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Professor: Christen Enos

Pedro Aristeguieta
Unit 3

** The worst migrant crisis in the world since World War II is occurring in
Europe. Hundreds of thousands of people escaped from the Middle East and
Africa, as the Islamic State is killing and displacing innocents and a civil war
is happening as consequence in Syria and Irak. In order to escape, migrants
are risking their lives along the way, taking extremely dangerous paths to
arrive to Europe seeking a better life. Authorities in the European Union have
different thoughts on the issue and not every European nation is willing to
accept refugees. I plan to send a proposal to European Union officials to
encourage them to receive refugees in their respective nations. I plan to
send the proposal via email and regular mail. I hope they will follow my
advice to deal with this hecatomb in the best way possible. **

Immigration Crisis in Europe

-------DATE: November 13, 2015


TO: Government Officials of the European Union
FROM: Pedro Aristeguieta
SUBJECT: Immigration Crisis in Europe

No one can deny that the migrant crisis has been an unfortunate tragedy
that has created for your nations, and as consequence your governments, a
difficult situation. According to the BBC at least 350,000 migrants crossed
the EU's borders in January-August 20151 and many more are expected to
arrive in Europe in the next months. This situation has led you to take a
decision: either expelling all refugees and forget that the EU was born after a
devastating war, "on a promise of solidarity with the persecuted and
downtrodden"; 2 or accepting the refugees and taking advantage of all the
benefits of receiving an influx of migrants at this specific historical period for
Europe, and by doing so, also saving thousands of peoples' lives. I want to
encourage you to receive refugees into your continent, and through this
letter I will provide you the reasons why you should, and the best way to
allocate the refugees throughout the different European nations.
There are moral, economic and social reasons that should convince you
that accepting refugees in Europe is the right thing to do. According to The
Guardian, 62% of the migrants who have reached Europe are escaping from
war, dictatorial oppression, and religious extremism.3 The other 38% are
migrating for economic reasons, which has severely been deteriorating in the
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region for the same reasons why the first group of 62% is migrating. As the
leaders that you are, you need to understand that most of the refugees
cannot go back. If these refugees would go back, they would face the terrible
consequences of war and oppression, and many even death. By watching
television and opening internet anyone can see how the Islamic State is
burning men alive and beheading citizens because of religious differences.
So, when we hear from refugees that they are afraid to go back home, we
can be sure that they are telling the truth. Refugees are not coming to the EU
because they just want to improve the quality of their lives, they are coming
to Europe to survive. As a continent with so many sad memories of wars in
the past, you should know how devastating wars can be. In Nazi Germany,
which you all condemned, Jews were being killed because of their religious
beliefs. Many of those coming to Europe are also being killed for the same
reason. The Islamic State is killing Christians, Yazidis, and other religious
minorities of Syria and Iraq4 just because they do not follow Islamic State's
ultra-religious practices. Will you turn back on them and let them die?
Besides the fact that there are moral reasons to accept the refugees, you
should also know that in economic terms your nations will be better off by
the influx of migrants. The arrival of refuges can help you with what most
analysts predict can become the biggest economic problem for Europe in the
future: the aging of Europe's population. European nations are aging and in
some cases even shrinking. According to Eurostat, 6 an organization that
provides statistical information to the institutions of the European Union, the
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EU's total fertility rate is not much over 1.5 children per woman. Experts
affirm that the fertility rate needs to be 2.1 in order to maintain population
equilibrium. 7 The biggest issue with population shrinking is that as time goes
on, the working force decreases, and the nation's debt burden is distributed
to less people, which makes the population and the government poorer.
According to The Economist, a prestigious British economics magazine,
European governments have racked up vast debt, which they plan to dump
on future generations. If population continues aging, it will be very hard for
European nations to pass the burden of debt to new generations.
Immigration can help regarding this issue as immigrants, including asylumseekers, are typically young and eager to work.8 As many young workers join
the workforce because of immigration, the burden of debt should be
transferred to more workers and that way citizens and the government
should not become poorer through time.
Immigrants tend to be hard workers and entrepreneurs as they bring new
ideas to a region. Accepting them should stimulate the creation of new
businesses that eventually will help Europe's economy. A study from The
Economist Intelligence Unit found that immigrants around the world are more
likely to start businesses than the native-born and are less likely to commit
serious crimes.8 It is a fallacy to state, as many leaders have expressed, that
refugees and immigrants are criminals. Immigrants, after all tend to bring
more positive aspects than negatives. It would be difficult to think that

people that cross deserts and stormy seas for a better life will not be hard
workers once they arrive to their destinations.
An understandable fear that many European citizens have is that migrants
will take the jobs of those who are currently living in the country.
Massimiliano Cali, a senior economist from the World Bank, rejected this
hypothesis after doing a complex research of the economic impact of
refugees in the European nations:
While refugeesthe majority of whom have no formal work permits
have displaced unskilled informal and part-time workers, they have
also generated more formal non-agricultural jobs and an increase in
average wages for workers. In addition, many of the displaced workers
have gone back to school and may well increase their wages once they
return to the labor market.5
Another interesting study from the Economist Intelligence Unit regarding
refugees in the workforce, found the following:
The fear that they will poach jobs or drag down local wages is
misplaced. Because they bring complementary skills, ideas and
connections, they tend to raise wages of the native-born overall. And
the migrants themselves benefit enormously. By moving to Europe,
with its predictable laws and efficient companies, they can become
several times more productive, and their wages rise accordingly.8

Europeans should not be worried that immigrants will take their jobs, as
we can see from previous studies in the field, the actual workforce should
see improvements in their work experience with the influx of immigrants into
the workforce.
Another topic Europeans have shown concerns regarding refugees is that
it will be extremely costly for the European Union to ensure the minimum
living standards to the refugees, which include the cover of health care and
education. While this is a completely valid concern, we need to analyze the
numbers to see its real impact. Turkey, for example, which has received
24%12 of all the refugeesthe highest percentage by faraccording to
Massimiliano Cali has spent "nearly 5.37 billion euros since the refugees first
began arriving, entirely funded through its own fiscal resources."5 While this
is undoubtedly a lot of money, 5.37 billion dollars will not jeopardize the
fiscal sustainability of any country, and even less to the EU, whose economy
is 23 times larger than Turkey's. Accepting refugees should benefit Europe in
every economic aspect. This is a golden opportunity for Europe that should
not be wasted.
Besides the moral and economics reasons to accept refugees, there are
also social aspects that should be analyzed. Undeniable, the European
culture is admired throughout most countries of the world. Many Europeans,
are afraid that the inflow of refugees will have as a consequence the decline
of the European culture. However, this should not be the case. If you allow
refugees to work, very rapidly they will adapt to the European culture and
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values, and not only that, but also Europeans can learn the most positive
aspects from other cultures. If the culture of refugees have positives aspects,
those can be copied by citizens. It is a win-win relation. In case Europeans do
not like something from immigrants culture, those values or practices should
just not be copied by Europeans. Europe has constantly presumed, since the
French Revolution, how its a firm believer of liberty. If you truly support
liberty, you should then allow citizens to determine what they want to do
with their lives. If citizens consider that some of the refugees' practices are
positive for them, let them copy those practices, it is a personal decision of
the citizens. If you let refugees work, they will adapt to your practices very
fast, and also you can be sure that as they earn money they will not be
involved in criminal practices.
We can see how Europe can benefit from the influx of refugees. But
Europe will only experience positive results from the influx if there is order in
their distribution across nations and if the proper controls are established, so
that terrorists and criminals stay out of the continent. In order to do so,
please find three key points that, if followed by every European nation, will
make the refugees influx to Europe a positive experience to everyone:
1. Relocation of refugees from where they entered: Italy (15,600), Greece
(50,400) and Hungary (54,000) to other nations will be done using
quantifiable criteria: 40% of the size of the population, 40% of the GDP,
10% of the average number of past five year's asylum applications and
10% of the unemployment rate.9
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2. 780 million of euros from the EU budget will be distributed depending


on the percentage of refugees received by each of the countries: If for
example a country receives 10% of the total refugees, that country
should expect to have 78 million of euros to appropriately relocate all
the refugees.
3. Each country must install refugees' camps. All refugees entering any
European country will have to go through inspection before the country
provides asylum. Those refugees that can demonstrate that do not
have any connections with criminal or terrorists groups and that are
requesting asylum because they are not able to go back to their
countries, will receive permission from European countries to legally
work and reside in the respective country. Those who cannot properly
demonstrate that are not affiliated to any terrorist or criminal activity
will be automatically prosecuted by local authorities.
By following these three simple steps, Europe will definitely benefit from
the influx of immigrants. As you can see, from all arguments given before,
there are not real reasons to reject refugees. The only reason that might still
stop you is the fact that you are politicians and you need people's vote, and
therefore, their approval on this process. Very unfortunately, we have
recently seen how the public opinion of Europe is shifting regarding the
refugee crisis. Many "people are full of fear over refugee influx" 10, and as
time goes on, The Economist reports that there is less support from
European citizens to allow refugees to enter to their countries. 11 But as the
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leaders that you are, you can decide whether to do what people tell you,
which involves acting immorally, damage your nation's image, and waste a
golden economic and moral opportunity, or you can convince citizens that
accepting refugees is the right thing to do. This will be a historical event that
will shape the world, it is in your hands to decide on what side of the history
you would like to be on: the side of the good ones, or on the side of those
who were opposed to help the poor and oppressed.
Refugees and migrants represent only 0.11% of the total EU population;
that is one refugee out of a thousand Europeans. This number of immigrants
should definitely not alter the current order of the continent. And it is not
only for moral reasons but for selfish ones that you should receive refugees
as your economy will be vitalized with this population influx. Of course, there
has to be controls in receiving the refugees; there are many people around
the world with terrorist's intentions to hurt Europe. But if refugees can truly
prove that they are getting into Europe to work and save their lives, then let
them in, and let them earn so that they will become productive for
themselves and for Europe. I hope you will follow this proposal. The world is
watching you.

1) http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-24583286

"Why Is EU Struggling with Migrants and Asylum? - BBC News." BBC News.
Bbc.com, 21 Sept. 2015. Web. 01 Nov. 2015.

2) http://www.economist.com/node/21663228
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"Merkel the Bold." The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 05 Sept. 2015.
Web. 04 Nov. 2015.

3) http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/aug/10/10-truths-abouteuropes-refugee-crisis
Kingsley, Patrick. "10 Truths About Europe Refugee Crisis." The Guardian.
Www.theguardian.com, 10 Aug. 2015. Web. 1 Nov. 2015.

4) http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2015/10/12/evangelistfranklin-graham-islamic-state-guilty-genocide-christians/

Williams, Thomas D., PHD. "Franklin Graham: Islamic State Guilty of Christian
'Genocide'" Breitbart News. Www.breitbar.com, 12 Oct. 2015. Web. 01 Nov.
2015.

5) http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/future-development/posts/2015/09/16economic-impact-refugees-cali
Cali, Massimiliano, and Samia Sekkarie. "Much Ado about Nothing? The
Economic Impact of Refugee 'invasions'" The Brookings Institution.
Www.brookings.edu, 16 Sept. 2015. Web. 02 Nov. 2015.

6) http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?
tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=tsdde220&plugin=1

"Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) Table." Eurostat - Tables,
Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) Table. Eurostat, n.d. Web. 04 Nov. 2015.

7) http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2013/01/world_p
opulation_may_actually_start_declining_not_exploding.html
Wise, Jeff. "Forget Overcrowding. The World Population Could Start Declining."
Www.slate.com. Slate, 9 Jan. 2013. Web. 03 Nov. 2015.

8) http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21662547-bigger-welcomemat-would-be-europes-own-interest-let-them-and-let-them-earn
"Let Them in and Let Them Earn." The Economist. The Economist Newspaper,
27 Aug. 2015. Web. 04 Nov. 2015.

9) http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-15-5596_en.htm
"Refugee Crisis: European Commission Takes Decisive Action." European
Commission. European Commission Press Release Database, 9 Sept. 2015.
Web. 04 Nov. 2015.

10)
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/hungarys-leader-tomigrants-please-dont-come/2015/09/03/d5244c6d-53d8-4e82-b9d735ec41ca2944_story.html
Birnbaum, Michael. "'People in Europe Are Full of Fear' over Refugee Influx."
Washington Post. The Washington Post, 3 Sept. 2015. Web. 01 Nov. 2015.

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11)
http://www.economist.com/news/europe/21672296-after-historicembrace-refugees-german-public-opinion-turning-merkel-her-limit
"Merkel at Her Limit." The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 10 Oct.
2015. Web. 04 Nov. 2015.

12)

http://www.inquisitr.com/2396458/29-countries-accepting-syrianrefugees/
Holger, Dieter. "29 Countries Accepting Refugees From Syria And The
Mideast." The Inquisitr News. Inquisitr, 6 Sept. 2015. Web. 04 Nov. 2015.

Reflection Letter
It was a huge challenge for me to write this paper. Throughout the entire
semester I have been writing about interest rates in the US and what the Fed should
do regarding this topic. Just two weeks before turning in the draft for Unit 3, the Fed
decided that they would not raise interest rates. I could have maintain writing about
the topic, but my paper would have been obsolete and meaningless. So I decided to
write about a current topic where I would be equally excited as writing about
interest rates. I decided to write about the European refugee crisis because, as
European that I am, I felt that I had to provide my thoughts on such a complex
situation and because is a current debate that does not have a correct-wrong
answer.
In order to come up with this final paper, my essay was revised by two
classmates, the professor and the writing center of the university. Each provided
help at his/her own way but the only comments I have regarding their revisions are
positive. The first review I looked at and that made me do the first edits to my paper
were the ones made by my two classmates Saskia and Karina. I want to thank them
both for they very good feedback, I am sure that without their help my paper would
not have been the same. From Saskia's feedback I realized that I was not
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incorporating the argument from those who are against the influx of refugees. So for
the final paper I researched about the negative aspects of accepting refugees. After
that, I incorporated those arguments and found the best response to them, which I
also incorporated to the paper. From Karina, the best feedback I received, was to
incorporate quotations to the paper, that way readers could see that my arguments
were backed by previous research by experts in the field.
Professor's feedback, even though it was not specifically directed to me, it
was extremely helpful. I want to thank the professor for the time she took on
providing us general comments regarding our paper. Professor's feedback, basically
made me change my entire paper. As I was reading her recommendations I was
trying to make all the updates in my paper. What I appreciated the most from her
feedback was to avoid basic informationas my audience already knows itwhich
made my paper very much concise since I did not have to explain everything. And
also, I specially liked her observation about how a conclusion is not a summary of
the paper, but rather a conclusion of the research. This observation made me edit
my conclusion to make it more concise.
Since I am an international student, I struggle a lot with grammar. For this
unit I went to the writing center for help after writing my first draft. At the writing
center the feedback was extremely helpful as my reviewer not only showed me
where I was having issues but also explained me why.. Hopefully I will not repeat the
same mistakes in the future.
Writing Unit 3 was a very difficult challenge that required a lot of research. I
am sure that my writing skills advanced a lot as my audience were professionals on
the topic. Also, I want to mention that I enjoyed a lot writing about this trending

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European debate because by doing so I am more than clear now that the right thing
to do is to accept refugees. After submitting this assignment I will post this essay in
my personal blog and I will share it since I will like to convince people that accepting
refugees is the right thing to do. Finally, I want to thank again all the ones who
helped me in doing this unique assignment.

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