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NIT 10: ANCIENT GREEC

The Greeks: Crucible of


civilisation. First of
aseries of 5 narrated by
Liam Neeson (9:30)

Greek civilisation appeared in the Balkan Peninsula,


on islands in the Mediterranean and in Asia Minor,
now Turkey. Its ancient name was Hellas, and its
people were called Hellenes.

ANCIENT GREECE WAS


INFLUENCED BY ITS NATURAL
ENVIRONMENT

Valleys were
separated by
mountain
chains

Independent states emerged


in each valley and on each
island

There were many


islands far from
the continent

SUMMARIZING,
CLIMATE, SEA, VALLEYS AND ISLANDS INFLUENCED ANCIENT GREECE
DEVELOPMENT
THE CLIMATE WAS DRY. PEOPLE
LIVED FROM AGRICULTURE,
ANIMAL GRAZING AND FISHING

THE GREEKS WERE


MARITIME PEOPLE AND
TRADED WITH OTHER
PEOPLE ACROSS THE
MEDITERRANEAN

CRETAN
CIVILISATION

MYCENAEAN
CIVILISTAION

DARK
AGES

ARCHAIC
PERIOD

CLASSICAL
CLASSICAL
PERIOD
PERIOD

ANCIENT
GREECE
TIMELINE

HELLENISTI
C PERIOD

FINALLY IT BECAME PART OF ROMAN


EMPIRE

THE GREEKS ALL HAD THE SAME CIVILISATION, ALTHOUGH


THEY LIVED IN INDEPENDENT CITIES. THEY SHARED THE
SAME
RELIGIOUS
CULTURE
LANGUAGE
ART
BELIEFS

THE ARCHAIC
AGE
THE POLIS
DEVELOPED BETWEEN
THE 8TH AND THE 6TH
CENTURY

The polis was formed of the


main city and the farming land
and forests around it.
It had its own government
army, laws and currency.
But all the poleis shared the
same culture, religion and
language.

THEY ALSO HAD IN


COMMON:
The AGORA, or main square,
where political activity and
trading took place.
The ACROPOLIS, on high
land above the city , where
temples were located

THE
AGORA

Discuss in groups
about the activities
thta took place in the
agora

THE
ACROPOLIS

Explore the
Acropolis from
the Brithis
Mueum

THE ARCHAIC
AGE

EARLY
GOVERNMENT

Archaic city states were ruled


by an OLIGARCHY, which
meant government by the
few.
The aristoi (or best) formed a
privileged elite, or
ARISTOCRACY.

There was frequent social


disorder during the 7th and 6th
centuries BC, and this led to
political change. TYRANTS, like
Peisistratos, took power.

The tyrants

GREEK
COLONISATION

THE CLASSICAL
PERIOD

Peloponnesian War
and Thucydides
(12:00)
Pericles and the Delian
League
(9:00)

The classical period was the gratest period for the


Greek poleis. Sparta and Athens were the most
important
There were also a number of conflicts. The most
significant were:

THE GRECOPERSIAN WARS


(MEDIAN WARS)

THE
PELOPONESIAN
WARS (431-404 BC)

n
Delia as
ew
While the poleis were
u
g
a
Le
d fighting each other, King
create
Philip II of Macedon
organised a great army

DEMOCRACY
ATHENS
BECAME A
DEMOCRACY

HELIAIA

BOULE

Athenian Democracy Solon and Cleisthenes


(12:00)

MAGISTRATES

IN THIS SYSTEM, ADULT


MALE CITIZENS
PARTICIPATED IN
GOVERNMENT. BUT
WOMEN, METICS
(FOREIGNERS), SLAVES
AND FREED SLAVES
WERE NOT CONSIDERED
CITIZENS

EKKLESIA

THAT MEANS RULE BY


THE PEOPLE

INSTITUTIONS OF ATHENIAN
DEMOCRACY

GREEK CULTURE
GREEK CULTURE HAD A GREAT INFLUENCE BOTH IN
ANCIENT TIMES AND LATER PERIODS. IT IS OFTEN
CONSIDERED THE FOUNDATION OF THE
WESTERN CIVILISATION
PHILOSOPHY
Greeks
were the
first to use
the reason
to examine
the nature
of human
beings and
the world
around
them
SOCRATES,
PLATO AND
ARISTOLES

SCIENCE
They
developed
Mathemati
cs, Physics
and Medice

HIPPOCRAT
ES,
PYTHAGOR
AS,
ARCHIMED
ES

GEOGRAPY
AND
HISTORY

They
calculated the
circumference
of the Earth.
They were the
first in writing
History.
ERATOSTHE
NES
HERODOTU
S
THUCYDIDE
S

LITERATURE
Epic poems
like the Iliad
and the
Odyssey (700
BC)
Theatre
devoloped
from religious
ceremonies:
tragedies
and
comedies
HOMER,
AESCHYLUS,S
OPHOCLES,
EURIPIDES

RELIGION
EI
H
YT
L
PO STS

TEMPLES
ORACLES
OLYMPIC GAMES
WHAT
WERE
THEY
?

GODS AND
HEROES

GREEK
ART
THE GREEKS TRIED TO ACHIEVE PROPORTION AND
HARMONY IN THEIR ART. THEY CONSTRUCTED
BUILDINGS AND STATUES ON A HUMAN SCALE

Power
point
mercedes

POWER POINT
OF GREEK ART

THE HELLENISTIC
PERIOD

ALEXANDER
THE GREAT
POWER POINT