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Macee Prevatte
Mrs. DeBock
English 4 Honors
Annotated Bibliography
Research Question: What are the different effects of parental cancer on children?
Working Thesis Statement: There are various effects of parental cancer on children.
Refined Thesis Statement: Children of parents with cancer develop psychological, psychosocial,
and academic problems.

Huizinga, Gea A.Visser, AnnemiekeVan der Graaf, Winette T. A.Hoekstra, Harald J.Stewart, Roy
E.Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M. "Family-Oriented Multilevel Study On The
Psychological Functioning Of Adolescent Children Having A Mother With
Cancer." Psycho-Oncology 20.7 (2011): 730-737. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences
Collection. Web. 24 Sept. 2015.
This study focuses on the psychological functioning of adolescent children, ages 11 to 18,
having a mother with cancer. A significant amount of children develop emotional problems,
behavioral problems, and stress response symptoms (SRS). The reason some children develop
these problems and others do not is uncertain but may be related to the characteristics of the
children and parents. Emotionally, adolescent girls are the most vulnerable because they are
required to take on more household and care giving duties. Age also plays a big part in

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externalizing problems in adolescents, the older the adolescent the more problems. This is
because they are more conscious of their parents illness than younger adolescents resulting in a
greater burden for them. In order to prevent emotional and behavioral problems communication
between parents and adolescents needs to be encouraged. This article is crucial to my paper
because it gives numerous reasons how adolescents are affected when their mother is diagnosed
with cancer.

Lindqvist, B., et al. "Factors Associated With The Mental Health Of Adolescents When A Parent
Has Cancer." Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology 48.4 (2007): 345-351. Academic
Search Complete. Web. 1 Oct. 2015.
The intention of this article is to analyze the various factors associated with the mental
health of adolescents when a parent has cancer. In this study, the gender of the ill parent or the
adolescent was insignificant. It has been shown in numerous studies that the association between
maternal cancer and adolescent girls being at an increased risk of distress is due to increased
responsibilities at home. Adolescents grow insecure and anxious when the ill parent shows a lack
of physical symptoms causing them to become more symptomatic. They may grow even more
anxious when the family does not acknowledge the presence of cancer, inhibiting the
adolescents opportunity to express themselves about the illness. In order to prevent and reduce
distress in adolescents it is recommended to enhance open family communication, acquire
problem solving skills, and improve the affective involvement between family members. This
study exhibits several components causing distress in adolescents.

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Semple, C.J., and E. Mccaughan. "Family Life When A Parent Is Diagnosed With Cancer:
Impact Of A Psychosocial Intervention For Young Children." European Journal Of
Cancer Care 22.2 (2013): 219-231. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Sept. 2015.

The primary objective of this article is to explain the experience of parental cancer and its
impact on children through psychosocial intervention. The CLIMB program is a 6-week
psychosocial intervention developed to improve childrens knowledge of cancer, coping
strategies, and family communication. Families experience major changes in their daily life such
as living patterns, roles, and relationships causing an increased risk of familial dysfunction. Most
parents experience high levels of anxiety when having to share the diagnoses with children
fearing the potential aftermath. On the other hand, children typically want to know detailed
information about their parents sickness. How and when children are informed of their parents
illness has a major impact on anxiety levels and coping strategies. Though children may not
know what the illness is they comprehend something is wrong by observing different living
patterns and the physical side-effects of cancer treatments. This article is critical to my research
because it provided information on how children are affected by parental cancer.

Sieh, Dominik, Johanna Visser-Meily, and Anne Meijer. "Differential Outcomes Of Adolescents
With Chronically Ill And Healthy Parents." Journal Of Child & Family Studies 22.2
(2013): 209-218. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Oct. 2015.
Adolescents with chronically ill parents are at an increased risk of stress and have
difficulty adjusting. Children of parents with a chronic medical condition exhibit more
internalizing problems including anxiety, depression, withdrawn behavior, and somatic

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complaints. Not only do adolescents experience daily hassles and stress but they also experience
a comparatively low grade point average. Increased caregiving responsibilities and illness
demands results in insufficient time for leisure and school activities. Having a chronically ill
parents puts adolescents at an increased risk for behavioral, psychosocial, and academic
problems. Adults should be aware of these difficulties and help adolescents to adjust. This article
presents numerous ways adolescents are effected by a chronically ill parent.

Visser, Annemieke, et al. "Emotional And Behavioral Problems In Children Of Parents Recently
Diagnosed With Cancer: A Longitudinal Study."Acta Oncologica 46.1 (2007):
67. Advanced Placement Source. Web. 1 Oct. 2015.
This study examines a variety of problems in children during the first year after the
parents diagnosis. Parents may exhibit less attention to their children due to stress and emotional
problems caused when being confronted with a life-threatening disease. Primary school children
have more emotional problems than normal children. During the first year of diagnosis, children
do not experience an increase of problems because they mask their emotions in order to protect
their parents. Over time, emotional and behavioral problems decrease as whole, though in some
children they may not. Biological, psychological, and social factors determine a childs level of
vulnerability. Children who originally experience fewer problems have more personal and
environmental resources to protect them from long term problems. Vissers article provides me
with information on the effects of parental cancer in children.

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Visser, Annemieke, et al. "Emotional And Behavioural Functioning Of Children Of A Parent
Diagnosed With Cancer: A Cross-Informant Perspective." Psycho-Oncology 14.9 (2005):
746. Advanced Placement Source. Web. 1 Oct. 2015.
The main purpose of this article was to study the emotional and behavioral problems
found in children of parents diagnosed with cancer by being compared to the normal population.
Ill parents reported significantly more internalizing problems in both latency aged sons and
adolescent daughters. More emotional problems were found in latency aged sons and daughter
rather than adolescents. Adolescent daughters reported more emotional and behavioral problems
than adolescent sons. Adolescents whose fathers were ill rather than mothers reported having
significantly more problems. Spouses reported that adolescent daughters functioning was
affected by the intensity of the ill parents treatment. Adolescent sons reported that their
functioning was affected by the relapse of the disease. This study shows what gender and
developmental stage is more affected and how.