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ETH306W: Assignment 02 Memorandum

At top of first page students should write for which phase they are enrolled. This will
guide you when reading their answers because they may apply some information to a
specific school phase. In question 4 they have to do either 4.1 (ECD phase) or 4.2
(Intermediate and FET phases).
The purpose of this assignment is to ascertain that you know and understand the theoretical
content of this module. You have to acquaint yourself with new development in the field of
Inclusive Education including intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to learning and development. In
order to give support to a learner who has a barrier to learning, you should be familiar with
the basic knowledge of the barrier. This should guide you to develop forms of support for
learners with barriers to learning
Assessment criteria: You will be assessed on you understanding of the various concepts
and the practical application of the theory by explaining the support that you as a teacher
can render in the classroom.
Question 1
You are requested by the principal of the school where you are teaching to address
the other staff members about Inclusive Education is and what intrinsic and
extrinsic barriers to learning and development are.
Write your speech making use of headings and subheadings. The speech should
be two to three pages if typed or three to four pages if handwritten. You are referred
to Study Unit 2 (p 18) and Appendix N (p 319) of your Study guide.

Students' answers
Layout, planning and headings (2)
SA policy on Inclusive Education
Reference to the NCSNET/NCESS report
The report culminated into the White Paper 2001 which is now the official policy
Inclusive education is part of our education system
Part of human rights
Part of our Constitution that everyone has a right to basic education
All learners and young people can learn
All learners are different with different needs
Acknowledge and accepts differences
Change attitudes, methods used
Move away from segregating and labelling groups of learners
Any other applicable facts accepted (8)

Intrinsic factors:
Located within the learner
Sensory impairments- eyes and ears
Physical impairments eg cerebral palsy
Intellectual impairments
Chromosonal abnormalities eg Down's syndrome
Genetic abnormalities

Brain, skull or spinal abnormalities
Chronic diseases including the influence of HlV/AlDS
Learning problems
Discuss problems such as perceptual problems, reading, writing spelling,
mathematics, language
Other applicable facts accepted (10)
Extrinsic factors:
Located outside the learner
Unfavourable environmental circumstances such as malnutrition, poor medical
services, all socio-economic related factors
A lack of stimulating learning circumstances
Rural areas and urban areas
Parents who are not involved
Households without parents
School factors:
Unqualified or underqualified teachers
Teachers' attitudes and teachers who are absent
School building
A Jack of learning materials and inappropriate materials
School organisation
Language differences
Language of learning and teaching
Differences in culture
Other applicable facts accepted (10) [30)
Question 2
Learners with the following types of impairments have been admitted to your classroom:
2.1 a hearing impairment
2.2 a visual impairment
2.3 cerebral palsy
Discuss the support that you can render in the classroom to each of these three learners.
3X10 (30)
Students' answers
Question 2.1
Make use of visual materials

Face and mouth adequately lighted

Assume position facing the light
No lights or mirrors reflecting light behind you
Lighting must be ample
Face as near as possible to level of learner's eyes
Young children- teacher sits on chair
Speak as naturally as possible: not too slowly/fast
Always speak in complete sentences
Do not add gestures to the words. Learners tend to look at gestures and not at

Keep head as still as possible

An expressive face is easier to read
A person with a moustache is more difficult to read lips
Any other appropriate answer could be accepted (Sometimes we get students who
actually teach in special schools) (1 0)
Question 2.2
Myopia and cataracts sit in front of class
Could sit closer to board if necessary
Repeat what is written on board
Magnifying glass may be used
Large print book if available
Using black pen to draw lines
Space between lines may vary according to residual needs
Printed material clear
Black print on white with enough spacing
Hyperopia: sit at back of class
Albinism: sit in darker place in classroom
Curtains to regulate sunlight
Textbooks could be recorded on tape for those who cannot read textbooks
Any other appropriate answer could be accepted (Sometimes we get students who
actually teach in special schools) (10)
Question 2.3
Underdevelopment of or damage to certain parts of the brain.
The areas affected are the motor cortex, basal ganglia - parts of brain which control
the motor movement.
Move furniture - learner to move freely in classroom
Store apparatus - able to reach them
Organise floor and table so that child can participate
Provide aids so that they can help themselves - be independent
Give tasks and responsibilities
Use disabled limbs
Join in all activities
Physical and emotional secure space
Wash basin to wash hands
Less writing tasks
Any other appropriate answer could be accepted (Sometimes we get students who
actually teach in special schools) (10)
Question 2: 3 X 10 [30)

Question 3


What will you do if a learner has an epileptic seizure in your class?

Students' answers:

Prepare the other learners - have a talk

Look for warning signs and take to safe place
Let child lie down where no injuries could be sustained
Objects pushed away


Do not hold the child

No object between teeth
Turn on side
Loosen clothes
Let other learners leave the classroom
Help if learner wetted himself/herself
If learner chokes, calls for emergency assistance
Inform parents or guardians
Reassure learner afterwards
All people are the same
Question 4
Do either question 4.1 or 4.2 depending for which phase you have been enrolled.
Question 4.1 ECD phase
You have a learner with behaviour problems in you class. Explain the different behaviour
problems that may occur and explain what assistance you can give to this learner. (30)

Students' answers: pages 236- 238 or 239- 243. This depend on how the
student focused the answer.
Hyperactivity surplus motor activity.
Busy fiddling and running around.
Touch and handle everything in their reach.
Irritates classmates and teacher.
Goalless activities (4)
Distractibility. sensory hyperactivity.
Attention on the move.
Reacts to every sensory stimulus.
Cannot concentrate on one thing.
Cannot control their attention.
Antisocial behaviour- negative social activity such as selfishness
Aggression, bossiness
Hurt others and themselves (6)
Other applicable manifestations
If hyperactivity and distractibility are discussed under the umbrella of ADHD
Identify learner's weak and strong points.
Identify easy and difficult tasks and situations.
Identify skills necessary for each task.
Investigate own thoughts and feelings.
Other people's reactions.
Learn to understand learner's behaviour.
Keep level of development in mind.
Discuss problems with learner.
Verbalise learner's unexpected feelings.
Communicate more than words.
Anticipate problems.



Distinguish between learner and learner's behaviour.

Supply structures: relationship structure; task structure; situation structure
Behaviour modification techniques:
Reinforcement, ignoring, time out, prevention, redirection, discussion, special time,
star chart- 2 marks for techniques
Other applicable guidelines also accepted
Name (1) and discuss (1) 10 X 2 (20) [30]
Question 4.2 Intermediate and FET phases

Describe five unmet emotional needs of learners in the Intermediate or FET phase
and explain what you as the teacher can do to support learners with these unmet


The need
The need
The need
The need
The need
The need
The need
The need
The need
The need
The need

for love
for security including economic security
to belong
for new experiences
to be free of intense feelings of guilt
to be free of feelings of anxiety
to be praised and accepted
for a positive self concept
to realise one's potential
to share and the need for self respect
for responsibility

Name need= 1, manifestation in the school and home = 3, what

teacher can do= 2
If student did not explain the manifestation in the school/home but explained what
the teacher can do in more detail, give marks for this. 6 X 5 = [30]