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Secondary IV: Cultural, Social and Technical

Mathematics

Day 4:
Analytic Geometry
Types of Lines
Parallel Lines (MC) (LA)
Perpendicular Lines (MC)
(LA)
Finding the Rule
Division Point
Mid-Point

Warm-up Review

Answer: B

Learning Goals and Success


Criteria

To identify different types of lines

I can identify two parallel lines using their slope

I can identify two perpendicular lines using their slope

I can identify distinct lines using a point of intersection

I can identify coincident lines using their slope and initial value

To identify the rule = ax + b

I can determine a using 2points, parallel or perpendicular lines

I can determine b

To identify the distance between two points on a line

b = y ax

I can use the distance formula to determine the distance between two points

To determine the division point of a line

I understand and can apply the division point formula

I can covert a ratio into a fraction for the formula

To determine the midpoint of a line

I understand and can apply the midpoint formula

Parallel and Perpendicular Lines


Given A (xA, yA) and B (xB, yB) two
random points on line l. The slope of
the line, called a, is equal to:

yB yA
a
xB xA

When two lines, l and l, are


parallel their slopes, a and a
respectively, have the same
value.

When two lines, l and l, are


perpendicular their slopes, a and
a respectively, are the negative
reciprocal of each other.

Parallel & Perpendicular Lines Video

Parallel and Perpendicular Lines Finding


the Rule
Parallel Lines:

Find the equation of the line parallel


to y = 2x + 5 and passes through
the point A(1,3)

Perpendicular Lines:

Find the equation of the line


parallel to
y = - x + 4 and
passes through the point A(3,6)
1. Find a perpendicular
means that a is the negative
reciprocal a = Find b plug
in the point

y = ax + b

y= x+b

6 = (3) + b

2=b
2. Therefore the equation is y =
x+2

1. Find a parallel means that a


is the same
2. Find b plug in the point

y = ax + b

y = 2x + b

3 = 2(1) + b

1=b
3. Therefore the equation is y = 2x
+1

Coincident Lines
Two lines that lie on top of one
another are called coincident
lines.
Have the same slope, same
initial value
Infinite solutions
Distinct Lines
Distinct lines are two lines

Parallel &
Perpendicular Lines
(MC)

Step
1: Isolate l2 in the form y = ax + b

y = X - 36
Step 2 : The a in both lines are the same
therefore they are parallel, it is also
coincident since they share the same
initial value Answer = C

Step 1: Isolate in the form y = ax + b


y = - 0.6x - 0.5
Step 2 : Key word is parallel, therefore
the slopes are the same - Answer is C

Step
1: Isolate in the form y = ax + b

y = - 0.8x + 0.5 a = - = Step 2 : Key word is parallel, therefore


the slopes are the same - Answer is B

Parallel Lines
Find
the slopes of each

line to determine if the


lines are parallel
Line PQ
Slope (a) = y2 y1
x2 x1
= 57 24
44 0
= 33/44
=
Line SR
Slope = y2 y1
x2 x1 Line PS
Slope = y2 y1
= 33 0
x2 x1
54 10
= 24 0
= 33/44
0 10
=
= - 24/10
PQ SR (parallel)
= - 2.4

Line QR
Slope = y2 y1
x2 x1
= 57 33
44 54
= - 24/10
= - 2.4

PS QR (parallel)
Therefore since there are two
sets of parallel lines it is a

Perpendicular Lines

Step
1: The equation y =
4x + 8 is the increasing
line because the slope is
positive.
Step 2: The second line is
perpendicular to the first,
therefore the slope (a) of
the line is the negative
reciprocal
a=Step 3: Using the rule y =
ax + b
We plug in a and the point
on intersection (12, 56)
56 = - (12) + b
56 = - 3 + b
59 = b
Since b is the initial value
and the y intercept point

Distance Formula (SA)


(LA)

Given the two points(x1,y1)and(x2,y2), the distance


between these points is given by the formula:
Don't let the subscripts scare you. They only indicate that there is
a "first" point and a "second" point; that is, that you have two
points. Whichever one you call "first" or "second" is up to you.
The distance will be the same, regardless.

We use the distance formula to:


Find the distance between two points
Distance Formula Video
Find the side length of a figure

Distance Formula (SA)


A circle has its center at point (5, -3) and a point at
the edge of the circle is located at (5, 12). What are
the circumference and the area of the circle?
Distance = (x2 x1)2 + (y2 y1)2
= (5 5)2 + (12 (-3)2
=
(1) 2 + (15) 2
=
1 + 225
= 226
= 15.03 (Radius)
Circumference = 2 r
= 2*3.14*15.03
= 94.46 units
709.69 units2

Area =
= (15.03)
=

Distance Formula (LA)


Line PQ ll SR
PQ Slope (a) = y2 y1
x2 x1
= 144 36
144 0
= 108/144
= 0.75
SR
a = 60 0
157 77
= 60/ 80
= 0.75
Distance PQ = (x2 x1)2 + (y2 y1)2

To prove that this is a


trapeziod you have to find two
properties
That Line PQ is parallel
to line SR (Find the
slopes parallel line
have matching slopes)
That line PQ is longer

= (144 0)2 + (144 36)2


=
(144) 2 + (108)2
= 20736 + 11664
=
32400
= 180
Distance PQ = (x2 x1)2 + (y2 y1)2
= (157 77)2 + (60 0)2
=
(80) 2 + (60)2
= 6400 + 3600
=
10 000
= 100

Distance
Formula
(LA)

Where do I start?

Step 1: In order to use the distance formula I


have to have the coordinates for point P & Q
We know that point Q has an xcoordinate of 20, therefore we can us the
rule for line JH to find the y-coordinate
y = x 20
y = (20) 20
y=5

Point Q = (20, 5)

Step 2: Now we need to find the coordinates


for point P.
We dont have the rule, but we do know
that line FG is parallel to line HJ therefore
they have the same slope (a). We also
have point on the line so we can find b
(which is point P the y- intercept)
y=x+b
35 = (20) + b
35 = 25 + b
10 = b
therefore Point P is (0,
10)
Step 3: Use the distance formula to find the
length of line PQ
Distance PQ = (x2 x1)2 + (y2 y1)2
= (20 0)2 + (5 10)2
=
(20) 2 + (-5)2
= 400 + 25
=
425
= 20.62

The Division Point


Formula
We use this formula to find a point on the line
that is not in the middle
Let A (x1,y1) and B (x2,y2) be any two points on the
line.
Let P (x, y) be the point which divides AB in the ratio
m:n.
p/w is in fraction form, if you are given a ratio convert
the ratio to a fraction

P(x1 + p (x2 - x1)), y1 + p (y2 - y1))


w
w

The coordinates of P can be found using


the Point Video
Division
formula:

Division Point
What are the coordinates of the division point that is
3/5 of the distance between point A (5, 11) and B (10, -2)?
Division Point Formula:
P(x1 + (x2 - x1)), y1 + (y2 - y1))
P (5 + (-10 - 5), 11 + (-2 - 11))
P (5 + (-15) , 11 + (-13)
P (5 + (-9), 11 - 7.8)
P (-4, 3.2)

Division Point
A line segment CD is divided into 3 congruent parts.
If A is the point (3, 4) and the first division point from
A is (5, 2), what are the coordinates of B?
Division Point Formula:
P(x1 + (x2 - x1)), y1 + (y2 - y1))
P (3 + (5 - 3), 4 + (2 - 4))
P (3 + (2) , 4 + (-2)
P (5 + (0.67), 4 0.67)
P (5.67, 3.33)

3 congruent parts =
1/3

Division Point,
Perpendicular lines
& Finding the rule

Where do we start?
In order to find P we need to know the rule of the
line PR, and in order to find the rule we need a
point and the slope (a).
Step 1: To find Point R: Division Point Formula
R(x1 + (x2 - x1)), y1 + (y2 - y1))
R(150 + (550- 150), 775 + (275 775)
R( 150 + (400), 775 + (-500)
R(150 + 300, 775 375)
R(450, 400)
Step 2: Find the Slope (a)
The slope of line QW =
= - or
Since line PR is perpendicular to line QW the slope
of PR is the negative reciprocal
a=
Step 3: Now that we have a point and the slope
we can find the rule of line PR
y = ax + b
400 = (450) + b
400 = 360 + b
40 = b
Since b is the y- intercept and point P is located on
the y-axis the coordinates on point P is (0, 40)

Midpoint
Midpoint

Formula:

* It doesnt matter
which point you
use first and
second, the
midpoint is the
same
Midpoint Formula Video

Division Point &


Midpoint

Where
do we start?

Step 1: In order to find the


length of the new road you
need the coordinates of each
end of the road.
Midpoint of Line PQ

= 32
= 70
First point is
(32, 70)
Division Point of Line QR
P(x1 + (x2 - x1)), y1 + (y2 - y1))
P(48 + (93 - 48), 120 + (90 120)
P(48 + (45), 120 + (-30))
P(48 + 30, 120 - 20)
Second point

Perpendicular lines,
Midpoint & Distance
Formula (LA)

Step
1: Finding the midpoint D

therefore the coordinates of point D = (36, 45)


Step 2: Line AB SR (Slopes are negative reciprocals)
BA
Slope (a) = y2 y1

x2 x 1
= 54 - 36
72 - 0
=

Therefore the slope (a) of SR is = - 4

Rule for Line BC


y = ax + b since we now the slope (a) = -4 and
we now that the y intercept = 36 We can write
the rule as y = -4x + 36
To find the length of line segment CD we
need:

To find the coordinates of point D

we use the midpoint formula

To find the coordinates of point C

We need to find the rule of


line BC

Once we have the rule we can


find the x intercept

Then we can use the distance


formula to find the length of line CD

Point c is along the x-axis therefore to find x use the rule


where y = 0
0 = -4x + 36
-36 = -4x
9=x
Point C = (9,0)
Step 3: Distance CD = (x2 x1)2 + (y2 y1)2
= (36 9)2 + (45 0)2
=
(27) 2 + (45)2
= 729+ 2025
=
2754
= 52.48