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Day 9: Statistics

Secondary IV: Cultural, Social and Technical


Mathematics

Odds:
Odds for: odds
against
Since there is only 1

number 4 on the die


you have 1:5
Answer: B

What type of question is this?

Probability Mathematical
Expectation

Make a table
Plug the outcomes and probability into
the Expected value equation

Ball
1

Ball2

Ball3

Ball5

Ball6

Outcomes

-3
+1

-3 +2

-3+3

-3+5

-3+6

Probability

2/9

2/9

3/9

1/9

1/9

EV = (-2)
EV =

EV =

therefore the game


unfavourable and Sue is right.


type of question is
What

this?

Finding the missing side

length

Non- Right angle

Sine Law

Right angle

SOH CAH TOA

Find Side AC

This is a non-right triangle

Sine Law (label your


diagram)

AC = 241.47 m

Find Side AD
This is a right triangle

SOH CAH TOA

Sin 50 =
Sin 50 =

AD = 184.98 m

Phils estimate is right.


type of question
What

is this?

Right Triangles
Missing angles
Trigonometry

SOH CAH TOA

1. Find the opposite side of the

triangle with the 30 angle

Sin 30 =

x=9

2. Find the missing angle


Tan
tan = 0.5

What type of question is this?


Periodic function

Determine the period


Skip count using the period

The period is 80 seconds because the

only x value we know for sure is 400


seconds. There are 5 periods before
this time, so 400
15 mins = 900 seconds
Skip count by 80 to see how close I
get to 900.
80, 160, .. 880
Since there is another 20 seconds to

reach 900, a period plus the twenty


seconds is 100 minutes which has a
height of 100
Period + 20 seconds
80 + 20 = 100 mins
At 100 minutes the height is 100 cm

What type of question is


this?
Exponential Function
X is the exponent
What is the rule
f(x) = acx
Find a and c
Answer: B

Learning Goals & Success Criteria


To identify and read a Stem and Leaf Plot
To identify and read a frequency table
To calculate the Mean Deviation (MC) (SA) (LA)
To calculate and use the Percentile Rank (SA)
I can divide an ordered distribution of data values into percentiles
I can use the formula to calculate the percentile rank of a particular data value
I can find the position (score of place ) given the percentile rank
To identify and read a contingency table
To read, construct and interpret Scatter Plot
To estimate the correlation coefficient (MC)

To determine the strength and direction of the correlation

To determine and represent the equation of a regression line


Median-Median method
Meyer line method
Best fit method
To draw a curve associated with the chosen model
To interpolate or extrapolate values using a regression line

Stem & Leaf Plot


Review:
Mean: (also known as the average)

Median:
The median is the middle number in a given set. (the numbers have

to be arranged from least to greatest


S = {1, 3, 6, 7, 9} the median of this set is 6
If the set has a odd number of numbers then the median is the middle number
If the set has an even number of numbers then the median is the average of the
two middle numbers

Mode: The mode is the number that occurs the most often

In S= {1, 2, 2, 3, 7, 9}

the mode is equal to 2

Stem & Leaf Plot

How
do you read a Stem & Leaf Plot

The following data set was plotted on the stem & leaf plot

below:
S = { 63, 63, 70, 72, 74, 82, 86, 95, 101}
Find the Mean, Median and
Mode of the data set.
Mean =
Mean = 78.4
Median = The middle number is 74
Mode= The mode is 63, because it appears twice

Mean Deviation (MC) (SA)


(LA)
The Mean Deviation is a measure of

dispersion which tells us the average of the


deviations of the data from the mean (
The lower the value of the mean deviation, the

more homogeneous of data values; that is the


closer they are to the mean.

Mean Deviation =

Calculating the Mean Deviation


If you are given the following
data set, calculate the mean
deviation.
60, 70, 80, 85, 90, 95
First we have to calculate the
number of data values in the
set.
There are 6 values so n = 6
(Remember that n is always equal
to the number of data values in
statistics)
Next we have to place the data

To table.
calculate
values into a the following

X1

60

70

80

85

90

95

Total

480

X1 -

Next

we need to calculate

=
=
= 80

Using we can now calculate the

third column
In the last column we are finding
the absolute value of X1 Remember if we have

we have the absolute value


symbol tells us that we make the
result positive , therefore our
answer is 20

X1

X1 -

60

-20

20

70

-10

10

80

85

90

10

10

95

15

15

Total

480

60

Mean Deviation =
=

Now that we have all the

needed information we can find


the mean deviation

= 10

Percentiles (SA)

divide an ORDERED distribution into 100


Percentiles

sections each containing 1% of the data.

The pth percentile is a value so that roughly p% of the

data are smaller and (100-p)% of the data are larger.

Percentile Rank: a measure of position that indicates

the percentage of values less than or equal to the given


value.
To find the percentile rank we use the formula:

X 100
The percentile rank is always rounded up to the nearest

integer.

When you are given the percentile rank, you can work

backwards to find the position.


Position = X # of data values
The position always round down to the nearest integer
Always make sure that the data is in order from least to

greatest

Finding the Percentile Rank


The following distribution, placed in increasing

order, has 158 data values. Calculate the


percentile rank of data entry 21.
6, 7,8, 19, 21, 21, 21, 23, 24 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 56, 57,
58, , 89, 89, 90
61 values
36
41
values
values

1
(number of data less than x) (number of data equal to x)
2
percentile rank ( x)
100
total number of data
1
(65) (3)
2
percentile rank ( x)
100
158
percentile rank ( x) 42.09
percentile rank ( x) 43rd

Determining the Score (position)


What score has a percentile of 75?
6, 7,8, 19, 21, 21, 21, 23, 24 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 56, 57, 58, , 89, 89, 90

61 values

41 values

36 values

Number of values = 158


Position = X # of data values
Position = X 158
Position = 118.5 (round the number down)
position

118th

Therefore you count to the 118th number and the answer is


57

Determining the percentile (SA)

X 100

X 100

62.3 (round up) 63rd percentile

If you notice the


number of players that
weigh less and number
of players that weigh
more is only equal to
303 people. Therefore
if there are 305 players
total, 2 players weigh
the same as Gabriel.

X 100
X 100
25.2 (round up) 26th percentile

Scatterplots & Linear Correlation

(MC) (SA)
When comparing two variables
with number values each data
value can be considered as an
ordered pair (x,y) and therefore
can be graphed on the
Cartesian plane. The set of all
these points is called a scatter
plot. The relationship between
these two variables is called a
correlation.
The closer the points are to
forming a straight line, the
stronger the relationship
between the two variables.
The relationship can be
positive (both variables
increasing) or negative (one
variable decreases as the
other variable increases)
At any point that is significantly
further away from the other
points is called an outlier, and
can be excluded from the
relationship.

Linear correlation coefficient (r)


To better describe the strength and direction of

the correlation, we assign it a number (r)


This number is between -1 and 1
1 or -1 is a perfect correlation All points are on the

line
The closer the r-value is to 1 or -1, the stronger the

relationship
As the correlation coefficient approaches 0, the more
the points become scattered and less aligned.
A correlation coefficient of 0 means there is no
relationship between the two variables.

Linear Correlation Coefficient (r)


To estimate the correlation coefficient:
1) Draw a line that best passes through the

points
2) Construct a rectangle with the smallest area
(The longest and skinniest rectangle)that contains all
the points EXCEPT the outliers
3) Let a and b represent the length and width of
the rectangle and measure the side length
(see picture on next slide)

4) The correlation coefficient is therefore

b
r 1
a

determined by the formula:

Linear Correlation Coefficient (r)


The correlation

coefficient (r) is
positive or
negative
depending on
whether the
variables X and
Y vary in the
same direction
or in the
opposite
direction.


Where
do we start?
First we can read
from the graph
that as the age of
the volunteers
goes up, the
number of hours
they work per
month goes down.
This is a property
of a negative
correlation.
Second the
distance between
the points varies
from 2- 3 at each
intervals, thus
being fairly close
together. This
signifies a strong

b
Because I cant
measure my
screen lets say
that a is 5 and b
is 2

b
r 1
a

r )
r

Regression Line (Line of


Best Fit)
This is the equation of the line that best

describes the scatterplot. It can be used to


estimate data values not included in the
scatterplot.
There are many different methods including the
Mayer-Line Method.
Mayer-Line
List the data in increasing order. (with respect to x)
2) Separate the data into two equal groups G1 and G2
containing the same number of points. (if there is an
odd number, put the middle value into the group it is
closest to)
3) For each group, calculate the mean of the x-values and
the mean of the y-values. We get two points M1 and M2
called the mean points. Consider then to be points (x, y)
1)

Using the Mayer Line


Method
x

10 12 15 16

15

14

13

11

12

G1
Step 1: Divide the data into two groups

= 25/ 5 = 5
5 = 13
P1(5, 13)
= 60/ 5 = 12
5=6
P2(12, 6)

Step 3: Find the equation of the line y = ax +


b

Find a
Y2 Y1

6 13 = -7 = -1

G2

Step 2: Find the mean of x and the mean of y for each


group.
Group 1:
Mean X
Mean Y = 65/
Group 2:
Mean X
Mean Y = 30/

Find b
b = y ax
b = 13 (-1)(5)
b = 13 + 5
b = 18
Therefore

y = -1x + 18
Once you find the rule
you can plug in values .
The Meyer Line Method

Determine the equation of the regression


(best fit) line

The table below gives the number of years of schooling (X) of eight people

chosen at random as well as their weekly (Y) in hundreds of dollars.

12

16

6.5 9

10

14

16

8.5 8

18

15

9.5 9

17
10

Estimate the weekly salary of a person with 16 years of schooling.


Estimate the weekly salary of a person with 24 years of schooling.

Step 3: Find the equation of the line y =


ax + b

10

12

14

15

6.5 8.5 9

16

16

17

10

Step 1: Divide the data into two groups, but


first we have to put the values in order.
Step 2: Find the mean of x and the mean of y
for each group.
Group 1: Mean X = 51/ 4 = 12.75
Mean Y = 32/ 4 = 8
P1(12.75, 8)
Group 2: Mean X = 67/4 = 16.75
Mean Y = 36.5/ 4 = 9.125
P2(16.75, 9.125)

18

Find a
Y2 Y1 =
9.125 8
9.5 1.125 = 0.2
X2 X1
16.75 12.75
Find b
b = y ax
b = 8 (0.28)(12.75)
b = 8 - 3.57
b = 4.43
Therefore
y = 0.28x + 4.43

=
4

Now that we have the rule we can plug


the ages into the equation.
16 years of schooling - y = 0.28(16) +
4.43
y = 8.91