Você está na página 1de 4

Chemistry 1

Unit 2 Study Guide Atoms & Radioactivity

Name ________________________
Period _____ Date ______________

THIS COMPLETED STUDY GUIDE IS DUE 11/12/15 AS PART OF THE UNIT 2 PACKET.
ALT 2 I can use models to describe how changes in the internal structure of the atom (protons,
neutrons, and electrons) determine the properties and identity of the atom.
LT2a and b Atoms and Isotopes
Vocabulary: Define the following terms using your Living by Chemistry textbook.
Atom (p. 53)
Neutron (p. 56)
Smallest unit of matter. It is indivisible.
A subatomic particle with a mass of 1 amu that
is part of the nucleus. It has no charge.
Electron (p.56)
Small, almost mass-less negatively charged
Nucleus (p. 56)
particle in the atom
The dense central part of an atom made up of
the protons and neutrons. It is where most of the
Model (p. 54)
mass of the atom resides.
A simplified version of a complex system you
Proton (p. 56)
want to explain or describe.
A subatomic particle of the nucleus with a
positive charge and a mass of 1 amu.
Answer these review questions using your handouts, notes, and the text book.
[Lesson 11Atomic Pudding]
1. Complete the data table for each atomic model shown. Match the scientist to the model and briefly
describe the evidence that supported it. The scientists are:
a. John Dalton (1803)
b. J.J. Thomson (1897)
Model

c. Ernst Rutherford (1911)


d. Niels Bohr (1913)
Scientist
John Dalton

Evidence Supporting Model


He reacted elements and saw that they
formed compounds in whole number ratios.
He also discovered that matter is not created
or destroyed.

JJ Thomson

In 1897, Thomson shocked atoms with


electricity and observed negatively charged
particles were removed. He called these
electrons.

Ernest Rutherford

He shot alpha particles at gold foil and saw


that some were reflected back so he
hypothesized atoms have something small
and dense in them. He called it a nucleus.

Neils Bohr

His model explained the colored light given


off by atoms exposed to flames or electric
fields. Bohr reasoned electrons exist at
specific energy levels around the nucleus.

2. Complete the table below for each of the three subatomic particles making up the atom:
Particle
Name

Symbol

Charge

Proton

p+

+1

Electron

e-

-1

Neutron

Location

Mass (amu)

Nucleus

1 amu

Around the nucleus

Basically 0

Nucleus

1 amu

3. Why is an atom electrically neutral?


An atom is electrically neutral when the number of protons is equal to the number of
electrons because the negative and positive charges cancel each other out.
[Lesson 12 Atoms by the Numbers]
Vocabulary: Define the following terms using your Living by Chemistry textbook.
Atomic number (p. 58)
Atomic mass (p. 58)
Equal to the number of protons in the nucleus. It
Sum of an atoms protons and neutrons with
is the unique identifier of an element.
units of amu.
4. Each row of the table represents an electrically neutral atom. Fill in the blanks.
The first row is completed as an example.

Atomic #

Symbol
of
element

Avg.
atomic
mass
(amu)

Number of
protons

Number of
neutrons

Atomic Mass
(amu)

Number of
electrons

19.00

10

19

26

Fe

55.85

26

30

56

26

Li

9.012

19

39.10

41-22=19

22

41

19

[Lessons 13 and 14 isotopes]


Vocabulary: Define the following terms using your Living By Chemistry textbook.
Atomic mass unitamu (p. 40)
The units of mass for atoms and isotopes.
Average atomic mass (p. 64)
Decimal number in periodic table that is the
average of the masses of the isotopes in a
sample.
Isotope (p. 64) Atoms of the same element with
different number of neutrons

Mass number (p.64)


Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
of an atom or isotope
Radioactive isotope (p. 69)
An isotope with an unstable nucleus that decays
over time as parts of the nucleus are ejected.

Answer these review questions using your handouts, notes, and the text book.
5. Each row of the table represents an electrically neutral isotope. Fill in the blanks. The first row has
been completed as an example.
Isotope Name
Atomic
# of
# of
Atomic
# of
Isotope
number
protons
neutrons
Mass
electrons
Symbol
(amu)
Beryllium-5

Potassium-40

19

19

21

40

19

Potassium-39

19

19

20

39

19

Lithium-6

Lithium-7

5
4
40
19
39
19
6
3
7
3

6. Name two ways that isotopes of an element are different:


Different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus.
Different atomic masses.
7. Name two ways that electrically neutral isotopes of an element are similar:
Same number of protons and atomic number.
Same number of electrons as protons since they are electrically neutral.
8. Draw a simple atomic model for a neutral atom of beryllium-5. Label all parts of the atom:
Red dots are electrons
p+ are protons, it has 4 because it is atomic number 4
n0 are neutrons.
The middle part is the nucleus with the protons and neutrons.

9. Copper has two major isotopes: Cu-63 and Cu-65. Find the average atomic mass on your periodic
table and explain which isotope of copper is most abundant in nature.
Avg. atomic mass is 63.55 amu. Copper-63 is the more abundant isotope since its mass of 63
amu is closest to the average, and this tells me most of the atoms must be Cu-63
10. Calculate the average atomic mass of silicon given the following data. Assume a sample of 100
particles.
Isotope
Si-28

Mass (amu)
28

Abundance (%)
92/100

Contribution to mass
25.76 amu

Si-29

29

5/100

1.45 amu

Si-30

30

3/100

0.9 amu

Add up the last


column

28.11 amu

LT2c Radioactivity
Vocabulary: Define the following terms using your Living By Chemistry textbook.
Alpha decay (p. 74)
Half-life (p. 75)
An unstable nucleus emits a helium nucleus and
The amount of time it takes for one half of a
it loses two protons and its mass decreases by 4
radioactive sample to decay to its daughter
amu.
isotope.
Alpha particle (p. 74)
The particle emitted in alpha decay is a helium
nucleus made up of 2 protons and 2
neutrons

Nuclear reaction (p. 73)


Changes in the nucleus of the atom.

Beta decay (p. 75)


When an unstable nucleus emits an electron
adding a proton to the nucleus but not mass
since the electron has 0 mass.
Beta particle (p. 75)
The particle emitted in beta decay. It is an
electron with a charge of -1 and zero mass

Radiation (p. 76)


The particles and rays that are emitted when an
unstable nucleus undergoes radioactive
decay.
Radioactive decay (p. 73)
The process of emitting pieces of the nucleus of
an atom as the atom seeks stability.

Gamma ray (p. 76)


A form of pure energy that has no mass and no
charge and is emitted during radioactive
events.
Answer these review questions using your handouts, notes, and the text book.
[Lesson 15Nuclear Quest]
11. Complete the blanks in the following table.
Radiation

Symbol

Charge

Mass
(amu)

Best shielding (what blocks


it)

Alpha

4
2

+2

Paper

Beta

0
1

-1

Aluminum foil

Gamma

0
0

Lead or thick concrete

[Nuclear equation Notes from Cloud Chamber Lab]


12. Complete a balanced nuclear equation for the following types of radioactive decay:
(a) alpha decay of radium-226

226
88Ra

42 +

222
86Rn

(b) beta minus decay of bismuth-214

214
83Bi

0
1

214
84Po