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The Charpy Impact Test

and
Fracture Toughness

The Charpy Impact Test


Zero Setting

Fracture Energy vs. Temperature


for Various Metals

Source: J. Morrow, Univ. of Manchester (UK)

Fracture Energy and Mode Percentage


vs. Temperature for A36 Steel

brittle

ductile
DBT

Defining a Transition Temperature


In general, there is no single specific
criteria for defining a transition
temperature; various definitions are
used:

brittle

ductile

Fracture Transition Plastic (FTP) is the


temperature above which the fracture
is
100%
fibrous/shear
(0%
cleavage/ductile). This is the most
conservature estimate.
Nil Ductility Temperature (NDT) is the
temperature below which the fracture
is 100% cleavage/shear.
Fracture
Appearance
Transition
Temperature (FATT) is the temperature
at which the fracture surface is 5050% cleavage and fibrous. This can
alternativey be based upon the mean
of the upper and lower shelf
energies.

NDT

FATT

FTP

Fracture Surface Appearance vs. Temperature


(Fahrenheit)

brittle

bright appearance, cleavage failure

ductile

dull appearance, plastic deformation

Carbon Content Effect on DBT Behavior

Increasing
Carbon

Note: Increasing %C decreases fracture toughness although increasing strength

Fracture Energy vs. Atomic Structure


FCC structures exhibit no DBT, remain
ductile at all temperatures (e.g., Al and Cubased alloys)

BCC/HCP structures do exhibit DBT


characteristics

ME124 Test Data from Spring 2000


ME124 Charpy Impact Test Data - Spr 2000
160
C1081 Steel
140

6061 Al
Brass
4340 Steel

120

A36 Steel

Fracture Energy (ft-lb)

Cast Iron
100

80

60

40

20

0
-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

50

Tem perature (deg C)

100

150

200

250

Fracture Surface Microstructure

brittle

ductile