters in their body, heart and mind. The
aim of education has to focus on preparing a person with these personal qualities.
25
.., , , 1977 5, 8- ,
/ ./
26
.. , ., 1988

140

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(141-150)



MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY IN ENGLISH
LANGUAGE TEACHING
., .
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[10.x 201- 210]
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141

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1983
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existential .







Linguistic intelligence(word smart)


Logical-mathematical intelligence(number/reasoning smart)
Spatial intelligence(picture smart)
Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence(body smart)
Musical intelligence(music smart)
Interpersonal intelligence(people smart)
Intrapersonal intelligence(self smart)
Naturalist intelligence(nature smart)

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1983 Frames of Mind 1984

142

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1998
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1996
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:
1:
:
.

143

MI Instructional and Assessment Menus


Sample Tasks Used in Writing Class at Mountlake Terrace High School
Linguistic menu:
Use storytelling to
Write a poem, myth, legend,
short play or news article about
Lead a class discussion on
Invent slogans for
Conduct an interview of on

Logical-Mathematical menu:
Create story problems for
Translate into a formula
Create a timeline of
Invent a strategy game that .
Make up analogies to explain
Design a code for

Kinesthetic menu:
Role play or stimulate
Choreograph a dance of
Invent a board or floor game of
Build or construct a
Devise a scavenger hunt to
Design a product for

Visual menu:
Chart, map, cluster or graph
Create a slideshow, videotape, or photo album of
Design a poster, bulletin board, or mural of
Create advertisements for
Vary the size and shape of
Color code the process of

Musical menu:
Give a presentation with musical
accompaniment on
Sing a rap or song that explains
Indicate the rhythmical patterns in
Explain how a piece of music similar to
Use music to enhance learning
Create a musical collage to depict

Interpersonal menu:
Conduct a meeting to
Act out diverse perspectives on
Intentionally use social skills to learn about.
Teach someone else about
Collaboratively plan rules or procedures to
Give and receive feedback on

Intrapersonal menu:
Naturalist menu:
Set and pursue a goal to
Collect and categorize data
Describe how you feel about..,.
Keep a journal of observations about
Describe your personal values about
Make a taxonomy of
Write a journal entry on
Explain how a plant or animal species resembles
Do a project of your choice on
Specify the characteristics of
Self-assess your work in
Attend an outdoor field trip to


:
,
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144



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145

(linguistic intelligence) , ,
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, Direct method, Communicative teaching method ,
.
- (logical-mathematical intelligence)
, , , , ,
. Grammar translation method
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- (visual-spatial intelligence) ,
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(musical intelligence) ,

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Total physical response .
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Cognitive approach .
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2:
,

146

Multiple
Intelligence

Description

Roles

Tasks, activities and


assessments

Linguistic
intelligence
Words and
languages

written and spoken


words, interpretation and
explanation of ideas and
information via language,
understands relationship
between communication
and meaning

Copywriters, editors, historians, journalists, lawyers,


linguists, Poets, PR and media consultants, speakers,
teachers, writer professors,
trainers, translators, TV and
radio presenters, voice-over
artists,

edit a peers paper


give an oral presentation
list the strengths and
weaknesses of a product
write a eulogy
write directions to accompany a map

Logical
mathematical
Intelligence
Logic and
numbers

analyze problems,
detecting patterns,
perform mathematical
calculations, scientific
reasoning and deduction
understands relationship between cause and
effect toward a tangible
outcome or result

Analysts, arbitrators,
bankers, certified public
accountants, insurance
brokers, traders negotiators,
researchers, scientists, statisticians, computer programmers engineers

analyze how a computer


works assess the value
of a business or a proposition, create a process,
devise a strategy to
achieve an aim, perform
a mental mathematical
calculation, create a
process to measure
something

Musical Intelligence
Music, sound,
rhythm

awareness, appreciation
and use of sound, recognition of tonal and rhythmic patterns, understands
relationship between
sound and feeling

acoustic engineers, singers


composers, DJs, entertainer, environment and noise
analysts, music producers,
musical instrument repair
specialists, musical performers, voice coaches

coach someone to play


a musical instrument,
compose media jingles,
identify music for malls
and retail stores, lead a
choir, perform a musical
piece, review a musical
play, whistle a tune

Bodily
kinesthetical
Intelligence
Body movement control

eye and body coordination, manual dexterity,


physical agility and
balance

Anthropologists, athletes, biologists, dancers,


geologists, instrumentalists,
nurses, physical education
teachers, physical therapists,
physicians actors, sign-language interpreters

arrange workplace furniture, demonstrate a sports


technique, design a
window display, interpret
a speech using American
sign language, prepare
samples for magnification and testing, put together a piece of modular
furniture, ride a horse,
stack books on a shelf

147

Spatial visual
Intelligence
Images and
space

interpretation and creation of visual images,


pictorial imagination and
expression, understands
relationships between
images and meanings and
between space and effect

Architects, artists, sculptors


cartographers, city-planners,
engineers, graphic designers
inventors, landscape architects, photographers

compose a photograph
create an organizational
logo design a building
design a historic
costume design a
landscape interpret
a painting organize
a storage room pack
an automobile trunk
paint a landscape

Interpersonal
Intelligence
Other peoples feelings

ability to relate to others,


interpretation of behavior
and communications,
understands the relationship between people and
their situations, including
other people

advertising professionals, coaches and mentors,


counselors, care givers,
educators, health providers
HR professional, mediators
politicians, psychologists,
sales-people, teachers, therapists, trainers

affect the feelings of


others in a planned way,
coach or council another
person, demonstrate
feelings though body language, interpret moods
from facial expressions
, mentor a new faculty
member

Intrapersonal
Intelligence
Self-awareness

ones own needs for and


reaction to change, ability
to deal with change in
the workplace, ones
relationship to others
and the world, personal
cognizance, personal
objectivity, the capability
to understand oneself

one who is self-aware and


involved in the process of
changing personal thoughts,
beliefs, and behavior in
relation to their situation,
other people, their purpose
and aims

consider and decide ones


own aims and personal
changes required to
achieve them (not necessarily reveal this to others), consider and decide
ones own position in
relation to the Emotional
Intelligence Mode


. 2004
,
. [5. x 163-180]



, ,
.

,
, ,
, , .

,
.

148


,
, .


1. Arnold J., Fonseca C., Multiple Intelligence Theory and Foreign Language
Learning: A Brainbased Perspective, International Journal of English Studies
(IJES), 2004 No. 4 (3)
2. Bas G., Integrating Multiple Intelligences in ESL/EFL Classrooms,The Internet

TESL Journal, 2008 14 (5)
3. Bruce and Linda Campbell., Multiple Intelligences and student achievement:

Success stories from six schools, ASCD, Virginia, 1999
4. Christison M.A., Multiple Intelligences and Second Language Learners,

The Journal of the Imagination in Language Teaching and Learning, 1996 No. l (3)
5. Halley M.H., Learner-Centered Instruction and the Theory of Multiple Intelligences

with Second Language Learners,Teachers College Record, 2004 No.106(1)
6. Gardner H., Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Basic Books,

New York., 1983.
7. Gottfredson L.S., Social Consequences of Group Differences in Cognitive Ability.

Art Med Publishers, 2006.
8. Morgan H., An analysis of Gardners theory of multiple intelligence, Roeper Review, 1996 No.18.
9. Skehan P., A cognitive approach to language learning, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.
10. Spearman C.,General intelligence, objectively determined and measured.

American Journal of Psychology,1904 No.15,201-293.
11. Sternberg R.J., Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Intelligence.: Cambridge

University Press, Cambridge., 1985.
12. Torresan P., The Theory of Multiple Intelligences and Language Teaching, Guerra

Edizioni, Paraguay., 2010.
13. Thurstone L.L., Primary mental abilities. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1938.
14. Waterhouse L.,Waterhouse multiple intelligences, the Mozart Effect, and

Emotional Intelligence: A Critical Review,Educational Psychologist, 2006 No.41(4).

RESUME
The purpose of this article is to discuss the Theory of Multiple Intelligences and its application in the field of foreign language teaching. The paper also exemplifies the adaptation
of the theory in the context of teaching English as a foreign language and foreign language
teaching and learning in general by describing a set of activities and a lesson plan using the
MI approach.
The article reviews the types of intelligences described and defined by Howard Gardner
and authors who followed and revised the theory in terms of language teaching. Moreover,
it includes positive results and experiences of American schools applying Multiple Intelligences theory to their curriculum and teaching to improve student performances. Finally,
the article provides a brief conclusion regarding the possible outcomes of the application of
theory of Multiple Intelligences.

149

150

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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(151-156)

,
USAGE AND SITUATION OF MONGOLIAN LANGUAGE AND LETTERS
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Abstract

The Mongolian language and cultural issues are related to the sovereignty and nationalitys
existence. Considering the past time, it is a good thing that the government already reached
the attention to the language usage which is the actual problems of Mongolian language and
culture. The author had a different opinion and expressed about Mongolian language related
issues including importance and usage of the law about Mongolian language and the Mongolian
Government 37th decree and official decree of Mongolian President.

156

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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(157-170)

. ,

SOME PECULIARITIES OF CONTENTS AND CHARACTER DESCRIPTIONS
OF D.BODOOS UZEMJIT UGUULEL
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1. .-. : . ., 1991
2. .-. . ., 2014
3. .. . ., 2010
4. Boduu-a Uyang-a-tu silgelel.
5. . . -,
.. ., 1991
6. .. . . ., 2003
7. .. . ., 2006
8. .. . ., 2004
9. .. . ., 1965
10. .. . ., 1975
11. .. . ., 2011
12. . /
/ ., 1985
13. .. . ., 2003
14.
.
. ., 2009
15. . , . ., 1989
16. .. . ., 1974
17. .. . ., 1995
18. .. .
., 1979
19. .. . ., 1977
20. .. .
. ., 2006
21. oyibalsang, Losol, Demid Mongol arad-un ndsn- qubisqal-un angq-a
egs bayiuludasan tobi teke. Dooradu debter. Ulaanbaatur., 1934
: , ,
1. .-. . . 7. 1989
2. .. . . 47
(10683). 1993
3. .
. STUDIA MONGOLICA. Tomus IV, Fasciculi 1-7. ., 1962
4. .. ?. .
42(18211). 1993
5. ( ).
. 2. 1990
6. .. . . 52(1786). 1990
7. .
. 13. 1990
8. . 1908-1912

169

9. .1915-1920
10. . 1913-1914
11. . .4, .1, .224.
12. . .4, .1, .27.
13. . .4, .1, .224.
14. . .12, .1, .252.
15. . .1. .1, .7.
16. https://mn.wikipedia.org/wiki/_
17. http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/8637354
18. http://www.bolod.mn/mobile.php?nid=105828
19. http://bbatzorig.blogspot.com/2009_02_01_archive.html
20. http://mongol_tuuragatan.blog.gogo.mn/read/entry434197
21. http://mongol.undesten.mn/wiki/show/name/
Resume
Firstly, in his Uzemjit uguulel D. Bodoo depicted that the universe exists in combination
of good and evil, one who follows goodness he will ascend, one who follows evil he will
descend and nature upholds the ascended and destroys the descended. Secondly, mind and
material always challenge mankind: one who follows the mind is characterized to be right,
one who follows material tend to be wrong. Thirdly, as the human is creature of spirit, we
should learn to be self-satisfied with what you own; if you live with satisfaction, well-being
follows, if not ill-fortune follows. Fourthly, everything has karma; good deed results in goodness whereas evil deed results in undesirable consequences. These above mentioned points
are the main points of the story, uniqueness of the characters and descriptions.

170

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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(171-176)




Humor techniques in Mongolian Oral Tale
.
()


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175

1. (1982). ., . ,
. . ., .
2. (1984). ..
., ., .
3. ., . (2007). . .
Abstract

If we look at Mongolian oral tale through verbal humor method, there are several
dominantarts such as lexical humor, behavioural humor, conditional humor, reasonal
humor, and gestural humor. Behind this humor way, the social rules are implemented in
clear way and these help to understand ethics of tale. Humor is not only entertainment
but also social ethics to understand each others identities, which meant that it ecourage
communion and fellowship among any community.

176

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tom 3 (421)

(177-182)

,

HISTORICAL FICTION NEEDS TRUE HISTORY:
REASONS AND FACED PROBLEMS
.
()

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1943-1946
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178

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(1988), (
. . . 1998), (.
1999.95), (4)
, ,

179

.
.
:
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(. 1969) ,
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. (.2006)
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180

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181

,
.

1. .

2. .. (.2006)
3. . (. 1969)
4. , (1988),
5.
6. (. 1999.95),
7. ( .
. . 1998)
8. . (
)
9.
10.
11. .. .
12. 1946-2013 .
Abstract
Anu Khatan (Anu the Queen), a historical movie, is one of the examples which represented the historical issues in the literature and art emotionally without enough studies. In
this article, the author criticizes the screenwriting that was less historical fiction and more
fictionalized history lacking in careful studies on the traditional custom and rituals of the
Mongolians especially historical issues of western Mongolians and a complicated history of
Galdan Boshugtu khan.

182

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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(183-186)


THE RCHNESS OF MONGOLIAN
.
()
/,
, 2012 12/380/-
,
, ,

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183

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184

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3.

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.

1. . ., 2008
2. . ., 1976
3. , 2014 04 /08/
Summary
Figurative speech is a special and important element of literary imagery. A journalist
who himself hasnt taken part in the activity must listen to what others say and felt about
an event. It is very important for him to use folk colloquialisms, real emotion, and literary
imagery, which can only be obtained through interviews and research.
. , 1976, 67 .
2014 04 /08/
3
. , 2008, 27 .
1
2

185

186

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tom 3 (421)

(187-194)

, -

ON THE THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF TURKISH
AND MONGOLIAN MYTHODOLOGY
. (Ph.D)
()
. (Ph.D)
()
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1980 .., 1980
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[11, 27-.], 1984
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.288-345] -
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[13, 72-.].

189

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[20], [21]
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33; 34], . [35], . [36] . [37], . [38]
.
1967
[39, 18-.]. , , ,
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[39, 215], [39,232-.].
, 1971, 1988
Turk mitolojisi ( )
[40], [41].
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[40, 450-.],
[40, 549-.]. , , , - .
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[40, 152-]. .
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[42] - .

190

[43]
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1984 [44].
[45], .
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.
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[48].
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, 65
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2000 , , 1500
,

[49], [50], [51], [52].
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.
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[56], .. [57], .. [58]- -
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(. trickster >,

191

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2. .. . , 1846. 128 .
3. ... . -:
,1961. .1. 776 .
4. .. . : , 2003.
.1. 408 .
5. .. . : , 1991. 176 .
6. .. . : ,
2003. . 10. 456 .
7. .. // . 1940.
18 .
8. .. . (12 ). : , 1969. .11. 478 .
9. .. . : , 1982. 232 .
10. .. //
. 1983. 1. .178-189.
11. .. //
. . -1980. -4. -.24-29
12. .. . -: , 1984.-272 .
13. .. . : , 2002. 584 .
14. .. . :
, 1996. -193 .

192

15. Metin Ergun. Turk dunyasi efsanelerinde degisme motifi. II Cilt. -Ankara, -1997. -919 s.
16. . : , 1989. 656 .
17. .. ? // . 1988. 71.
14 .
18. .. // -
: -
. : , 2003. .182-190
19. .. // . 2003. 1. .81-84.
20. . : , 1981. 308 .
21. . : , 2002. 320 .
22. . .: , . :
, 2002. 320 .
23. .. , . : , 1985. 368 .
24. .. //
. 1987. 6. .73-75
25. .. . : , 1987. 368 .
26. .. . : , 1973. 212 .
27. .. - . :
, 1983. 160 .
28. .. . :
, 2001. 293 .
29. .. . -: . 1973. 216 .
30. .. .
: , 1976. 200 .
31. .. ( -
). : -, 1993. 160 .
32. .. . : , 1993. 296 .
33. .. //
. : , 2002. .3-11
34. .. // :

- . :
, 2005. .14-20
35. .. . : ,
1990. 140 .
36. ... . : , 2000. 268 .
37. .. . : , 2007. 332 .
38. .. . : , 1999. 248 .
39. Murat Uraz. Turk mitolojisi. 1967. 244 s.
40. Bahaeddin Ogel. Turk mitolojisi. I.Cilt. 2.Baski. Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu,
1993. 644 s.
41. Bahaeddin Ogel. Turk mitolojisi. I.Cilt. 3.Baski. Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu,
2006. 610 s.
42. ... . ,
1975. 232 .
43. ... . : -
, 1980. 168 .
44. .. . () // . ,
1984. Tomus. . Fasc 1-10. .29-46
45. .. //

193

. , 1988. .38-58
46. .. . , 1989. 240 .
47. .. . , 1989. 192 .
48. .. , .
: , 2006. 146 .
49. .. - iii
( ). - , 1973 . -174 .
50. .. (
) , 1984. -158 .
51. .. iii
. . -, 1999. -165 .
52. .. iii
. . -, 2000.- 446 .
53. ... -
// . 1971. .: , 1972. .213-226.
54. ...
// . (
1978 ). .: ,
1978. .232-239.
55. ... . (
) // . 1977. .: , 1981. .183-202.
56. ... //
. .: , 1980.
.92-116.
57. ... //
. 1977. .: , 1981. .117-138.
58. ... .242 .
Resume

This paper discussed the research history of the mythologies of Turkic and Mongolian
people. The works of scholars specializing in this field were investigated. In addition, the
genres and types of Turkic-Mongolian myths were found. The conclusion was that the
comparative research of Kazakh and Mongolian mythology proved helpful in determining
the common roots of their spiritual heritage.

194

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(195-201)

-

BIOGRAPHY STUDIES OF NIICH TOIN WHICH NAMED
CHINDAMANI ERIHE, IN INNER MONGOLIA
.
( )
: XVII
, .

.


.
- ,
.
: , ,
1678
,
,

,
.
(1557/1587?-1653) . ,
, ,
,
.1
1739 .

2 . 1740- (
.. ,
, 1997, 264-292 .
2

.
1

195

) . 9.745.5,
92 . 316.5 9 , 92
738.5 27 , 92- 21
. 1.3, ,
. , , , ,
.
- ., ., .,
., ., .
.
,
,
- ,

. .
1.

. 1986
3 ,
.

-
,
,
.
2. . 1989
4
- ,
, -,

(1737 ), (1742 )
,
- 1739 .
-
.
3. - ,
-
. 1989 5-
-



. 2012
3
. ,
, 1985 4- , 89-92 .
4
.. , , 1989
5- , 84-85 .
5
-. 6- ,
, 1989, 99-184 .

196

6 .
- , 213 ,

.
-

.
4. . -
. 1991
,
7 -

. 1995 -
8 , -
,

.
- 9 1997
-
10 -

, 1679 -
1739 -
. 2000
- ,
, - ,
- 11 8
- .
5. 1992
12 , -
,
,
, ,
,
, , ,
-. , , 2012 .
.. , ,
, 1991 4- , 142-152 .
8
.. - , , 1995 1- , 48-50
.
9
.. - ,
, 1995 1- , 16-28 .
10
.. -
, , 1997 5- , 58-73 .
11
.. - , , 2000 .
12
. ,
, 1992 4- , 32-48 ; . ,
, 1996 , 197-223 .
6
7

197

.
6. . 1993
, , , ,
,
- 13 .
- ,
-
26 , 40 160 ,
. -
1679 ,
.
7. 1996
- 14 -
, 1679

.
.
8. 2002 . 15

.
-
, - .
9. -
. 2006 17-

16
,
.
, 1587 .
2007 17
- ,


. 2008
18 ,
, , 1993 , 90-116 ;
.. ,
, 1998 , 209-237 .
14
. - , ,
1996 1- , 78-85 .
15
.. , , 2002 4- ,
33-42 .
16
. 17-
, , 2006 4- , 24-28 .
17
,
, 2007 3- , 28-33 .
18
.
, , 2008 4- , 39-43 .
13

198

19, ,

,
,

.
10. 2007
20 .

.
,
,

,
.


,
.



.
11. 2009 -
21 . -
,
,
.

.
12. 2012
22
,
?
, 1587 67
.
12 20
,
,

19

.
20
. ,
, 2007 3- , 78-83- .
21
. - , , 2009
4- , 75-81. .
22
. ,
, 2012 3- , 79-86 .

199

- .
, -
1739
. ,

. , -


.

1. -. 6- ,
, 1989 .
2. -. , ,
2012 .
3. , ,
1993 .
4. .. - , ,

2009 4- .
5. .. ,
, ,
1991 4- .
6. .. - ,
, 1995 1- .
7. .. -
,
, 1995 1- .
8. .. -
, ,
1997 5- .
9. .. - ,
, 2000 .
10. . - ,
, 1996 1- .
11. .. , ,
2002 4- .
12. .. ,
, 1989 5- ..
13. :
,
, 2007 3- .
14. .. ,
, 1998 .
15. ..
, , 1997 .

200

16.

17.
18.

19.

20.

21.

. ,
, 1992 4- .
. , , 1996 .
: ,

, 1985 4- .
. 17-
, , 2006 4- .
. ,
, 2007 3- .
.

, , 2008 4- .
22. ..

, ,

2012 3- .

Abstract
Niich toin was distributing Buddhist teaching over the eastern part of Mongolia and a
founder of Mongolian reading of the Buddhist teaching in the XVII century. Thus the Niich
toin is counted well known Buddhist personality of Mongolian Buddhist teaching in its history. In Mongolia there are almost no studies of Niich toin but in Inner Mongolia there are
plenty of about it. In there it says that Niich toin was the pounder of Mongolian reading of the
Buddhist teaching and who and when was written the Chindamani erike, biography of him.

201

202

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(203-208)


THE WORLD OF BLACK AND YELLOW

()

/1947-/ -
. 1968
. 1- ,
.
, 40
, ,
, , ,
, , .

,
.
, ,

.
,
, ,
,
.

.
, .
, ,
.
: , , ,

.
.

203


.
,
. ,
, .
,, .
.

.


.

.

.


. 365 .
()

. .

.
,
- -
.
( )
,
, .

- . ,

- .
.
.
. ,
,
.
.
.
. ,
. ,
, .
1.
,
. .
. . . 1999. 4- 23 .

204

,
. ,

. .
.
,
. 2
- . ,
,
?3 .
,
, 4 .
5 .
,
, 6
.
. .

7.
8 ,
.
9 . ,

10 .
.

.
11 ,
.

. ,
12.

.
. ,
.
. .
. . 1999 105 .
. . 1999 102 .
4
. . 1999 105 .
5
. . 1999 102 .
6
. . 1999 102 .
7
. .
2001. 2- .63 .
8
. . 1999 215 .
9
. . 1999 221 .
10
. . 1999 235 .
11
. . 1999 235-236 .
12
. .
2001. 2- 63 .
2
3

205


.
, .
13 .
...
14 ,
. ,
-
.
.
.
.


15 .

.
.
, ,
.
,
16.
,
.
, , ,
, .
.
.
.17
.
.
.
18 .
.
,
.
. 19
.
. .
2001, 2- 62 .
14
. . 1999, 279 .
15
. . 1999
16
.. - .
. 2002, 2- 39 .
17
. . 1999
18
. . 1999, 90 .
19
. . 1999, 218 .
13

206

.
20 .
.
21
22 .
, ,
. ,
. . ,
, ,
.
.
...
23. ,
.

-
, .
, ,


.

.
24
.
- 25 .


.

.
.
, 26 27 .
. . 1999, 265 .
. . 1999, 268 .
22
. . 1999, 268 .
23
.. - .
. 2002. 2- , 62 .
24
. - . 2001.2
.
25
.
. 2001. 12- , 93 .
26
.
. 2001. 12- , 98 .
27
.
. 2001. 12- , 98 .
20
21

207



.
.
.
,
, , ,

. ,
.
.
, ,
, , .

.
. .
, .
.

28

,
.
, ,
. ,
. ,
.

Summary
The world of Blacks and Yellows, the first novel of writer Ayanga, that was published at
the beginning of new century has rich with cultural meanings. It is unique by its artistic masterwork which meaning was described in a base of national traditional culture and lifestyle
and this is the best work showing history and culture of Mongolia. Hereby, previous reseach
work is mentioned briefly, at the same time individual belief, goal, conflict or self-contradiction and the reason of conflict of three roles of novel, Galsannyam, Tugstsogt and Ochir representatives of Buddhist religion, State or Public class and people or citizens, are highlighted. Each of them has vision of rescuing the Mongolians from the points of their own view
or own cultural capabilities in the historical period of time. Nevertheless, it is impossible
to monitor and govern whole society even any of the item has plenty of capacity, instead it
can only influence the society. Below, concept and belief of Galsannyam the highest rank of
lama, view and goal of Ochir and Bazar and self-contradictious mindset of Tugstsogtmeiren
(name of title) will be discussed.

28

. . 1987. 4- 12-

208

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(209-218)

. ,

CHOISURENGIIN DAGWADORJ AS A MAIN REPRESENTATIVE OF
KHOTGOID LITERATURE
.
()
,
1942 .
- , ,

. - - ,
. - , ,
.
1966 ,
, , ,
, , ,
- . 1988 ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
, .

,
.
. , .
, .
,
.
,
, . . ...
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
, , ,

209

... / , , 2005 ,7-


/ .
. ,
,


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,
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,
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. .
.
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. ... ,
, ,
, ...
.

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.
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.
.
.
. , ,
.
.
. .
.
.
.
, . .
... /- .
. 2006 /.
... ,
.
-1989
. ... .1965
. 1988
20 . . 1989
18-
...

210


,



,



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,


,
.
1989 .
,
.







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.
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. . ,
. .
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. 2000 -

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211

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. , , , ,
.





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, .

212

, ,

, .
, , ,
.


,

... ,
,
,
.





, .
, .
.
, , ,
.

.
:


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, ,

.

213


. ,

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:

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,
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214

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.
. .
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, .


,
...
...

,
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. ,

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.
.
. :
...1990 2 28- .
. 60
, , .

.../ 20-
- , 2011 . 359 / .

.
. / 1991 / . /
., . /




...
,
. ,

.

215

, .
:




? ...
, , ,
. : ...
, ,
.
,
... / .
(Ph.D). .. 213/886/
.
...

.
, ...
/, , . .
. . 2010 . 268 /
.
,
, , .
,


.
... / /
.
.
. ,
, .
.- , . .






... ,
, ,
,
.

. , , ,


.


216

...
,
.
,
, , , ,
.
.
... .
, .
. , .
. ...
, ... .


.



... / 1992,05,09/
, ,

.

.
.
.

- - ,
, , ,
, , .

, .
- , ,
,
, ,
. , ,
,
.
- , .

.
-
. .
,

217


.
- ,
.
- .
,
.
, , .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

. , 1967
. ,1969
. . 2006
. ., ,1980
. ,2006
. , 1990
. XIX .1996
.- (1) /, 2010 /
. . 1969
. , 2000
, 2000
. , 2005
. .1974
. , 1972
. , 2002
. . 2005
Abstract

Choisurengiin Dagwadorj as a main representative of Khotgoid literature:


Half of his poems are based on the Khotgoid lifestyle. It is fascinating that joyful verses
are connected meaningfully. The poet Dagwadorj was born in the birthpace of khotgoid
folklores and traditional songs. Having developed their own folk songs and traditions affected him to become a good poet. Their most famous commander was Chingunjaw and the
emotional songs were well-spread among locals since long time ago. Having being sang for
many centuries, their traditional songs easily reach to peoples hearts and they have harmonic melody.
The most well-known song, of which he wrote the lyrics, is named My mother. One
verse can mean the story of Mother waiting for her son to come back from disastruous war
without no note from her son and gazing beyond the far-away mountains while son looking
forward to go back home from war and cant wait to meet his mother; and destiny, which
seperated them and got them back together for happy life. Meaning of only one verse leads
him to his next famous poems.

218

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

tom 3 (421)

(219-222)


ABSURD'S THEATRE IN MONGOLIA
.
( )
.
()
:

.

.
-
.

1990
.
- .
-
., .., .
.1
2- ,
.

.
, (, ),
,
.
, ,
, ,

- ...2 .
.,
. . , , ,
.

1
2

. .,2012, 46
. .,2012

219


., ., ., .,
. ,
.
. -
(1995 ), ,
(2000 ),
(2002 ),
,
.

(2002 ),
(2004 )

1995-2005 .

.
1990-
,
1993 , NHK
-
. /-374 1991/, 1995
.
/-402, 1993 / .3 .
.
20 100

.
.
.
. :
... , , ,
.
. .4
.
, ?...
1-: .
2-: .
3-:
.

, ,
,
.
, ...
,
,
5
.
3
4

. .,2006
.,1996, 74

220


2004 / . /, 2009
50
. . 2014
XX
, .
., - Black
Box .
. ... .
,
, ,
. !
. .5 .

.
.

. .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

., 2009
., 2000
.. ., 2006
.. ., 2004
.. .,2010
.. . : . ., 2011
.. .,1989
.. .,2002
.. ., 2012
.. .,2007
.. ., 2005
.. ., 2006
. .,1991
... .,2011
.. .,2011
.,.,2009
..,2009
ABSTRACT

In the end of twenty century, development of the absurds theatre is achieving to the
highest level in the many countries. However, the establishment of this theatre is beginning
in the framework of Mongolian theatre and in Mongolia, it is lacking by fifty years. Based
on creation and writing of other authors, there are the authors who can write creation for
absurd during the short term. Until today, well creation which is adequately for the readers
interesting is not develop due to lacking of policy for the theatres foundation. This situation
is influenced negatively to an understating of Absurd Theatre.
5

, .,2009

221

222

MONGOLIA: AREA AND CULTURE STUDIES


THE INSTITUTE FOR MONGOLIAN STUDIES
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MONGOLIA

223

-1-

(223-232)


tom 3 (421)



INNER MONGOLIAN LITERATURE SHOWN HARMFUL
EFFECTS OF OPIUM

()

224
-2-

-3-

225

-4-

226

10

11

\ \ \



227

-5-

14

1941

12

13

1903

228

-6-


1957
21


20

19

18


17

16


15

229

-7-


25


24


23

22

230
-8-

2005 3 48

1 1982 3 61

\ \

231

-9-

22 23 24 25 1999 710

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 1999 140145

12 13 1991 212213
7 8 9 10 11 1979 226229
6 M 1983 51
5 M 13 77
4 C 2 200

- 10 -

Summary

232

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