Você está na página 1de 22

Corrosion & Corrosion Control

in
OIL & GAS PRODUCTION &
PROCESSING

SOME COMMON EXAMPLES OF CORROSION DAMAGE

Oil
Oil and Gas Production Is Highly Capital
Intensive Industry
This is Specially Important in Case of Off Shore
Production Where Operational & Maintenance
Costs are Many Times Higher
* Return
Return-On-Investments
On Investments Requires Increased
Productivity By
* Increasing Availability Of Equipment
Without Break Downs And
* Achieving low maintenance cost.

WHY FAILURES OCCURE


ALL MATERIALS ARE
SUBJECTED TO STRESS
STRESSES BEYOND CERTAIN LIMIT RESULTS IN
FAILURE

ARE EXPOSED TO ENVIRONMENT WHICH


ATTCKS THEM
THIS RESULTS IN LOSS IN THICKNESS OR
CRACKING

TOGETHER THEY LIMIT LIFE

CONTROLLING
CO
O
G FACTORS
C O S IN MAXIMISING
S G
EQUIPMENT LIFE ARE
STRESSES, (INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL), TO BE
WTHIN LIMITS
PREVENTION OF ENVIRONMETAL DAMAGE DUE
TO CORROSION

PRESENT SERIES OF LECTURES


SHALL DEAL WITH SECOND ASPECT,
THAT IS,
IS CORROSION & CORROSION
PROTECTION

CORROSION & ITS EFFECT

CORROSION INVOLVES REACTION WITH ENVIRONMENT


RESULTING IN LOSS IN WEIGHT & CROSS SETIONAL AREA
WHAT IS THE EFFECT?

LET US TAKE AN ARBITRARY SITUATION

CASE A: A ROD OF AREA 1 IS LOADED WITH 1TON


1TON. ROD HOLDS
THE WEIGHT
AREA
1

1T

CASE A

AREA
0.5.

1T

CASE B

AREA
0.3

1T

CASE C

CASE B: CORROSION REDUCES


AREA TO 0
0.5
5 OF ORIGINAL BUT
LOAD WEIGHT REMAINS 1TON
CASE C: CORROSION REDUCES
AREA TO 0.3 OF ORIGINAL BUT
LOAD WEIGHT REMAINS 1TON

CORROSION & ITS EFFECT (CONTD.)

WHAT ARE THE RESULTS IN 3-CASES


EFFECT OF APPLIED STRESS

CASE A: ROD HOLDS THE WEIGHT


CASE B: ROD UNABLE TO HOLD WELGHT FULLY & DEFORMS BUT
DOES NOT BREAK
CASE C: ROD UNABLE TO HOLD WEIGHT AND BREAKS

EFFECT OF CHANGE IN DIMENSION

LOSS OF METAL
COMPONENT DAMAGED NEEDS REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT
INCREASE IN CONSUMPTION OF METAL
LOSS OF NATURAL RESOURCES
LOSS
OSS OF
O PRODUCTION
O UC O IF SHUT
S U DOWN
O
NEEDED
INCREASE IN COST OF PRODUCTION

THUS CORROSION HAS A COST COMPONENT


WHICH IS CALLED COST OF CORROSION

COST OF CORROSION
FIRST ATTEMPTED BY PROF HOAR COMMITTEE IN UK
WHICH WAS LATER FOLLOWED IN USA, GERMANY AND
OTHER COUNTRIES.

COST OF CORROSION WAS ARRIVED AT BROADLY BY TAKING COST OF


STEEL AS BASE.
ANY ADDITIONAL COST FOR PROTECTION OF STEEL AGAINST CORROSION
LIKE PAINTING, COATING INHIBITOR, ETC WAS TAKEN AS COST OF
CORROSION.
USE OF CORROSION RESISTANT ALLOYS (CRA) - - FERROUS ALLOYS AND
NON FERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS, IS ALSO CONSIDERED AS
ADDITIONAL COST
VARIOUS STUDIES MADE SHOWED COST OF CORROSION TO BE APOUT 3%
%
OF GDP.
STUDIES FURTHER SHOWED THAT AT LEAST 1/3RD OF COST CAN BE
REDUCED BY TAKING PROPER STEPS.

COMPARISON OF % COST OF VARIOUS


TYPES OF DAMAGES INCLUDING
CORROSION IN OIL & GAS INDUSTRY

SOME EXAMPLES OF COST OF CORROSION IN USA


Highway Bridges
Gas and Liquid Transm. Pipelines
Waterways and Ports
Hazardous Materials Storage
Ai
Airports
t
Railroads
Gas Distribution
Drinking Water and Sewer Systems
Electrical Utilities
Telecommunication
Motor Vehicles
Ships
Aircraft
1.00
Railroad Cars
Hazardous Materials Transport
Oil and Gas Expl.and Production
Mining
Petroleum Refining
Chem.,, Petrochem.,, Pharm.
Pulp and Paper
Agricultural
Food Processing
Electronics
Home Appliances
Defense
Nuclear Waste Storage
$-

$8.3
$7.0
$0.3
$7.0
$$$$5.0

GAS & LIQUID PIPELINE 7 BILLION

ESTIMATED COST OF
CORROSION IN USA
$36.0

$6.9
$
$$23.4
$2.7
$2.2
$0.5
$0.9
$1.4
$0.1
$3.7
$1.7
$6.0 $:
$1.1
$2.1
$$1.5

OIL & GAS: 1.4 billion

PETROLEUM REFINING: 3.7 BILLION


CHEM, PETROCHEM,PHARM: 1.7 BI

$20.0
$0.1
$10
$20
$30
$40
Cost Of Corrosion Per Analyzed Economic Sector, ($ x billion)

CORROSION DAMAGE
IS ALSO
RELATED TO SAFETY
AND
ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS

CORROSION & SAFETY


SOME ILLUSTRATIONS
1. Acccident related to pipe line corrosion
After the incidence of oil spill in the 1200 mm dia 1280 km long crude

line from Prudhoe Bay, an intelligent pig inspection indicated that at 12


locations the steel had corroded up to 70-81% of original thickness.
The field had to be shut resulting in the reduction in supply of roughly
20 percent of US oil annual production or 2,6% US national supply or
about
b t 400,000
400 000 b
barrels
l per d
day.

* Other recent incidences being the line that served 265 kilometers
Tempino-Sungai Gerong of Trans-Sumatran Pipeline and
* Pipeline explosion at Ghislenghien Industrial Park Belgium in 2004

CORROSION NOT ONLY LEADS TO EQUIPMENT DAMAGE


BUT CAN CAUSE CATASTROPHIC ACCIDENTS.

Flixborough (UK) Accident


Company produced highly explosive
caprolactum from cyclohexane,
- Reactor 5 out of six developed leak.
- It was isolated by joining 4th to 6th
reactor

SOON AFTER RE CONNECTING PIPE CRACKED


RESULTING IN RELEASE OF CYCLOHEXANE
RESULTED IN FORMATION OF VAPOUR CLOUD FOLLOWED
BY EXPLOSION EQUIVALENT TO 15 TONS OF TNT

ROOT CAUSE CORROSION & STRESS


PRIOR TO LEAKAGE, REACTOR 5, WAS
BEING SPRAYED WITH RIVER WATER
BECAUSE OF A LEAKY FLANGE. RIVER
WATER CONTAINED HIGH NITRITE WHICH
CAUSED SCC.
NO STRESS ANALYSIS WAS DONE OF
PIPING CONNECTEING 4TH AND 5TH
REACTOR
PIPE GAVE AWAY BECAUSE OF
EXCESSIVE STRESS.

UNION OIL REFINERY, LEMONT , USA

RUPTURE OF H2S
ABSORBER COLUMN

AMINE ABSORBER COLUMN FOR SOUR GAS


SWEETENING SUFFERED FROM HEAVY
BLISTERING IN BOTTOM SECTION
TWO COURSE OF AFFECTED SECTION
REPLACED BY NEW PLATES USING WINDOW
TECHNIQUE.
AFTER A YEAR OF OPERATION BOTTOM
SECTION RUPTURED AND TOP SECTON
THROWN FAR AWAY
RESULTANT FIRE CAUSED LARGE SCALE
DAMAGE
ROOT CAUSE: HIC

ALONG WITH
HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT

ADVANCES IN CORROSION PREVENTION


OVER YEARS CONSIDERABLE PROGRESS
HAS BEEN MADE IN CORROSION CONTROL
IN AREAS OF

PAINTS & COATINGS


INHIBITIORS
TEMPORARY PROTECTION
ALLOYS
CONVERSION COATINGS
CHEMICALS
DIFFUSION COATINGS
CORROSION MONITORING TECHNIQUES
OTHERS

CORROSION MANAGEMENT
DEVOLOPMENTS HAVE OPENED UP
NUMBER OF OPTIONS TO ENGINEERS &
MANAGEMENT
COSTS HAVE ALSO SIMULTANEOUSLY
INCREASED
IT HAS THUS BECOME NECESSARY TO
HAVE A BALANCE BETWEEN COST AND
GAIN
CAUTION IS REQUIRED NOT TO GET
OVERLY INFLUNCED BY AGGRESSSIVE
SALES TALK AND TAKE A BALANCED
APPROACH