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CHAPTER 1
The Problem
Introduction
There has recently a marked awakening to the need for coordinated
research on Swine Systematic Record Practises. There growing realization among
breeders and other that something more than records of all data and showing
information is required as a basis for swine production.
A preponderance of people evolves on swine backyard production as a
foremost root of their income. Swine are prolific and bring quick returns, requires
small investment compared to cattle and Carabao. Enterprise is flexible, true only
for backyard swine raisers, enables one to get into the business in a short time and
out of business with a little risk.
Evaluation of the viability of the swine enterprise is partly dependent on
appropriate records being kept. A good system of record keeping enables Swine
Raisers to identify the weak and strong point in the operations. Provide reliable
basis in decisions for improvement. Record Keeping Practises distributes to guide
them improve their production efficiencies.
A Systematic Record Practices necessary for proactively and progressively
manage all data and reports about relative to the field of business chosen will be a
solid foundation of having best practices for record management.
According to Arganosa (1990), A Primer on Pork Production; there always a
saying Consistency is everything. Many guiding practices of having a

systematic records help to maintain the information needs to raisings swine. As


raisers it is very important to have organization of all data or record about the field
of business chosen. Knowing of having keeping records practices is an advantage
Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to determine the record keeping practices of Swine Backyard
Raisers in selected Barangays in Rosario District as an input to a Systematic Data.
Specifically it sought to answer the following question:
1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of?
1.1 age;
1.2 sex;
1.3 highest educational attainment; and
1.4 seminars attended in backyard raising
2. What are the records - keeping practices utilized by the backyard swine raisers?
3. Is there any significance relationship between the profile of the respondents and
the record keeping practices?
4. What are the problems encountered by the swine backyard raisers in terms of
record keeping?
5. Based on the findings action plan maybe proposed for the backyard raisers to
observe a systematic record keeping practices.

Scope, Limitation and Delimitation


The study will focus on the Swine Backyard Raisers. The study is purposive
exclusively for Swine Backyard Raisers. This flexibility enables one to get into the
business in the short time and out of business with little risk. As the researchers
conduct this, the researchers should know the personal profile of the raisers in
terms of age, sex, highest educational attainment, and the seminars attended by the
raisers. The researchers will use descriptive type of research that will utilize a
survey questionnaire and interview as a main tool in gathering data.
This study is limited to the other Barangay namely Itlugan and Namuco in
Rosario District which have maximum of 50 numbers of backyard swine raisers.
However, this study is delimited to the other Barangay in Rosario which are
not mentioned in this study.
Significance of the study
This conducted research study will not be worthless. The researcher made
the study in order to help the society. This study will be beneficial to the
administrator, swine raisers and future researchers.
Administrator. Through the help of this study the Municipality will know the
population of swine raisers in chosen Barangay. And help the Municipality in
deciding for the project that they introduce to the Society.
Swine Raisers. Through the help of this study the swine raisers is aware of the
record keeping making it into systematic data. The findings of the study will open
the minds and awareness that will the swine raisers to give assistance. It would be

beneficial because they know how to manage and be a wise in swine raisers.
Future Researchers. This study will help the future researchers that conducted
the same or related study. This research study will help enlighten and be exploring
their study regarding the efficient information about the record keeping into
systematic data.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE: SYNTHESIS AND HYPOTHESIS
The related literature, the significance and the affiliation to the present study are
presented in the chapter together with the hypothesis, conceptual framework and
important terms defined.
Conceptual Literature
Animal production is design to fit your interest and needs. It provides you
within important on how to plan a small business. Above all, since human
resources are major factors in any business enterprise, it shows you qualities of a
good entrepreneur. It also covers the basic information you need in raising animals
such as the different breeds of farm animals that thrive in your country; housing
for their confinement; and other needed equipment. Finally, Animal Production
discuss about the principles of the feeding farm animals; maintaining cleanliness
and sanitation of the farm; and marketing farm animals and their by product.
(Module TLE 2015)
Swine, an even- toed, hoofed mammal closely related to peccary and
hippopotamus. There are both wild and domestic swine, all belonging to the order
Artiodactyla. Wild swine are known by a variety of names; domestic swine are
commonly known as hogs and pigs. Swine are short legged, short tailed animal
with a barrel-shaped body ranging in length from about 2 to 5 feet (0.6- 1.5
meters). The head tapers toward the snout, which ends in the flat mobile disc. The
disc is use to lift push and flow or root in the ground. The swine large canine teeth

grow upward and outward, wearing against each other to produce a sharp cutting
edge. Each of the swine feet has four hoofed toes are located higher up on the leg.
Swine can trot, center and run as fast as the average man. ( Aliwalas et. Al 2007).
Backyard Swine Raising serves as the primary source of income (Grolier
International 1992). The number of the swine raised and the prices at which they
are gold in the market vary widely from year to year. Depending on the number
factor order or over supply of pork and the export demand. There have been years
when raisers sold their hog for less than cost of raising them. On the other hand,
some of the advantages in holding hog production are as follows. (1) Pork
provides continuous income; (2) when hog raising is a part of farming operation,
remuneration employment is provided; (3) pork hog can be raised profitability by
farm workers; (4) since hog raising are adapted to self-feeding and full feeding,
the amount of labor is rather low; (5) It is adapted for diversified farming
( Villanueva et. Al 1991). In addition to this, backyard swine raising of few head
hog or fattening ones uses hard feeding as a common practice. Animals are feed
with feeds and other available in the form. Swine also threatened along roadway
and in backyard.
Bureau of Agriculture Statistics (2008), reported that as with other
domesticated farm animals, swine production in the country is done in both
backyard and commercial farm units. Based on 2001 data about 76.78% of swine
are kept in the backyard while remaining 23.22% are in commercial farms. In
recent years, backyard swine are slowly catching up with its commercial

counterpart in the terms of organization of the data and reports


According to Arganosa (1990), keeping production records is very necessary
in any swine enterprise. However, keeping records and not using them is as good
as no record at all. It is therefore suggested to keep records only that can be used
and interpreted by the farm owner.
Many farmers do not keep records for the following reasons;
They do not know the importance of record keeping. They do not know what
records to keep, how to keep use of them. Interpretation of the record is not as
easy as many people may think. They have difficulty on identifying animals. Good
production records can only be kept if the individual pigs in the herb are properly
identified.
Good organization structure does not by itself produce good performance. But
a poor organization structure make a good performance impossible, no matter how
good the individual manage may be, Peter Drucker, (1997).
According to Professor James Stoner (1997), organizing is the process of
arranging an organizations structure and coordinating its managerial practices and
the use of resource to achieve its goals.
Professor Warren Plunkeet (1997), defined organizing as a management
function that establishes relationship between activity and authority.
Research Literature
Since the study is concerned with the swine backyard raising in keeping record
practices an input to have a systematic data, the researchers made some readings

on the other related studies which can enrich the said study.
Suppadit (2006) stated that the best management practices help farmers to
increase livestock production. Thus, is should be followed and implemented. Its
principle is categorized into farm elements (farm, location, and stable form), farm
management (herd, feed, housing, and data recording).
Panduit (1997) intended to identify practices implemented by swine
raisers in Lipa, determined the relationship of the implementation of this practices
to their current socio-economic condition and assessed the problems of swine
raisers by identifying their training and technology needs and evaluating how the
government is responding to these needs.
Feder (1995) stated that exposure to information is indeed important to play a
vital role in adaption. A farmer must understand the benefits and costs of practice
in order to make an informed implementation decision. He discussed the
significant impact of farmers financial.
Misha, El-Osta, and Jhonson (1999), found that formal record keeping system
increased farm profitability. Evan though computers and software are not divisible,
they are not very expensive considering the impact that they can have on farm
profitability. Also, after the initial learning phase, computers can save farmers time
by having all the accurate and organized information they need at hand.
Jofre-Giraudo, Streeter, and Lazarus (1990) found that computerized
management information system (MIS) improved the accuracy, speed, and
timeliness of information for processing, which improved the management

decision-making process. They also found that records were updated on a more
timely basis and record were kept at a higher level of detail when using MIS. This
more accurate data allowed more farmers to project their financial condition on a
monthly basis, which could help farmers re-evaluate their production and financial
situations quickly so that changes in management could be implemented, if
necessary.
Synthesis
The research study gave better insight to the researchers aim of studying the
swine raising in keeping records practices an input to have a systematic data in
selected Barangay in Rosario, Batangas as to come up with a better solution to
help improve the swine backyard raisers to have a systematic records.
It presents the relationship and resemblance of the present study to the
investigation being reviewed. It also summarizes the similarities and difference of
the related studies to the present study.
The study of Suppadit (2006) stated that best management practices help
farmers to increase livestock production; it should be followed and implemented.
Its principle are categorized into farm element (farm, location, and stable form),
farm management (herd, feed, housing, data, and recording), while the study is
similar to the present study since their principle are categorized into farm
management that are covered the data recording. And they are difference because
this study is focuses only in backyard raisers assessing the systematic data base.
The study of Panduit (1997) intended to identify practices implemented by

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swine raisers in Lipa, determined the relationship of the implementation of


practices to their current socio-economic condition and assessed the problem of
swine raisers by identifying their training and technology needs and evaluating
how the government is responding to needs, while the present study considered the
profile of respondents in terms of age, sex, highest educational attainments, and
seminars attended in backyard raising wherein able to know responding needs of
having systematic record. They are similar to the present study since they are both
implementing the relationship between assessing the problem of swine raisers.
Another study which was related to the present study was the study of Feder
(1995) which that exposure to information is indeed important to play a vital role
in adaption; farmer must understand the benefits and cost of practice in order to
make an informed implementation decision. He also discussed the significant
impact of farmers financial situation, the present study is similar because they
both assessing the exposure of information. But then, his study did not cover the
benefits of having record keeping which made it different to the current study.
Similar also to the present study is the study of Misha, El-Osta and Jhonson
(1999) which found that formal record keeping system increased for profitability.
But then they are differed on how and knowing the advantages of having a
systematic keeping record of all data.
The study of Sofre-Giraudo, Streeter, and Lazarus (1990) somewhat similar to
the present study since it also focused in records updated on a more timely basis
and record were keep at a higher level of detail management information system

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(MIS). While the difference between them, deals on having and implementing the
importance of having a systematic record keeping.
Conceptual Framework
Swine raising is the more profitable business than the others livestock
industries. But still further is not easy to establish this business because its
development is bases with problem.
Figure 1 shows the paradigm of profile respondents, the interview and the
questionnaire and lastly the output produce a systematic record.
The input represents the profile of the respondent in terms of age, sex, highest
educational attainment, and seminars attended in backyard swine raising business.
The processes present the interview and questionnaire.
The output presents the produce systematic records.
To understand the study, the conceptual paradigm was presented below.

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INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

Figure 1

Profile of the
respondent in
terms of age,
sex, highest
educational
Interview and
attainment,
Questionnaires
Action Plan to
and seminars
observe a systematic
attended by
record keeping
the raisers.
practices.
Record
keeping
practices
Problems
encountered
Figure 1
by Swine
backyard
Research Paradigm in Record Keeping Practices of Swine Backyard Raisers in
raisers.

selected Barangay in Rosario District: Input to Systematic Data

Definition of Terms
For better understanding the following terms are defined;
Swine. This refers to an omnivorous hoofed animal of the family suede, with
stunt-bodied, short leg animal a long mobile snout. (Oxford Dictionary of Current
English, 1998). In this study, it refers to the pig or hog.
Backyard Swine Raising. A very popular enterprise in almost every rural

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household in the Philippines such that there is a proliferation of backyard


producers which domains the swine industry (Bureau of Agricultural Statistics
(BAS) 2011). In this study it refers to the main focus of the study wherein
implementing of having a systematic records.
Data. Information, specifically, facts and numbers used to analyse something or
make decisions (Vocabulary Website). In this study, it refers to gathering
information that is needed to have a systematic record.
Record. Should be simple and precise and should be directed towards improving
performance and profit. It is obvious that only those data which can be processed
and interpreted without delay and those which are relevant to the production
system should be collected. (Basic Pig Keeping Manual, Book 4 (Production
Planning Farm Recording Economics 2015)). In this study, it refers in collecting
data that being collected.
Record keeping. Must be simple, practical, and easily understood. These should
contain all the necessary information, logically and systematically arranged record
keeping is essential in the decision making process for future management
operations. Critical evaluation of the profitability of the enterprise; judicious
culling of undesirable animals; intelligent selection of individuals for replacement
or expansion; and formulation of a sound breeding program are entirely dependent
on record keeping and proper analysis, (The Pork Production Committee, 2004).
In this study, it refers to the organizing information or data that are gathered.

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Chapter III
Research Method and Procedure
This chapter presents the research design, method and procedures utilized by
the researchers to gather the necessary data. It includes also the data gathering
procedure together with the instrument used and statistical treatment of the data.
Research Design

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The descriptive method of research design will be use in this study. The
researchers will use descriptive method with a good approach for better
interpretation and understanding. For this purpose, a questionnaire will made as an
instrument for data gathering. The questionnaire will design according to the
specific questions stated in this study with appropriate tools. The data will gather
by the use of questionnaire will be evaluate to present the record keeping practices
into systematic data.
Subject of the Study
The subject of the study will be from the two Barangays of Rosario namely
Itlugan and Namuco. Only the (50) were the respondent of this study. The two
places were chosen because the researchers believe for they can gather data and
collect response to the objective of the study.
Data Gathering Instrument
The data gathering instrument will be a survey questioner. This was composed
of five parts. First part is deal on the profile of the respondents, second part, the
record keeping practices observed by the swine backyard raisers, third part, the
significant relationship between the profile of respondent and the record keeping.
Fourth is the problem encountered by the swine backyard raisers and the last part
is the proposed plan of action in swine backyard raisers.
Construction of questionnaire
The researchers will make the questionnaire through reading a books and
make use of the internet for online materials related to our study. In some intensive

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research the researchers will be formulate the first draft of the questionnaire. The
draft will be presented to adviser for comments and suggestions. Then, the
researchers incorporate the comments and suggestion of the adviser. And, the
researchers made the final draft of the questionnaire.
Validation of the Questionnaire
The researchers will be geared up a letter requesting for validation of their
questionnaire. It will be presented to some assistant instructor of the field concern.
The researchers change the draft into a new one having the correction and
suggestions.
Administration of the Questionnaire
The researchers prepare a letter noted by their adviser requesting for
administration of the questionnaire among the respondents. After the approval of
the school administrations and the dean, the researchers will be handed the
questionnaires, Directors will be discussed and at the same purpose of the study
were explained.

Scoring of the responses


The responses of the respondent will be tallied, tabulated and interpreted base
on the scale which 5 has the highest and 1 as the lowest.
The result was interpreted follows;
Options
5

Scale
4.50 - 5.00

Verbal Interpretation
Very Great extent/ Very

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4
3
2
1

3.50 4.49
2.50 3.49

Serious
To a great extent/ serious
Moderately
extent/

1.50 2.49

Moderately serious
To some extent/ slightly

1.0 1.49

serious
To least extent/ not serious

Data Gathering Procedure


The researchers will prepare the letters of request for the Barangay Chairman
for asking permission to distribute questionnaire to the residents of Itlugan and
Namuco in the Municipality of Rosario, Batangas. After the approval, the
researchers will ask the help of the other Barangay officials for their assistance in
locating the targets of swine raisers in the study. The researchers will retrieve all
the copies of the questionnaire then the data will be studied, tallied and analyzed to
obtain the needed results.
Statistical Treatment of Data
Percentage. This serves as the percent of the frequency tallied out of the overall
number of the answer of the respondents of the study.
Ranking. This will be used in describing the positional importance of the response
of swine raisers in terms we are weighted mean.
Weighted mean. This will be used as measure of the average response of the
swine raisers or the respondents Barangay.
Frequency. This will be used to refer to the number of respondents who indicate

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specific answers.