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2000

2000

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DTP - :

esoteric graphic design- takis katsaros


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- 2000 ( 2000),
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1991.


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2000

25

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

1.6
1.7
1.8

1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3

27

55

27
29
29
29
31
35
35
51
53
53

2.1
2.2
2.3

2.4
2.5



2.3.1
2.3.2

2.5.1 -
2.5.2
2.5.3 Poisson
2.5.4
2.5.5

57

67

57
57
57
57
59
61
61
61
63
63
65

3.1


3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4 ()
3.1.5
3.1.6
3.1.6.1 -
3.1.6.2 s
3.1.6.3

2000

69
69
69
69
71
71
73
73
73
73

XI

3.2

3.1.7

73

73

3.2.1

73

3.2.2

75

3.2.3

75

3.2.4

77

3.2.5

77

3.2.6

77

3.2.6.1 -

77

3.2.6.2 s

79

3.2.6.3

79

3.2.6.4

79

3.2.7

81

83

4.1
4.2
4.3

4.4

4.5




4.3.1
4.3.2
( )
4.3.3
4.3.3.1

4.3.3.2 ()
4.3.3.3 ()
4.3.3.4
4.3.4


4.4.1
4.4.2

4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3

85
85
85
85
85
89
89
89
93
93
95
95
95
97
97
99
101
101

105

5.1
5.2

XII

, ,

107
109

2000

115

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3 ( )

6.2.1
6.2.2

6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.2.1
6.3.2.2
6.3.2.3
6.3.2.4
6.3.2.5
6.3.2.6
6.3.3

6.4.1
6.4.1.1
6.4.1.2
6.4.2
6.4.2.1

117

143

117
117
119
119
121
121
123
123
123
123
125
125
129
129
131
133
133
135
135
135
137
137
139

7.1
7.2



7.2.1 :
7.2.1.1
7.2.1.2
7.2.1.2
7.2.1.2
7.2.1.2
7.2.1.2
7.2.2
7.2.3

145

153

145
145
147
147
147
147
147
147
149
149

8.1
8.2

2000

155
155

XIII

8.2.1

155

8.2.2

155

8.2.2.1

8.3
8.4
8.5

155

8.2.2.2 -

155

165

157
159
163

9.1

9.2

9.1.1
9.1.2
9.1.3
9.1.3.1
9.1.3.2
9.1.4
9.1.5

9.1.6 ,

9.1.7
9.1.7.1

9.2.1
9.2.2
9.2.3

167

10

181

167
167
167
167
167
169
169
173
175
177
179
179
179
179

10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4


10.4.1
10.4.2
10.4.3 -
10.4.3.1 -
10.4.3.2
10.4.4 -
10.5

XIV

183
183
185
185
185
187
187
187
189
189
191

2000

11

193

11.1
11.1.1
11.1.2
11.1.2.1 VRdl
11.1.2.2

11.2
11.2.1
11.2.2
11.2.2

11.2.2
11.2.3 ( )
11.2.3.1
11.2.3.2
11.2.3.2

11.2.3.2
11.2.4
( )
11.2.5
( )
11.3 -
11.3.1
11.3.2
11.3.3
11.3.4
12

195
195
195
195
197
199
199
199
199
199
201
201
203
203
203
209
209
213
213
215
215
217

219

12.1
12.2 Saint Venant
12.2.1
12.2.2

12.2.3
12.2.3.1
12.2.3.2 (.17.9.1)
12.2.3.3
12.2.4
/
12.3

2000

221
223
223
225
227
227
227
227
227
229

XV

13

231

13.1
13.1.1
13.1.2
13.1.3
13.2
13.2.1

13.2.2
13.2.3
13.3
13.4
13.4.1
13.4.2
13.4.2.1
13.4.2.2
13.4.3 (
)

14

233
233
235
237
237
239
239
241
241
241
241
243
243
243
245

249


()

14.1
14.2
14.3
14.3.1
14.3.2
14.4
14.4.1
14.4.2
14.4.3
14.4.4
14.4.5
14.4.6
14.4.7
14.4.7.1
14.4.7.2

15

251
251
253
253
255
257
257
259
261
261
263
263
265
265
269

275

15.1
15.2
15.3 ()
15.3.1

XVI

277
277
279
279

2000

15.3.1.1

279

15.3.1.2

281

15.3.2

15.4
15.4.1
15.4.1.1
15.4.1.2
15.4.1.3
15.4.2
15.4.2.1
15.4.2.2
15.5
15.6

16

281
281
281
281
283
283
283
283
285
285
289

291

16.1
16.2
16.3
16.3.1
16.3.1.1

17

293
295
297
297
297

299

17.1
17.2
17.2.1
17.2.2
17.2.3
17.2.3.1
17.2.3.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.6.1
17.6.2
17.6.3
17.6.4
17.6.5
17.7
17.7.1
17.7.2
17.7.2.1

301

2000

XVII

301
301
301
301
301
303
303
303
303
307
307
309
309
311
313
313
313
313
313

17.8

17.9

17.10

17.11
17.12

XVIII

17.7.2.2

315

17.7.2.3

317

17.7.2.4

317


17.7.3
17.7.4

17.8.1
17.8.2
17.8.3
17.8.4
17.8.5

17.9.1
17.9.2 (
)
17.9.2 ( )
17.9.2 , ,
17.9.2
17.9.3
17.9.4 ( S)
17.9.5 -

17.10.1
17.10.2
17.10.2.1
17.10.2.2

17.10.2.2

17.10.2.2

17.10.2.3
17.10.2.3

17.10.2.3

17.10.2.4
17.10.3


17.12.1 , ,
17.12.2

319
319
321
321
321
321
323
323
325
325
327
327
327
329
331
331
333
333
333
333
333
335
335
335
337
337
337
337
337
339
341
341
341

2000

18

343

18.1
18.1.1
18.1.2
18.1.3
18.1.4
18.1.4.1
18.1.4.2

18.1.5
18.1.5.1
18.1.5.2
18.1.5.3
18.1.5.4
18.2 ( )
18.2.1
18.2.2
18.2.2.1
18.2.2.2
18.2.2.3
18.2.3
18.3
18.3.1
18.3.2
18.3.3
18.3.4
18.3.5
18.3.6 -

18.3.7
18.3.8
18.4
18.4.1
18.4.2
18.4.3
18.4.4 ( )
18.4.4.1
18.4.4.2
18.4.4.3
18.4.5

18.4.6

18.4.7
18.4.8

2000

345
345
345
347
347
347
351
351
351
353
353
357
357
357
359
359
359
359
361
361
361
363
365
367
369
369
371
371
371
371
371
373
373
373
375
381
381
381
383
383

XIX

18.5
18.5.1
18.5.2

18.5.3
18.5.4
18.5.5
18.4.6
18.4.7
18.4.8
18.6
18.6.1
18.6.2 /
18.6.3
18.6.4

383
383
385
385
387
389
389
391
391
393
393
395
395
397

19

399

19.1
19.2
19.3
19.3.1
19.3.2
19.4
19.5

401
401
401
401
401
401
401

20

405

20.1
20.2
20.2.1
20.3
20.3.1
20.3.2
20.3.3
20.3.3.1
20.3.3.2 ()
20.3.3.3

20.4
20.4.1
20.4.2
20.4.3
20.4.4
20.4.4.1

XX

407
407
407
407
407
409
409
409
411
411
411
411
413
413
413
413

2000

20.4.4.2

413

20.4.4.3

415

20.4.4.4

415

20.4.4.5
20.4.5

415
415

20.4.5.1

415

20.4.5.2

415

20.4.5.3

415

20.4.6
20.5
20.5.1
20.5.2
20.5.3
20.5.4 ,
20.5.5
20.5.6
20.5.7

20.6
20.6.1
20.6.1.1
20.6.1.2
20.6.2
20.6.2.1
20.6.2.2
20.6.3

20.6.3.1
20.6.3.2
20.6.3.3
20.6.3.3
20.6.3.3
20.6.3.3
20.6.4

21

417
417
417
419
419
419
419
421
421
423
423
423
423
423
423
425
425
425
427
427
427
429
429
429

431

21.1
21.1.1
21.1.2
21.2
21.2.1
21.2.1.1
21.2.1.2
21.2.1.3

2000

433
433
433
435
435
435
435
435

XXI

21.2.1.4

437

21.2.2

437

21.2.2.1

437

21.2.2.2

437

21.2.2.2

437

21.2.2.2

437

21.2.2.2

437

21.2.2.3

437

21.2.3

439

21.2.4 , ,

439


21.2.5

439

21.2.6 (

441

)
21.2.7 (

441

)
21.2.8

21.3
21.3.1
21.3.2
21.3.3
21.3.4
21.4
21.4.1
21.4.2
21.4.3

22

441
443
443
443
443
443
445
445
445
445

447

22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5

449

453

449
449
449
449

.1
.2
.3

XXII

455
455
461

2000

463

.1
.2
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vx vy
.3.1
.3.2 -
.3.3
.3.4 vx vy

465

475

465
465
465
467
469
471

.1
.2
.3
.4

477

487

477
479
481

.1
.2
.3
.4

2000

489
489
491
491

XXIII

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28

2000 -

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2000

29

30

2000 -

1.5.1
(i)

(ii)

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A

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l L

2000

31

32

2000 -

(iii)

u, v, w

x, y, z

Poisson

0
1
2
(iv)

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a

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dir

eff

ext

FP

gG

ind

inf

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2000

33

34

2000 -

max

min

nom

pP

pl

ps

qQ

rep

stb

sup

t ten

t tor

x, y, z

1.5.2

1.5.1 :

G d ,sup
Ac
f yd

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1.5.3
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1.5.3.
(i)

Ac
Ak

(.10)


(.12)

A sl

(.12)

2000

35

36

2000 -

Ap
A pl
As

(.10)
(.12)
(.10)

(.3)

A s,cal
A s,ef

(.17)
(.17)

As,sl , A s ,st

A sw
A sx , A sy
A tot

(.11)
x y (.18)
,
(.11)

A1


,
(.11)


(.8)

,
(.8)

(.6)

Ec
E c, j

(.2)

(.4)

E cm
E c 28



28 (.2)

E c (t 0 )

t 0 (.2)
Es

(.3)

(.6)

Fd

(.6)
(.14)

Fk
Ft

(.6)

(.17)

Fv

(.14)

(.6)

Gd
Gk
G1

(.6)
(.6)
(.6)

2000

37

38

2000 -

G2
H cr
Hw
Ib
Is

(.6)

(.14)

(.8)

KI
K I Im
K IIt

I (.8)

(.18)

(.18)
(.9)
(.9)

II, (.8)
II,
(.8)

(.10)

M Sd1
MF
M Rd
Ms
M Sd

1 (.14)

(.10)

N Sd
N g ,k

(.14)


(.10)
(.9)
(.10)


(.14)

N g +q , k


(.14)

N Rd
N Sd

(.10)

Pd , Pk

(.10)

(.6)

P0

(t=0) (x=0) (.14)

(.6)

Qd , Qk


(.6)

Rd , Rk


(.6)

RH

Sd , S k

(.6)

(.6).
(.8)

TRd
TSd

(.12)
(.12)

2000

39

40

2000 -

(.8, 11)

Vcd


(.11)

VRd
VSd
Vwd
Wk
(ii)

(.11)
(.11)
(.11)
(.6)

aL
al

(.18)

(K.11, 17)

at
av

t (.16)

(.11).
(.11)

a0
b
bm

t=0 (.16)
(.11)
(.8).
(.9)

b m1 , b m 2 (.8)
(K.18)
bt
x y,
bx , by
(.13)

bw
bo

(.8)

(.9)

b1 , b 2
c

(.8)
(.13).
(.5).
(.18)

ch , cv


(.17)

d
dx , dy
dg
e
ea
e tot

(.10)
x y, (.13)

(.14)
(.14)

2000

41

42

2000 -

e0
e 01 , e 02
e1
e2

(.14)

f bd
f cd , f ck

(.17)


(.14)
,
(.14)

(.2, 10)

f ck
f cm
f ct
f ctk 0.05

(.2)
(.2)
(.2)

5% (.2)

f ctk 0.95


95% (.2)

f ctm
f c (t 0 )
f ck
fd , fk
f plk
f ptk

(.2)
t 0 (.2)
(.2)
, (.6)
(.3)

(.3)

f p 0.1k
f st

(.3)

(.3, 17)

fy
f yd , f yk

(.3)

(.3, 10)

f ykc , f ykt


(.3)

f ylk
f y,obs

(.12)

(.3)

f ywd , f ywk
(.11)

f 0.2


0.2% (.3)

h
hf
ho

(.10)
(.8, 11)
(.18)

2000

43

44

2000 -

hs

(.9)


(.13)

i
k

(.14)

(.15)

(.5).
(.7)

lb
l b,net
l bp
l bpd
l cr
ln

(.17)
(.17)
(.4, 17)
(.4)
(.18)
,
(.7)

l p,ef
lx , ly

(.4)
x y
(.9)

lw
lo

(.18)

(.8). (.14)

l1 , l 2
l

(.13)

(.13)

lx

y
(.9)

mf
ms
n , n1 , n 2
p, q

r
s

(.14, 16)


, , . (.17)
(.18)
(.9, 11, 12, 17,18)
(.9)

sl , s t
t

(.17)
,
(.2). (.7).
(.9)

t0
tx , ty


x y
(.9)

2000

45

46

2000 -


(.2). (.13)

uk
v
v Rd , vSd

(.12)
(.9)

(.11, 13)

x
x II

(.8, 10)

(.11)

II

(.18)

(iii)

x (.4).
(.7).
(.11).
(.14).
(.16)


(.7)

T
1

(.6)
I
II (.17)

(.4).
(.13).

(.11)

c
g
m
p
q

(.6)
(.6)
(.6)
(.6)

(.6)

s
sl

(.6)

(.11)

Fd,max


(.11)

Ftl


(.11)

2000

47

48

2000 -

l
Pt ( x )
TSd

(.5)
t x (.4)

(.6)

p
po ( x )
p0.2

(.10)
x (.4)

(.4)

p,

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(.4)

p,rel
p,rel,

(.3)

(.4)

p,c+spo


(.4)

c
cc ( t , t 0 )

(.2)

t > t 0 (.2)
cs ( t , t 0 )

t > t 0 (.2)
c,
p
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(.4)
(.4)

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s
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(.9, 10)

(.4)

(.9)

(.8, 11)

(.8).
(.11). (.14)

pl

(.8)

(.14)

(.11, 13)
(.4)

,
(.10)

2000

49

1.6
:
ISO 1000
(S.I.) .

50

2000 -



(.10, 14, 18)


(.8)

'
l
lx , ly
w

(.16)

c
c (x)
cg

(.2)

(.16)
(.11)
x y (.13)
(.18)

(.4)

(.2)

co

t 0
(.2)

cpo


(.4)

d , k
pl
po
po ( x )
s
Rd
( t , t 0 )
n

(.6)
(.12)
(.3)
x (.4)
(.3)
(.11)

t > t 0 (.2)

(.17)
(.4).
(.17)

1 , 2

(.6)

(.6)

wd
1.6

(.10)
(.18)

.. 515/83
ISO 1000, (S.I.).

2000

51


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,
:

kN, kN /m, kN/m2

kg/m3

kN/m3

MPa(=Nmm2=MN/m2)

kNm

: ISO No 3766.

1.7
3
.

52

2000 -

1.7

1.8


,
.

2000

53

2.1

... .

,

,
, , , , ..
. 21.4.2.

2.2


24 kN/m 3
25kN/m3,
.

2.3.1

28 .

, .. (.
2.5.2),
, :

f cm = f ck + 8 (MPa) ............................................................................ ( 2.1)


,

.
2.3.2
: ... . 2.2.

C50/60.

56

2000 -

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.3.1

28 150 mm 300 mm
150 mm,
(...).
f ck f ck ,cube
5%
.


,
...
2.3.2

.
:
C12/15

C16/20

C20/25

C25/30

C30/37

C35/45

C40/50

C45/55

C50/60

2000

57

2.4

2.1
2/3
.................................................................................. ( 2.2)
f ctm = 0.30 f ck

( f ctm , f ck MPa)
f ct 0.70 f ctm 1.30 f ctm .
f ct
.

58

2000 -

( f ck ), ( f ck ,cube )
MPa, 28 .
C12/15
(. . 6.1.3)
.
C16/20 :
,
.
,
.
C12/15, C16/20
C20/25.

2.4

,
,
...

f ct
2.1.
2.1: MPa
12

16

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

f ctk 0.05

1.10

1.30

1.50

1.80

2.00

2.20

2.50

2.70

2.90

f ctm

1.60

1.90

2.20

2.60

2.90

3.20

3.50

3.80

4.10

f ctk 0.95

2.00

2.50

2.90

3.30

3.80

4.20

4.60

4.90

5.30

f ck

( f ct )
( f ct ,fl ) ( f ct ,sp )
:

f ct = 0.50 f ct ,fl

......................................................................................................................................................

f ct = 0.90 f ct ,sp

....................................................................................................................................................

2000

(2.1)
(2.1)

59

2.5.1 -


, ,
-0.2% -0.25%,
-0.35% -0.7%
0.75 f c 1.25 f c .
,
+0.02 +0.04%,
(. 2.3). ,
( ).

2.5.2
E cm
- 40%
(. . 2.1). 2.2 :

E cm = 9.50 (f ck + 8)1 / 3

................................................................................................................................

( 2.3)

( E cm GPa, f ck MPa)
28
, f ck 28 .
( 2.3)
t f ck t.
c 0.40 f ck .

60

2000 -

2.5

2.5.1 -

- ,
. ,
.
-
2.1.

cc
f cc

0.4 f cc
E cm
ct

c1

f ct

cu

cc

ct
2.1: -
(c=, t=).
2.5.2
E cm
,
2.2.
2.2: GPa

f ck

12

16

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

E cm

26

27.5

29

30.5

32

33.5

35

36

37

2000

61

c 0.10 f ck
10%.
E cm 0.70 E cm
1.30 E cm .
2.5.3 Poisson
Poisson
0.20. (0)
.
2.5.4

2.3 (
) +10 +20C.
cs
(-10 +40C ) (.. +20C).

62

2000 -

2
2.5.3 Poisson
Poisson 0.00 0.20.

2.5.4

(t=) ,
2.3 0.50 f ck .
2.3: ( t ,t 0 )
cs ( t ,t 0 )

( t ,t 0 )
t 0

2 A c / u mm

()
50

150

600

50

150

600


(RH=50%)


(RH=80%)

5.50

4.60

3.70

3.60

3.20

2.90

3.90

3.10

2.60

2.60

2.30

2.00

28

3.00

2.50

2.00

1.90

1.70

1.50

90

2.40

2.00

1.60

1.50

1.40

1.20

365

1.80

1.50

1.20

1.10

1.00

1.00

cs ( t ,t 0 ) 103

(%)

2 A c / u mm
150

600

50

-0.60

-0.50

80

-0.33

-0.28

RH = .

A c u
.

, u .
, 150 600 mm,
.

2000

63

cc ( t , t 0 ) =

c0
( t , t 0 )
E c 28

t0

cc ( t , t 0 )

t (> t 0 )

c0

t 0

E c 28


28 ( 2.2)

( t , t 0 )

t (> t 0 ).

..........................................................................................................................

( 2.4)


(..
).

64

2000 -

c < 0.50 f ck , :

,

.
2.5.5

6
10 10 C.

2000

65

3.1.1

(...)
959 971.
,
.
.

. 959
. 971
3.1.2

, . 17.2.1.
3.1.3

() f yk ,
:

f ykc < f ykt

68

.................................................................................................................................................. (

3.1)

2000 -

3.1

3.1.1

/
.

:
)

.
:
,
,

()

:
(
)
(
), ()

3.1.2

.
3.1.3
f yk , f y
f 0.2 (
0.2%) 5%
.
f y f 0.2 .

2000

69

f ykc
.

, ,
3.1.
3.1: .


90%

I
II
III
IV

uk

7%

(f t / f y )k

1.1

(f y,act / f y,nom )k

1.35

( )

1.3

(I) (II)
, ( )
( ).
(III) (IV) /
.

959 971 :

S220, S400, S500, S400s, S500s



MPa.

959,

971.
S220 ,
S400, S400s, S500 S500s
().

70

2000 -


:
(H), :

uk > 5.0 % ................................................................................... (3.1)

(f t / f y )k >1.08

......................................................................................................................................

(3.1)

(N), :

uk > 2.5 % ................................................................................... (3.2)

(f t / f y )k >1.05

......................................................................................................................................

(3.2)

uk


,
10% 5%,

f tk


f yk .

3.1.4 ()

.

2000

71

3.1.5
S500 S500s, ,
.

3.1.6.1 -


:

st
s = f ykt
arc tg E e
0
y

st

s = f ykc

3.1: -
,

(. 6.1.2).
3.1.7
. ... 959 971.

72

2000 -

3.1.5

(. 17.6.1),
0.30 f yk A s , A s
.

3.1.6
3.1.6.1 -
-
,
.
3.1.6.2

Es


200 GPa.
3.1.6.3

10 10 6 C.

3.1.7
. 19.3.2.

3.2

3.2.1

.

2000

73

3.2.3

.. S1500/1770 f p0,1k = 1500 MPa

f ptk = 1770 MPa.

74

2000 -


:
)

:
.1)

.2)


.
)

:
,
,

:
(
),
.

3.2.2
,
,

.
3.2.3
. 3.1.3.
f 0.2
0.1%).

f 0.1 (


( f p 0.2 k f p 0.1k )
f ptk .
f ptk , ,
:

2000

75

3.2.4

:
,
,

.

,
:
100 140
45 90 7 .

.
,
25%.

3.2.6.1 -

:

76

2000 -

f ptk 1.10 f 0.2 k

.......................................................................................................................................

f ptk 1.05 f 0.2,obs

..................................................................................................................................

(3.3)
(3.4)

f 0.2,obs .

3.2.4
l bp

( , , . . 4.1),

, ,
, .
,

. 3.1.4.

3.2.5

.
,
.
3.2.6
3.2.6.1 -
-
.

2000

77

pt

f pk
0.9f pk

arc tg E S
0
puk = 0.035

pt

3.2: -
,

.


.

3.2.6.4
:

p0 = 0.60 f ptk , 0.70 f ptk , 0.80 f ptk


( ).

, 1000 .
3.2: 1000
p0 / f pkt

0.60

0.70

0.80

,
1

4.00%

8.00%

12.00%

, 2

1.50%

3.00%

6.00%

78

2000 -

3.2.6.2

Es


200 GPa.

3.2.6.3

6
10 10 C.
3.2.6.4

:
,
,

(.. ),
,
.

2000

79


0.50 10 6 . ,
t>1000
p,rel,1000 :

p,rel,t
p,rel,1000

t
=

1000

...............................................................................................................................

( 3.2)

,
.
,
:
0.12 1
0.19 2.

1000 , ( 3.2)
. , 100 70%, 500
90% 1000 .
3.2.7
,
-
.
3.50%.

80

2000 -

3.2.7

.

2000

81

4.1


.
( ).
,
,
,
.
. 4.5.2 . 10.5.
,
(. . 6.1.3). . 3.1.3
.
3.2.3 .

4.2


, :

,
,

,
,
,

84

2000 -

4.1


():
(, , )
.

.
( ,
): ( )

.

4.2

,
,
:

p 0 = 0.65 f ptk

........................................................................................................................................................

p 0 = 0.75 f p 0.1k

...................................................................................................................................................

(4.1)
(4.2)

,
,
.

,
:

p 0,max = 0.70 f ptk

..................................................................................................

p 0,max = 0.80 f p 0.1k

...............................................................................................

2000

(4.3)
(4.4)

85

(
),
,
,
.


(.. ).

4.3.1
,
:
,
,
,
.

,
.

4.3.2
( )
.
4.1
)
)
.

86

2000 -

4
4.3

4.3.1
,
( ), :
(. 4.3.2),
(. 4.3.3)
(. 4.3.4).

4.3.2
4.3.2. ( )
:
(
),
,
(
)
.

2000

87

4.3.3.1
. 4.1 .
:
:

p02 ( x ) =

Es
........................................................... ( 4.1)
c (x)
E c, j

p02 ( x ) =

1 Es
c ( x ) ........................................................ ( 4.2)
2 E c, j

Es

E c, j


(
),

c (x)

x

. c ( x )
.

4.3.3.2 ()

,
.
(4.3) (4.4) :

p0,max ( x = 0) = min 0.70f ptk , 0.80f p 0,1k



(. 20.5).

( + k.x ) 0.20 ............................................................................................................................................... ( 4.3)


:

88

2000 -

4.3.3
4.3.3.1


:

,

.

4.3.3.2 ()
, p0 ( x ) , x
p0,max ( x = 0) ,
, . x
:

p 0 ( x ) = p 0,max ( x = 0) exp(( + k x ))

................................................

(4.5)


0 x, (
),

( )
.

2000

89

p0 ( x ) = p 0,max ( x = 0).(1 ( + k.x )) ................................................................................ ( 4.4)

p0 ( x ) = p 0,max ( x = 0).( + k.x )

...........................................................................................

(4.5)

,
,
6m:
=0.50

=0.30

=0.25

=0.20

-10% +20%.
0.90
, .. .


( )
0.70f ptk
p0,max
0.80f p0,1k

P0

p 01
P0 ( x )

( &
)
( )

pt1

- - - - - - -
( )

p 02
Pm 0 ( x )
P ( x )


(, ,
pt
2 )

0.65f ptk
p0
0.75f p0,1k

Pm ( x )
(t = t1 )

( )

t=0

&

4.1:
( )

90

2000 -


k.

,
.

2000

91

( )
0.70f ptk
p 0,max
0.80f p 0,1k

P0
P0

p 01 ( )

0.70f ptk
p 02
p 0,max
0.80f p 0,1k

P0 P0 ( x = 0)
P0 ( x )

( )

p 02

x=0 ()

Pm 0 ( x )

pt ( x = 0)

(
, )

p 0 ( x )

P ( x )

()

pt ( x )

Pm ( x )

t=0

4.1:
( )

3m.
k
.
.
, k=0.01m-1
,
.
4.3.3.3 ()

.
4.3.3.4

.

92

2000 -

4.3.3.3 ()

, .
4.3.3.4

.

2000

93

4.3.4

.

, .
x
:

p,s +c,
p = p,s +c, + p,rel, 1 2

p0

p,s+c, = E s ( c + s )

............................................................ ( 4.6)

......................................................................................................................

( 4.7)

(
t 0 , t 0
). c 2.4

.
, ,
(. . 6.4.2).


( t 0 ),
s ,

p,rel,


.
p0


.

.

4.4.1
(.. )
.
t Pt ( X) ,
P0 ( X ) .

94

2000 -

4.3.4



.

4.4

4.4.1

:
(t=0),
(t=).

2000

95

4.4.2
P0 Pt =0 ( x = 0) .
(4.6)
( ):
t=0

Pm 0 ( x ) = P0 P0 ( x ) .................................................................................................................................. ( 4.8)
t=

Pm ( x ) = P0 (P0 ( x ) + P ( x ))

....................................................................................................

( 4.9)

4.5.


/
( ).
()

.

.

96

2000 -

x
:
t=0:

(. 4.3.3) ,
,
(. 4.3.2)
P0 ( x ) .

t=:

P0 ( x )
P ( x ) (. 4.3.4).

4.4.2

.
t x:

Pmt ( x ) = P0 (P0 ( x ) + Pt ( x )) ...................................................................................................... (4.6)


:

4.5

P0

t=0
(x=0),

Pt ( x )

t x.

:
)

2000

97

4.5.1

4.2:

0.80l bp
. l bpd :
)

, .
:
5


(: ).

10 ().
)

,
(. 4.3).

P
l bpd

l
4.3:

98

2000 -

4.5.1
)


,

2, tan() = 2 / 3 ( 34) .

:
, 2
,
,
,
.



l bpd .
0.80 l bp 1.20 l bp ,

( l bp ,
. 3.2.4).



,
.

,
:

l p,ef = (0.80 l bpd ) 2 + h 2 > l bpd


h .

2000

99

4.5.2
. 10.5.



, (.
7.2.3).

4.5.3

.


. 4.5.
p0.1d
, (
. 4.4.2). ,

, , . ,

. .
m

p 0.1d
:
(
). . 4.4.2,
p ,

100

2000 -

(. 11.2.4).

.
4.5.2
:

(

),

( ).

, .
4.5.3

.

p m .
,
1)

,
:
)

,
p 0.1d ( f p 0.1k / s E s ).
:
,
(.10)
(.14).
,

(.11) (.12).

,
pd (
).

2000

101


,
.

.

102

2000 -

2)

,
,
.

,
4.1.
f m , , ,
. 6.
4.1:

P

(*)

p < p 0.1d (*)

- p p0.1d

--

p 0.1d

p = f p 0.1k / m , m = s

(*)

2000

103

5.1

, ,

1: :


(..
80%, 3 )
2: :

,
(), ( ),
,

.
.: (.. )
. 1 . 2,
.
3: :
. ..., . 12.6.

106

2000 -

5.1

, ,

,
:
,
, ,
,
,

,
, ,
.
,
,

.

( ,
. 18).
4 :
1:

2:

3:

.
( 1km).

2000

107

4: :
. ..., . 12.4,
.

c nom (
), c min

> 50mm
(. . 15.6).

5.2

,
.

108

2000 -

4:

. ,
(,
, ).


() 5.1.
c nom
5 10 mm c min .
5.1: mm ( c min )

c min

20

25

30

30-45*

-5

+5

+10

* . .12.4 ... c min =


30,35,40 45mm , , , .


15 mm ( + 10 mm 20 mm)
1/2 3/4, , ( n ) (
).
:
75mm
,
, 40mm.
/
, 40 mm.
> 31.5 mm,
5mm, c min 30 mm .
(..
)
(. . 12.4 ...).

5.2

( )
,
l l :

2000

109


f m . 6.

110

2000 -

( ,
, )
:
l 150 mm

: l = 10 mm ............................................................ (5.1)

l = 400 mm

: l= 20 mm .............................................................. (5.2)

l 2500 mm : l= 30 mm .............................................................. (5.3)



).
)

l (l=b, d h



l= 0.05 l 250 mm


( ):

= 0.0040 ........................................................................................... (5.4)
(
):
= 0.0040 ........................................................................................... (5.5)

l 200 mm
,
:
l = 0.025 l 10 mm .................................................................. (5.6)
l > 200 mm

l = 0.025 l 20 mm .................................................................. (5.7)



l = 0.04 l 30 mm .................................................................... (5.8)

2000

111

..
,
l ,
, l .


.

112

2000 -

l .



20% .
,
,
( ).

2000

113

6.1.1

:
.
.

.

.
.
, (
) .
.

.

. ,

.

6.1.2
(6.1)
(. 6.5).
(6.1) .

, ..
.

116

2000 -

6.1

6.1.1

, ,
.

, (
),
.


().

6.1.2
,
.
,
(. 6.2).

Sd ,
R d ,
.

Sd R d ................................................................................................ (6.1)


.

2000

117

6.1.3 ( )
( , )
() . ( ,
) ,
(.. ) ( ,
, , ) .
. 8.2.2.2 ( ) 9.1.3.2 ( )

, (
)
.

(. 17 18),
, , . (. ).

,
.

118

2000 -


. 6.3.
6.1.3 ( )
(
) .

:
q* = 1.5

2.6.1. ,

q* = 1

2.6.1. .


q*:
:
.
,
.
, .
.
.
,
( ) .


, . 9.1.7.

6.2


, (
)
.
:
)

,
- ,

,
.

2000

119

6.2.1


(
, .. . 8.3 ).

.
, ,
. ,
,
.
6.2.2

,
(..
)
(. 15.4) .
,

.
.

120

2000 -

6.2.1
:
1.


(. 6.5).

2.

(. 8.3 9.1.4).

3.

:
)

( /
, . 10)

, :
(. 11)
(. 12)
(. 13)
, .

4.

(. 14) .
.
.

5.

6.2.2
:
1.

(. 15)

2.

(. 16)

2000

121

6.3.1
,
.

.
: .


( ),
( ).
,

5% 50 . , 95% (
5% ).

.
,
.
.

.
.
,
, 171/16.05.46 325/31.12.45,
.
( , , )

.
6.3.2
f
. (, .),

.
6.3.2.1

122

2000 -

6.3

6.3.1

(6.1).
Sd
S k
f :

Sd = f S k

.................................................................................................................

(6.2)

R d
R k
m :

Rd =Rk / m

.............................................................................................................

(6.3)

6.3.2

6.3.2.1
:
/

2000

123


, , ,
.
,
, .
6.3.2.2

( ). ,
.

6.3.2.3

( )


,
q =1.35 1.50.
.

124

2000 -


, .

6.3.2.2

G k :


,
,

,
( )
.
Pk . 4.4.
G d :

Gd = g G k

...............................................................................................................

(6.4)

g
6.1
6.1:

1.35

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

6.3.2.3

.
(,
, ) ,
,
.

2000

125


q ,imp (. . 6.3.2.6):
()
, ,

q ,imp = 1.50 1.20 ,


, ,

q ,imp = 0
()
, ,

q ,imp = 1.00


.

(..
, ).

,
.

126

2000 -

6

.

Q d :

(
)

Q d = q Q k q 1 Q k ....................................................................... (6.5)

Q d = q 1 Q k q 2 Q k ............................................................... (6.6)
( ) (
) .
q
6.2.
6.2: q

1.50

0.00

1.00

0.00

1.00

0.00



. 6.3.

2000

127


,
6.3.

. .
( ),
.

6.3.2.4
.
, ,
, , .

.
k ,
( ),

1.0,
( ).
6.3.2.5
. 4.5, , , ,
p (
) . (6.1) (. .
(6.11) (6.15)).

128

2000 -

6.3:
.

0.60

0.30

* , , ,

0.70

0.30

* (,
, .)

0.80

0.50

*
(, ,
.)

1.00

0.80

0.90

0.60

0.60

0.00

0.60

0.0/0.3*

0.00

0.00

/ ( ,
, .)


1.00
1.00
(*: 2=0 )

6.3.2.4

A d .

A k = A d ................................................................................ (6.7)

6.3.2.5
Pk .4.4
(. . 4.5). Pd
:

Pd = p Pk ............................................................................. (6.8)

2000

129




(. . 4.5.3).
,
m ( )
. (6.1).
p (
20%) (
, .).
6.3.2.6


(. 6.1.3) (. 8.2.2.2 9.1.3.2)
.
40 ().


40m
.
() ..
20 .

130

2000 -


6.4.

6.4: p

1.10

0.90

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

6.3.2.6
(
) ,
, .

,
, .



(
).
( .
15.5, (), , .)

II, .

:

TCd = 0.50 cs /
(
, ), ( )
.

..
.

2000

131

6.3.3
(6.9) s (. 10.4.4).
c

fk
fd
()
c

s
fk

fk

fd

fd

(.1)

(.2)
s

6.1: - :
() , ()
m
m .

.

6.4

132

2000 -

+10C 20C (
).
Tred 2 / 3 T .
6.3.3

- .
-
:

d =

k ................................................................................................. (6.9)
m

fd =

fk
m

..................................................................................................................... (6.10)

m ( c
s )
6.5.
6.5:

1.50

1.15

1.30

1.00

1.50

1.15

1.00*

1.00

* (.. )

.
c =1.3 .

6.4


(6.1).


Sd .

2000

133

6.4.1.1
:

Sd = S g G k + 1.50 Q k ...................................................... ( 6.1)


Sd = S g G k + 1.35 Q k ,i ................................................ ( 6.2)


i 1.

134

2000 -

6.4.1

.
6.4.1.1

:

Sd

Sd = S g G k + q ,1 Q k ,1 + q ,i 1,i Q k ,i + p Pk .............. (6.11)


:

> 1,

Q k ,1
.

Q k ,
.


.
6.4.1.2
Sd
.

Sd = S A d + G k + 1,1 Q k ,1 + 2i Q k ,i + p Pk ................... (6.12)


:

i >1
()
/ .

( , )

( ): G k +
2i Q k ,i , i 1 .

Sd = S E + G k + 2,i Q k ,i + p Pk .................................... (6.13)

2000

135

6.4.2.1
:

Sd = S (G k + Q k )+ Pk ............................................................. ( 6.3)

Sd = S (G k + 0.90 Q k ,i )+ Pk ............................................... ( 6.4)


i 1.

( . 6.4.1 . 6.4.2):

:
:

Sd = S g Q k + q Q k + p Pk* ........................................... ( 6.5)

Sd = S g Q k + q Q k + q 1 Wk + p Pk* ........................ ( 6.6)

Sd = S E + G k + 2 Q k + p Pk* .......................................... ( 6.7)


:

Sd = S G k + Q k + Pk ........................................................... ( 6.8)

Sd = S G k + 1 Q k + Pk ...................................................... ( 6.9)
:
G ,Q ,W
k

136

2000 -

6.4.2
6.4.2.1
Sd
.

S d = S G k + Q k ,1 + 1,i Q k ,i + p Pk ................................. (6.14)


:

i >1

Sd = S G k + 1,1 Q k ,1 + 2,i Q k ,i + p Pk ......................... (6.15)


:

i > 1.

2000

137

, (, ) ,
E

P*


(. . 4.5.3),

, ,
g

,
1

,
6.3.


( 6.5), (.6.7) (
6.8).
,

,
1.35Gk ( 1.00 G).

6.5


.
, . ( 5),
(.. ).

Qk,1 ,
.

138

2000 -

6.5

S (0.90 G 1.50 (Q k ,1 + 1,i Q k ,i ) ) > 0 ................................... (6.16)

S (1.00 G1 1.10 G 2 1.50 (Q k ,1 + 1,i Q k ,i ) ) > 0 ................... (6.16)


:

i > 1.
(6.16) :
G
G1 G 2 G
.
Q k ,1 ,

.
,
(.. ).

. (6.16)

2000

139

140

2000 -

(. ).
0.70
0.30 ( ).

2000

141

7.1


.

.

, ..
. 14.

( V),
( ) .

.
,
, ,
.
, .. ,
.

7.2.1 :


.

144

2000 -

7.1


:
:
,

, (
, )
,
.
,
( 2 ).
:
- ,
-
, - - .

, :
,


, ,
.

( , ,
) ,
.

7.2

7.2.1 :


,
.

2000

145


( ), -
.

7.2.1.1
(. . 18.3.1),


.

7.2.1.2
:
,
,
.
,

,
.
.
(
)
,
(. . 18.3.1).

146

2000 -


(, ), (, ,
, , ) ,
, .
7.2.1.1
,
.
7.2.1.2

.
7.2.1.2

.
7.2.1.2

,
.

7.2.1.2
.
7.2.1.2

,
.

2000

147

7.2.2

t1

t2

l n1

l1

l n2

t3

l2

l n3

t4

l3

1
1
l 1 = l n1 + min( t 1 ,0.025l n1 ) + t 2
3
2
1
l 2 = l n 2 + (t 2 + t3 )
2
1
1
l 3 = l n 3 + t 3 + min( t 4 ,0.025l n 3 )
2
2
7.1: ()

7.2.3

148

2000 -

7.2.2

2

l = l n + i ........................................................................................ (7.1)
i =1

ln

i :

( ):

i = min (1 / 3 t , 0.025 l n )
:

i = 1/ 2 t
:

i = min (1 / 2 t , 0.025 l n )
:

i = 0
t .
7.2.3

.
)



(,
)
.



,
.

2000

149



, (
).
,
( ).
:
i)
= 15
ii)
= 18
= 6 .

150

2000 -



.

, :
, , :

= E s / E c ................................................................ (7.2)
, :

= (E s / E c ) [1 + ( t , t 0 )] ........................................... (7.3)
:

( t , t 0 ) = .

2000

151

8.1

,
(..
).

8.2

14
1 2 .
8.2.1


.
. . 7.1.
(.. )
(. ).

8.2.2.1
(
), .
.

8.2.2.2
.

.

154

2000 -

8.1


(. 8.2.1)
(. 8.2.2), (.
8.3).

.

8.2

.
( 1 ) ( 2 ).

8.2.1

.


(. 7.2.3).

8.2.2
8.2.2.1

.

(.. ),
.
,
x/d, x
( , ) d
.
8.2.2.2

:

2000

155


<12m ,
15%, .


( .. ).

p=10.

8.3

156

2000 -

0.44 + 1.25 x / d < 1.00 ..................................................... (8.1)


C35/45

0.56 +1.25 x / d < 1.00 ..................................................... (8.1)



:
)

> 0.70 H ............................................................. (8.2)


> 0.85 N ............................................................. (8.2)
)

x / d 0.45 C12/16 C35/45 ..................... (8.3)


x / d 0.35 C40/50 ........................... (8.3)

8.3


.
,
( )
.
,

l : h 6 .

2000

157


. 8.1.

8.4




.
,
.
l o :

l o =0.80 l ,

l o =0.60 l ,

l o =1.50 l ,

l o =0.30 l

( l )

158

2000 -

()

0.02
,
0.015

0.001
,
0.005

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

x/d

8.1:
.
-
:
I:

, -
,

II:

-
III,
pl .

8.4

,
.

.

.

2000

159


0.70 l .

l o


(. 8.1) 8.1 8.2.

b ef = b w + b ef 1 + b ef 2 ............................................................. ( 8.1)

b ef

b ef

b w b ef 1

b ef 1 b w

b ef 2

hf
h

b1

b1

bw

b2

b2

8.2:

8.1:

b efi / b i (
, )

hf / h

bi / l o
1.00

0.80

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.05

<0.15

0.20

0.25

0.33

0.40

0.49

0.62

0.78

0.94

1.00

0.20

0.22

0.27

0.35

0.42

0.52

0.64

0.78

0.94

1.00

0.30

0.33

0.40

0.50

0.56

0.63

0.72

0.83

0.94

1.00

8.2:

b efi / b i (,
)

hf / h

bi / l o
1.00

0.80

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.05

<0.15

0.12

0.14

0.19

0.23

0.30

0.38

0.50

0.74

0.97

0.20

0.13

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.38

0.50

0.74

0.97

0.30

0.22

0.25

0.31

0.36

0.40

0.47

0.57

0.74

0.97

160

2000 -

2000

161

70%

12m,
,
.. .

8.5

d
............................................................................... ( 8.2)
=
dx
:

K I = 0.30 E c C / (1 + 1.00 ) ............................. ( 8.3)


K I Im = 0.10 E c C / (1 + 0.30 ) .......................... ( 8.4)
K IIt = 0.05 E c C / (1 + 0.30 ) ........................... ( 8.5)
:

KI

, ,

K I Im

II, ,

K IIt

II, ,

2.3
.

(8.3) 0.30
. ,
,
K I K IIt .
K IIt

.

162

2000 -

8.5


,
.

2000

163

9.1.1

. . 18.2.

9.1.3.2
( ),
(. 8.2.2.2 )
.

166

2000 -

9.1

9.1.1


.
(.. , ,
..)

.
9.1.2
:
)

,
.

9.1.3

( Hooke):
9.1.3.1

Poisson 0.00 0.20.


.
9.1.3.2


.
,
15%,
,
, .

2000

167

9.1.4
(.. )
.

.
(.. )
.

s=0.02
(. 10).


.
.

9.1.5

168

2000 -

9.1.4
(. 9.1.2)
( )
.
:
1)




( 10.1):

s = yd c = 0.0035 ....................................................... (9.1)


2)

,
.
,
:
0.50 1.25 ,
0.75 1.25 ,
0.85 1.15 .

2)

,
:
0.50 2.00 ,
0.75 1.33 ,
0.85 1.15 .

9.1.5


( ),
.


40mm
(
).


.
,

2000

169

,
,
,
.

,
45.
,
60.
45
60
45
60

9.1:

45 60.

170

2000 -

, .

.

,
.
, :
)

,
.

min l / max l
0.75

.
p
( ).

p =1.35 g + 1.50 q / 2 ................................................................. (9.2)


p

p = 1.50g 1.50 q / 2 ................................................................ (9.3)


g, q , .
,
,

.

2000

171

..
>2.
9.1.6 ,

bw

ty

ty

bw

tx

tx

9.2:
b0

45

s
hs

t
t = b0 + 2 s + hs

9.3:

172

2000 -


.
9.1.6 ,


, ,
,
b m ,
. t
( )

(s) .
t x t y
,
b m .
m ,
.
m v :

m=

v=

M
.................................................................................. (9.4)
bm

V
................................................................................... (9.5)
bm

m f , , m s ( ),

( ),

( ,
. 9.1),
t x ,


. 18.1.5.1.

2000

173

9.1:

1
2


b m

ms

11

t y 0 . 80 l

tx l

0< x <1

t y 0 . 80 l

tx l

0< x <1

t y 0 . 80 l

tx l

b m = t y + 0 . 50 x ( 2

x
)
l

0< x <1

t y 0 . 80 l

tx l

b m = t y + 0 . 30 x

0 . 21 < x < 1

t y 0 . 40 l

t x 0 . 20 l

b m = t y + 0 . 40 ( l x )

0 < x < 0 . 81

t y 0 . 40 l

t x 0 . 20 l

0< x<l

t y 0 . 80 l

tx l

0< x<l

t y 0 . 40 l

tx l

ms

0< x <1

x
)
l

7
8

x
)
l

b m = t y + 1 . 50 x (1

x mf

b m = t y + 2 . 50 x (1
b m = t y + 0 . 50 x

10

mf

mf

b m = t y + x (1

x
)
l
x
)
l

b m = t y + 0 . 50 x ( 2

b m = t y + 0 . 30 x

0 . 21 < x < l

t y 0 . 40 l

t x 0 . 20 l

ms

b m = t y + 1 . 50 x

0 < x < lk

t y 0 . 80 l k

tx lk

lk

b m = t y + 0 . 30 x

0 . 2 l k < x < l k t y 0 . 40 l k

9.1, x
.

9.1.7

.


( - ),
.
- ,
(.. ),

174

2000 -

t x 0 . 20 l k

9.1.7
,
,
.
.
,
l 'x

l 'x = b o + 2 h s

2000

175

,
.

9.1.7.1

9.1
.

, 85%
:

l 'x I b
> 1 ........................................................................... ( 9.1)
l y Is
I b I s (
l 'x ). :
l 'x I b
< 1 ........................................................................... ( 9.2)
l y Is

85% 0%.
, .

176

2000 -

bo

hs


(. . 8.2.1).
9.1.7.1

,
( ) 0.6 l ,
, ,
0.2 l ( 9.1).
:

0.20(l x1 + l x 2 )
0.30l x1
0.30l x 2

0.84

Mf

1.25

l 'x

Mf
l 'x

:
0.30l x1 0.10(l x1 + l x 2 ) 0.30l x 2
0.10l x1
0.10l x 2
140

l 'x

l 'x

0.40l 'x 0.30l x 2

0.50l x1

0.50l x 2

l x1

0.30l x1

Mf

Ms

2.10

l 'x

0.50

Ms

Ms

Mf

l x2

l 'x = 0.50(l x1 + l x 2 )

9.1: y

2000

177

9.2.1

,
,
.

9.2.3
,
(
).
,
(
) (
).

,
.

178

2000 -

9.2

9.2.1

:


.
9.2.2
-
( Hooke).
Poisson 0.00 0.20.


.
9.2.3
.

.
,
,


.

2000

179

10

10

10.1
(
),
.
, (6.1)
, ..:
:

N Sd N Rd .......................................................................... ( 10.1)
:

M Sd M Rd ......................................................................... ( 10.2)

.
10.1.

+ d
..
N
d = Sd
A c f cd

+ d

A s f yd
A c f cd

d =

M Sd
A c h f cd

10.1: ( )
d d .
10.1 ,
, , .

10.2
15. ,
.

182

2000 -

10.1

.
, ,
.

10

10.2
,
. 7.2.1.1

2000

183

10

10.4.1


( ).
( ,
/ ).
, 0.02
.


, .

0.01.

184

2000 -

10.3
. 8.4.
,

.
18.3.2 ( 18.12).

10.4
10.4.1
,
. 10.4.2, 10.4.3 10.4.4:
)


:
0.0035 ( , ),
0.002 ,


0.02.

2000

185

10

10

10.4.2
:
(
), (
),

c > 0.035% .
:

( ).
:
( ,
),
( ,
).

10.4.3.1 -
0.85

. 10.2

. 8.3.

186

2000 -

10.4.2
, . 10.4.1 :

, ,
10.1.

+20 0/00

As2

-2 0/00 -3.5 0/00

s2

c2

3h/7
1

4
3

Ap

A s1

s1

h
5

pt

4
A
+20 0/00

y
0

c1

-2 0/00

10

10.1:
10.4.3 -
10.4.3.1 -
,
10.2.

f ck

0.85
c
= 1000 c (250 c +1)
f ck
0.85
c
0

f ck
c

-0.002

-0.0035

10.2: - -


- ,
.

2000

187

10

10.4.3.2

(. 10.1).
,
-0.0035.

0.85

f ck
c
Fc

Ac

0.8x

d
h
As
s

Fs

10.2: -

0.80

f ck
..
c

(
).

188

2000 -

10.4.3.2
,
.
(x ):
1)

0.20x ,

2)

0.80x :

f
0.85 ck
c

f
0.80 ck
c

10

10.4.4 -
,


s .

2000

189

10

10.5

,
. ,

,
.

190

2000 -

f yk

f yd =

f yk
s

arctg E s
-0.0035

y
y

f yd =

+0.02

f yk
s

f yk

10

10.3: -


/ 10.3,
(. 3.16.1).

10.5

.

2000

191

11

11

11.1

(. 12.2.3 18.3.7).
11.1.1
( . 9.1.1)
.

11.1.2

194

2000 -

,
,
10
.
, ,
- .


.

11.1

11.1.1



(.. ).
, (6.1),
:

VSd VRd1 ........................................................................... (11.1)


:
. 11.1.2.

VRd1


d .

(. . 11.1.2.2), .
11.1.2
11.1.2.1 VRd1

VRd1 = Rd k (1.20 + 40 l )+ 0.15 cp b w d

............................ (11.2)

bw

2000

195

11

11

11.1 :

Rd = 0.25 f ctd = 0.25 f ctk0.05 / c .......................................... ( 11.1)

c = 1.5.

11.2 b w ( )
.
b w / 8
b w 1 ,

b
w
.
V
l b,net

V
l b,net

A sl

A sl
l b,net

A sl

11.1: sl (11.2)
( l b,net . .(17.2)).

, VSd .
( 6.4)
.
l ( (11.2)).

196

2000 -

Rd


.11.1.1

1.60 d 1.00 (d )

A sl
0.02
bw d

cp

N Sd / A c

N Sd

( )

A sl

,

VRd1 d + l b,net

.
d
.
11.1: Rd MPa

11

f ck

12

16

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Rd

0.18

0.22

0.26

0.30

0.34

0.37

0.41

0.44

0.48

11.1.2.2

a v < 2.5 d , Rd
(11.2) ,

2.5 d
< 3.00 .................................................................. (11.3)
av

,
:
)


( ),

2000

197

11

11.2.1
. 12.3.4.

bw

bw

b w : d

11.2: .11.2
( ,
.)
.

11.2.2

198

2000 -

(
).
:

2.5 d + l b,net ( l b,net
. 17).

11.2
11.2.1

(. 18.1.6, 18.3.4).
45.

90
, .


.

65%.
,
:
,
,
,
.
11.2.2
)

:

:

VSd VRd 2 ........................................................................... (11.4)


VRd 2 (11.7 ) (11.8).
.
)

2000

199

11

11

Vwd

.
Vcd
.
Rd Vcd
. 11.1.2.2
,
VRd1 VRd 2 .
(
),
. ,
. 11.2.3
17 18 (
).
.
11.2.3 ( )
11.2.3.1

=45.
(45<<90),
(1+cot).

VRd 2 ,

d e = 0.8 l w

(11.8)
(..
/ ).
,
(=90).

200

2000 -

VSd VRd 3 ........................................................................... (11.5)


:

VRd 3 = Vwd + Vcd ................................................................. (11.6)



d , VRd 3
,
d .

11
11.2.3 ( )
11.2.3.1

VRd 2 = 1 v f cd b w z ........................................................ (11.7)


2
:

v = 0.70
z

f ck
0.50 (f ck N / mm 2 )
200

, 0.90d .

VRd 2
(11.7) VRd 2,red (11.8).

VRd 2,red = 1.67 VRd 2 1.00 cp,eff / f cd < VRd 2 ......................... (11.8)
:

cp,eff = N Sd f yk A s 2 / s / A c

2000

201

11

11.2.3.2

(11.11)
:
, 45 90,
,
=90 .

11.2.3.2

i)

, ,
(.. ).

(

)

202

2000 -

As2

f yk


( f yk / s 400 N / mm 2 )

> b w
:

/ 8 , VRd 2

b w ,nom = b w 1 .................................................................................. (11.9)


2
:

11.2.3.2
11.2.3.2

Vcd = VRd1
Vwd =

.......................................................................... (11.10)

A sw
0.90 d f ywd (1 + cot ) sin ................................ (11.11)
s

A sw ,
s

11.2.3.2

d = N Sd / A c f cd , N Sd
G k +
2,i Q k ,i , . .
6.4.1.2.

i)

d > 0.10 ( )

Vcd
:
)

,
. 18.3.3 18.4.5.

2000

203

11

11

<0, .
.(11.14), (
)
( ) .
.(11.15),


, .

.
VSd (11.14), (11.15)
.
(VSd )

.

204

2000 -

Vcd = 0.30 VRd1 ...................................................................(11.12)


)

, . 18.5.2.

Vcd = 0.25 VRd1 .......................................................... (11.13)


,
, Vcd
(11.10).

1)

Vwd :

,

,
(+1 -1):
)

-0.50
Vwd . (11.11).

< -0.50

VSd 4.50 (2 + ) Rd b w d .............................. (11.14)


Vwd . (11.11).

VSd 9.00 (2 + ) Rd b w d ............................... (11.15)


. ,
,
.
VSd (11.14) (11.15),

.
2)

:
)


( s

s (= M Sd / VSd l w )

2.00 ) Vwd

.
)


( s

s (= M Sd / VSd l w )

1.30 ) Vwd

():

2000

205

11

11

206

2000 -

Vwd = h f yd,h ( s 0.30) + v f yd,v (1.30 s ) b w z


:

h , v

f yd,h , f yd,v

s < 0.30 s = 0.30.

v f yd,v / h f yd,h 1.00 .


)


:
.1.

s (2.00 > s > 1.30)

,
VSd Vcd , .

h f yd,h b w d e = VSd Vcd


.2

,
VSd Vcd min N Sd , .

v f yd,v b w d e = VSd Vcd min N Sd


N Sd .


(. 18.5.3).


(.
18.5.3).



(. 17.7.2).


(. 10.4.1).

2000

207

11

11

ii)


.
,
.

()
, .

11.2.4 ( )

,
z max . , ,
0.9d .

11.2.5
( )


.

(11.19) (11.20)
.
cot ,
, VSd = VRd 2 .
VSd = VRd 3 .

208

2000 -

ii)

d 0.10 ( ).
,
, Vcd :

Vcd = 0.90 VRd1 ............................... (11.16)


Vcd = 0.70 VRd1 ............................................ (11.17)
)

,
, Vcd

(11.10).

Vwd
(11.11)
.2 . 11.2.3.2 .

11.2.4 ( )
a l ,

( , . . 17.8.1, 17.8.2),
:

a l = z(1 cot ) / 2 0 ......................................................... (11.18)


11.2.5
( )

.
:
)

0.40 < cot < 2.50 ...................................................... (11.19)


)

0.50 < cot < 2.00 ...................................................... (11.20)



( 0.90d
z):

2000

209

11

11

210

2000 -

VRd 2 = b w (0.90 d ) v f cd /(cot + tan ) ............................... (11.21)


A sw
............................................ (11.22)
(0.90 d ) f ywd cot
s

VRd 3 =

A sw f ywd
bw s

1
........................................................... (11.23)
v f cd
2

,
:

VRd 2 = b w (0.90 d) v f cd (cot + cot ) / (1 + cot 2 ) ............. (11.24)


A sw
(0.90 d) f ywd (cot + cot ) sin ...................... (11.25)
s

VRd3 =

11

A sw f ywd
bw s

1
v f cd sin
2
.................................................. (11.26)

1 cos


( )
:

Ft l =

1
VSd (cot cot ) ................................................. (11.27)
2

l :

a l = z(cot cot ) / 2 ...................................................... (11.27)


.
11.2.3.1 VRd 2, red .

.

2000

211

11

11.3.1

Fd ,max

Fd , max =

M max A1 .......................................................... ( 11.2)

z A tot

,
:

tot

tot

, z .

212

2000 -

11.3 -
11.3.1
-
.
. 18.3.6.

(
),
.
:

v Sd =

Fd ,max ...................................................................... (11.28)


av

Fd,max


( )
,

av

v Sd (11.29)
(11.30).

2000

213

11

11

Fd

Fd

av

sf
hf
=0
Fd + Fd
A sf
( h f )

Fd + Fd

M=max

11.3: .

hf

sf


s f .

214

2000 -

11

11.3.2

v Rd 2 = 0.20 f cd h f ............................................................... (11.29)


11.3.3

v Rd 3 =

A sf
f yd + 2.50 Rd h f ............................................... (11.30)
sf

Rd 11.1.

( )
,
.
M = M max ,
, 2.50 Rd h f (11.30)
.

2000

215

11

11.3.4



,
,
.

216

2000 -

11.3.4

A sf .
(11.30)
.

11

2000

217

12

12



.
VSd = 0 .

(.. ), .

12.1

: .
: ( )
()
.

,
(. 17.9.1)

18.
,
.
, :
(. . 8.5),

.
,

(
).
, , Saint
Venant (. 12.1).

, .

12.1

220

2000 -

/
.

12.1
)

:
:
( ).
:

( ). ,

.

12

:
Saint Venant:
.
:
,
.

2000

221

12

:

(Saint Venant),

.
]
,
Saint Venant.

12.2.1

u,
u x , A x

t/2

t/2

t=

A
2c
u

12.2:
L,


.
,
,
( Moersch).
( )
.
( )
.

222

2000 -

12.2 SAINT VENANT


12.2.1

. ()
. :

,
t = max(A / u ,2c) (
, t
).
:
u


(
),

(. 17.9.1)

.
,
. 18.3.7.
:
TRd1 (. . 12.2.2)
VRd 2 (. . 11.2.3.1)
,
TRd 2 (. . 12.2.3.2)
,
TRd 3 (. . 12.2.3.3)
.

2000

223

12

12

Rd1 , Rd 2 Rd 3
(
)
( ).

12.2.2
(
)
,
:

(tan )2 [(A sw / s ) f ywd ]/ [(A sl / u k ) f yld ] ................................. ( 12.1)


=45 (cot=1) ,
TRdl , .
45
(
).

224

2000 -

TSd VSd
:
:

(TSd / TRd1 ) + (VSd / VRd 2 ) 1.00 ............................................... (12.1)


:

(TSd / TRd1 )2 + (VSd / VRd 2 )2

1.00 ............................................ (12.1)

TSd TRd 2 ............................................................................ (12.2)

TSd TRd 3 ............................................................................ (12.3)


.
TRd1 , TRd 2 TRd 3
.
12.2.2

TRd1 = 2 v f cd t A k / (cot + tan ) .......................................... (12.4)


:
t

(. . 12.2.1)

Ak


( )
(
),

v=

0.70(0.70 f ck / 200 ) 0.35 ( f ck MPa).



.

,
v = 0.70 f ck / 200 0.50 ,


. :
0.40 cot 2.50 .

2000

225

12

12

12.2.3.3
fyld A sl
. ,
(.. )
.

12.2.4 /

, .


TSd / ( 2 A k ) .
0.85f cd .

226

2000 -

12.2.3
12.2.3.1

. 11.2.1 .
12.2.3.2 (. 17.9)
, ,
.
.
:

TRd 2 = 2 A k f ywd A sw / s cot ............................................... (12.5)


:

A sw


( ).

(. . 18.3.7).

12

12.2.3.3

TRd3 = 2 A k (f yld A sl /u k )tan ............................................................... (12.6)


:

A sl


.

u (. . 18.3.7),

12.2.4 /
,
. 12.2.2.3 10.
,
/ ,
.

.

2000

227

12

12.3
,

. .
Saint Venant T1 T2 ,
, :

T = T1 + T2

,
II,
:


, 10.


T2 11.

Saint Venant, 12.

228

2000 -

12.3

.

.

12

2000

229

13

13


(.. ), (
. 9.1.7).

. 13.1.2 13.4.2.

13.1.1

,
.

3035

> 2h

2h

h
45

13.1:

232

2000 -


9 10.
.

, ( ),
. 13.1. 13.2.

11.

13.1
13.1.1

, .
:
, 3.50d,
, 11d
2,
(d = ),

13

.


,
30 35.
45.

2000

233

13

,
, . 13.2, (..

). .

(13.1)
VSd VRd ........................................................................... ( 13.1)
:
V

13.1.2

d crit

hH

d crit

= arctan(2 / 3) = 33.7
dc

lH hH

lH hH

13.2:
l H 1.5 h H

d crit ,ex
d crit ,in
d
hH

dH

l H > 1.5(d + h H )

d crit ,ex

d crit ,in

d
hH

dH
l H > 1.5(d + h H )

= arctan(2 / 3) = 33.7

13.3:
l H > 1.5 (d + h H )

234

2000 -

( .
13.2). ,
:

v Sd v Rd ............................................................................. (13.1)

v Sd v Rd . 13.3 13.4.


,
,
. 13.4.

13.1.2
)


l H 1.5 h H ,
(. . 13.2) ,
d crit :

d crit =1.5d + l H + 0.5d C ......................................................... (13.2)


:

13

dC

l H h H

, ,
(
).


l H >1.5 (d + h H ) , :
( d),
:

d crit,ex =1.5d + l H + 0.5d C ................................................... (13.3)


(

d H ),

d crit ,in =1.5 (d + h H )+ 0.5d C ................................................. (13.4)


d H

2000

235

13

236

2000 -

,
.
)

1.5 h H < l H 1.5(d + h H )


:

d crit =1.5 l H + 0.5d C .............................................................. (13.5)


)

( b X h)
, l 1 X l 2 (l 1 l 2 ), :

l 1 = b + 2 l H1 , l 2 = h + 2 l H 2

:

d crit =1.5d + 0.56 l 1l 2 ....................................................... (13.6)

d crit =1.5d + 0.69 l 1 ............................................................. (13.6)


13.1.3
,
( . 9.1.1),

3d .
(. 13.2),
.

13.2
:
,
d ,
,
.
1.50d
.
, .

2000

237

13

13

13.2.1

a1 2b
5.6d b
1

b1 / 2

1.5d

b
b1 / 2

a1 / 2

a1 / 2

a>b

1.5d

b
b1
2.8d

1.5d

1.5d

a
c

1.5d

1.5d

b
a

1.5d

u = 2a + 2b + 3d

u = (c + 3d )

u = 2(a + b) + 2b + a 2 + 3d

13.4:
13.2.2
6d

l1 l 2

l1 l 2

l 2 l 1 l 2

l2

1.5d

13.5:

,
( 13.6).
, , .

13.6: . 13.5

238

2000 -

13.2.1
,
.

13.2.2

6d
( ),
,

.


,
, . 13.3.

2000

239

13

13

13.2.3

1.5d

1.5d

1.5d
1.5d

13.7:

13.3
,
,
45
VSd .

.

13.4.1

240

2000 -

13.2.3
( . 13.2.1)
,
,
(
)
, . 13.2.1.

13.3
)

v Sd = VSd / u ........................................................................ (13.7)


:

v Sd u ,
,

u
)

13

. 13.2.

:
v Sd
(13.7) ,
.
=1.00. :

=1.50,

=1.40,

=1.15.

13.4
13.4.1
:

v Sd < v Rd1

2000

241

13


,
u .
( 13.2)
.

13.4.2.1

( ) .

,
,
.
13.4.2.2
, . . 18.1.6.3.
,
. ,
.

242

2000 -

v Rd1 = Rd (1.20 + 40 l ) d ............................................... (13.8)


:

Rd

11.1

1.60 d 1 (d )
lx ly 0.015

l =

lx ly

x y

1 (d x + d y )
2

d=

d x d y

x y.

l x l y 0.005.
0.50 .

( ), v Rd1
(13.8) (11.2).

13.4.2
13.4.2.1
, v Rd 2
:

v Rd 2 = 1.60 v Rd1 .................................................................... (13.9)

13.4.2.2
:

v Sd < v Rd 2

2000

243

13

13

244

2000 -

v Sd < v Rd 3
v Rd 3 = v Rd1 + A sw f yd sin / u ........................................ (13.10)
13.4.3 (
)
( ,
13.8 13.10) (
) ( ) m Sdx
m Sdy (13.11)
):

m Sdx ( m Sdy ) VSd ..................................................... (13.11)


:

VSd ( 13.7)

, 13.1
( 0 0.5 ) . 13.1.

, .
13.1. ,
(. . 13.2).
13.1:

, (13.11)

m Sdx

m Sdy

-0.125

0.3 l y

-0.125

0.3l x

,
x

-0.25

0.15 l y

-0.125

+0.125

( m)

,
y

-0.125

+0.125

( m)

-0.25

0.15l x

-0.5

0.5

( m)

+0.5

-0.5

( m)

2000

245

13

13

246

2000 -

mSdy

0.3l y
mSdx

0.15l x

0.3l x

ly

0.15l y
lx
y

13.1:

13

13.2:

2000

247

14

()

14

14.1


(. . 14.3.1).

(.. ),
.

14.2

2
10%
10% -.

250

2000 -

()13

14.1

(
2 ).
2 .
2
1
10%.

, ,
.

14.2
2 ,
,


( ).

2 .
2
2
.
- -
( ).

,
.

2 :
(. .
14.4.6.)).
2 .
.
2
:
(. .
14.3.1).
.

2000

251

14

14

14.3.1

() .

252

2000 -

()13

1 ,
. 2 ,
,
,
2 .

14.3

.
,
10%.

.

.
14.3.1

. :
)

N
0.10 ............................................................................. (14.1)
V h

N , V


. :

= q
:
q

,

,

2000

253

14

14

.
.

,
,
.
, ,

(
), ,
80% ,
.


2/3 .

14.3.2

, .

(. 14.4.3) .

.

.
.

254

2000 -

()13

.

.
)

,

:

h tot Fv / E cm I 0.20 + 0.10n

n 3 ................................... (14.2)

h tot Fv / E cm I 0.60

n 4 ................................... (14.3)

:
n

h tot


(.
),

E cm I

(..
)

(. . 2.5.2 E cm ).

,
.

Fv


( G k + Q k ), . f = 1 .

14.3.2
, ( . 14.3.1.)

(, .)

1
100 h tot

rad .............................................................................. (14.4)

h tot ( m).
2
1 400 .

1 200 ,

2000

255

14

14

256

2000 -

()13

,
,

(1+ 1 n )/ 2

:
n

14.4
14.4.1
:
( 14.1.) ))
,

( 14.1.) )) l 0 . 14.4.2.

14
)

14.1:

2000

257

14

14.4.2
(. 14.1.) )),
l o = l col .
0.4
, (
).
:

KA

100.0

= l 0 / l col

10.0

KB

100.0

30.0

5.0

30.0

20.0

4.0

20.0

10.0

3.0

10.0

8.0

8.0

6.0

6.0

5.0

5.0

4.0

2.0

3.0

4.0
3.0

2.0

2.0
1.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

14.1:

258

2000 -

()13

14.4.2
, l o = l col
14.2,
, K A K B
:

KA

= l 0 / l col
1.0

50.0
10.0
5.0
3.0

0.9

2.0

KB
50.0
10.0
5.0
3.0
2.0

0.8
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5

0.7

0.4
0.3

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.1

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5

0.3
0.2
0.1

0.5

14

14.2:

K A ( ) =

(E cm I col / l col ) .......................................... (14.5)


(E cm I b / l eff )

E cm

(. 2.5.2),

I col , I b

( )
,

l col

l eff

, ,

2000

259

14

14.4.3
:

( 20mm),
,
,
.

260

2000 -

()13

= 1.00 ,
= 0.50 ,
= 0 .

K A K B 0.40 .

14.4.3

, , e a ,
,
, :

ea =

l o ............................................................................. (14.6)
2

1
100 l col

lo

rad ................................................................. (14.7)

(. .
14.4.1. 14.4.2),

l col ( m).
2
1 / 400 .

1 / 200

14.4.4

( )
( ) :

e tot = e 0 + e a + e 2 .................................................................. (14.8)


:

e0

M Sd1

1 ,

N Sd

ea

(14.6),

e2

2 ,
. 14.4.7.1.

= M Sd1 / N Sd ,

2000

261

14

14

14.4.5
. 14.1,
10%.
()
.

14.4.6
,
.

262

A c I c

2000 -

()13

( )

/ (.
14.3), e 0
:

e 0 = 0.6 e 02 + 0.4 e 01 ........................................................... (14.9)


e 0 = 0.4 e 02 , e 02 e 01 ................................................. (14.10)

()

()

()

N Sd

N Sd

N Sd

e 02

e 02

e0

e 01

N Sd

N Sd

e 01

N Sd

14

14.3:
14.4.5

2 .


, .
14.4.6
)

= l o / i .............................................................................. (14.11)
:

2000

263

14

14.4.7.1

>140 .

> 200 .

K 2 1
.
,

264

K 2 = 1 .
2000 -

()13

lo

, . 14.4.2,

i = I c / A c . ....................................................................................... (14.12)
)

15
.............................................................. (14.13)
> max 25,

v
d

v d
.

vd =
)

N Sd
A c f cd

....................................................................... (14.14)


2
(14.13)
(14.15).

crit = 25 (2 e 01 / e 02 ) e 02 e 01 .................................... (14.15)



:

M Rd N Sd h 20 ................................................................ (14.16)
N Rd N Sd .......................................................................... (14.17)
14.4.7
14.4.7.1

140
1 e o 0.10h (h=
).

2000

265

14

14

266

2000 -

()13

FH

FV

e1 = e 0 + e a

A
e2

e1

14.4:
:
( 14.4),
(
/ ) /
,

,
e 2 ( 2 ) ,
1 / r ,
.

e 2 = K1

l 2o 1 .................................................................................... (14.18)
10 r

lo

= 2l

1r

K1 = / 10 2.5 25 35
K 1 =1

> 35 .

, 1 / r
:

2000

267

14

14

14.4.7.2


14.5.
(14.21) (14.22),
.

268

2000 -

()13

1 2 K 2 yd ................................................................................. (14.19)
=
r
0.90 d
:

yd


= f yd / E s

K2 =

N Rd N Sd
1.00 .................................................................. (14.20)
N Rd N bal

N Rd

N Sd

N bal

,
.
,
0.40 f A .

= 0.85 f cd A c + f yd A s

cd

14.4.7.2

2
.
,
2 y
z (. )
e y / b e z / h
:

(e z / h )/ (e y / b ) 0.20

..................................................................... (14.21)

(e y / b )/ (e z / h ) 0.20

e z 0.2 h ................................... (14.22)

e y e z 1
b h .
. 14.4.3
.

2000

269

14

14

270

2000 -

()13

ey b
ez h

ez h
0.2
ey b

e y = M z N Sd

0. 2

e z = M y N Sd

0.2h

ez
N Sd
ey

z
0.2b
b

14.5:

14

h
h/2
e z

h/2
e z + e z
e z 0.2h
0.2h
b

ey

0.2b
0.2h

'

14.6:

2000

e z 0.20h

271

14

272

2000 -

()13

e z > 0.20h ,
(z )
h ' 14.6. h '
,
. :

N Sd / A c N Sd (e z + e az )/ Wcz = 0 ................................................... (14.23)


:

Wcz ,
e az

(. 14.4.3)
z.

14

2000

273

15

15

15.1
.
.
, ,

.

15.2
(.. )
,
.

:



.

276

2000 -

15.1

.
.

:
)


, .

15.2
(
), . 15.1,
) ):
)

() ,
. 15.3,

. 15.4.

. 15.5.

(
) . 15.1,
:
)



(. . 17.3 17.5)

(. . 15.4).

2000

277

15

15

15.3 ()

(.. ), .

. 15.3.2

15.3.1

278

s = 0.70 f yk .

2000 -

15.3 ()
,
. 15.3.1, . 15.3.2.

0.3mm
0.20 mm .

.



.
15.3.1

, , . 15.3.1.1,
, .
15.3.1.2.
s II
[. (6.14)]
f yk .
15.3.1.1
. 15.1
,
15.1.
15.1, n .
15.1: (mm)

160

200

240

280

350

400

450


1, 2

36

36

28

25

16

10


3, 4

28

20

16

12

s (MPa)

2.
.
h > 300mm
h(mm)/300.

2000

279

15

15

15.3.2
.

( 1 2)
.


. 15.1 ,
,
.15.2.

280

2000 -

15.3.1.2
. 15.1

15.2.

,
.
,
15.2 2.
.
15.2: (mm)

160

200

240

280

350


1 2

250

250

250

200

150


3 4

250

200

150

100

70

s (MPa)

2.

15.3.2


, , .

0.3 mm 0.20 mm
.

15.4
15.4.1
15.4.1.1
:
i)

ii)

14
16,

2000

281

15

15

15.4.1.2
3 4
. 5.1.
( 18)
.

c 0.5 f ck .

15.4.2.1


(.. 3 4 . 5.1).


.
.
f ct
f ctk 0.05 .

282

2000 -

iii)


17 18,

iv)

()
15.4.1.2 15.4.1.3.
15.4.1.2

,
( 6.14) :

c 0.6 f ck
15.4.1.3

:

s 0.8 f yk

( ) :

s 1.0 f yk

15

15.4.2
15.4.2.1
)




.


( 2.1).

2000

283

15

15.5

(.. ) .
. 6.3.2.6,
A ct (A ct = A c ) .

284

2000 -


(
6.14)
0.60f ck .

15.4.2.2
, ,
, ,
, :

p 0.65 f ptk
15.5

(. . 6.3.2.6)
( , , .),
,

. A s
:

A s = k f ctm

A ct
................................................................................. (15.5)
s

A ct ,
f ctm
2.1,

II,
15.1,

:
k=0.5,
k
t 15.1.

2000

285

15

15

286

2000 -

k
0.85

A ct
t

As

0.50

0.3

0.8

t(m)

15.1: k
, b w ,
k=0.5 (.15.2).
k . 15.1.

bw

bw

bw

+
3b w
. .

2b w

2b w

15.2: k

.

.
60 cm 25 cm,
.

300mm ,

.

2000

287

15

15

15.6
>50mm, ..

, (. . 5.1).
c
A ct ,ext

A s,surf 0.01 A ct ,ext

dx
600 mm

A s,surf

Sl 150 mm

S t Sl

.15.1:

288

2000 -

15.6


.

.
A s,surf

0.01A ct ,ext , A ct ,ext
.

15

2000

289

16

16

16.1
, , ,
.

,
, .

l / 500
( ).

:
)

l/h


, .. ,

, ,


,

,
, ,

,

.

292

2000 -

16.1
() , :
,
,

(), .
,
, .
,
.

16.1., l
,
2.4 .
16.1:

l / 250

l / 500

16

2000

293

16

( )
.

16.2

. 7.2.1.2 . 9.1.1.

l / d 30 .

(. . 9.1.1)
25.
l
(
).

,
.


. ,
.

294

2000 -

16.2


l / d :

30,

l / d

l / d 20,


( l) 2 / d 150 ( l d ),

.
,
16.2.
16.2: (
)

1.0

0.8

0.6

l min 0.8 l max


l

2.4

2000

295

16

16

16.3.1

,
.
,
, .
.


l / 250 .
16.3.1.1

,

( 16.1):

a t = a o (1 + ) ..................................................................... ( 16.1)
:

ao

t = 0,

at

t = t

,
.

296

2000 -

16.3
16.3.1
1/r .
t

, :

(1 / r )t = (1 / r )e + (1 / r )cc + (1 / r )cs .......................................................... (16.1)


, ,
I II.
16.3.1.1


,
,
, .
( I)
, .

( II)
,

, .

2000

297

16

17

17

17.2.2

,
,
.

17.2.3.1
D
. 17.6.1.


( , 1 , 3)
( , 1 , 2).

300

2000 -

17.1

.

.

. 3.1.3.

17.2
17.2.1

.
17.2.2


.

17.2.3
17.2.3.1
D ,
( ), . 17.1.

17

17.1: D

(mm)

1
2

< 20
20

1
2 (*)
3 (*)
(*)

S220
S400, S500
2.5
4.0
5.0
7.0

(.. )

> 100mm >7


> 50mm > 3
50mm 3

S220
10
10
15

S400, S500
10
15
20


D 50%.

2000

301

17

17.4


.
.
2/3 d
25mm.

17.5

( n )+10mm 20mm
5.1 .

302

2000 -

17.2.3.2

17.2.
17.2: D

l < 4 : 20
l 4 : . 17.1

20

17.3
. 5.1 17.5
.

17.4

:
,
20 mm,

d + 5 mm, d =

,
.

.

17.5
,

.

.
.

2000

303

17

17

h/2
) h > 250 mm

) 45 90

300 mm

) h 250 mm
) h > 600 mm
,)
,)

17.1:

17.4 ,
c =1.5 :

f bd = f ctk 0.05 / c .................................................................. ( 17.1)

f bd = 2.25 f ctk 0.05 / c ......................................................... ( 17.2)


>32mm f bd 17.4
, =(132-)/100,
mm.
( ) .

304

2000 -

f bd .
:
: .
II: .
II ( )
(. 17.3):
0-45 ,

250 mm,
,
300
mm.
I ( ) .
17.3:


250mm

0 45
45 90

250mm
:


:
< 300mm
300mm
II

f bd 17.4.
17.4: f bd (MPa)

II

f ck

12

16

20

25

30

35

40

45

50


32

0.9
1.6

1.0
2.0

1.1
2.3

1.2
2.7

1.3
3.0

1.4
3.4

1.5
3.7

1.6
4.0

1.7
4.3

70%

2000

305

17

17


f bd 1.4 )
3 , )
( . 18.4.4.2).

17.6.1

1 2
, 10mm .

. . 17.6.5.

D
, , 17.1, :

D
f yd .............................................................. ( 17.3)
= 0.5 +

e f cd
:


,
, 26(S400 S500),
, .. .

306

2000 -

p (MPa),
, f bd 17.4
, 1 : (1 0.04 p ) 1.4 .

17.6
17.6.1
4
( 17.1):
1.

2.

( , , ),
D ,1 ,2
17.1.

3.


.
5
,
0.6.

4.

( ).

l b,net

5
135

D
l b,net

135 > 90

1.0

1.0

0.7

1.0

0.7

0.7

l b , net

l b,net

l b,net

17.1: 17.2
( l b,net , . . 17.6.3)

2000

307

17

17

17.6.2

.

5 cm
< 35 cm
l b . (17.1)
17.2:
( )
17.6.3
l b ,net .
D
B.1 .3 17.1,

. =1
f bd (. 17.5).
, l b,min
(. 17.3).

308

2000 -

17.6.2
l b 1
.

, l b (17.1):

lb =

f yd
.................................................................................... (17.1)

4 f bd

f bd

.
17.5,

f yd

2,

, l b
4 ,
. (17.1)
.

17.6.3
l b,net
,

. (17.2):

l b,net = l b

A s,req
A s,prov

l b,min ...................................................................... (17.2)

A s,req

2000

309

17

17

l b,net
D

l b,min

17.3:
D .1 .3 17.1.

/ . 18.3.5 18.4.6/18.5.5
.

. 17.2
.

17.6.4
:
,
,
,
.

(.. ).

310

2000 -

A s,prov


17.1 ( 0.5 ),

l b,min

lb

= 0.3

l b ( 10) ,

= 0.6

l b ( 10) ,

(17.1).


(. . 6.1.3),
,
A s,req / A s,prov =1.0 .
( )
. 4.1.4.2
v 4.8
>0.75.
, l b,net
(17.2)
:

n =4

A s,req
A s,prov

17.6.4
.

.
25%
.

. ,

.

2000

311

17

17

n .

17.6.5

.

17.7.2.1

.

312

2000 -

, , ,
, ,
18.
,
,
5 5 n
17.6.5
( )
.

17.7
17.7.1

,
, ,
(.. ),
,
(, ..).

17

17.7.2
17.7.2.1
, ,

.

(100%)
.
(50%)
.

2000

313

17

l0

l0

l0

l0

17.4:


4 , (-4),
>4, .

17.7.2.2

. . 18.4.6 18.5.5.

17.5: 17.5

314

2000 -


.
, 1/3
.

(100%) .
,
1.3 l 0 , l 0
(17.3).
17.2.


1.3l 0
0.3l 0

,20mm

,20mm
4

17.2:
17.7.2.2
l 0 ( 17.4)
,
(. 17.5):

l 0 = 1 l b,net l 0,min .................................................................................... (17.3)


:

l b,net

(17.2),

1
l 0,min

17.5,
,
max (0.3 l ,15 , 200mm) .
1

2000

315

17

17

. . 17.7.2.1.

17.7.2.4 E
()
16 mm

()
16 mm

A st

A st

A sl

A sl

17.6, : 17.6

A st 2

A st 2

150 mm
Fs

Fs
l0
l0 3

l0 3

()
A st 2

A st 2

150 mm

4
Fs

Fs
l0
l0 3

l0 3

17.6, : 17.6

316

2000 -

17.5:

(a)

(b)

(
)
20%

25%

33%

50%

>50%

a 10 b 5

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

a > 10 b > 5

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.0

17.7.2.3

l 0 :

l 0 l b,net .......................................................................................................... (17.4)


17.7.2.4 E

, .
(..
, ) .
17.6.
17.6:

1

(mm)

st

< 16

20%
> 20%

Asl ( )

16

50%

17.6

17.6

17.7

10

st sl

> 50%
< 10

sl

st sl

. 150 mm

2000

317

17

17

Ast
Asl

17.7: 17.6
17.7.3

1: 3

17.8:

, 1:3 ( 17.8).

0.1 mm.
100%
, 80%.

318

2000 -

17.7.3

.
()
() :

1.0 f yk A s ,

1.2 f tk A s ,

f yk , f tk , A s

,
, .


. 17.3 . 17.4, ,
.

.

17

17.7.4

.

.

2000

319

17

17.8.1

(.
8.4).
.
17.8.2

17.8.3

l b,net
l b,net
l b,net
E

al

al

M Sd / z + N Sd

l b,net
E

l b,net

l b,net

17.9:
( )

l b,net
l b,net

17.10: ,

320

2000 -

17.8

17.8.1
,
(.
17.8.2).

17.8.2

a l Ft = (M / z )+ N ( a l . 11.2.4).
17.8.3

,
l b,net .
,
1.3 l b,net 0.7
l b,net ( l b,net =
.17.6.3).

17

2000

321

17

0.7l b,net

1.3l b,net

17.11: ,

17.8.4

l b,net

b 3 ( 50 mm)

2 3 l b,net

17.12:

17.8.5


, .

322

2000 -

17.8.4
i)

:
)

Ft = VSd a l / z ............................................................... (17.5)


:

a l .(11.27).
)


2 / 3 l b,net .


1/3 ( 50 mm )
l b,net .

ii)


. 18.3.5.

17.8.5
. 18
,
:
i)

,

10.

ii)

,
. 18.3.5.

2000

323

17

17

l = 10

17.13:

,

( , , .).

17.9

18.
,
,
(.. ).
, .
( ) .
17.9.1

324

2000 -

17.9
:

,
- ,
,
.

17.9.1

17

17.3.
17.3.) .
17.3.) )
, .
50mm.

2000

325

17

( 17.3. )
. ,
,
.

17.9.2
( )

326

2000 -

0.7
15 mm
=135
10 70 mm

15 mm
2
20 mm
50 mm

10 70 mm
=90

()

()

1.4

()

()

17.3:
17.9.2
( )
)

( )

17.4.

, .
:

()

()

17.4:
(. 17.3 )
)

, ,
, 17.5.

2000

327

17

17


,
17.5.), .

l0

17.14: .
(.. TSd 0.5 TRd1 )
(.. 17.14) ,

328

2000 -


) ),
) )
, . .
.

()

()

()

()

l0

()

17.5: ,
,
(. 17.3 )
,
17.5(), ( )

l0.
)



l 0 .

2000

329

17

17

17.15.

l b ,net

l b ,net

17.15:
17.9.3

17.4
.

17.9.4 ( S)

:
:
: ,
,

17.16: ( S)


(
), .

,
.

330

2000 -

17.9.3
, 17.4
,
, 17.5
.
17.9.4 ( S)

,
.

17

2000

331

17

332

2000 -

17.9.5 -
. 17.8.3.
,
.

17.10
17.10.1

. 17.2.2.
17.10.2
17.10.2.1
)



(3).
,
,
,
(7) .
17.7: ,

:3

:7


.
:
)

,
3 7, ,
( f =1.0 m =1.0 )

,
. , ,

,
.

.

2000

333

17

17

334

2000 -

17.10.2.2

17.10.2.2
() .
,
,

.

:

40mm

50mm


.
17.10.2.2
, .

17.7.

17

10 mm

d + 5 mm

20 mm
17.7:
( = )

2000

335

17

17.10.2.3
, ,
.

.
,
.


,

.

,
. 5.1 17.5.

0.015 A ct ,ext , A ct ,ext
.

17.10.2.4

.
, ,
:

5
10
15o.
17.10.3
. 3.2.5 4.5.1.
.

336

2000 -

17.10.2.3
17.10.2.3


. 5.1
. 17.5,
17.8.

c1
h
c1 b h / 2
c b

b
b
h
c

c1
:
c1 40 mm, c 40 mm

17.8:

17.10.2.3
. 5.1 17.5,
20mm 2.
c min =3 .
17.10.2.4


.

17.10.3
,
, ,

2000

337

17

17

17.11

..
()
.
, . (17.6)
,
:

N Sd .............................................................................. (. 17.4)
l

( 0.7) .


l
N Sd ( ).

338

2000 -

,
.



.


.
, .
,
50% .

17.11


,

.
45-90.

:

v Sd

As
f yd (1 + cot ) sin .................................................. (17.6)
s

:
A

,
,

f yd

2000

339

17

17

340

2000 -

17.12
17.12.1 , ,
28mm
.
.
, ,
,
n :

n = n 55 mm .............................................................. (17.7)
:
n4

n3

.

n .

.
17.12.2

.

.
2, 3 4
1.2, 1.3 1.4 .
.
.
.
4 .

2000

341

17

18

18

18.1.1
, (.. , )
.
.


(2), ,
,
.
,

.
,
.
18.1.2


.

344

2000 -


, .

,
.

18.1
18.1.1

, . 7.2.1.2
: l > 4h ( l = , h= ).
(..
) .

.
(
). ()
.

.

18

18.1.2
:
)

2000

100 mm
70 mm

345

18

18.1.4.1

. :

L,min 2 / 3 L,max

L .


,
( ) .

A sx / 2

A sx
A sy
2

A sy
2

A sy
A sx / 2

c
c

18.1:

346

2000 -

18.1.3
:
)

70 mm

100 mm

120 mm

,
(..
)

50 mm

18.1.4
18.1.4.1
,
.
:

min A s = 0.6 b d / f yk , f yk MPa , ........................................(18.1)

min A s = 0.0015 b d ................................................................(18.2)

4%
.

20% 46/m,
.
,

c = 0.20 min l .
:
250mm

1.50 h 200mm .

2000

347

18

18

A S' 1 / 4A S
0.2l


1 / 2A S

A s ( )

A S' 1 / 4A S
0.2l


1 / 2A S

A s ( )

18.2:

lb

bm

tx

sx

ty

lb

s x = 0.5b m t x
s y = 0.5b m t y

sy
lb

bm

lb

18.3: ,

348

2000 -


,
1/4 .
, 0.2
.

.
(. . 17.8.4 17.8.5).


(.. 9.1.6)
s y = 0.5 b m t y .
,
, 60%
.

60%
, .

b m ,

, t x .
b m
.

,

, 60%
58/m, .

.

2000

349

18

18

18.1.4.2




.

, .

0.3l min


0.3l min

0.3l min

: A S A S
: A S 1 / 2A S

18.4.
18.1.5.1
d/2

s s

45
s 0.6d (1 + cot )
d/2

30

18.5:
11.2 . 18.3.4.

350

2000 -

18.1.4.2


,
,
:
)

, ,

.

0.3
.

18.1.5
18.1.5.1

200mm.
, (. . 11.1.1),
/ .
, ,
60% 18.1 .

. ,
45. , ,
( )
30.
s ,
:

s 0.6 d (1 + cot ) ................................................................ (18.3)

2000

351

18

18

18.1.5.2

1.0d

800 mm

18.6:
18.1.5.3

352

2000 -



d / 2 .
:
, ,
, .
18.1.5.2

(11.1).
(. 11.1 . 18.3.4).

,
.

1.0d 800 mm .
:

VSd < VRd 2 / 3 .


,
, s max .
18.3.4.
18.1.5.3
, ,
60% .
(. 13.4.2) :
)

,

1.5d 800mm .
(18.3) .

0.5d ,

0.75d
.
.

2000

353

18

18

)
0.75d

0.5d

1.5d
800 mm

0.75d

0.25d

( )

1.5d
800 mm

)
0.5d
0.25d

2d
800 mm

0.75d

0.5d

2d
800 mm

18.7:

1.5d 800 mm

1.5h H

1.5d 800 mm
d

dH

hH
0.5d
l H 1.5h H

0.5d H

0.5d

l H > 1.5(d + d H )

18.7:

354

2000 -


, 2d
800mm .

18

2000

355

18


.
:

1.3

( )
2

f yk f ck VSd


- .
. VSd
.
18.1.5.4


h
2h

18.8.

.

.
18.2.1
.

x min = y min = 0.001


hs
ho
a 700 mm

b 70 mm

18.9.

356

2000 -

,
,
,
.

18.1.5.4
, :
,
.
0.005 h 2 S220 0.0025 h 2 S400 S500,
2?8.

2h.
4 6/m,
.

18.2 ( )
18.2.1
( )
700mm
70mm.

,
5kN/m2
7.5k.

2000

357

18

18

18.2.2.2

,
,
:

Vd ,nerv =1.10 Vd , total / n


:

Vd ,total

18.2.2.3

.

358

2000 -

18.2.2
18.2.2.1
1/10
50mm.
,
0.001 (S400, S500).
, , ,
75% (S400, S500).
18.2.2.2
70mm.
, b
1:3.

.
,
2 .


0.01 (S400, S500).
, ..
.

3kN/m2
16mm.

.
( )
, 5%
.
18.2.2.3
6m
.
6m
10 h o , h o .

2000

359

18

18

18.3

,
. 9.1.7,
(. . 6.1.3).

18.3.1
,
:

b w > l o / 50
bw > hb / 8
:

lo

hb

4
,
.
(. 18.5.8).

360

2000 -

(.. )

.
.
, .
.
18.2.3
.

,
. 18.2.2.1 . 18.2.2.3.

18.3


(. . 6.1.3).

.
18.3.1
,
b w 200mm .

b w

:
)

b w

b w < 2 bc
bw < bc +

18

hc
2

b c h c
,
)

4,

1/3
.

2000

361

18

18.3.2

.
:

L,min 2 / 3 L,max
:

L .

.


, .

' 0.5
,

362

2000 -

18.3.2


( min ) (
) :

1 f
min = ctm ....................................................................... (18.4)
2 f yd
, , ,
4% ,
.
, , 1/4

(. . 17.8.4 . 17.8.5).

(. 18.3.3),
( max )
:

max = 0.65

f cd '
7
............................................ (18.5)
+ 0.0015
f yd
f yd

f yd MPa, '
.
()
.

:
)

(
2 h b ), '

.

2000

363

18

18

.
.

2hb

,
,
.

A S'

min A c A S1 max A c

A S' 1 0.5A S1 ,

AS

1
A S1
4
1
A S2
4
min A c A S2 max A c

min A c A S max A c

A S' 2 0.5A S2 ,

AS

18.10:

hs

4h s

4h s

2h s

2h s

hs

hs

IV
2.5h s

2.5h s

hs

18.11:

18.3.3
2
.

364

2000 -


1/4
.

2
12mm/S400 S500.

,
,
,

, (
), :
I


: 4 ,

II

:
2.5 ,

III


: 2
,

IV

:
.


. 8.4.
.
, 75%
,
.

18

18.3.3
l cr
2
(l cr = 2 h b ) .

2000

365

18

18.3.4

18.1
:

w = A sw :s b w sin ( = 45 90 ) ...................................... ( 18.1)


11.2 .
18.1. w ,min

S 220

S 400

S 500

C12 C20

0.0016

0.0009

0.0007

C25 C35

0.0024

0.0013

0.0011

C40 C50

0.0030

0.0016

0.0013



, , :
,
,
,
.

50 mm
hb

s
2h b

2h b

18.12: (
)

366

2000 -

18.3.4

.

, .
12mm.
smax
:

0.8 d 300mm

0.6 d 300mm

0.3 d 200mm

1
VSd < VRd 2 .......................................(18.6)
5
1
2

VRd 2 < VSd VRd 2 ........................(18.7)


5
3
2
VSd > VRd 2 ........................................(18.8)
3


1
d 500mm, VSd < VRd 2 .

5
1
VSd > VRd 2 , (18.7) (18.8).
5

,
8mm
:
1/3 ,
10 ,
20 ,
200mm.

50mm .

(. . 17.7.2.1).

150mm,
.

2000

367

18

18

18.3.5

l b,min

l b,min

l b,min

18.13: A ,
. . 17.6.3 . 17.3
5
,
( ).

18.3.6 -
. 11.3.3 .

18.1, b w
( 18.1).

18.14:

368

2000 -

18.3.5

:
)


,
,
l b,min (. . 17.6.3).


, (..
,
),
( ), :

, 90
(.
).
5
.
. 17.5.

18.3.6 -
,

.

18

2000

369

18

18.3.7
. 18.3.2 18.3.4
.
12.2.

18.4.2

db

b 250 mm ( 200 mm)

d1 350 mm

b1 200 mm

18.15:

370

2000 -

18.3.7
. 18.3.2 18.3.4

.

u k / 8 .

,
,
350mm.
18.3.8
,
, .

, .

.
, (
) .

18.4
18.4.1
.
18.4.2
,
:
)

250mm,
300mm.
. 18.4.4.2
200mm 250mm, .

,
200mm
350mm.

2000

371

18

18

18.4.3

.
:

L,min 2 / 3 L,max ............................................................ ( 18.2)


:

L .
( 200 300 mm)
.

18.4.4.1
:
,
- ,
,
.

372

2000 -


, ,
:

d =

N Sd
0.65
A c f cd

.
.
18.4.3

. ,
.
14mm.

0.01 ( 0.008,
. 18.4.4.2) 0.04. ,
0.08.
,


200mm.
300mm,
.

300mm.
18.4.4 ( )

18

18.4.4.1
,
.

( ), .
17.9.3.

( ),
.

2000

373

18

1 f yd .

3 f yd

18.4.4.2

:

2 (= 3 ) 1
= wd , = n s
f cd
2

374

2000 -

,
6mm 1/4 .
:
12 ,
,
300 mm.

(. 18.4.5),
8mm 1/3 .
:
8 ,
50% ,
100 mm.

,
4
.

,
6 .
18.4.4.2

(. 18.4.5) .


. 4.1.4.2 v
4.8 >0.75.
)

:

,
- (),


(),

,
-.

2000

375

18

18

bi

b0
s'
n=4

n=8

b
s ' ,

n = 1

n=12
A0 =

b 02

: ,

b
A C = b 2 :

18.16:
( b i b 0 )

376

2000 -

:
i)

wd =

f yd

f cd

A
wd = 0.85 d 0.35 c + 0.15 0.035, Wd 0.10
Ao

Ac

Ao


()

d =

N Sd
A c f cd

d 0.65

N Sd
ii)

= n s

:
1)

n =1 bi2 / 6 Ao
1

18

(= 1 8 / 3n, bi = 4 bo / n )

bi

,
250mm 300mm (. . 18.4.3).

2000

377

18

378

2000 -


2)

n =1 .

s = 1 s' / 2 bo

s'

s ' < b o

bo

(A

/2 .

= b o2 .

(
), s ,
s = (1 s ' / 2 b o ) .
iii)

,

.
,

.
. 18.4.4.1
.

iv)



,

.


1 > 2 = 3 .
:
)


,
.

,
x y .


wd . .i:

) ff yd 2 x ff yd 2 y ff yd

wd = x + y

cd

cd

cd

2000

379

18

18

18.4.5

l cr = max h, H ,600mm
5

l cr

H
l cr

l cr
l cr

18.17:

,
.

18.4.6

l b,min

18.18:
, . . 17.6.3 . 17.3

380

2000 -

x y ,
, .:

wd = 2 min

wd

f yd .
f cd

18.4.4.3
(
) ,
.
18.4.5

l cr :

,

:
1/5 ,
,

600 mm.

,
. ,
x y.
,
,
.

18.4.6

,
:

, 90
(.
).
5 . ,
. 17.5.

2000

381

18

18

18.4.8
,
, :

1.000 + 5.0

2
f cd

*
= f cd
f cd

1.125 + 2.5 2
f cd

2 0.05 f cd

2 0.05 f cd

:
*
f cd , f cd

2 (= 3 ) 1
= wd (. 18.4.4.2).
f cd
2

18.5.1

382

2000 -

18.4.7
, (
) :

l b ( l b , ),

(1.0 1.4) l b (1.0 1.4 l b ,


),
, .

(. 18.4.4.1, 17.7.2.4, 17.9.1 17.9.2).
18.4.8
.
18.4.1 18.4.7 :
)


250mm.

0.02
0.04 .

0.08.
6,
.

80mm
, 5mm.

,
(
),
.

18.5
18.5.1
,
b.

l w ,

T b
150mm. b

2000

383

18

18

l w 4b

b 250 mm ( 200 mm)


Hn

b
b 150 mm
b

l w 4b
18.19:

:

bq

lw
60

(q = ).

18.5.2

Hw
l w
H cr
H w / 6

lw
18.20:
18.5.3

384

2000 -

250mm, 200mm,
, .
, 1/20
, .
(
, . 18.5.8)
,
.

18.5.2

H cr (
) l w H w / 6 , H w
.
(
)
(. . 14.3.1).

,
(), .

18.5.3
.
)

10mm.

2000

385

18

18

' > (1.5b 0.15l w ) c < 0.2%

48 / m 2

'
b' = b

A s
'

b (l w 2 )

0.01 =

0.0025

A s
0.04
'b '

lw

48 / m 2

'

.
b'

b
=

As
0.0025
b (l w 2 ' )

18.21:
( H cr )

18.5.4

386

2000 -


1/10 .
, ,

0.0025
0.0015
.
2 ,
,
48/m (S220).
s 300 mm,
s
200 mm.
)




1.5 b 0.15 l w ,
0.2%.
c
0.01 0.04
.
(. 18.4.4.2)
:

N eff 2 / 3(N Sd / 2 + M Sd / Z ) ,
:
z

( )


. 18.4.3 18.4.4.1 .
18.5.4




0.2%.
-
. 11.3.

2000

387

18

18

b eff

b eff

18.22:
(.. )
.
:

b eff = 2 b .

388

2000 -

18.5.5

.
, 33%
100% , (17.3)
1
1.4 2.0, .
, , 1.5
.

18

18.5.6

.
8mm.
,

.
.

2000

389

18

18.5.7
. (18.9)
,
0.7.

18.5.8
,
, 412 (S400, S500)
8 b/2.

b/2
b/2

18.23:

A S = VSd / 2 f yd sin .............................................................. ( 18.3)

390

2000 -

18.5.7
,
,
:

v =

A s, tot
Ag

1.3 f ctm 0.7 N Sd

A g
=
0.0025 .................................. (18.9)
f yd

A s ,tot ,
A g ,
, N Sd
, .

18.5.8

,
.
.
.


, l / h 3 , (
) ,
(18.10) (18.11):

l
d < 2 Rd ,
h

d =

VSd ........................................................ (18.10)


bh

1 l
' = < f cd / f yd .........................................................................(18.11)
4 h
l , h = ' ,
.

100mm.
50%.

216 (S400, S500), .

2000

391

18

18

min A s = 216

( )
10/200

(S400, S500)

1.5l b
10/200
(S400,S500)

min A s = 216

(S400,S500)

0 .2 h

18.24:
,
(..
, ,
),
.

18.6.1

.

.

.

,
18.25.

392

2000 -

, 10/200 mm (S400,
S500). 10/200 mm.

VRd 2 VRd 3 (. 11).

18.6
18.6.1
200mm.
,
,
48/m.
0.002 .
,
s 200 mm.
1/10 . ,
, 5 6mm,
1/2 3/4 (. 5.1).
, .

2000

393

18

18

bw
bw

bw

:
:

614, S400 S500


8/ 0.5 b w

18.25:
18.6.2 /
.

b
:

2h
h 3

18.26:
18.6.3
(. 6.1.3)

.

(
) .

394

2000 -

,
, 3 b w
600 mm 1.5 b w 300 mm,
min. 12 (S400 S500) max. 150 mm.

18.6.2 /

b min , h min 0.70m .

,
0.50m.

.18.1.4.1 min. 12 (S400 S500)
max. 150 mm.

18

18.6.3

.


. 5.2.4.2 .
:

2000

395

18

18.6.4

/ b h , b h ,
, .

396

2000 -

n 3
0.25/0.40m,

0.4% 0.4%
min 3+314 (S400 S500)
. 10/200

n 4
0.25/0.60 m,

0.4% 0.4%
min 3+316 (S400 S500)
. 10/150

n ( ).
. 5.2.4.2
,
0.20m, .

10 (S400, S500) 0.20m

.
18.6.4
,
(. . 18.6.1).

.
(. 15.5).

18

2000

397

19

19

19.3.1

.. , ..

19.3.2
,
959 971 ...
. . 20.4.4.

19.4
:
,
,
.

19.5
:
)

400


(.. ),

2000 -

19.1

.

19.2

(...)
.

19.3
19.3.1

.

.

.
19.3.2

( ),
.

19.4
(,
, ), , ,
.

19
19.5


.

2000

401

19


. ... . 14.4.

402

2000 -

19

2000

403

20

20

20.1
,
.

20.2.1
:

,
,
,
.
20.3.1
... . 11.

(,
).
.
,
, ,

.

406

2000 -

20.1

.


.

20.2

,
,
,


(...) .
20.2.1

,

.

20.3
20.3.1
( )
:
,

,
.

,

.

2000

407

20

20

20.3.2

.
,
,
,
.

, ,
.

20.3.3
..., 11.

.
..., . 11.6 12.7.

.. , ,
.


( ).

. , 69/28.03.80.
.. ,
.

408

2000 -

20.3.2
)

,

.

.

.


.

20.3.3
20.3.3.1

.
,

.
,

.
,
20.1
.
20.1: ( )

II

, , ,

2 .

3 .

5 .

8 .

> 5m

10 .

16 .

()
> 5m

28 .

28 .

2000

20

409

20

20.4.1

410

2000 -


.

, . ,
( )

.
.
.
20.3.3.2 ()
,

.

(. 20.1), ,

, .
.
8m, ,
.
.
3m .
20.3.3.3



.
,

.

20

20.4
20.4.1

:
(.. ) ,
,

2000

411

20

.. .

,
,
.
20.4.2
.

20.4.3
( ,
.).
,
.

20.4.4.1

.

.
. 959 971 ...

412

2000 -

,

,
.

, ,
.

.

20.4.2
, , .
()
,
.
20.4.3
, ,
,
.
.

.
20.4.4
20.4.4.1

, , .

.

.
.
20.4.4.2
.

2000

413

20

20

20.4.4.5

, .

20.4.5.2
, .. ,
.

20.4.5.3

, ,
.

414

2000 -


.
20.4.4.3

.
,
(. 20.4.4.2).
20.4.4.4
,
.
20.4.4.5

.

.
20.4.5
20.4.5.1
.
20.4.5.2
. 20.4.4
.
, , .
20.4.5.3

.


.

2000

415

20

20

20.4.6
,
,
. .

:
,
,
,
.

20.5.1
:
,
,
, ,

,
.
(
).
(..
).

416

2000 -

20.4.6
)

( )
:
,

.
.
.

.

.

,
.. ,
,
.
() :
,
,

,

.

20.5
20.5.1
, , (..
) ,
. ,
.
,
.

,
.

2000

417

20

20

.
,
.
20.5.2

.
.
.
20.5.3
.


.

20.5.5
.

,
,

.

418

2000 -

20.5.2
.
20 30mm
.

20.5.3
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
.
, ,
(, , )
, ,
.
20.5.4 ,
,
(. 19.3).
20.5.5
.
,
:
,
,
, ,
.
.

2000

419

20

20


.
20.5.6
.

.

, ,
. ,
, /
(. . 20.7.3)
(.. ).

420

2000 -

. 20.4.6
, .

.
20.5.6
)


.

,
.

.

.


,
.

.

.
20.5.7

, ,

.

.

20

2000

421

20

20.6.1.1


.

,
.

422

2000 -

20.6
20.6.1
20.6.1.1
:

,
,
,

,
,
.
, ,
,
.
.

20.6.1.2

.
.
, , ,
,
.
20.6.2
20.6.2.1

:
,

,

,

2000

423

20

20

20.6.2.2
,

.
(.. )
,
.
, ,
.

20.6.3.1
,
,
.

.

424

2000 -

,
, ,
,

,

, ,
(..
),

.
20.6.2.2

.
.
,
, .
.
(mm).

,
.
,
,
, .

.
20.6.3

20.6.3.1

( )
,
,
.
)
,
.

2000

425

20

20

(
) .
.

20.6.3.2

.

426

2000 -

:
,

,
,
,
.
)

,


.

().
20.6.3.2

,
.

,
.

.
20.6.3.3
20.6.3.3

.
,
,
.

, :
,
, ,
,

2000

427

20

20

20.6.3.3
: , ,
.
: .
/ ,
,
.

20.6.3.3

.

428

2000 -

,
,
.
20.6.3.3

:
(
),
, ,
,
/ ,
( ),
,
,
,
,
(
),
( ),
(
, ),
, ,
.
20.6.3.3
, ,

, .
20.6.4
(.. )
.
.

2000

429

20

21

21



( , ) .

21.1.1


, ,
.

432

2000 -


, ,
.

21.1
21.1.1
:
.
.

, .
:


.
:
,
.
: :
,
,
.
/ : .

.
/ : .
.
21.1.2

, :
)

:
,
, ,
..

2000

433

21

21

21.2.1.2
:
,
, ,
, .

.

21.2.1.3

, , ,
, , ..

434

2000 -

,
,

,

,
, , ...

21.2
21.2.1
21.2.1.1
,
,
, ,
.
21.2.1.2

.
.
.

.
21.2.1.3
,
. .
, ,

,
.

2000

435

21

21

21.2.1.4
, ,
, ,
, ..
.
21.2.2.1
:
,
.

21.2.2.2
.

,
.

21.2.2.3


, ,

.

436

2000 -

21.2.1.4

.
.
21.2.2
21.2.2.1

.

.
21.2.2.2
21.2.2.2


.

,

.
21.2.2.2
(...).
21.2.2.2



.
21.2.2.3
:
)


,
,

2000

437

21

21

..
.
21.2.3


, .
.
,
.

438

2000 -

, ,

, .

21.2.3
:
,

,

,

,
,
,
( ),
, ,
,
, ,

,

,
, , ,
.
21.2.4 , ,


(...).
21.2.5

(...).

2000

439

21

21

21.2.6 (
)

:

.. .

,
.

.
,

.

440

2000 -

21.2.6 (
)
,
( )
.
(, , )
,
.
3%
.

.
. 20.6.1.1 20.6.2.1.
( ,
, )
.


.
21.2.7 (
)

. 20.6.3.2 20.6.3.3.
,
, ,

- - .
.
21.2.8
,
:
,
(

2000

441

21

21

21.3.4

,
.

.
442

2000 -

),
,
,
,
,
(
),
.

21.3
21.3.1
.
21.3.2

. 21.2.2.
21.3.3

.
.
:
,
,
,


.
21.3.4
.

.

2000

443

21

21

21.4.2
,
,
.


, .

, , ,

.
, .
, ,
, ,
.
(
)
0.90
0.80 .

444

2000 -

21.4
21.4.1

( )
, .
21.4.2

, .

,
.
.

,
.

21.4.3

, ,
.

2000

445

21

22

22

22.1

,
( ).


(.. ,
.).

22.2
(
), :

10 ,

5 10 ,

1 4 ,

1 2 ,

5 .

22.3
,
, ,

.
:
,
,
.

22.4 /

,
, .

(.. ).

22.5

.

448

2000 -

22.1

.
, ,
,
.

.

22.2

, .
, ,

.

22.3
, - , ,
. , ,
.

,
, .

22.4 /

( ) .

22

22.5

.

2000

449

22

/
.

450

2000 -

/
,
,

.

22

2000

451

454

2000 -

.1


:
1)


(
)
( ).
.


.
,

.

2)

,


.

3)

,

.

v f cd . , v
0.60
. v ( v > 1 )

,
.

4)

f yd .

5)

.2

1)

0.4 h c a c h c ( .1)

.

2)

( a c < 0.4 h c ),

.

2000

455

456

2000 -

a c > h c

3)


-.

4)


Fv H c 0.2 Fv
,
.

5)

( h c )
( . 11).

6)

ac

Fv
Hc

hc

.1: ,
-.
:
1)

,
,
,
, l b,net
. l b,net
.

2)

h c 300 mm ,
A s :

2000

457

458

2000 -

A s 0.4 A c f cd / f yd
( A c
),
0.4 A s
d,
.
( .2) (
.3).

Fv

As

Hc

.2: .

Fv
As

Hc

.3: .

2000

459

460

2000 -

3)


, .

.3

1)

2)

, .. ,
, ,

.

3)


.
.

.
1)



,
,

l b,net .

2)


(
),
0.15%
.

2000

461

464

2000 -

.1

(0.2 + 0.1 ) y , 3
................. -
N / KI
0.6 y , > 3

(0.2 + 0.1 ) x , 3
...... -
N / K II
0.6 x , > 3

: I, II

.2

I I:

y =1 ...............................................

II II:

x =1 ...............................................

III III:

.3

0,2 + 0,1
......................
rB H N / K III
0,6

v x v y

.3.1
(i) G i ,
K i ( i , i )
.
K i I i , I i I i .
O xyz
(. .1):

K xx

K = K yx
K zx

K xy
K yy
K zy

K xz

K yz
K zz

2000

465

466

2000 -

K xx = E I i 2 i + I i 2 i = E I yi
i

K yy = E I i 2 i + I i 2 i = E I xi
i

K zz = E I i + y i2 I yi + x i2 I xi 2 x i y i I xyi
i

K xy = K yx = E (I i I i ) i i = E I xyi
i

K xz = K zx = E y i I yi + x i I xyi
i

K yz = K zy = E y i I xyi + x i I xi
i

= .

.3.2 -

:

x =

K xx K zy K xy K zx
K xx K yy K 2xy

, y

K yx K zy K yy K zx
K xx K yy K 2xy

(, )
( .1):

2 =

2 K xy
K xx K yy

( )
K xx > K yy K xx < K yy .
(,,III)
:

2000

467

468

2000 -

K I = E J II =

K II = E J I =

K xx + K yy
2

K xx + K yy
2

K xx K yy
+ K 2xy
+

K xx K yy

2

+ K 2xy

K III = E J = K zz y 2 K xx x 2 K yy + 2 x y K xy

i
k

II

i
I

yi
i

yk
yi

xi
Ki
n
n

xk

xi

.1:

.3.3

( i , i ) K xy = K yx = 0 :

K yz = K zy = + E (x i I i )

K xx = E I i ,
i

K yy = E I i

K zz = E I i + y i2 I i + x i2 I i

K xz = K zx = E (y i I i )

2000

469

470

2000 -

(, ) ( i , i )
:

K yz

x =

K
, y = zx
K xx

K yy

K I = E J II = K xx
K II = E J I = K yy
K III = E J = K zz y 2 K xx x 2 K yy
.3.4 v x v y
B xyz
N i (x, y)
(, ) ( .2).
e x e y
, v x v y
:

v 2x

v 2y

1 2x
1 + 2x
=

2
2

+ 2x

1 2y

2

+ 2
y

1 + 2y
2

2x =

1
K III K II + e 2x
2
rb

2y =

1
K III K I + e 2y
2
rb

x = e x rb

2000

471

472

2000 -

y = e y rb
rb =

1
ri2 N i
N i

ri

N i , ( N = N i ).
i

x 1 y 1

, x > 1 y > 1
( ).
, e = 0

v 2 = 2 2 < 1 v 2 = 1 2 > 1 .

III
y
ey

II
I

Ni
K
ri

cx

.2:

2000

473

476

2000 -

.1

.2

Ar
A ct
Es
Wmax , Wm , Wk

s , s rm

c, c min

K1 , K 2

,
s , sr

sm
t,
r


,
,


( ),
, , .
, , ,
, ,
.
, ,
30%
+0,02 ( 0,04)%, ,
.
, ..
.
, ,
(
),
, , ,
.
,
,

2000

477

478

2000 -

.

.
, ..
, .

.3



.
.

,
( 1 ),
(
).
, (
) () ,

,
(
).
, ,
(
), ,
, .
,
,
< 5mm.
,
( ),
, :


Wmax mm

0.3 0.4

0.2

3, 4

0.1

2000

479

480

2000 -

,
.

.4


Wk ( )
,
(. . .3):

Wk Wmax .
)

, .
5%,
, Gauss
45%, :

Wk Wm (1 + t ) 1.75Wm ,
:

, p=2.05% (t 1.645) .

( = s / Wm 0.450) ,

,
,
s r m
sm
, :

Wm s r m sm

c
c min , Wm
c / c min 1.5 .
)

s rm K1 K 2

,
r

r =

Ar
A ct

2000

481

482

2000 -

s rm K1 K 2


s
+ 2 c +
r
10

( -
50mm).
:

K1

, :

K1 = 0.4
K1 = 0.8
K2

, :

K 2 =1 / 8
K 2 =1 / 4

, s

, ,
( mm, s 15 ).

( mm)

Ar ,r

, , ,

A ct


, ,
,
b 15?
,

( s 15 ).

sm s , =1 sr
Es
s

, (
)

,

(
)
.

2000

483

484

2000 -

,
.
)

s sr .

,
,
, (
).

2000

485

488

2000 -

.1

E c, ef
K , K I , K II

M cr , N cr
M ser , N ser

a , a I , a II

, , ,
, ,

d
1 , 2

s , sr

, I, II

,
()

, ,

.2


, (
) ,
, , .
( )
, ,
:

(, 30%
)

(.. , )

(.. , , .)
,
,
. ,
,

.
,
(..

2000

489

490

2000 -


), .

.3



.

( , ),
.

:
( 1 ),
, ,
( 2 ),
,
.
, (
, ),
t, .

(
),
I, II, (. . .4).
, , ,
,

.
,
.

.4


:
( I),
,
,
( II), /

2000

491

492

2000 -

,
( ).
)

, ,

, .
,
,
, .

,
, ,
:

a = (1 ) a I + a II
:
a

, ..
( ), .

aI

a II

,
()

:

= 0

=1 sr
s

s < sr

s sr

= 1 2
1

, :

1 =1.0
1 = 0.5
2

, :

2 =1.0

2000

493

494

2000 -

2 = 0.5
s

,
().

sr

,
( ).

(i)

, ,
( sr / s ) :

(M cr / M ser ) ,

(N cr / N ser ) ,

(),

: M ser
().
(ii)

N ser

M cr ( N ser :
):

N
M cr Wc f ct ser
Ac

N cr (
):

N cr A c f ct

(iii)

A c ( ) Wc
(
)
.

(iv)

,
f ctm .

.

(1 / r )cc ,

, (.. (1 / r )cc (1 / r )0 ,
,
,

2000

495

496

2000 -

E c,ef E cm / (1 + ) ),

, ( , ,
,

), :

a t a 0 (1 + ) ,
:

at

.. t = t

a0

.. t = 0

.

(1 / r )cs , :

(1 / r )cs cs / d ,
:
d

cs

, ,
:

'
1 0.5

.
(
):

(1 / r )T T / d

:

(1 / r )T T T / d
)

,
.

2000

497