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EBC Solid Waste Management

Conference
Talking Trash
Environmental Business Council of New England
Energy Environment Economy

Introduction
David A. Murphy
Program Chair & Moderator
Vice President
Tighe & Bond

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Keynote Presentation:
Maximize Waste Reduction,
Recycling, and Composting

Gary Moran
Deputy Commissioner
Operations and Environmental
Compliance, MassDEP
Environmental Business Council of New England
Energy Environment Economy

Massachusetts Solid Waste


Management
EBC
September 24, 2015

Solid Waste Master Plan Goals


Reduce disposal by 2 million tons (30%) by 2020
From about 6.5 to 4.5 million tons
Reduce disposal by 80% by 2050
Down to 1.3 million tons
Through 2012 already down to 5.4 million tons (17%)

Household
Hazardous Waste
Glass Electronics
3%
1%
Metals 2%

% of Trash

4%

Other Materials
11%

Organic Materials
27%

Construction and
Demolition
13%

Plastics
14%

Paper
25%

ISSUE #1 Recyclables in Trash


About of the trash we dispose of is recyclable or compostable
About 40 percent is actually banned from disposal
Low hanging fruit

Strategy - Increasing waste ban compliance


Third party Inspection and Data
Conduct Outreach
MassDEP inspections & enforcement

Cardboard

10

Paper

Issue #2 Organics in Trash


27% of waste disposed is Organic est. 1.5 million tons
Primary Organics Goal Divert additional 350,000 tons per year
of organic materials from disposal by 2020
Achieving this reduces overall waste disposal by 7%
Strategy Commercial Organics Ban Implementation

Effective October 1
Targeting > 1 ton per week disposed (est. 1700 business)
Ban & supporting strategies focused on diverting 200,000
tons

12

Yard Waste

Food Waste

Issue # 3 Collection Infrastructure


Increase access to recycling
Increase participation/recovery rates
Reduce contamination in recycling
Strategy - Municipal & Business Assistance

Regional Municipal Assistance Coordinators (MACs)


Sustainable Material Recovery Program- Equipment and
TA
New Recycling Dividends Program
RecyclingWorks - Business Assistance
Pilot Program on Contamination Reduction

Issue #4 Landfill Dependent Uses


400,000 tons annually (ADC, Grading/Shaping, etc.)
Wood, ASR, Glass, Plastic
Strategy Improve Markets/Encourage More Separation

Work with Demo/Const Industry and other generators


Demonstrate new technologies and processes
Support new business ventures

Issue #5 - Disposal Capacity


Decreasing in-state Landfill capacity
Aging WTE capacity
Strategy Reduction/Recycling/New Capacity
2,000,000 ton reduction in solid waste disposed (30%)
Expansion of existing and new landfills
Modified MSW moratorium innovative/alternative
technologies w/ upfront recycling standards

Reclamation Soils
Interim Policy Issued August 28th
Addressing Need identified by development
community and requirements of Section 277 of
Chapter 165 of the Acts of 2014
Promotes Responsible re-use of soils for quarry,
gravel and sand pit reclamation projects
http://www.mass.gov/eea/docs/dep/cleanup/laws/17
massdep-policy-comm-15-01-2015-08-28.pdf

E.O. 562 Overview


A clearer code
Comprehensive review of every CMR regulation
Retain, rescind, simplify or sunset by 3/31/16

Status of MassDEPs Evaluation


Reviewed all regulations: >95
Identified 10 regs to be rescinded
Identified 18 regs to be simplified
Identified 61 regs to be retained in current form
Of these 61, identified 16 regs to be further evaluated for
amendment after March 2016.

How to Submit Comments


Email to

DEP.Talks@state.ma.us

Submit via state-wide portal

http://www.mass.gov/anf/regreview.html

Send a letter to:


EO562 Input
c/o Deneen Simpson
MassDEP
One Winter Street
Boston, MA 02108

Come to a Listening Session:

9/29: Worcester, MassDEP CERO Offices, 4-6pm


9/30: Springfield Central Library, 4-6pm
10/1: Boston, MassDEP HQ, 4-6pm

Office of the Permit & Regulatory


Ombudsman & Special Projects
Office Overview:
Regulated Community Engagement
Large and Complex Project Management
Initiatives to improve efficiency and
consistency

21

Ombudsman Contact Information


Kathleen Kerigan, Director
E:
P:
F:

Kathleen.kerigan@state.ma.us

(617) 556-1181

(617) 574-6880
22

Thank you!
Gary Moran
MassDEP
1 Winter Street
Boston, MA 02108
617-292-5988
Gary.Moran@state.ma.us

Cross Border Flow The Future for


Massachusetts and New England?

Steve Changaris
Regional Manager
National Waste & Recycling Association

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Waste Materials Management from


the Construction World

Ben Harvey
President
E. L. Harvey & Sons, Inc.

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Networking Break

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Challenges in the Marketplace

Meg Morris
Vice President, Materials Management
& Community Affairs
Covanta
Environmental Business Council of New England
Energy Environment Economy

Challenges in the
Energy-from-Waste Marketplace
Margretta E. Morris

Worlds Leading EFW Company


Operate 45 modern EfW facilities in North
America, China and Europe.
Annual capacity to convert 20 million tons of
waste into > 9 million MWhrs -enough clean
energy to power 1 million homes.

Annually recycle ~ 500,000 tons of metal the equivalent amount of steel that would be
used to build over 5 Golden Gate Bridges.
More than 3,500 professionals employed in
North America.

Massachusetts Leading EFW Company


Own and operate 4 EFW facilities
Haverhill facility in Essex county (1,650 TPD)

SEMASS facility in Plymouth county (3,000 TPD)


Springfield facility in Hampden county (408 TPD)
Pittsfield facility in Berkshire county (240 TPD)

Every year in MA, our EfW facilities


Safely manage nearly 2 million tons of MSW
Nearly 2 million tons of GHG emissions avoided, based
on the national average
Generate nearly 1 million MWh of electricity, enough for
all of the homes in Worcester
Recover roughly 70,000 tons of ferrous metal, equivalent
to the steel in over 8 TD Gardens
Recover over 4,000 tons of non-ferrous metals, equal to
the aluminum in roughly 275 million cans

Covanta Benefits Massachusetts


EfW REC Revenue Supports Recycling
$11.4 Million to the state from Covanta Facilities since
FY 2010
Green Steam for Crane & Company
Offsets need to combust
16,000 gallons of oil per day
Payroll of over $33 million

Host Fees of over $12 million

Covantas Partnerships and Programs


Rx4Safety
76,820 lbs in Massachusetts
Fishing for Energy
13 ports in Massachusetts
158 tons of marine debris removed
Call2Recycle Partnership
189 lbs collected in Massachusetts
Mercury Program
250.88 lbs of mercury removed from the waste stream
Select National Board Associations
Go Green Initiative Association
National Recycling Coalition
Product Stewardship Institute

Whats in Waste?
Significant Potential for GHG Reductions

Source: U.S. EPA (2009) Opportunities to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Materials and Land Management Practices

Reducing Impacts
The European Union
and the U.S. EPA
have both concluded
that this waste
management
hierarchy generally
maximizes energy
savings and
minimizes
greenhouse gas
emissions.
35

Two Choices for Post-Recycled Waste


Landfills are a major source of man-made
methane
Methane is 28-34X more potent than Carbon
Dioxide

Leachate generation: ground water


contamination
Non sustainable use of land

or

Renewable energy generation from landfills:

Landfill

65 kWh per ton of waste


90% reduction of waste in volume
Clean energy generation
Recovers metals for recycling

Offsets on average one ton of carbon dioxide


equivalent for each ton of waste processed
Renewable energy generation from EfW:

Energy-from-Waste

550 kWh per ton of waste

EfW produces 9 to 14 times the energy per ton compared to landfills.

The GHG Value of EfW

... MSW combustors actually reduce the amount of GHGs in the atmosphere
compared to landfilling. The savings are estimated to be about 1.0 ton of GHGs
saved per ton of MSW combusted.
U.S. EPA, Energy Recovery Webpage , http://www.epa.gov/wastes/nonhaz/municipal/wte/airem.htm#7

EFW Recognized as a GHG Reducer

Massachusetts Still Landfilling Waste


MA landfilled around 1.4 Million tons
of waste in 2011 both in and out of state!

EPA Study: Lifecycle Energy Emissions


EfW is far below landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) in every category: CO2, SOx, NOx, CO, PM

CO2--EfW better than landfills, coal, oil, and on par with natural gas.

SO2--EfW better than landfills, coal and oil.

NOx--EfW better than landfills & coal. On par with oil & natural gas.

PM--EfW better than landfills, coal and oil.

Source: Kaplan,P.O., J. DeCarolis, S. Thorneloe, Is It Better To Burn or Bury Waste for Clean Electricity Generation?,
Environ. Sci. Technol., 2009, 43 (6), 1711-1717

EfW is Used Extensively Worldwide


Over 1,000 facilities; 180 million tons per year (TPY)

Challenges for new EFW facilities


Economics
Cheap landfilling
Historically low natural gas prices driving wholesale electricity
rates
Roll-off of long term Power Purchase Agreements
Volatile commodity pricing
Cheap aggregate

Policy

No national solid waste & energy policies


No national GHG policy or price of carbon
MA policies favor landfilling

Challenge: MA Policies Favor Landfills


In direct contrast to U.S. EPA and EU policies, peerreviewed literature, and international precedent, MA
energy and waste policies favor landfilling over EfW.
Policy

EfW

Landfills

RPS/RECs

- Tier 2(a)
- 50% of REC revenue shared to
support recycling programs
- Waste Characterization Study
Requirement

- Tier 1
- Keep 100% of REC
revenue
- No Characterization
Study Required

Moratorium

In Place

No

Eligible for RGGI No


Offset Credits

Yes

Mercury

No Plan Required

Management Program Required

Challenge: Natural Gas Production Up

Challenge: US/MA Policies dont encourage EFW


In the EU, recycling and
Energy Recovery have grown
together because of policies
that minimize landfills.
The European Environment
Agency says there is no
evidence to support the
argument that incineration of
waste with energy recovery
hinders the development of
recycling.

In the U.S., many Covanta


communities recycle well over
50%.

How Did the EU do it? Effective Policy/Tools


Landfill Directive
65% reduction in landfilling of biodegradable Municipal Solid
Waste by 2016
Implemented through significant Landfill taxes & other incentives
to recycle and recover energy

Packaging & Packaging Waste Directive


Reduce packaging
Reduce impacts of packaging waste management
Recognition of energy recovery as an effective means of
packaging waste management

2008 Directive on Waste


Formalizes waste management hierarchy

EU: Translating Sustainable Waste


Management into GHG Success
EEA Briefing, Better management of municipal waste will reduce greenhouse gas emissions

Continued Improvements Will Yield More Success

Source: Ibid.

Beyond the Hierarchy: Life Cycle Analysis

MSW-DST Contact:
Susan Thorneloe, U.S. EPA Office of
Research & Development
thorneloe.susan@epa.gov
(919) 541-2709

Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) seeks to


identify possible improvements to
goods and services in the form of lower
environmental impacts and reduced
use of resources across all life cycle
stages.

The key aim of Life Cycle Thinking is


to avoid burden shifting. This means
minimising [sic] impacts at one stage of
the life cycle, or in a geographic region,
or in a particular impact category, while
helping to avoid increases elsewhere.
Source: European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute
for the Environment and Sustainability,
http://lct.jrc.ec.europa.eu/index_jrc

Moving the Ball: Part 1 Policy


Moratorium on new permitted landfill capacity
Large generator food waste diversion
Incorporate energy recovery goals as a
complement to recycling goals
Example: OR SB 2633 (Passed June 2015)
Establishes an alternative approach to calculating
recovery rates based on the rate of energy savings
achieved
Assesses both material and energy recovery
A recovery rate of 100% is equivalent to ALL materials
being directed to their optimal endpoint
Based on lifecycle techniques, and will generally follow
the hierarchy

Moving the Ball: Part 1 Policy


Moratorium on new permitted landfill capacity
Large generator food waste diversion
Incorporate energy recovery goals as a
complement to recycling goals
Example: MD Executive Order 01.01.2015.01 (Jan 2015)
No new landfill permits after Jan 19, 2015
Emphasis on reduction and reuse
Goal of 85% waste diversion and 80% recycling by 2040
Burden on State Government to achieve 65% recycling by 2020
60% of organics managed through recycling, composting, AD by
2020

New Green Purchasing requirements

Moving the Ball: Part 2 Economics


Waste
Landfill levies
Equitable life-cycle
based cost of
carbon

Energy

Products

Low carbon or
renewable energy
credits
Access to long-term
power purchase
agreements (PPAs)
Carbon intensity
standards
incorporating
lifecycle

Grants for emerging


metals recovery &
ash reuse projects
Capacity
adjustments for
recovered metals

The Power of Landfill Levies & Bans

Landfills More Expensive than EfW


with inclusion of Social Cost of Carbon

U.S. Avg. EfW


Tip Fee

Range in state Avg. Landfill Tip Fees

Landfills present long-term liability

On average, diverting one ton of


MSW from a landfill saves one ton of
GHGs as CO2e

Accounting for this GHG savings,


dramatically increases the true cost
of landfilling

Excludes other landfill liabilities


including long-term care, threat of
groundwater contamination, and air
toxics

Excludes future increases in landfill


costs & retirement of EfW project
debt

So, What If We All Followed the Hierarchy?


The Waste Wedge
The billion metric tonnes of carbon
avoided is the equivalent of:
Closing 1000 large coal-fired power
plants

Building 2 million 1MW wind


machines

Doubling our nuclear power plant


capacity

Bahor, B., M. Van Brunt, J. Stovall, K. Blue, 2009, Integrated waste management as a climate
stabilization wedge, Waste Management & Research 2009: 27: 839-849

55

What if the U.S. did it that way?


Recycling
EfW
Landfill

Business as
Usual*
28.9%
7.6%
63.5%

Sustainability
Scenario
65%
25%
10%

GHG Savings
264 million tons CO2e
closing 63 coal-fired power plants

Energy savings
2.2 Quadrillion Btu primary energy
14% of our imported oil (2013)
Economic Benefits
$130B in direct economic activity
350,000 new permanent jobs
* Source: Columbia University, 2014

What if Massachusetts did it that way?


MA Landfilled around 1.4 Million tons of waste in 2011 both in and out of state

If we diverted 1 million tons from landfills to EfW, it would


Add 85 MW of net baseload renewable power
Contribute ~$1 MM in additional revenue to recycling
programs through REC sharing
Reduce GHG emissions by ~ 1 million tons of CO2e
Recover additional metal for recycling

Moratorium remains biggest obstacle

MA Citizens Overwhelmingly Support EfW


Survey Results
87% of voters surveyed say they favor increasing the
use of EfW in MA
71% of voters say that Zero Waste is not achievable
90% of voters say that non-recyclable waste should be
used to generate electricity, rather than put in a landfill

79% of voters say the state should lift the moratorium


on building new EfW

Dont Waste Your Waste!


Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Recover Energy
Margretta E. Morris
VP, Materials Management & Community Affairs
mmorris@Covanta.com
508-291-4456

Challenges in the Marketplace

John Farese
General Manager, Southbridge
Casella Waste Systems

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Market Evolution
Resource Renewal & Sustainability

Environmental Business Council of New England, Inc. Holden, Massachusetts


September 24, 2015

CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

casella.com
casella.com 61

CASELLA FOOTPRINT
Hauling Facilities
Recycling Facilities
Organics Facilities
Landfills
Landfill Gas-to-Energy
Transfer Stations

Our Customers

CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

casella.com 62

Casella Company Overview:

Founded in 1975 with one truck

We have 1,900 employees serving


over 170,000 customers

Traded on NASDAQ as CWST

Over $500M in annual revenue

Operating in MA, ME, NH, NY, PA, and VT

Vertically integrated collection, transfer,


disposal and recycling operations

Recovering over 500,000 tons of recycling


and over 400,000 tons of organics for
beneficial use each year

CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

casella.com 63

Our Strategy:

Create systems to transform discarded


by-products into valuable industrial feed
stock and sources of renewable energy.

Own and operate integrated resource


management infrastructure in the Northeast.

Leverage our experience and partnerships


to help organizations drive out waste.

CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

casella.com 64

US EPA PUBLISHED GENERATION RATES

Source: US EPA Facts and Figures 2012


CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

65

casella.com 65

CAUSE AND EFFECT MARKET EVOLUTION


Materials

What needs to be managed and how?

Costs

What can the market support?


Consumer or the taxpayer covers all costs incurred.

Technology

How do we support technology development to create


options (one size does not fit all)?

Policy

Can laws and regulations drive market development


and changes in material management?

Investment

What is the right capital investment in a specific process


or system?

CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

casella.com 66

POLICY DRIVERS MARKET EVOLUTION


One size does NOT fit all
Policies and legislation need to remain flexible. New technology is
developed every day in order to move something forward it may
require subsidy or policy change to make it happen.
Organics Legislation/Rules
Mandatory Recycling
Waste Bans

CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

casella.com 67

Recycling
RECYCLING

MARKET EVOLUTION

Collection: Blue Bins to Carts;


Processing: individual materials to Zero-Sort
Single Stream;
Markets: Expanding the List of Acceptable
Materials through Market Development;
Technology: Improve Material Quality (Green-Fence type restrictions). Not all single
stream is created equal. Casella has branded our single-stream recycling as Zero-Sort
Recycling to differentiate the high-quality end-use commodities and our innovative
approach.
Costs: Decreased commodities value has driven the need to charge for collection.
Increased efficiency is the best way to keep costs reasonable and support new
development. Well keep working to develop stable/reliable end markets and grow the
list of acceptable materials.
CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

casella.com 68

Recycling
ORGANICS

MARKET EVOLUTION

Recently, MA, CT and VT have developed generator requirements for food scraps diversion.
In advance of the Massachusetts Food Waste Ban, we began collecting food waste
generated by commercial and institutional customers in the Greater Boston and Worcester
areas. . Large-scale generators (grocery stores, colleges, food manufacturers) have
sustainability goals for waste reduction.
In 2011, together with our partner Agreen Energy,
we opened the states first farm-based anaerobic
digestion facility in Rutland and opened a second
facility in 2014 located in South Hadley. These
facilities accept source separated liquid food waste
and have produced 4,000 MWH, enough electricity for
over 500 New England homes in 2014
As process facility capacity develops - thanks to generator demand
and policy requirements - pricing will become competitive. We
expect to see continued Policy changes promoting organics diversion.
Transport and handling of putrescible materials requires more
development.
CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

casella.com 69

Recycling
DISPOSAL

MARKET EVOLUTION

In the northeast, waste, recycling and recoverable materials are based on a regional
market system - transported and managed across state boundaries. Many factors
impact disposal, diversion and waste handling decisions.

Cost;
Distance, Service, Capacity;
Free Market vs Flow-Control;
Environmental Record
In the past few years there have been significant changes in the Northeast marketarea: Claremont WTE, MERC WTE, Moretown LF, So. Hadley LF, Granby LF

Landfill airspace is valuable driving efficiency in disposal operations, including


waste inspection and diversion programs, construction practices, and waste
placement, compaction, and cover practices.

CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

casella.com 70

Recycling
COLLECTION

MARKET EVOLUTION

In the past 20 years we have seen significant


changes in collection and hauling:

Rear Load to Front Load


Rear Load to Side Load
Automation
Co-Collection
Routing
Carts
Alternate Fuels

The cost of fuel and attention


to GHG emissions reduction
will continue to drive
transportation innovation.

CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

casella.com 71

RESOURCE SOLUTIONS MARKET EVOLUTION


Re-thinking Waste
Recently, we began to apply the science
of resource management to help
customers adjust their waste streams in
ways that make them suitable for higher
and better uses. This includes redesigning products to enhance their
recyclability or eliminating toxic
substances so waste streams can be
redirected to beneficial uses or low
emission landfills.
Forces of global population growth and increasing economic prosperity will
drive consumption, resulting in resource constraints. Large and complex
organizations such as universities, hospitals, manufacturers, and municipalities have
partnered with industry experts to provide resource solutions.

CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

casella.com 72

PRODUCT STEWARDSHIP MARKET EVOLUTION

Relatively new approach - intended to influence manufacturer behavior.


Recent legislation for E-Waste, Batteries, Paint

EPR makes sense for certain difficult to manage or hazardous wastes


Strive for expanded integration to our existing transport and sorting
infrastructure

Manufacturers could be encouraged to look at packaging and products to use more


main-stream recyclable materials design for sustainability. Producer Responsibility
done in the right way could be a tool for improvement.
CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

casella.com 73

To learn more, please visit:

casella.com

RESOURCE SOLUTIONS
RECYCLING | COLLECTION | ORGANICS | ENERGY | LANDFILLS
CASELLA RESOURCE SOLUTIONS

ZERO-SORT RECYCLING COLLECTION ORGANICS ENERGY LANDFILLS

casella.com 74

Challenges in the Marketplace

Terry Grady
Municipal Services Manager
Republic Services, Inc.

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Talking Trash Solid


Waste Management in
New England

About Republic
Republic Services is an industry leader in
U.S. recycling and non-hazardous solid waste
collection, transfer and disposal.

We serve municipal,
residential, commercial,
industrial, and oil field
customers.

Strength in Numbers
Dedicated to more than 14 million customers
39 states and Puerto Rico

31,000 employees
340 collection operations
198 transfer stations
189 active landfills
60 recycling centers
2,200 natural gas trucks
72 landfill gas-to-energy projects
2 solar energy projects
36 natural gas fueling stations
$8.7 billion in revenue

National Capabilities

We operate in 39 states and Puerto Rico

Republic Services
New England/New York Area

81

Challenges of Organics
Processing Facilities/ Travel Distances
Processing Fees Slightly Lower than MSW Disposal Fees
On Site Storage at Customer Locations Lack of Capacity
Odors Associated with the Type of Waste
High Carbon Content of Material

Cost of Compostable Bags vs. Non-Compostable Bags


Collection Equipment Specialized
Leakage Associated with Material

Challenges Associated with Disposal Capacity

Travel Distances to End Sites


Diminishing Landfill Capacity for Special Wastes 6 Landfills

C & D Transfer Facility Capacity


Increased Rates for the Processing of C & D

Fall River Landfill - Closed Nov 2014


Final Cap Being Applied

Fall River Landfill - Closed Nov 2014


Final Cap Being Applied

Fall River Landfill - Closed Nov 2014


Final Cap Being Applied

Fall River Transfer Station

Challenges of Single Stream Recycling


Quality of Materials/ Contamination Levels
Automated Recycling Services
Commodity Market Deterioration Global Economy
Costs Associated with Processing Processing
Fees/Rebates
Glass Recycling - Markets and Equipment Damage

Single Stream Recycling Facility

Single Stream Recycling line - Overview

Single Stream Recycling Sorting


Station
95

Single Stream Recycling Line

96

Challenges of Municipal Collection Services

Cost of Equipment
Availability of Equipment

Availability of CDL Drivers


Labor Costs - Prevailing Wage
Increased Rates for the Processing of Single Stream
Increased Waiting Lines at Disposal Facilities

Questions
&
Answers

Panel Discussion
Moderator: David Murphy, Tighe & Bond
Panelists:
Steve Changaris, National Waste & Recycling
Association
John Farese, Casella Waste Systems
Terry Grady, Republic Services, Inc.
Ben Harvey, E. L. Harvey & Sons, Inc.
Meg Morris, Covanta

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy