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Electricians Licence A

Licence (A)
General House Installation
(Lighting and Domestic Appliances)

Electrical Theory

Background Information on Units and Quantities

7 SI Base Units & Quantities

Unit Unit Base Quantity Dimension

Name Symbol Quantity Symbol Symbol
meter m length l L
kilogram kg mass m M
second s time t T
ampere A electric current I I
kelvin K thermodynamic T Θ
mole mol amount of substance n N
candela cd luminous intensity Iv J
22 SI Special Derived Units

Special Special Expression in terms of

Derived quantity name Symbol other SI units SI base units
plane angle radian rad m · m-1 = 1
solid angle steradian sr m2 · m-2 = 1
frequency hertz Hz s-1
force newton N m · kg · s-2
pressure, stress pascal Pa N/m2 m-1 · kg · s-2
energy, work, quantity of heat joule J N·m m2 · kg · s-2
power, radiant flux watt W J/s m2 · kg · s-3
electric charge, quantity of electricity coulomb C s·A
electric potential, potential volt V W/A m2 · kg · s-3 · A-1
difference, electromotive force
capacitance farad F C/V m-2 · kg-1 · s4 · A2
electric resistance ohm Ω V/A m2 · kg · s-3 · A-2
electric conductance siemens S A/V m-2 · kg-1 · s3 · A2

22 SI Special Derived Units (cont.)

Special Expression in terms of

Derived quantity Special name Symbol other SI units SI base units
magnetic flux weber Wb V·s m2 · kg · s-2 · A-1
magnetic flux density tesla T Wb/m2 kg · s-2 · A-1
inductance henry H Wb/A m2 · kg · s-2 · A-2
Celsius temperature degree Celsius °C K
luminous flux lumen lm cd · sr cd · sr
illuminance lux lx lm/m2 m-2 · cd · sr
activity (of a radionuclide) becquerel Bq s-1
absorbed dose, specific energy gray Gy J/kg m2 · s-2
(imparted), kerma
dose equivalent, et al. sievert Sv J/kg m2 · s-2
catalytic activity katal kat s-1 · mol

Electrical units and standards

The SI base unit for electrical measurements is the

ampere (A), the unit of electric current.

It is defined in terms of a hypothetical experiment

as that constant current which, if maintained in two
straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of
negligible circular cross section, and placed 1 meter
apart in vacuum, would produce between these
conductors a force equal to 2 × 10-7 newton per
meter of length.

The volt (V) is the unit of potential difference and
of electromotive force. It is defined as the
potential difference between two points of a
conducting wire carrying a constant current of 1
ampere (A) when the power dissipated between
these points is equal to 1 watt (W). From the
ampere and the volt, the ohm (W) is derived by
Ohm's law, and the other derived quantities follow
in a similar manner by the application of known
physical laws.

Ohm (W) is the unit of electrical resistance, equal

to 1 volt per ampere. The ohm is defined as the
resistance between two points of a conductor
when a constant potential difference of 1 volt,
applied to these points, produces in the conductor
a current of 1 ampere 6
The remaining units of electrical and magnetic

Coulomb (C): The unit of electric charge, equal to

1 ampere-second (As). The coulomb is the
quantity of electricity carried in 1 second by a
current of 1 ampere.

[C = As] Q=I*t

Farad (F): The unit of capacitance, equal to 1

coulomb per volt. The farad is the capacitance of a
capacitor between the plates of which there
appears a potential difference of 1 volt when it is
charged by a quantity of electricity of 1 coulomb.

[F = C/V = As/V] C = Q/V 7

Henry (H): The unit of inductance, equal to 1
weber (Wb) per ampere. The henry is the
inductance of a closed circuit in which an
electromotive force of 1 volt is produced when the
electric current in the circuit varies uniformly at
the rate of 1 ampere per second.

[H = Wb/A = V/(A/s) = Vs/A] L = F/I

Siemens (S): The unit of electrical conductance

(the reciprocal of resistance), equal to 1 ampere
per volt.

[S = A/V] G = I/V
Tesla (T): The unit of magnetic flux density, equal
to 1 weber per square meter.

[T = Wb/m2] B = F/A

Weber (Wb): The unit of magnetic flux, equal to 1

volt-second. The weber is the magnetic flux which,
linking a circuit of one turn, would produce in it an
electromotive force of 1 volt if it were reduced to
zero at a uniform rate in 1 second.

[Wb = Vs]

Prefix Symbol Magnitude
peta P 1015
tera T 1012
giga G 109 100 = 1
101 = 10
mega M 106 102 = 10 * 10 = 100
kilo k 103 103 = 10 * 10 * 10 = 1000
10-1 = 1 / 10 = 0.1
hecto h 102
10-2 = 1 / 10 / 10 = 0.01
deka da 101 10-3 = 1 / 10 / 10 / 10 = 0.001
deci d 10-1
centi c 10-2
Express 9.213 * 102 in decimal
milli m 10-3 number
micro m 10-6
nano n 10-9 Solve 5 * 102 + 3.2 * 103
pico p 10-12
femto f 10-15
atto a 10-18 10
Ohm's law

Relationship between the potential difference

(voltage), electric current, and resistance in an
electric circuit. In 1827 Georg Simon Ohm
discovered that at constant temperature, the
current I in a circuit is directly proportional to the
potential difference V, and inversely proportional to
the resistance R, or I = V/R. Ohm's law may also
be expressed in terms of the electromotive force E
of an electric energy source, such as a battery, or E
= IR. In an alternating-current circuit, when the
combination of resistance and reactance, called
impedance Z, is constant, Ohm's law is applicable
and V/I = Z.


There are basically three types of circuit -- series,

parallel, and series and parallel circuit.

Series Circuit

The total resistance is equal

to the sum of the resistance
on each component.
RT = R1 + R2

The total voltage is the The total current is equal in

sum of the voltage on every component.
each component. IT = I1 = I2
VT = V1 + V2
Example 1

What is the total voltage,

resistance and current?

First, we have to find out the total voltage using

equation V0 = V1+ V2 + V3 +...+ Vn, and then
resistance using equation R0 = R1 + R2 + R3 +...+
Rn, and finally you can find out the current using
equation I0 = I1 = I2= I3= I4 =...= In.

Total voltage is 9 + 1 + 16 + 4 = 30 V
Total resistance is 30 + 10 + 40 + 20 = 100 ohm
Using ohm's law, I = V / R, then we can find out
the total current. I = 30 / 100 = 0.3 A
Example problem 1

What is the current through A and B?

What is the voltage drop across A, B and C?
What is the resistance of C?
What is the total resistance?
What is total current?

Parallel Circuit

The total voltage is equal

in every component.
VT = V1= V2

The resistance is equal to The total current is equal

the product of resistance on to the sum of current in
each component divided by each component.
the sum of resistance of IT = I1 + I2
each component.
RT = (R1*R2)/(R1+R2)

1/RT = 1/R1 + 1/R2

Example 2

What is the total resistance

and voltage? And voltage
and current on A, B, and C?

In order to find out the total voltage, we have to find

out the total resistance. Using equation 1/R0 = 1/R1
+ 1/R2 +...+ 1/Rn, we can find out the total
1/R = 1/15 + 1/15 + 1/30 = 5/30, R = 6 ohm

Then using ohm's law, V = I R, we can find out the

total voltage. V = 5A * 6W = 30 V
Using equation V0 = V1= V2= V3 =...= Vn, we now
know the voltage on A, B, and C, which is 30 V
each. Using ohm's law again, we can find out the
current through A, B, and C.

IA = 30V/15W = 2 A,
IB = 30V/15W = 2 A,
IC = 30V/30W = 1 A .

When you add up all the current (using equation

I0= I1 + I2 + I3 + I4 +...+ In), we get 5 A which is
the total current.

Example problem 2

What is the total resistance,

voltage, and current?
What is the voltage across A, B
and C? What is the current
through A, B, C, and D?

Series - Parallel Circuit

The total voltage is the voltage of series plus the

voltage of parallel.
VT = V1 + V2 = V1 + V3

The total resistance is the resistance of series plus

the resistance of parallel.
RT = R1 + [(R2 * R3) / (R2 + R3)]

The total current is equal to the current on series

and to the sum of the current of parallel circuit.
IT = I1 = I2 + I3 19
Example 3

What is voltage across A, B, and D?

What is current through A, B, C, and D?
What is resistance of C?
What is total current and resistance?

Using V0 = V1= V2= V3 =...= Vn, for parallel

circuits, we know that the voltage on D is equal to
C, which is 80 V. We also know A and B have the
same voltage. Using the voltage law, we can find
out the voltage on A and B, which is 230 - 80 =
150 V each. 20
Now we get all the voltages on each component.
Using ohm's law, we can find out the current through
A, B, C, and D. IA= 150V/30W = 5 A; IB = 150V/30W
= 5 A; ID = 80V/40W = 2 A; IC = 10-2 = 8 A. The
sum of the current on A and B is equal to that of C
and D (I0 = I1 = I2= I3= I4 =...= In for serial circuit)
The resistance of A+B is 15 ohm RT =(R1*R2)/(R1+R2)
The resistance of C is RC = 80V/8A = 10W. Therefore,
the resistance of C+D is 8W.

Total resistance and current of this circuit are

R = 15+8 = 23 W; I = 230V /23W = 10 A 21

Power is the rate of doing work, or, of converting

energy from one form to another. Its units are
joules per second. One joule per second is called a
watt W (symbol P).

Example 1

If a machine converts 1,000 J of energy in 5 sec,

what is its power?

The power, P, is given by:

P =energy converted / time = 1, 000 J/5 s = 200W

When current flows through a wire, the wire gets
hot: i.e., power is dissipated. (This heat is why the
filament in a light bulb glows.)
This leads to the definition of potential difference:
when a current of one ampere flows through a
resistor, one watt of power is dissipated by the
resistor when a potential difference of one volt
appears across it.
In general the power, P, voltage and current are
related by: P = V * I

Example 2
If a current of 30A flows through a resistor to which
a voltage of 100V is applied, what power is
dissipated in the resistor?
From P = V I
P = 100V × 30A = 3, 000W (or 3 kW.) 23
Multiple choice:
If a current of 3 A flows along a wire with a
potential difference of 4 V between the ends, how
much power is dissipated along the wire?
(a) 0W; (b) 7W; (c) 12W; (d) 4/3 W

There are other ways of writing the power P = V I.

Using Ohm‘s law P = I R I = I2 R (W)

or P = V V/R = V2/R (W)

Multiple choice:
What is the power consumption of a 100W resistor if a
50mA current flows through it?
(a) 0.25W; (b) 2.5x106W; (c) 2.5x10-4W; (d) 5x1024
From Ohm‘s law, there are three equivalent
expressions for the power dissipation in a circuit:

P = V I , P = V2/R, P = I2R
Exercise 1 I R

(a) In the circuit if R = 6 and I = 3A, what is the

(b) In the circuit if V = 8V and R = 2, what is the
(c) Finally, what is the power if V = 8V and I = 0.25A?
Series and Parallel Circuits

In a series circuit:
The same current flows through each resistor. Hence
in the diagram the power dissipated in them are
P1 = I2R1 , and P2 = I2R2 , respectively and the total
power dissipated is
PT = I2(R1 + R2)

By Ohm‘s law the voltage source is V = I(R1 + R2),

the power can also be written as PT = V2/(R1 + R2)
. 26
10W 5W
Example 3

In the series circuit

since 10W is twice as big as 5W, the power dissipated
in the 10W resistor will be twice that dissipated in the
5W resistor.
If I = 2A the power dissipation,
P = I2R, will be 22 × 10 = 40W in the 10W resistor
and 22 × 5 = 20W in the 5W resistor.

Exercise 2
(a) If above R1 = 5W and R2 = 15W, how much
more power is used in the 15W resistor?
(b) If I = 0.8A, calculate the power dissipation in
each resistor.
(c) How much energy is dissipated over 30 minutes? 27
Example 4

If two resistors are connected in parallel, the effective

resistance is less than either of the two individual
resistors. (This is because there are more ways for
the current to flow.)

The potential difference

across the two parallel
resistors is the same, V .
Hence the total power in the
resistors in parallel is

PT = V2/R1+ V2/R2= V2(R1 + R2)/R1R2 (W)

Exercise 3
Consider a 10W and a 5W resistor connected in
parallel across a 2V source.

(a) What is the power dissipated in the 10W resistor?

(b) What is the power dissipated in the 5W resistor?
(c) How does the total power dissipated differ from
the case if the same resistors were connected in

Example 5
The series circuit below represents a power source
with an internal resistor Rs. If a load resistor R is
connected across the terminals A and B, how does
the power to load, PL, depend upon R?

I R The current I is
given by
V = I(Rs + R)
A V Rs B I = V/(Rs + R)

Using PL = I2R, the power

to load is thus
PL = V2R /(Rs + R)2
Rs R 30
Maximum Power:

In the curve above it is shown that the maximum

power across the load resistance is when R = Rs,
i.e., when the load resistance is equal to the
internal resistance of the source (perhaps a
battery or generator). This is called resistance
Exercise 4

The power to load is given by PL = V2R/(Rs + R)2 .

(a) What is PL when R = Rs?
(b) What is PL when R = 100Rs?
(c) What is PL when R = 0.001Rs?
(d) The maximum power will be given when
dPL/dR=0, use the rule of differentiation to show
that the maximum is at R = Rs. 31
Short Circuit:

If there is no resistance between the terminals,

R = 0, the power to load is
PL = (V2 × 0)/(Rs + 0)2 = 0/Rs = 0 (W)

No power can be extracted from a short circuit:

there must be a resistance to extract power.

Open Circuit:

If the terminals are disconnected then there is an

infinite resistance, R = , and no current flows.
Again the power to load vanishes: a current must
flow to extract power.

Energy is capacity (ability) for doing work. Energy

exists in various forms—including kinetic, potential,
thermal, chemical, electrical (see electricity), and
nuclear— and can be converted from one form to
another. For example, fuel-burning heat engines
convert chemical energy to thermal energy;
batteries convert chemical energy to electrical
energy. Though energy may be converted from one
form to another, it may not be created or destroyed;
that is, total energy in a closed system remains

Units of energy is Joule (J)

In the electricity supply industry the SI units of watts
and joules are too small. Instead, the units used are:

power unit: kilowatt (1kW = 103W)

energy unit: kilowatt-hour

(1kWh = 103×60×60 J= 3 600 000 J=3600 kJ)

This is such a large number that it is easy to

understand why your electricity is not sold in joules!

Multiple choice:
If a household electricity metre changes from 5732 to
5786 units, how much electrical energy has been
dissipated in the house?
(a) 2 × 108J (b) 2 × 1010J (c) 2 × 106J (d) 5.4×103J
Multiple choice:
If a current of 3A flows along a wire with a
potential difference of 4V for one hour, how much
energy is dissipated?
(a) 12 J; (b) 720 J; (c) 4,320 J; (d) 43,200 J

The cost of electricity, is expressed in terms of a
unit cost (€ cent per kWh) delivered to the
customer. This cost value, includes the capital cost
of the generating plant and equipment,
transmission and distribution system; the cost of
fuel burned and the cost of developing, operating
and maintaining the system in whole.

Cost of consumed electrical energy

= number of units * cost per unit

Enemalta tariffs
Residential kWh

Band Cumulative Consumption 1 Apr 09 Tariff (€ cent)

1 2,000 0.1190

2 6,000 0.1340

3 10,000 0.1520

4 20,000 0.2090

5 60,000 0.2320

Domestic kWh

Band Cumulative Consumption 1 Apr 09 Tariff (€ cent)

1 2,000 0.1610

2 6,000 0.1730

3 10,000 0.1890

4 20,000 0.2090

5 60,000 0.2320

Non-Residential kWh

1 Apr 09 Tariffs Day rates Night rates

Band Cum
(€ cents) (€ cents) (€ cents)
1 2,000 0.1040 0.1060 0.0990
2 6,000 0.1120 0.1140 0.1070
3 10,000 0.1250 0.1270 0.1200
4 20,000 0.1400 0.1420 0.1350
5 60,000 0.1570 0.1590 0.1520
6 100,000 0.1420 0.1440 0.1370
7 1,000,000 0.1290 0.1310 0.1240
8 5,000,000 0.1120 0.1140 0.1070
9 10,000,000 0.0860 0.0880 0.0810

Non-Residential kVAh

1 Apr 09 Tariffs Day rates Night rates

Band Cum
(€ cents) (€ cents) (€ cents)
1 2,000 0.0960 0.0980 0.0910
2 6,000 0.1030 0.1050 0.0980
3 10,000 0.1150 0.1170 0.1100
4 20,000 0.1290 0.1310 0.1240
5 60,000 0.1440 0.1460 0.1390
6 100,000 0.1310 0.1330 0.1260
7 1,000,000 0.1190 0.1210 0.1140
8 5,000,000 0.1030 0.1050 0.0980
9 10,000,000 0.0790 0.0810 0.0740

Exercise 1

If factory‘s management decide to opt for the tariff

system based on kVAh instead of kWh, what saving
will be in term of € if factory total consumption is
75000 kWh annually and power factor is 0.99 after
having installed power factor correction equipment?

Maximum demand rate
Consumers being billed against this tariff are charged as
•A periodical maximum demand rate. (Maximum demand
is the highest power demand measured in KW or KVA. It
is measured within a definite period of time)
•A per unit rate of either kWh or kVAh.

Enemalta Maximum Demand Charge As From 01.10.08

kWh Billing € 20.50/kW

KVAh Billing € 19.20/kVA

kWh or kVAh billing on

€ 17.20/kW or € 17.20/kVA
reduced rates

The resistance R of a conductor of uniform cross

section can be calculated as


This formula relates the resistance of a conductor

with its specific resistance ρ (Wm), its length l (m),
and its cross-sectional area A (m2).
Conductor resistance increases with increased length
and decreases with increased cross-sectional area, all
other factors being equal.
Specific resistance is a constant for the type of
conductor material being considered at specified
temperature. 43
Specific resistance at 20 deg C

Nichrome Alloy 112.2 (mW cm)

Nichrome V Alloy 108.1
Manganin Alloy 48.21 Specific Resistance
Constantan Alloy 45.38 (r) is a property of
Steel* Alloy 16.62 any conductive
Platinum Element 10.5 material, which is
Iron Element 9.61 defined as
resistivity, a figure
Nickel Element 6.93 used to determine
Zinc Element 5.90 the end-to-end
Molybdenum Element 5.34 resistance of a
Tungsten Element 5.28 conductor given
Aluminum Element 2.650 length and cross-
sectional area.
Gold Element 2.214
Copper Element 1.678
Silver Element 1.587
* = Steel alloy at 99.5 % iron, 0.5 % carbon 44
Example 1
How much cross-sectional area of the aluminium
conductor has to be bigger than the cooper one if
both of them are of the same length and they
should perform electrically the same?

Rcu = Ral = R lcu = lal = l

R = rcu l/Acu = ral l/Aal

rcu /Acu = ral /Aal

Aal = ral Acu / rcu = 2.65 * Acu / 1.678 = 1.58 Acu

Cross-sectional area of the aluminium conductor

has to be 58% bigger than the cooper one.
Exercise 1

Calculate the resistance of a 2 km length of aluminium

overhead power cable if the cross-sectional area of the
cable is 95 mm2.

Exercise 2

A wire of length 8 m and cross-sectional area 3 mm2 has

a resistance of 0.16Ω. If the wire is drawn out until its
cross-sectional area is 1 mm2, determine the resistance
of the wire.

Temperature resistance dependence

In general, as the temperature of a material

increases, most conductors increase in resistance,
insulators decrease in resistance, whilst the
resistance of some special alloys remain almost

There are two types of temperature coefficient of
resistance: positive and negative.

A positive coefficient of resistance increases

resistance as the temperature rises, while a
negative coefficient of resistance decreases the
resistance as the temperature rises.

Positive Negative
temperature temperature
coefficient coefficient 48
Some typical values of temperature coefficient of
resistance measured at 0°C are given below:

Copper 0.0043/°C
Aluminium 0.0038/°C
Nickel 0.0062/°C
Carbon -0.00048/°C
Eureka 0.000 01/°C

(Note that the negative sign for carbon indicates

that its resistance falls with increase of

Definition of temperature coefficient of resistance

Temperature coefficient of resistance is the ratio of

the change of resistance per degree C change of
temperature to the resistance of the same material
at some definite temperature.
Definite temperature at 0oC
If the resistance of a material at
0°C is known the resistance at any
other temperature can be
determined from:
R0 = resistance at 0°C
R1 = resistance at temperature t1°C
a0 = temperature coefficient of resistance at 0°C 50
Exercise 3

A coil of copper wire has a resistance of 100Ω when

its temperature is 0°C. Determine its resistance at
70°C if the temperature coefficient of resistance of
copper at 0°C is 0.0043/°C

Exercise 4
A carbon resistor has a resistance of 1kΩ at 0°C.
Determine its resistance at 80°C. Assume that the
temperature coefficient of resistance for carbon at
0°C is -0.0005/°C

Definite temperature at 200C

If the resistance of a material at room temperature

(approximately 20°C), R20, and the temperature
coefficient of resistance at 20°C, a20, are known then
the resistance R2 at temperature t2 is given by:


R2 is the resistance at t2
R20 resistance at 20oC
t2 final temperature
a20 temperature coefficient of
resistance at 20°C

Exercise 5
A copper cable at 20oC has a resistance of 90Ω. The
temperature is raised and the resistance measured
reads 104Ω. If the temperature coefficient of
resistance of copper at 20oC is 0.004/oC, calculate
the final temperature.

Exercise 6
An aluminum overhead cable has a resistance of
100Ω, when the effective daytime ambient
temperature is 68oC. During night, the effective
ambient temperature falls to 20oC. Calculate the
night time resistance if the temperature coefficient
of resistance of aluminum at 20oC is 0.0038/oC

Resistance at 0oC is not known

If the resistance at 0°C is not known, but is known at

some other temperature t1, then the resistance at
any temperature can be found as follows:

R1/R2 = (1+a0t1)/(1+a0t2)

R1 is resistance at temperature 1
R2 is resistance at temperature 2
t1 lower temperature
t2 upper temperature
a0 temperature coefficient of resistance at 0°C

Exercise 7
A nickel conductor has a resistance of 250Ω when
its temperature is 25oC. If the temperature is
raised to 120oC, calculate the value of the final
resistance. Assume temperature co-efficient of
resistance of nickel at 0oC is 0.0062/oC.

Exercise 8

An aluminum wire has a resistance of 100Ω when

the temperature is 10oC. A current flows through
the wire and the temperature rises such that the
resistance then reads 175Ω. If the temperature
co-efficient of resistance of aluminum at 0oC is
0.0038/oC, calculate the temperature rise.


The voltage drop is decline in voltage in an electrical

circuit due to the resistance in the conducting line.
This is why longer electrical runs in a building
require thicker wire and why AC power is
transmitted over high-voltage lines. Higher current
requires thicker and more expensive wires, but
higher voltage does not. The high-voltage lines are
reduced by transformers near the end of the line

Voltage drop in cable (V) =

Resistance of cable (R) x Current through cable (I)
Voltage drop% = (voltage drop/voltage at source)x100

Whenever a voltage drop occurs in a cable, power
is being lost across that voltage drop. This power
must be paid for as well, so it is in the interest of
the consumer to minimize power loss in cables.

Power loss in cable (W) =

Resistance of cable (R) x Current through cable2 (I2)
Voltage drop in cable (V) x Current through cable (I)

Some effects of voltage drop in cables:

Power wasted in cables
Reduction in the efficiency of lamps and heaters
Difficulty for fluorescent lamps to start up
Improper speed attainment of motors
Inability of motors to change position of centrifugal
switches (lack of speed) 57
Exercise 1
The voltage at the terminals of a water pump
motor is 234V whereas the voltage at the supply
end is 240V. Calculate the percentage voltage

Exercise 2
A twin copper cable having a cross sectional area of
75mm2, supplies a 20kW load 1000m from source.
If the terminal voltage is 400V when the winter
ambient temperature is 20oC, calculate;
the resistance of the cable
the current absorbed by the circuit
the supply voltage
the percentage power loss in cable
continue on next page 58
During the summer period, the effective ambient
temperature of the cable is raised to 75oC and the
supply voltage is kept constant. Calculate;
the resistance of the cable
the current absorbed
the voltage across the load
the voltage drop across the cable
the percentage power loss in cable

Assume resistivity of copper as 0.017µΩm and

temperature co-efficient of resistance of copper at
20oC is 0.004/oC


The purpose of insulation on electrical cables and

equipment is to
(1) isolate current-carrying conductors from metallic
and structural parts and
(2) insulate points of unequal potential on conductors
from each other.
The resistance of such insulation should be
sufficiently high to result in negligible current flow
through or over its surface.

Testing insulation resistance

A low resistance between phase and neutral

conductors, or from live conductors to earth, will
result in a leakage current.
This current could cause deterioration of the
insulation, as well as involving a waste of energy
which would increase the running costs of the
installation. Insulation will sometimes have high
resistance when low potential differences apply
across it, but will break down and offer low
resistance when a higher voltage is applied.

Required test voltages and minimum resistance
Nominal circuit voltage Test voltage Minimum insulation
(V) resistance (MW)
Extra-low voltage circuits
supplied from a safety 250 0.25
Up to 500 V except for
500 0.5
Above 500 V up to 1000 V 1000 1.0
The insulation resistance tester must be capable of maintaining
the required voltage when providing a steady state of current of

Methods and equipment used for the insulation
resistance tests

The insulation resistance test to earth must be carried out on the

complete installation with the main switch off, with phase and
neutral connected together, with lamps and other equipment
disconnected, but with fuses in, circuit breakers closed and all
circuit switches closed. Where two-way switching is wired, only
one of the two wires will be tested. To test the other, both two-
way switches should be operated and the system retested. If
preferred, the installation can be tested as a whole when a value
of at least 0.5 MW should be achieved, for the usual supply
voltages. In the case of a very large installation where there are
many earth paths in parallel, the reading would be likely lower. If
this happens, the installation should be subdivided and retested,
when each part must meet the minimum requirement.

The testing equipment must be capable of delivering a
current of 1 mA at the minimum allowable resistance level,
which is:
250 kW for the 250 V tester
500 kW for the 500 V tester
1 MW for the 1,000 V tester
Basic instrument accuracy required is +/-5%
It must have a facility to discharge capacitance up to 5 mF
which has become charged during the test or may be
combined with the low resistance ohmmeter


Energy is the ability to do work.

Work is defined as the transfer of energy.

Energy can be found in a number of different forms.

It can be chemical energy, electrical energy, heat
(thermal energy), light (radiant energy), mechanical
energy, and nuclear energy.
Definition: Heat energy (or just heat) is a form of
energy which transfers among particles in a
substance (or system) by means of kinetic energy of
those particle. In other words, under kinetic theory,
the heat is transferred by particles bouncing into
each other.
Heat energy moves in three ways:

Conduction; Convection; Radiation

Conduction occurs when energy is passed directly

from one item to another. If you stirred a pan of
soup on the stove with a metal spoon, the spoon
will heat up. The heat is being conducted from the
hot area of the soup to the colder area of spoon.

Convection is the movement of gases or liquids

from a cooler spot to a warmer spot. If a soup pan
is made of glass, we could see the movement of
convection currents in the pan. The warmer soup
moves up from the heated area at the bottom of the
pan to the top where it is cooler. The cooler soup
then moves to take the warmer soup's place. 67
Radiation is the final form of movement of heat
energy. The sun's light and heat cannot reach us by
conduction or convection because space is almost
completely empty. There is nothing to transfer the
energy from the sun to the earth.
The sun's rays travel in straight lines called heat
rays. When it moves that way, it is called radiation.
When sunlight hits the earth, its radiation is
absorbed or reflected. Darker surfaces absorb more
of the radiation and lighter surfaces reflect the

As a form of energy, the SI unit for heat is the joule
(J), though heat is frequently also measured in the
calorie (cal), which is defined as "the amount of heat
required to raise the temperature of one gram of
water from 14.5 degrees Celsius to 15.5 degrees
Celsius." Heat is also sometimes measured in "British
thermal units" or Btu.

A piece of buttered toast contains about 315

kilojoules (315,000 joules) of energy. With that
energy you could:
Jog for 6 minutes
Bicycle for 10 minutes
Walk briskly for 15 minutes
Sleep for 1-1/2 hours
Run a car for 7 seconds at 80 km/h
Light a 60-watt light bulb for 1-1/2 hours 70
The amount of heat energy (Q) gained or lost by a
substance is equal to the mass of the substance (m)
multiplied by its specific heat capacity (Cg) multiplied
by the change in temperature (final temperature -
initial temperature)

Q = m x Cg x (Tf – Ti)

Specific Heat Capacity (Cg) of a substance is the

amount of heat required to raise the temperature of
1kg of the substance by 1oC (or by 1 K).
The units of specific heat capacity are J oC-1 kg-1 or
J K-1 kg-1

Specific Heat Capacities of Some Substances
[Cg (J K-1 kg-1 or J oC-1 kg-1)]

aluminium Cg = 897 water Cg = 4181.3

carbon Cg = 720 ethanol (ethyl alcohol) Cg = 2440

copper Cg = 385 sulphuric acid (liquid) Cg = 1420

lead Cg = 127 sodium chloride solid Cg = 850

potassium hydroxide
mercury Cg = 139.5 Cg = 1180

Example 1

Calculate the amount of heat needed to increase the

temperature of 250g of water from 20oC to 56oC.

Q = m x Cg x (Tf - Ti)
m = 0.25 kg
Cg = 4181.3 J oC-1 kg-1
Tf = 56oC
Ti = 20oC
Q = 0.25 x 4181.3 x (56 - 20)
Q = 0.25 x 4181.3 x 36
Q = 37 632 J = 37.6 kJ

Example 2

216 J of energy is required to raise the temperature

of aluminium from 15o to 35oC. Calculate the mass
of aluminium.

Q = m x Cg x (Tf - Ti)
Q = 216 J
Cg = 897 JoC-1kg-1
Ti = 15oC
Tf = 35oC
216 = m x 897 x (35 - 15)
216 = m x 897 x 20
216 = m x 17940
m = 216 ÷ 17940 = 0.012kg = 12g

Example 3

Calculate the time needed to increase the

temperature of 50 l of water from 20oC to 50oC, if
the power of electrical heater is 1500W.
Q = m x Cg x (Tf - Ti)
m = 50 kg
Cg = 4181.3 J oC-1 kg-1
Tf = 50oC
Ti = 20oC
Q = 50 x 4181.3 x (56 - 20)
Q = 50 x 4181.3 x 30
Q = 6271950 J
T = Q/P = 6271950/1500 = 4181.3 s = 1.16 h
Assuming 85% efficiency it will take 1.45 h
Mechanical energy

There are two main types of mechanical energy.

They are motion energy and stored mechanical

Motion energy: This is the energy, that something

has because it is moving. Motion energy is also
called kinetic energy.

Stored mechanical energy: This is energy, that

something has stored in it because of its height
above the ground or because it is stretched or bent
or squeezed (e.g. in a stretched rubber band).
Stored mechanical energy is also called potential
Kinetic energy calculation

For an object that is moving the kinetic energy equals

one half times the mass of the object times the
square of the speed of the object. In symbols:

EK = (1/2)mv2

Example 4
How much kinetic energy does an object have if its
mass is 5.0 kg and it is moving at a speed of 4.0 m/s

EK = (1/2)(5.0 kg)(4.0 m/s)2 = 40 J

Potential energy calculation

Energy that is stored in the gravitational field is

called gravitational potential energy, or potential
energy due to gravity.
Since the work done on the object when it is lifted
becomes the gravitational potential energy, the
formula for gravitational potential energy equals the
mass of the object times the acceleration due to
gravity times the height that the object is lifted, as in:

Eg = m g h (J)
m= mass (kg)
g = gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2)
h = displacement (m)
Example 4
What is the gravitational potential energy for a 4 kg
object that is lifted 5 m?
Eg = m g h (J)
Eg = 4kg x 9.81m/s2 x 5m = 196.2 (J)

Example 5

How many energy is needed to move 10 m

horizontally an object applying a force of 500 N?
E = F x m (J)
E = 500 N x 10 m = 5000 (J) = 5 (kJ)

Example 6
How many water would be raised from 40 m depth if
1.2 kW motor of water pump was running for 5 min?
Assume 97% efficiency of the motor and 70%
efficiency of the pump.

Effective power is 1.2 x 0.97 x 0.7 = 0.815 kW

E = P x t = 815 x (5 x 60) = 24450(J)

E = m g h (J)
m = E / (g h) = 24450 (J) / [9.81(m/s2) x 40(m)] =
= 62.31 (l)


E = m Cg Dt
(Kg J Kg-1 0C-1 0C )
(VAs = Ws = J)
(Pa m3 s-1 s )
(N m-2 m3 =J)

Mechanical energy

Luminous flux

Luminous flux describes the total amount of light

emitted by a light source or received by a surface

[f] = Lumen (lm)

Quantity of light
The quantity of light, or luminous energy, is a
product of the luminous flux emitted multiplied by
time; luminous energy is generally expressed in
Q = F * t (lmh) 82
Luminous efficacy

Luminous efficacy describes the luminous flux of a

lamp in relation to its electrical power and is therefore
expressed in lumen per watt (lm/W). The maximum
value theoretically attainable when the total radiant
power is transformed into visible light is 683 lm/W.
Luminous efficacy varies from light source to light
source, but always remains well below this maximum

F lm
h = =

Luminous intensity
An ideal point-source lamp radiates luminous flux
uniformly into the space in all directions; its luminous
intensity is the same in all directions.
In practice, however, luminous flux is not distributed
uniformly. This results partly from the design of the
light source, and partly on the way the light is
intentionally directed.
It makes sense, therefore, to have a way of
presenting the spatial distribution of luminous flux,
i.e. the luminous intensity distribution of the light
Luminous intensity I is
the luminous flux F
radiating in a given
direction per solid
angle W. 85
luminous luminous flux F lm
= ; I= = cd
intensity spatial angle W sr

Luminous flux is power that is radiated from a

source in all directions (lm)
Luminous intensity is power that is radiated from a
source in specific direction (cd)

Typical values for luminous intensity

LED 0.005 cd
Candle 1 cd
100W incandescent bulb 150 cd
Automobile headlamp (high beam) 10000 cd
Lighthouse 300000 cd
Flash tube (peak value) 1000000 cd86
The unit for measuring luminous intensity is
candela (cd). The candela is the primary basic unit
in lighting technology from which all others are
The candela was originally defined by the luminous
intensity of a standardized candle.
Later thorium powder at the temperature of the
solidification of platinum was de-fined as the
standard; since 1979 the candela has been defined
by a source of radiation that radiates 1/683 W per
steradian at a frequency of 540 ·1012 Hz.


I = 1 cd


W = A1/r12 = A2/ r22 (sr)

If a uniform point light source of 1 cd luminous

intensity (I) ―about the intensity of a normal wax
candle‖ is positioned at the center of a sphere of 1 m
radius, then every area of 1 m2 on the inside of that
sphere will receive a luminous flux of 1 lm.
Illuminance is the means of evaluating the density of
luminous flux. It indicates the amount of luminous
flux from a light source falling on a given area.
Illuminance need not necessarily be related to a real
surface. It can be measured at any point within a
space. Illuminance can be determined from the
luminous intensity of the light source. Illuminance
decreases with the square of the distance from the
light source (inverse square law).

F lm
E= = 2 = lx
A m

Whereas illuminance indicates the amount of
luminous flux falling on a given surface, luminance
describes the brightness of an illuminated or
luminous surface. Luminance is defined as the ratio
of luminous intensity of a surface (cd) to the
projected area of this surface (m2).
nit lux

L = I/Ap= [cd/m2 = nit]

In terms of visual perception, we
perceive luminance. It is an
approximate measure of how ―bright‖
a surface appears when we view it
from given direction. 90
Horizontal luminance Eh and vertical luminance Ev in
interior spaces.

Average illuminance Em is
calculated from the
luminous flux F falling on
the given surface A.

E = F / A [ lm/m2 = lx ]

E = I * W / A = I * (A/r2) / A

E = I / r2 [ cd/m2 ]

inverse square law 91

The illuminance of a surface The illuminance of a
F` F point

h g
a Ev

E’ = F’/A Eh E
E = Ig /r2
E’ = F*cos a/A
Ev = E*cosg = (Ig /r2)*cosg
E‘ = E*cos a
a is the angle between Eh = E*sing = (Ig /r2)*sing
illuminated surface and n E
Mean value Em = S
the plane perpendicular i=1 n
to light 92
Light source Example:
I I = 20000 cd
h g
y x

illumination (lx)
I 150
Ey =

I * cos g 0

Ex = 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71

r2 angle

cos g =
h I * cos3 g
r= Ex =
cos g h2 93
Example 5
A lamp of 1200 cd is placed 3.5 m above a surface.
Find out the illumination at point ―X‖ 2 meters away
from the centre line.
g = tan-1 (2/3.5) = 29.750
I * cos3 g
Ex = = 1200 cos3 29.75/3.52 = 64.1 lx

Exercise 1
Two lamps being fixed 6 m apart on the height of 3 m
above a surface. They are same with luminous
intensity of 1500cd. Find out the illumination on the
surface midway between the lamps and below each
Exercise 2

A short, level driveway is illuminated by three 800cd

lamps mounted in a straight line 6 m apart and 2.5
m above the road surface. Calculate the illuminance
of the driveway halfway between two lamps.

Photometry is the science of measuring visible light in
units that are weighted according to the sensitivity of
the human eye.
For the visible part of the spectrum (380nm -
780nm) a separate set of parameters is defined.
These photometric values derive from the
radiometric quantities by weighting them with the
spectral response function for intensity of the
human eye.

Luminous Flux [lm]

Luminous Intensity [lm/sr = cd]
Illuminance [lm/m² = lux]
Luminance [cd/m²]
Light meters

A photocell light meter is an instrument that directly

measures the illuminance on a surface. The electrical
resistance of some semiconductors, such as
selenium, changes with exposure to light and this
property is used in an electrical circuit connected to
a galvanometer. This meter may be calibrated in lux
or foot-candles.

Measuring the lighting qualities of a lighting
installation can serve a number of purposes. In the
case of new installations measurements are taken to
check that the planned values have been obtained.
Measurements recorded on existing installations help
the planner to decide what maintenance or
renovation work is required.
Measurements can also be taken during the planning
process for the evaluation and comparison of lighting
concepts. The factors that are measured are initially
illuminance and luminance.
To ensure that results of measurements taken are
usable the measuring equipment must be of a
suitably high quality.

When measuring a lighting installation, a series of
parameters have to be taken into account and
documented in a report.
This initially involves the recording of specific
qualities of the environment, such as reflectance
factors and colours of room surfaces, the time of day,
the amount of daylight and the actual mains voltage.
Features of the lighting installation are then recorded:
the age of the installation, the lighting layout, the
types of luminaries, the type and condition of the
lamps and the overall condition of the installation.
The type of measuring equipment and the class of
accuracy of the measuring device has to be recorded.

To record illuminance for an entire space, a floor
plan is made of the space and has to include
furniture. The arrangement of luminaries and the
points at which measurements are to be taken are
then entered. The measuring points are the central
points on a 1-2 m grid, in the case of high rooms up
to a 5 m grid.
Measurements can also be taken at individual
workplaces, in which case an overall light measuring
grid is created for the area.
Horizontal illuminance is measured at the individual
measuring points at the height of the working plane
of 0.85 m
Cylindrical illuminance for determining the formation
of shadows on a 1.2 m plane of reference.

Measuring illuminance
on the working plane in
empty or open
furnished spaces is
made according to a
regular grid of 1 to 2

Measuring points for

the measurement of
illuminance at


The lumen method is used to acquire a rough

estimation of the dimensioning of a lighting
installation; it allows the designer to determine the
number of luminaries required to produce the
defined illuminance on the working plane, or vice
versa, the illuminance on the working plane
produced by a given number of luminaries.

This method does not provide exact illuminance at

specific points in the space, which means that other
methods must be applied to calculate the
uniformity of a lighting installation or to determine
illuminance levels at specific points.

The deciding factor in this calculation is the
utilisation, which is derived from the geometry of
the space, the reflectance of the room surfaces and
the efficiency and the distribution characteristics of
the luminaries used.

To be able to calculate the appropriate utility in

each individual case, there are tables available,
which contain the utility of a standardised space
with changing room geometry, changing reflection
factors and luminaries with a variety of distribution

The lumen method formula is easiest to understand in
the following form.

E = (n × N × F × UF × LLF)/A (lux)

E = average illuminance over the horizontal working

plane (lx)
n = number of lamps in each luminary
N = number of luminary
F = lighting design lumens per lamp, i.e. initial bare
lamp luminous flux (lm)
UF = utilisation factor for the horizontal working plane
LLF = light loss factor (maintenance factor)
A = area of the horizontal working plane

Utilisation Factor

Utilisation factor (UF) is the proportion of the

luminous flux emitted by the lamps and luminous
flux which reaches the working plane. It is a
measure of the effectiveness of the lighting scheme.
Factors that affect the value of UF are as follows:

(a) light output ratio of luminary

(b) flux distribution of luminary
(c) room proportions
(d) room reflectance
(e) spacing/mounting height ratio

The Utilisation factor (UF) can be read off the table
from the column showing the corresponding room
index and line showing the appropriate combination
of reflectance factors of ceiling (rC), walls (rW) and
floor (rF) or for greater accuracy, calculated through

Room Reflectance

The room is considered to consist of three main

(a) the ceiling cavity,
(b) the walls, and
(c) the floor cavity (or the horizontal working plane).

The effective reflectance of the above three surfaces

affect the quantity of reflected light received by the
working plane. 106
Room proportion
The room index RI describes the influence of the
room geometry on the utilisation factor. It is
calculated from the length and width of the room,
and the height h above the working plane under
direct luminaries and height Hm above the working
plane under predominantly indirect luminaries.

RI =
Hm * (L+W)

L = length of room
W = width of room
Hm = mounting height, i.e. the vertical distance
between the working plane and the luminaries. 107
Utilisation factor UF for typical interior luminaries

(A 60,DIN 5040)

(A 40, DIN 5040)

indirect luminaries
(E 12, DIN 5040)

Light output ratio of luminary (LOR) takes into
account for the loss of light energy both inside
and by transmission through light fittings. It is
given by the following expression.

LOR = Output of luminary / Output of lamp

Flux Fraction of Various Luminaries 111

Light Loss (maintenance factor) Factor
Light loss factor (LLF) is the ratio of the illuminance
produced by the lighting installation at the some
specified time to the illuminance produced by the
same installation when new. It allows for effects such
as decrease in light output caused by
(a) the fall in lamp luminous flux with hours of use,
(b) the deposition of dirt on luminaries, and
(c) reflectance of room surfaces over time.
In fact, light loss factor is the product of three other

LLMF = lamp lumen maintenance factor

LMF = luminaries maintenance factor
RSMF = room surface maintenance factor 112
Lamp lumen maintenance factor (LLMF) is the
proportion of the initial light output of a lamp
produced after a set time to those produced when
new. It allows for the decline in lumen output from a
lamp with age. Its value can be determined in two
(a) by consulting a lamp manufacturer's catalog for
a lumen depreciation chart, and
(b) by dividing the maintained lumens by the initial
lamps lumens.

Luminaire maintenance factor (LMF) is the proportion
of the initial light output from a luminaries after a set
time to the initial light output from a lamp after a set
time. It constitutes the greatest loss in light output
and is mainly due to the accumulation of atmospheric
dirt on luminaries. Three factors must be considered in
its determination:
(a) the type of luminaries,
(b) atmospheric conditions, and
(c) maintenance interval.

Room surface maintenance factor (RSMF) is the

proportion of the illuminance provided by a lighting
installation in a room after a set time compared with
that occurred when the room was clean. It takes into
account that dirt accumulates on room surfaces and
reduces surface reflectance.. 114
Light loss factor LLF in relation to the degree of
deterioration in the space.

Example 1
Project data: Reflection factors:
Eavg = 350 lx ceiling 80%
F= 6700 lm (2x36W TL36W) walls 80%
room length L=8 m working surface 30%
room with W=4 m LLF = 0.8
mounting height Hm = 2.15 m
height of the working surface = 0.85 m
K 883 853 833 553 533 772 752 732 881 851 831 551 531 331
0.60 51 33 27 32 26 40 32 27 46 32 26 30 26 26
0.80 58 41 34 39 33 47 39 33 52 38 33 37 32 32
1.00 63 46 40 44 38 52 44 38 55 43 38 41 37 36
1.25 68 53 47 50 45 57 50 45 59 49 44 47 43 42
1.50 71 57 51 53 49 60 54 49 62 52 47 50 46 46
2.00 75 63 58 59 54 64 59 54 64 57 52 54 51 50
2.50 78 68 63 62 59 67 62 58 66 60 56 58 55 54
3.00 80 71 67 65 62 69 65 62 68 62 59 60 58 57
4.00 83 75 71 68 65 71 68 65 69 65 62 62 60 59
5.00 84 78 74 70 68 73 70 68 70 67 64 64 63 61
room index
LxW 8 x4
k= = = 1.24
Hm x (L+W) 2.15 x (8+4)

E = (n × N × F × UF × LLF)/A (lux)

number of light fittings

350 x (8 x 4)
N= = 3.07 = 3
6700 x 0.68 x 0.8

Optimal positioning of the light fittings
For optimal distance between the fittings (d) is
given the following formula:

e d
d = Hm x
h Hm
e = 3.74 m
d = 2.15 x = 2.68 m

The illuminance at a point
Ep is calculated from the
luminous intensity I and
the distance ―a‖ between
the light source and the
given point.
Ep = I / a2

@ 00 170 cd / 1000 lm

If TLD 36W gives flux of

2350lm, then
I = 0.17x 2350 = 400 cd
on 2m distance there
would be illuminance of
E = I / a2 = 100 lx.

Measuring instruments are classified according to

both the quantity measured by the instrument and
the principle of operation. Three general principles
of operation are available:
(i) electromagnetic, which utilizes the magnetic
effects of electric currents
(ii) electrostatic, which utilizes the forces between
electrically-charged conductors
(iii) electro-thermal, which utilizes the heating

The most common analogue instrument or meter is
the permanent magnet moving coil instrument and it
is used for measuring a dc current or voltage of a
electric circuit.

Moving-iron instruments are generally used to

measure alternating voltages and currents. In
moving –iron instruments the movable system
consists of one or more pieces of specially-shaped
soft iron, which are so pivoted as to be acted upon
by the magnetic field produced by the current in

Permanent Magnet Moving Coil
Instruments (PMMC)

A moving coil instrument consists basically of a

permanent magnet to provide a magnetic field and a
small lightweight coil is wound on a rectangular soft
iron core that is free to rotate around its vertical
axis. 122
PMMC instrument

When a current is passed through the coil windings,
a torque is developed on the coil by the interaction
of the magnetic field and the field set up by the
current in the coil. The aluminium pointer attached
to rotating coil and the pointer moves around the
calibrated scale indicates the deflection of the coil. A
balance weight is also attached to the pointer to
counteract its weight.

If the coil is n= number of turns of the coil

carrying a B = flux density in (T)
current of I l = length of the vertical side of
amps, the force the coil in (m)
on a coil side I= current in (A)

F = B I l n (N)
In order to return the coil to its original position
when there is no current through the coil, a
hairsprings attached to each end of the coil. These
hairsprings are not only supplying a restoring torque
but also provide an electric connection to the
rotating coil. With the use of hairsprings, the coil will
return to its initial position when no current is
flowing though the coil. The springs will also resist
the movement of coil when there is current through
coil. When the developing force between the
magnetic fields (from permanent magnet and electro
magnet) is exactly equal to the force of the springs,
the coil rotation will stop.

The resulting torque in a coil or motion of a coil in a
magnetic field is due to the combined effect of
deflecting torque, controlling torque and damping

The interaction between the induced field and the

field produced by the permanent magnet causes a
deflecting torque, which results in rotation of the
The value of control torque depends on the
mechanical design of the control device. For spiral
springs, the controlling torque is directly proportional
to the angle of deflection of the coil.

As the coil moves in the field of the permanent
magnet, eddy currents are set up in the metal core.
The magnetic field produced by the eddy currents
opposes the motion of the coil. The pointer will
therefore swing more slowly to its proper position
and come to rest quickly with very little oscillation.
This is a dumping torque.

When the moving system reached at steady state

i.e. at final deflected position, the controlling torque
becomes equal and opposite to the deflecting
torque. The deflecting angle is directly proportional
to the current in the movable coil.

A multi-range ammeters and voltmeters

An ammeter is required to measure the current in a

circuit and it therefore connected in series with the
components carrying the current.

For higher range ammeters

a low resistance made up
of manganin (low
temperature coefficient of
resistance) is connected in
parallel to the moving coil
and instrument may be
calibrated to read directly
to the total current.

Swamping resistance (manganin) which has a
temperature coefficient practically zero is connected
in series with the coil resistance in order to reduce
the error due to the variation of resistance
(temperature change) of the moving coil. The
swamping resistance is usually three times that of
coil thereby reducing a possible error of, say, 4% to

Example 1

A PMMC instrument has a coil resistance of 100Ω and

gives a full-scale deflection (FSD) for a current of
500 μA. Determine the value of shunt resistance
required if the instrument is to be employed as an
ammeter with a FSD of 5 A.

100 * 0.0005
Rsh = = 0.01 W

Multi-range voltmeters is constructed by a connecting
a resistor in series with a PMMC instrument. Unlike an
ammeter, a voltmeter should have a very high
resistance R and it is normally connected in parallel
with the circuit where the voltage is to be measured.

The moving coil instruments can be suitably

modified to act either as an ammeter or as a
Example 2
A PMMC meter with a coil resistance 100Ω and a full
scale deflection current of 100 μA is to be used as
voltmeter. The voltmeter ranges are to be 50, 100
and 150V. Determine the required value of
resistances for each range.

50 - 100 * 0.0001
R50 = = 0.4999 MW
100 - 100 * 0.0001
R100 = = 0.9999 MW
150 - 100 * 0.0001
R150 = = 1.4999 MW
Moving-iron Instruments
There are two general types of moving-iron

1. Repulsion (or double iron) type

2. Attraction (or single-iron) type.

The deflecting torque in any moving-iron instrument

is due to forces on a small piece of magnetically
‗soft‘ iron that is magnetized by a coil carrying the
operating current.
Controlling torque consists of
1. Spring control (repulsion type)
2. Gravity control (attraction type)

The deflecting torque is proportional to the square of
the current in the coil, making the instrument
reading is a true ‗RMS‘. Rotation is opposed by a
hairspring that produces the restoring torque.
Moving iron instruments having scales that are
nonlinear and more dense in the lower range of

In repulsion type moving–iron instrument consists of
two cylindrical soft iron vanes mounted within a fixed
current-carrying coil. One iron vane is held fixed to
the coil frame and other is free to rotate, carrying
with it the pointer shaft. Two irons lie in the magnetic
field produced by the coil that consists of only few
turns if the instrument is an ammeter or of many
turns if the instrument is
a voltmeter. Current in
the coil induces both
vanes to become
magnetized and repulsion
between the similarly
magnetized vanes
produces a proportional
Attractive type instrument consists of a few soft iron
discs (B) that are fixed to the spindle (D), pivoted in
jewelled bearings. The spindle (D) also carries a
pointer (P), a balance weight (W1), a controlling
weight (W2) and a damping piston (E), which moves
in a curved fixed cylinder (F).
At equilibrium i.e. for
steady deflection,
Deflecting torque =
Controlling torque.

Shunts and multipliers for MI instruments

For moving-iron ampermeters it is difficult to design a

shunt with the appropriate inductance, and shunts
are rarely incorporated in moving iron ammeters.
Thus the multiple ranges can effectively be obtained
by winding the instrument coil in sections which may
be connected in series, parallel or series-parallel
combination which in turn changing the total ampere-
turns in the magnetizing coil.

For moving-iron voltmeters: Voltmeter range may be
altered connecting a resistance in series with the
coil. Hence the same coil winding specification may
be employed for a number of ranges.
An ordinary
arrangement with a
resistance in series
with the fixed coil –
results in error that
increases as the
frequency increases.
The change of impedance of the instrument with
change of frequency introduces error in signal
measurements. In order to compensate the
frequency error, the multiplier may be easily
shunted by the capacitor. 138
It has two laminated electromagnets. One (series)
is excited by the current in the main circuit, other
(shunt) by current proportional to the voltage of
the circuit.
A thin aluminium disc
cuts the AC fluxes and
two eddy currents are
produced with
associated fluxes. The
deflection torque is
produced due to
interaction of these
eddy currents fluxes
and inducing fluxes Induction wattmeter
and is proportional to
RMS of current and voltage. 139
This instrument is spring controlled, which is fixed on
spindle of the moving system which carries a pointer.
The scale is uniform and extended over 3000
Normally it can handle around 100A current. In case
of greater current, it should be connected to current

The main difference between energy meter and a

wattmeter is that energy meter is equipped with
registration mechanism, so that all instantaneous
readings of power are summed over a definite period
of time.

Main parts of the induction energy meter

1.Current coil and

magnetic circuit
2.Voltage coil and
magnetic circuit
3. Rotating disk
4. Disk axis
5. Permanent magnet
6. Display

Permanent magnet is there to control the

speed once the disc rotates. The speed of
rotating disc can be controlled by changing
magnet‘s position. 141
Wiring of 3 phase energy meters


The term voltaic cell is defined as a combination of

materials used to convert chemical energy into
electrical energy. A voltaic or chemical cell consists
of two electrodes made of different types of metals
or metallic compounds placed in an electrolyte

A battery is a group of two or more connected voltaic


An electrode is a metallic compound, or metal, which

has an abundance of electrons (negative electrode -
anode) or an abundance of positive charges (positive
electrode - cathode).
An electrolyte is a solution which is capable of
conducting an electric current. The electrolyte
of a cell may be a liquid or a paste. If the electrolyte
is a paste, the cell is referred to as a dry cell; if the
electrolyte is a solution, it is called a wet cell.

An ampere-hour is defined as a current of one

ampere flowing for one hour. If you multiply the
current in amperes by the time of flow in hours, the
result is the total number of ampere-hours.
Ampere-hours are normally used to indicate the
amount of energy a battery can deliver.

The purpose of a battery is to store chemical energy
and to convert this chemical energy through the
chemical reaction into electrical energy when needed.
A voltaic cell develops a potential difference when
electrodes of two different metals are immersed in an
electrolyte. One electrode accumulates a positive
charge. The potential difference is due to the
difference in charge between the two electrodes.

Primary Cells

Cells that cannot be returned to good condition, or

recharged after their voltage output has dropped to
a value that is not usable, are called primary cells.
Dry cells that are used in flashlights and remote
controllers e.g. Leclanché Cells ( AA, AAA, C, D) or
mercury cells (button cells) are examples of primary
Secondary Cells

Cells that can be recharged to nearly their original

condition are called secondary cells. The most
common example of a secondary, or rechargeable
cell, is the lead-acid automobile battery.

Leclanché Cell

A electrolytic cell also known as a dry cell that uses a

moist paste rather than a liquid as an electrolyte. Dry
cells with a zinc cup for an anode, a carbon rod for a
cathode, and a paste made of powdered carbon,
Ammonium chloride, Zinc Chloride, and Manganese
dioxide for an electrolyte.

The Leclanché Cell (carbon-zinc) cell is one of the
oldest and most widely used types of dry cells. The
carbon in the battery is in the form of a rod in the
centre of the cell which acts as the positive terminal.
The case is made from zinc and acts as the negative
electrode. The electrolyte for this type of cell is a
chemical paste-like mixture which is housed between
the carbon electrode and the zinc case. The cell is
then sealed to prevent any of the liquid in the paste
from evaporating.
The advantage of a carbon-zinc battery is that it is
durable and very inexpensive to produce. It has a
good shelf life.
Disadvantages are high internal resistance and
limitation of 1.5 volts.

Mercury Cell

Mercury cells come in two types; one is a flat cell

that is shaped like a button, while the other
is a cylindrical cell that looks like a regular flashlight
battery. Each cell produces about 1.35 volts. These
cells are very rugged and have a relatively long shelf
life. The mercury cell has the advantage of
maintaining a fairly constant output under varying
load conditions. For this reason, they are used in
products such as electric watches, hearing aids,
cameras, and test instruments.

New silver-oxide cell Silver-oxide cell
(zero-mercury, zero lead) (conventional)

Lead Acid Cells – secondary cell

The Lead Acid Cells

consists of a series of
cells, with each cell
containing a lead
peroxide positive plate
and a lead negative
plate immersed in a
dilute sulphuric acid
solution. This sulphuric acid solution is known as
electrolyte. The whole arrangement is kept in a leak-
proof casing. Each cell delivers around 2 volts and
when six cells are connected in series there would
be 12 V.
When a lead-acid battery
is discharged, electrolyte
and the active material
on the plates of the
battery are consumed to
produce water and lead

When a lead-acid battery

is charged, electrical
energy is added to the
battery, causing the water
and lead sulphate to be
consumed and produce
electrolyte and active
material. 152
Voltage and Specific Gravity During Charge and

Nickel Cadmium Cell - secondary cell

The nickel-cadmium cell is a secondary cell, and the

electrolyte is potassium hydroxide. The negative
electrode is made of nickel hydroxide, and the
positive electrode is made of cadmium hydroxide.
The nominal voltage of a nickel-cadmium cell is 1.25
volts. The nickel-cadmium battery has the advantage
of being a dry cell that is a true storage battery with
a reversible chemical reaction (i.e., it can be
recharged). The nickel-cadmium battery is a rugged,
dependable battery. It gives dependable service
under extreme conditions of temperature, shock, and
vibration. Due to its dependability, it is ideally suited
for use in portable communications equipment.


Internal resistance in a chemical cell is due mainly to

the resistance of the electrolyte between electrodes.
Any current in the battery must flow through the
internal resistance. The internal resistance is in
series with the voltage of the battery (EMF), causing
an internal voltage drop.
With no current flow, the voltage
drop is zero; thus, the full battery
voltage (EMF) is developed across
the output terminals (VB). If a
load is placed on the battery, load
resistance (RL) is in series with
internal resistance (Ri).

When current flows in the circuit (IL), the internal
voltage drop (IL * Ri) drops the terminal voltage
of the battery. Thus, internal resistance reduces
both the current and voltage available to the load.

VL = EMFB – IL * Ri
When several cells are connected in series, the total
voltage output of the battery is equal to the sum of the
individual cell voltages. In the example of
the battery where four 1.5V cells provide a total of
6 volts. When we connect cells in series, the positive
terminal of one cell is connected to the negative
terminal of the next cell. The current flow through a
battery connected in series is the same as for one cell.

Ri =Ri1+Ri2+Ri3+Ri4+Ri5 (W)
E =E1+E2+E3+E4+E5 (V)
Cells connected in parallel, give the battery a greater
current capacity. When cells are connected in parallel,
all the positive terminals are connected together, and
all the negative terminals are connected together. The
total voltage output of a battery connected in parallel
is the same as that of a single cell. Cells connected in
parallel have the same effect as increasing the size of
the electrodes and electrolyte in a single cell.
E=E1=E2=E3 (V) Ri
Ri = (W)
Ri=Ri1=Ri2=Ri3 (W) 3

Serial parallel combination

The total voltage is equal to the sum of the voltages

of each series connected cells. In our case 4.5 V.

Classification by application
Main power source Stand by power source
Constant Constant Two step Compensating
voltage voltage/ constant (trickle/floating )
Constant voltage charge

Constant Voltage: A constant voltage charger is
basically a DC power supply which in its simplest
form may consist of a step down transformer from
the mains with a rectifier to provide the DC voltage to
charge the battery. The lead-acid cells used for cars
and backup power systems typically use constant
voltage chargers. In addition, lithium-ion cells often
use constant voltage systems, although these usually
are more complex with added circuitry to protect both
the batteries and the user safety.

Constant Current: Constant current chargers vary the

voltage they apply to the battery to maintain a
constant current flow, switching off when the voltage
reaches the level of a full charge. This design is
usually used for nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal
hydride cells or batteries. 161
Constant voltage / constant current method
This method charges the battery by controlling the
current at 0.4 Ah and controlling the voltage at
2.45V/cell(unit battery) at room temperature of 200C
to 250C. Proper charging time is 6 to 12 hours
depending of the discharge rate.

Constant voltage / constant current method

Two step constant voltage charge control method

uses two constant-voltage devices. At the initial
stage, the battery is charged by the first constant
voltage device of high setup voltage. When the
charge current, the value of which is detected by
the current detection
circuit, has reduced to
the present value, the
device is switched
over to the second low
setup voltage, for
trickle charge voltage.

Method of charging lead-acid battery

Flooded Lead-Acid battery charging typically have a IUI

charge profile of the following:
Bulk charge (I): Initially the battery is charged at a constant
current rate until the cell voltage reaches a preset value -
normally a voltage near to that at which gassing occurs.
Constant Voltage (U): When the preset voltage has been
reached, the charger switches into the constant voltage
phase and the current drawn by the battery will gradually
drop until it reaches another preset level.
Equalize (I): Finally the charger switches again into the
constant current mode and the voltage continues to rise up
to a new higher preset limit when the charger is switched off.
This last phase is used to equalize the charge on the
individual cells in a gassing process.
Battery capacity
is a measure (typically in Amp-hr) of the charge
stored by the battery, and is determined by the mass
of active material contained in the battery. The more
electrolyte and electrode material there is in the cell,
the greater the capacity of the cell. Thus a small cell
has less capacity than a larger cell, given the same
The battery capacity represents the maximum
amount of energy that can be extracted from the
battery under certain specified conditions. However,
the actual energy storage capabilities of the battery
can vary significantly from the "nominal" rated
capacity, as the battery capacity depends strongly on
the age and past history of the battery, the charging
or discharging regimes of the battery and the
temperature. 165
Efficiency of a Lead Acid Cell

ampere-hour efficiency =
output(discharge), Ah x 100%
input (charge), Ah

(around 85%, for good battery)

watt-hour efficiency =
average discharge, Wh x 100%
average charge, Wh

(around 70%, for good battery)

Example 1
Discharged 12V battery is charged for 10h at 12A, at
average charging terminal voltage of 15V. When
connected to the load, a current of 10A for 8h at an
average terminal voltage of 12V discharges the
battery. Find out the ampere-hour and watt-hour
10 x 8 x 100%
ampere-hour efficiency = =66.7%
10 x 12

10 x 8 x 12 x100%
watt-hour efficiency = =53.3%
10 x 12 x 15


There are two theories that explain magnetism. One

states that magnet is is made up of a very large
number of small, magnetized particles. When a bar
of iron is not magnetized, the small magnetic
particles are arranged in a random manner. When
the bar of iron becomes a magnet, the magnetic
particles are aligned so that their individual magnetic
effects add together to form a strong magnet.

Demagnetized iron Magnetized iron (saturated)

The other theory of magnetism is associated with
the electron. The orbiting electrons cause circulating
currents and form microscopic magnetic dipoles. In
addition, both the electrons and the nucleus of an
atom rotate (spin) on their own axes with certain
magnetic dipole moments.

orbital motion spin of an electron

In the absence of an external magnetic field the
magnetic dipoles of the atoms of most materials
(except permanent magnets) have random
orientations, resulting in no net magnetic moment.
The application of an external magnetic field cause
both an alignment of magnetic moments of the
spinning electrons and an induced magnetic moment
due to a charge in orbital motion of electrons.

A fundamental law of magnetism state that unlike
poles attract each other and like poles repel each

Magnetic flux
Magnetic flux is given symbol F, and is measure of
the magnetic field: its unit is the weber [Wb]
Characteristics of lines of magnetic flux are:
The direction of a line of magnetic flux at any point in
a non magnetic medium, such as air, is that of the
north seeking pole of a compass needle placed at that
Each line of magnetic flux forms a closed loop.
Lines of magnetic flux never intersect
Lines of magnetic flux are like stretched elastic cords,
always trying to shorten themselves.
Lines of magnetic flux which are parallel and in the
same direction repel one other and vise versa. 172
Magnetic Field
Currents produce magnetic fields, a phenomenon
described mathematically by the Biot-Savart Law and
Ampère's Law. The magnetic field generated by a
current travels in a circular path around the current in
a plane perpendicular to the flow of charge i.e.

It is a unique and fundamental property of magnetic

field that, unlike electric field, does not begin on a
charge and end on a charge. On the contrary,
magnetic fields close in on themselves, forming a
circular field path. 173
Right hand rule


m0 permeability of free space or vacuum

=4p 10-7 (H/m)
The magnetic field in space around an electric current
is proportional to the electric current which serves as
its source, just as the electric field in space is
proportional to the charge which serves as its source.
Magnetomotive force

Magnetomotive force symbol F, is the force which

establish magnetic flux in the magnetic circuit (its
analogy in the electric circuit is e.m.f. which establish
a current in the electrical circuit).

F = N x I (Ampere-turn)

Magnetic field intensity (strength)

Magnetic field intensity, symbol H is defined as m.m.f.

per unit length of the magnetic circuit

F Nx I A
l H = = [ ]
l l m

F =H x l [A ]

N x I=H x l [A ]

Magnetic flux density

Magnetic flux density symbol B, is the amount of flux

passing through unit area perpendicular to the
―direction‖ of the flux.

The unit of flux density is the tesla.

F Wb
B= [ =T ]
A m2

Permeability symbol (m) is the specific measure of a
material's acceptance of magnetic flux, analogous to
the specific resistance of a conductive material (ρ),
except inverse (greater permeability means easier
passage of magnetic flux, whereas greater specific
resistance means more difficult passage of electric
Permeability of free space or vacuum and non
magnetic materials, symbol m0 is defined as

m0 = = 4p 10-7 [ ]
H m

For ferromagnetic material permeability increases by
factor mr, called relative permeability, where mr > 1
(up to 7000 and even more).

B(T) cast steel

1.4 800
cast steel
cast iron

cast iron
0 0

0 10000 0 10000
H(A/m) H(A/m)

Absolute permeability
m= = mr X m0 B = mr m0 H
H 179
Example 1
A coils of 200 turns is wound uniformly over a
wooden ring having a mean circumference of 600 mm
and a uniform cross sectional area of 500 mm2. If the
current through the coil is 4 A, calculate:
(a) the magnetic field strength,
(b) the flux density, and
(c) the total flux

Nx I 200 x 4
H = = = 1333 A/m
l 0.6
B = mr m0 H = 1 x 4p10-7 x 1333 = 1.675 mT

F = B x A = 1675 x 10-6 x 500 x 10-6 = 0.8375 mWb

Comparison of magnetic and electric circuit
Magnetic circuit Electric circuit

Magnetomotive force, F [A] Electromotive force, E [V]

Flux, F [ Wb] Current, I [A]

Reluctance, S [A / Wb] Resistance, R [W]


Permeability, m [H / m] Conductance, G [S]

Reluctance S F H*l 1 l
S= = = *
F=H* l[A/m*m=A] F B*A m A
1 l A ]
F = B * A [ T * m2 = Wb ] =
mr* mo
A Wb

In electrical circuit resistance R = r *

l [ W] 181
Exercise 1

An iron circuit with a small air gap cut in it. A 6000

turn coil carries a current I=20 mA which sets up a
flux within the iron and across the air gap. If the iron
cross section is 0.8×10-4 m2, the mean length of flux
path in iron is 0.15 m, mr=800 in iron and air gap
length is 0.75 mm, calculate the air gap flux density.
It may be assumed that the flux lines flow straight
across the air gap, i.e. air gap cross section is also
0.8×10-4 mm2.

Answer: 0.16 T
Electromagnetic induction

Faraday and Henry have discovered that a voltage can

be induced in a conductor which is moving relative to
an external magnetic field. A current will flow if a
complete circuit is present.

Whenever the magnetic field in the region of a

conductor is moving, or changing in magnitude, such
that magnetic field lines are moving across the
conductor, an electric current is induced in the
conductor, if the conductor is part of a complete

Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction states that:
E = -N [V]
E is the electromotive force (emf) in volts
N is number of turns
F is the magnetic flux in weber

is rate of change of flux linkages

Lenz‘s gives the direction of the induced emf saying:

The emf induced in an electric circuit always acts in

such a direction that the current it drives around the
circuit opposes the change in magnetic flux which
produces the emf. 184
Three principal methods of inducing an e.m.f.

1. Self induction

e (t) = - N 

2. Induction by motion

e= - = B l v
2. Induction by motion (rotation)

A’ = A cos a

df d
e (t ) = - N = -N ( B  A  cos w t )
dt dt

e (t ) = N  B  A  w  sin w t
3. Mutual induction

d f (t )
N e 2 (t ) = - N 2 
2 dt

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic
When a current-carrying conductor is placed in a
magnetic field, there is an interaction between the
magnetic field produced by the current and the
permanent field, which leads to a force being
experienced by the conductor.

F = B l I (N)
Force between parallel current-carrying conductors

If currents pass along two parallel wires, each wire

will set up a magnetic field and the fields will interact

The force is directly

proportional to the
currents I1 and I2
and length l, and
inversely proportional
to distance d.

I1 I2
F = m0 l [N ]
2p d
AC and DC

AC stands for ―Alternating Current,‖ meaning voltage

or current that changes polarity or direction,
respectively, over time.

DC stands for ―Direct Current,‖ meaning voltage or

current that maintains constant polarity or direction,
respectively, over time.

An alternating current is thus one which rises in one
direction to a maximum value, before falling to zero
and repeating in the opposite direction. Instead of
drifting steadily in one direction, the electrons
forming the current move backwards and forwards
in the conductor.
The time taken for
an alternating
quantity to complete
its pattern (to flow in
both directions and
then return to zero)
is called the periodic
time (symbol T) for
the system, which is
said to complete one
cycle in this time. 192
The number of complete cycles traced out in a given
time is called the frequency (symbol f ), usually
expressed in hertz (Hz), which are cycles per second
(c/s). If there are f cycles in one second, each cycle
takes 1/f seconds, so that
1 1
T = ( s) f = ( Hz)
f T
A frequency of 50 Hz is the standard for the supply
system in many parts of the world, including the
Malta, but 60 Hz systems are also common for mains

1 1
T= = = 0.02( s)
f 50

Advantages of AC systems

(a) An alternating-current generator (often called an

alternator) is more robust, less expensive, requires
less maintenance, and can deliver higher voltages
than its DC counterpart.
(b) The power loss in a transmission line depends on
the square of the current carried(P = I2R). If the
voltage used is increased, the current is decreased,
and losses can be made very small. The simplest way
of stepping up the voltage at the sending end of a
line, and stepping it down again at the receiving end,
is to use transformers, which will only operate
efficiently from AC supplies.
(c) Three-phase AC induction motors are cheap,
robust and easily maintained.
(d) Energy meters, to record the amount of electrical
energy used, are much simpler for AC supplies than
for DC supplies.
(e) Discharge lamps (fluorescent, sodium, mercury
vapour etc.) operate more efficiently from AC
supplies, although filament lamps are equally
effective on either type of supply.
(f) Direct-current systems are subject to severe
corrosion, which is hardly present with AC supplies.

Peak, average and rms values of sinusoidal waves

The alternating current or voltage changes

continuously, so that it is not possible to state its
value in the same simple terms that can be used for
a direct current.

Instantaneous values are the values at particular

instants of time, and will be different for different
instants. Symbols for instantaneous values are small
symbols,v(t) for voltage, i(t) for current

Maximum or peak values are the greatest values

reached during alternation, usually occurring once in
each half-cycle. Maximum values are indicated by Um
for voltage, Im for current and so on.
Average or mean value is the average value of the
current or voltage. If an average value is found over
a full cycle, the positive and negative half-cycles will
cancel out to give a zero result if they are identical.
In such cases it is customary to take the average
value over a half-cycle. Symbols used are Uav for
voltage Iav for current.
time(ms) 0 0.25 0.5 0.75
volts(V) 0 45 72 91
time(ms) 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75
volts(V) 104 118 142 185
time(ms) 2.0 2.25 2.5 2.75
volts(V) 240 278 295 300
time(ms) 3.25 3.5 3.75 4.0
volts(V) 248 195 85 0

The average value of voltage will be the average
length of lines (expressed in volts). To find this, we
add the voltage represented by each line and divide
by the number of lines.
0  45  72  91  104  118  142  185  240  278  295  300  280  248  195  85  0
Uav = = 157(V )

The effective or root mean square (RMS) value of

the system is the square root of the average value
of the squares of the instantaneous values. The
symbols used for RMS values are U, I.
02  452  722  912  1042  1182  1422  1852  2402  2782  2952  3002  2802  2482  1952  852  02
U= = 186.6(V )

Sinusoidal waveforms
connected to
slip rings
rotates in
right hand

prime mover
Induced EMF

e(t ) = NBAw sin wt

e(t ) = E sin wt

Since the circumference of a circle is 2p×radius,

there are 2p radians in 360◦, so 1 radian =
360◦/(2p) = 57.3◦ approximately.
The total angular movement after t seconds of a
wire loop rotating at f revolutions per second and
giving an output of f cycles per second will be 2pft
radians. w = 2pf 201
Peak, average and rms values of sinusoidal waves

A graph of Em sin φ, is referred to as a ‘sine wave‘,

and is said to be ‗sinusoidal‘ in shape.

average value =2 × maximum value/p
=0.637 × maximum value
Eavg = (2/p )Emax =0.637 x Emax

RMS value = maximum value/√2

=0.707 × maximum value
E = Emax / √2 (V)

form factor =RMS value/average value

=0.707Emax/0.637 Emax = 1.11

Example 1
Find the maximum and average values for a 230 V

Emax = √2 E = 1.4142 * 230 = 325.27 V

Eavg = E /form factor = 230 / 1.11 = 207.21 V


Eavg = (2/p )Emax =0.637 x 325.27 = 207.2 V

Concept of capacitance

Whenever an electric voltage exists between two

separated conductors, an electric field is present
within the space between those conductors.
Capacitors are components designed to take
advantage of this phenomenon by placing two
conductive plates (usually metal) in close proximity
with each other. There are many different styles of
capacitor construction, each one suited for particular
ratings and purposes.

When a voltage is applied across the two plates of a
capacitor, a concentrated field flux is created
between them, allowing a significant difference of
free electrons (a charge) to develop between the two

Because capacitors store the potential energy of

accumulated electrons in the form of an electric field,
they behave quite differently than resistors (which
simply dissipate energy in the form of heat) in a
circuit. Energy storage in a capacitor is a function of
the voltage between the plates, as well as other
factors. 206
Factors affecting capacitance

There are three basic factors of capacitor construction

determining the amount of capacitance created. These
factors all dictate capacitance by affecting how much
electric field flux (relative difference of electrons
between plates) will develop for a given amount of
electric field force (voltage between the two plates).

1. Plate area C = Capacitance in Farads

2. Plate spacing e = Permittivity of dielectric
3. Dielectric material (absolute, not relative)
A = Area of plate overlap in
eA square meters
C= (F) d = Distance between
d plates in meters
‖Relative‖ permittivity means the permittivity of a
material, relative to that of a pure vacuum.
The greater the number, the greater the permittivity
of the material. Glass, for instance, with a relative
permittivity of 7, has seven times the permittivity of
a pure vacuum, and consequently will allow for the
establishment of an electric field flux seven times
stronger than that of a vacuum, all other factors
being equal.

Material Relative permittivity (dielectric constant)
Vacuum ------------------------- 1.0000
Air ---------------------------- 1.0006
PTFE, FEP ("Teflon") ----------- 2.0
Polypropylene ------------------ 2.20 to 2.28
ABS resin ---------------------- 2.4 to 3.2
Polystyrene -------------------- 2.45 to 4.0
Waxed paper -------------------- 2.5
Transformer oil ---------------- 2.5 to 4
Hard Rubber -------------------- 2.5 to 4.80
Wood (Oak) --------------------- 3.3
Silicones ---------------------- 3.4 to 4.3
Bakelite ----------------------- 3.5 to 6.0
Quartz, fused ------------------ 3.8
Wood (Maple) ------------------- 4.4
Glass -------------------------- 4.9 to 7.5
"Ohm‘s Law" for a capacitor

Capacitors do not have a stable ‖resistance‖ as

conductors do. However, there is a definite
mathematical relationship between voltage and
current for a capacitor, as follows:
i = instantaneous current through the capacitor

C = capacitance in Farads

du/dt = instantaneous rate of voltage change

(volts per second)

The capacitor acts as a LOAD

Energy being absorbed

by the capacitor from
to the rest of the rest of the circuit -
the circuit charging

The capacitor acts as a SOURCE

Energy being released

by the capacitor to the
to the rest of
rest of the circuit -
the circuit
voltage 211
Capacitors act somewhat like secondary-cell
batteries when faced with a sudden change in
applied voltage: they initially react by producing a
high current which tapers off over time.
• A fully discharged capacitor initially acts as a short
circuit (current with no voltage drop) when faced
with the sudden application of voltage. After
charging fully to that level of voltage, it acts as an
open circuit (voltage drop with no current).
• In a resistor-capacitor charging circuit, capacitor
voltage goes from nothing to full source voltage
while current goes from maximum to zero, both
variables changing most rapidly at first, approaching
their final values slower and slower as time goes on.

Series and parallel capacitors
When capacitors are When capacitors are
connected in series, the connected in parallel, the
total capacitance is less total capacitance is the
than any one of the series sum of the individual
capacitors‘ individual capacitors‘ capacitances.

C1 x C 2
CT =
C1 + C 2

CT = CT = C 1 + C 2
1 1 1
+ +…..
C1 C1 Cn 215
Capacitors, like all electrical components, have
limitations which must be respected for the sake of
reliability and proper circuit operation.
Working voltage: Since capacitors are nothing more
than two conductors separated by an insulator (the
dielectric), one has to pay attention to the maximum
voltage allowed across it. If too much voltage is
applied, the ‖breakdown‖ rating of the dielectric
material may be exceeded, resulting in the capacitor
internally short-circuiting.
Polarity: Some capacitors are manufactured so they
can only tolerate applied voltage in one polarity but
not the other. This is due to their construction: the
dielectric is a microscopically thin layer of insulation
deposited on one of the plates by a DC voltage during
manufacture. These are called electrolytic capacitors,
and their polarity is clearly marked. 216
Resistance, Capacitance and Inductance in AC circuits

Resistance in AC circuit

Because the resistor simply and directly resists the

flow of electrons at all periods of time, the
waveform for the voltage drop across the resistor is
exactly in phase with the waveform for the current
through it.
The power dissipated by the resistor

Average power
P = Urms x Irms (W)

The power is never a negative value. This consistent

―polarity‖ of power tells us that the resistor is always
dissipating power, taking it from the source and
releasing it in the form of heat energy. Whether the
current is positive or negative, a resistor still
dissipates energy.
Inductance in AC circuits

Inductors oppose changes in current through them,

by dropping a voltage directly proportional to the rate
of change of current. u=L (di /dt)
In accordance with Lenz's Law, this induced voltage is
always of such a polarity as to try to maintain current
at its present value. That is, if current is increasing in
magnitude, the induced voltage will ―push against‖
the electron flow; if current is decreasing, the polarity
will reverse and ―push with‖ the electron flow to
oppose the decrease. This opposition to current
change is called reactance, rather than resistance. 219
The instantaneous power

Average power = 0

Because instantaneous power is the product of the

instantaneous voltage and the instantaneous current
(p = i x e), the power equals zero whenever the
instantaneous current or voltage is zero. Negative
power means that the inductor is releasing power back
to the circuit, while a positive power means that it is
absorbing power from the circuit. Since the positive
and negative power cycles are equal in magnitude and
duration over time, the inductor releases just as much
power back to the circuit as it absorbs over the span of
a complete cycle. 220
The power that surges back and forth in thus manner
is called reactive power (Q) to distinguish it from the
active power (P). The unit of reactive power is VAr,
while the unit for active power is W. Both powers
function independently of each other and they can
not be converted into the other and they have to be
treated as separate quantities in electrical circuit.

This opposition to alternating current is similar to
resistance, but different in that it always results in a
phase shift between current and voltage, and it
dissipates zero power.
Because of the differences, it has a different name:
reactance. Reactance to AC is expressed in ohms, just
like resistance is, except that its mathematical symbol
is X instead of R. To be specific, reactance associate
with an inductor is usually symbolized by the capital
letter X with a letter L as a subscript, like this: XL.

The exact formula for determining reactance is as


XL = 2pf L (W)

Capacitance in AC circuits

Whereas resistors allow a flow of

electrons through them directly
proportional to the voltage drop,
capacitors oppose changes in voltage
by drawing or supplying current as de
they charge or discharge to the new i=C
voltage level. The flow of electrons
―through‖ a capacitor is directly
proportional to the rate of change of
voltage across the capacitor. 223
The instantaneous power

Average power = 0

Capacitor does not dissipate power as it reacts against

changes in voltage; it merely absorbs and releases
power, alternately.

Since capacitors ―conduct‖ current in proportion to
the rate of voltage change, they will pass more
current for faster-changing voltages (as they charge
and discharge to the same voltage peaks in less
time), and less current for slower-changing voltages.
What this means is that reactance in ohms for any
capacitor is inversely proportional to the frequency of
the alternating current.

XC = (W)
2pf C

The relationship of capacitive reactance to frequency

is exactly opposite from that of inductive reactance.
Capacitive reactance (W) decreases with increasing AC
frequency. Conversely, inductive reactance (W)
increases with increasing AC frequency. 225
Inductors oppose faster changing currents by
producing greater voltage drops; capacitors oppose
faster changing voltage drops by allowing greater

Concept of reactance and impendence

Resistance is essentially friction against the motion

of electrons. It is present in all conductors to some
extent (except superconductors!), most notably in
resistors. When alternating current goes through a
resistance, a voltage drop is produced that is in-
phase with the current.
Resistance is mathematically symbolized by the
letter ―R‖ and is measured in the unit of ohms (W).

Reactance is essentially inertia against the motion of
electrons. It is present anywhere electric or
magnetic fields are developed in proportion to
applied voltage or current, respectively; but most
notably in capacitors and inductors. When
alternating current goes through a pure reactance, a
voltage drop is produced that is 90o out of phase
with the current. Reactance is mathematically
symbolized by the letter ―X‖ and is measured in the
unit of ohms (W).

Impedance is a comprehensive expression of any and
all forms of opposition to electron flow, including both
resistance and reactance. It is present in all circuits,
and in all components.
When alternating current goes through an
impedance, a voltage drop is produced that is
somewhere between 0o and 90o out of phase with the
current. Impedance is mathematically symbolized by
the letter ―Z‖ and is measured in the unit of ohms
(W), in complex form.

R (W) U jXL (W) U -jXC (W) U

IR = IL = -j IC = jUwC
R wL
AC series circuits

Series resistor-inductor circuits

XL = 2pf L = 2 x p x 50 x 0.01 = 3.142W

Ztotal = R + jXL j = arc tan
Ztotal = 5 W + j3.142 W
j = arc tan
Ztotal = (500) + (3.142900) 5
32.10 j = 32.10
Ztotal = 52 + 3.1422 = 5.9W 230
Active power
XL= 3.142W; R = 5W; Z = 5.9W
P = I2 R
ET 10 P = 14.37 W
I= = = 1.695 A
Z 5.9 Reactive power

EL = I x XL = 1.695 x 3.142 Q = I2 XL
Q = 9.03 VAr
EL = 5.33 V
Apparent power
ER = I x R = 1.695 x 5 = 8.48 V S= P2 + Q2
S = 16.97 VA 231
Power triangle Power factor

S (VA) The term cos j is

referred to as the
Q (VAr) power factor. Power
j factor is equal to 0
for purely inductive
P (W) load and equal to 1
for purely resistive
load. In every other
S= P2 + Q2 case 0 < pf < 1.
Q = P x tan (j) P
cos j =

in our case p.f. = 0.847ind (cos 32.10)

Series resistor-capacitor circuits

XC = 1/2pfC = 1/(2 x p x 50 x 100x10-6) = 31.83 W

Ztotal = R - jXC
j= tan-1
Ztotal =5 W - j3.142 W R

Ztotal = (50o) + (31.83-900) -1 31.83

j= tan
Ztotal = 52 + 31.832 = 32.22 W 81.10
j = 81.10
XC= 31.83 W; R = 5 W; Active power
P = I2 R = 0.312 x 5
Z = 32.22 W
P = 0.481 W
ET 10
I= = = 0.31 A Reactive power
Z 32.22
Q = I2XC = 0.312 x 31.83
EC = I x XC = 0.31 x 31.83
Q = 3.06 VAr
EC = 9.87 V Apparent power
S = P 2 + Q2
ER = I x R = 0.31 x 5 = 1.55 V
S = 3.1 VA 234
Power triangle Power factor
P (W)
The term cos j is
j referred to as the
power factor. Power
Q (VAr)
factor is equal to 0
S (VA) for purely capacitive
load and equal to 1
for purely resistive
load. In every other
S= P2 + Q2 case 0 < p.f. < 1.

Q = P x tan (j) P
cos j =

in our case p.f. = 0.155cap (cos 81.10)

Series inductor-capacitor circuits

XC = 1/2pfC = 1/(2 x p x 50 x 80x10-6) = 39.79 W

XL = 2pf L = 2 x p x 50 x 0.1 = 31.42 W
Ztotal = jXL - jXC

Ztotal =j31.42 W – j39.79 W

Ztotal = (31.4290o) + (39.79-900)

Ztotal = -j8.37 = 8.37 W 236
XL= 31.42 W; XC= 39.79 W;
Active power
Z = 8.37 W
P = 0.00 W
ET 10
I= = = 1.195 A Reactive power
Z 8.37
Q = I2Z = 1.1952 x 8.37
EC = I x XC = 1.195 x 39.79
Q = 11.95 VAr
EC = 47.55 V Apparent power

EL = I x XL = 1.195 x 31.42 S= P2 + Q2
= 37.55 V S = 11.95 VA 237
Effect of frequency on inductive reactance

XL = 2pf L (W)

As the frequency is increased (reading to the right),

the inductive reactance is shown to increase in
direct proportion.

Effect of frequency on capacitive reactance

XC = 1/2pfC (W)

As the frequency is increased (reading to the right),

the inductive reactance is shown to decrease in
inverse proportion.

Resonance in series circuits

When a state of resonance is reached (capacitive

and inductive reactance equal), the two impedances
cancel each other out and the total impedance drops
to zero.

f = 159.155 Hz

XL = 2pfL = j100 (W)

XC = 1/(2pfC) = -j100 (W)

I = V/Z = V/ R2+(jXL-jXC)2 = V/R = 1A

This series-resonant effect, with inductive and
capacitive reactances equal and opposite, may be
brought about in a number of ways:
1. Change in inductance, give a proportional change
in inductive reactance (note that XL = 2πf L, so XL ∝
L if f is constant).
2. Change in capacitance, giving an inversely
proportional change in capacitive reactance (note
that XC = 1/2πf C so XC ∝ 1/C if f is constant).
3. Change in frequency. If L and C are constant, XL ∝
f and XC ∝ 1/f , so an increase in frequency will
increase inductive reactance and decrease capacitive
At some frequency these two values fr =
(inductive and capacitive reactance) would
be equal and series resonance would occur. 241
Variation of resistance,
reactance and impedance
with frequency in a R-L-C
series circuit

Extremely high voltages

can be formed across the
individual components of
series LC circuits at
resonance, due to high
current flows and
substantial individual
component impedances.

Variation of current with frequency in a

R-L-C series circuit 242
Power in single phase circuits

Power is the rate of doing work, or of use up energy.

The electrical unit of power is the watt, which
represents a rate of expending energy of one joule
each second. (W=J/s)

If a resistor of R ohms has a direct voltage of V volts

applied to it, so that a direct current of I amperes
flows, the power dissipated, P watts, will be given by
P = VxI = I 2 R =
for an AC circuit, P is the average power, while V
and I and RMS voltage and RMS current,
respectively. This power is dissipated in the resistor
as heat. 243
Since both voltage and current values are
continuously changing in the AC system, power will
also fluctuate and the rate of dissipating energy is
the instantaneous power, which is given by

p = vi

Power in the resistive AC circuit

For a resistive AC circuit, current and voltage are in

phase, and the power at any instant can be found by
multiplying the voltage and current at that instant.

Voltage, current and power waves for resistive
AC circuit

Example 1
A 3 kW immersion
heater is connected
to a 230 V AC supply.
Calculate the current.
P 3000
I= = = 13( A)
V 230

Power in the capacitive AC circuit

The current leading the voltage by 90◦, and the

instantaneous power is: p = vi. In the first quarter-
cycle of voltage, v and i are both positive, so their
product, the power wave is also positive. In the
second quarter-cycle of voltage, v is positive but i is
negative, so the power wave goes negative.

During its first and third quarter-cycles, the voltage
is increasing and the supply provides energy to
charge the capacitor. During the second and fourth
quarter-cycles of voltage, the reducing PD across
the capacitor allows it to discharge, returning its
energy to the supply.
The positive pulses represent energy supplied to the
capacitor, while the negative pulses represent
energy supplied by the capacitor as it discharges.

The interchange of energy dissipates no average
power in a pure capacitor, so no heating occurs.
Since we have voltage and current, but no average
power, the expression P = VI is no longer true. The
product of voltage and current in this case is called
reactive power and is measured in reactive
voltamperes (VAr). The current to a capacitor which
does not contain resistance does not dissipate
energy, and is called reactive current.

Example 1

A 10 μF capacitor is connected to a 230 V, 50 Hz

supply. Calculate the reactive current and reactive

1 1
Xc = = = 318(W)
2pfC 2p 50 x10 -6

V 230
I= = = 0.723( A)
Xc 318

Qc = VxI = 230 x0.732(VAr )

Power in the inductive AC circuit

The current lags the voltage by 90◦, and the

instantaneous power is: p = vi. In the first quarter-
cycle of voltage, v and i are both positive, so their
product, the power wave is also positive. In the
second quarter-cycle of voltage, v is positive but i is
negative, so the power wave goes negative.

During its first and third quarter-cycles, the current
is increasing and the supply provides energy to
magnetic field of the inductor. During the second
and fourth quarter-cycles of voltage, the reducing
current across the inductor allows it to discharge,
returning its energy to the supply.
The positive pulses represent energy supplied to the
inductor, while the negative pulses represent energy
supplied by the inductor as it discharges.

Power in resistive and capacitive AC circuits

In a circuit consisting of resistance and capacitive

reactance in series, the voltage and current will
have a relative phase angle between 0◦ and 90◦,
depending on the ratio of resistance to reactance
Although, there is still some energy returned to the
supply, (negative pulses), the energy drawn from
the supply (positive pulses), is greater. The net
energy drawn
from the supply
will be dissipated
as heat in the
resistive part of
the circuit.

The ratio of resistance to reactance in the circuit
must have some bearing on the power dissipated,
because power is expended in a resistive circuit, but
not in a reactive circuit.
Example 2
A circuit connected to a 230 V AC supply consists of
a resistance of 28.8 (W) in series with a capacitor of
reactance 38.4(W). Calculate (a) the circuit current,
(b) the circuit phase angle, and (c) the power
Z = R 2  Xc 2 = 28.82  38.42 = 48W
V 230 VR IR R 28.8
I= = = 4.79 A cos f = = = = = 0.6
Z 48 V IZ Z 48
P = VI cos f = 230 x4.79 x0.6 = 661(W )
P = I 2 R = 4.792 x28.8 = 661(W ) 253
Example 3
A 10 W resistor and a capacitor are connected in
series to a 120 V, 60 Hz supply. If the power lost in
the circuit is 360 W, calculate the capacitance.
P = I R......I = .......I =
2 2

P 380
I= = = 36 = 6( A)
R 10
V 120
Z= = = 20(W)
I 6
Xc = Z 2 - R 2 = 20 2 - 10 2 = 17.3(W)
1 1 1
Xc = .....C = = = 153mF
2pfC 2pfXc 2p 60 x17.3 254
Power in resistive and inductive AC circuits

When resistance and inductive reactance are in

series, current lags supply voltage by an angle of φ◦,
which will vary from almost 0 to nearly 90◦.
Energy is both taken
from the supply and
returned to it, that
taken from the supply
exceeding the energy

The net energy drawn from the supply will be

dissipated as heat in the resistive part of the circuit.
Example 4
A 4 W resistor and a pure inductive reactance of 3 W
are connected in series to a 200 V AC supply.
Calculate (a) the current, (b) the circuit phase angle
and (c) the power dissipated.

Z = R 2  Xc 2 = 4 2  32 = 5W
V 200
I= = = 40 A
Z 5
cos f = = = = = 0.8..........f = 36.90
V IZ Z 5
P = VI cos f = 200 x 40 x0.8 = 6400(W )
P = I 2 R = 40 2 x 4 = 6400(W )
Example 5
A choke connected to a 130 V, 50 Hz supply has a
resistance of 5 W and dissipates 500 W. Calculate its

P 500
P=I RI =
= = 10( A)
R 5
V 130
Z= = = 13W
I 10
X L = Z 2 - R 2 = 132 - 52 = 12W
XL 12
X L = 2pfL  L = = = 0.0382( H ) = 38.2(mH )
2pf 2p 50

Power in general
The dissipated power can then be calculated by any
one of the three methods:
P = VI cos f ..............P = I R..............P = R

P = power dissipated (W);
V = supply voltage (V);
I = circuit current (A);
φ = circuit phase angle;
R = circuit resistance (W);
VR = PD across the resistive component (V).

Concept of power factor and its effect

It is possible for current to flow in a circuit and to

dissipate no power. In most practical cases this will
not happen, but where the phase angle between
current and voltage is large, the ‗in-phase‘ or ‗active‘
component of current will be smaller than the
‗reactive‘ component. In AC circuits, the product of
voltage and current need not result in the power
dissipated in watts, this product that gives volt-
amperes, is called apparent power.
Power factor (often abbreviated to PF) is defined as

active power VI cos f VR R

PF= = = cos f = =
apparent power VI V Z
In a predominantly inductive series circuit, where
current lags voltage, the power factor is called a
lagging power factor. Similarly, in a predominantly
capacitive series circuit, where current leads voltage,
the power factor is called a leading power factor.
The power factor can vary between definite limits,
being 1 (unity) for purely resistive circuits, where the
phase angle is 0◦ and P = VI; or 0 (zero) for purely
reactive (inductive or capacitive) circuits, where the
phase angle is 900 and P = 0.

Example 1
An AC single-phase motor takes 5 A at 0.7 power
factor lagging when connected to a 230 V, 50 Hz
supply. Calculate the power input to the motor. If the
motor efficiency is 80% calculate the output.

Input power: P = VI cos φ = 230 × 5 × 0.7 = 805 W

Output power = input power × efficiency

= 805 × 0.80 watts = 644 W

Example 2
Instruments connected to
a single-phase AC motor give
the following readings:
wattmeter, 1800 W,
voltmeter, 230 V,
ammeter, 10 A. Calculate the operating power factor
of the motor.

active power 1800

PF= = = 0.783 lagging
apparent power 230x10

Components of power
Power diagram for Power diagram for
resistive and resistive and
inductive AC circuit capacitive AC circuit

Active power is the in-phase component of apparent

power, thus P = VI cos φ = apparent power × power
Reactive power is the quadrature component of
apparent power, thus Q = VAr = VI sin φ

Since these three power relationships form the sides

of a right-angled triangle,(VA)2 = (W)2 + (VAr)2 263
Example 1
A single-phase load consists of:
(1) 12 kW of lighting and heating at unity power
(2) 8 kW of motors at 0.8 power factor lagging
(3) 10 kVA of motors at 0.7 power factor lagging.
Calculate: 7kW 8kW 12kW
(a)the total kW,
j2 j1
(b)the total kVAr,
(c)the total kVA, 6kVAr
(d)the overall
power factor and 7.14kVAr I=S/V=
the total supply 10kVA 30000/230
current at 230 V. =130.43 A
kW 7  8  12 27
PF= = = = 0.9
kVA (7  8  12) 2  (6  7.14) 2 30 264
Example 2
A single-phase 3.73 kW motor is 85% efficient at full
load and is fed from a 230 V supply. Calculate its
full-load current if it operates at a power factor of
(a) unity, (b) 0.85 lag, and (c) 0.6 lag.

P(W ) = VI cos jh  I =
V cos jh
Ia = = 19.95( A)
220 x1x0.85
Ib = = 23.47( A)
220 x0.85 x0.85
Ic = = 33.24( A)
220 x0.6 x0.85
All the disadvantages of a low power factor are due
to the fact that a given load takes more current at a
low power factor than it does at a high power factor.
The most important disadvantages of operating a
load at a low power factor are as follows.
(1) Larger cables, switchgear and transformers may be necessary both
within an installation and in the supply mains feeding it.
(2) Low-power-factor working causes operating difficulties on high-
voltage transmission lines.
(3) Because of the effects of items (1) and (2), electricity companies
usually penalise the consumer whose load is at a poor power factor by
charging more for the electrical energy used.
(4) Larger cables may be needed within an installation to carry the
extra current at low power factor. Alternatively, extra load can be
connected to a cable if the power factor of the existing load it carries
is improved.
(5) Higher currents give rise to higher copper losses in cables and
(6) Higher currents give larger voltage drop in cables, and a change in
load gives a larger change in voltage drop if the power factor is low.
This is called ‗poor voltage regulation‘. 266
Measurement of resistance by substitution

Measurement of resistance by substitution is based

on the fact that two resistance must be equal,
which, when substituted for each other in the same
circuit, give the same current-strength.

The position (deflection) of the

galvanometer‘s needle must be
adjusted with rheostat, to
suitable position.

R must excluded and rheostat adjusted in such a

way to bring galvanometer‘s needle back in same
position. The added rheostat resistance is equal to
resistance R. 267
Example 1
R Rh 14W Rh 15W
deflection 4503 4709 4405

47.9 - 45.3
R = 14  = 14.76W
47.9 - 44.5

The method of substitution is almost universally

applicable if the resistances are not too small, and
requires only galvanoscope to prove the equality of
two circuits.

Measurement of resistance by direct methods

1. Connect the instruments using unknown

resistance Rx. Pay attention about polarity.

2. Adjust Rd so that the voltage measured by

voltmeter is in range 2-4V. Read the value of voltage
V and current I and write down in table. Adjust Rd to
another value so that V is in the range 2-4V. 269
3. Repeat points 1 and 2 with resistor Rx2

4. Connect both resistors Rx1 and Rx2 in the circuit

in serial and perform measurements according points
1 and 2 to determine equivalent resistance Req.

5. Connect both resistors Rx1 and Rx2 in the circuit

in parallel and perform measurements according
points 1 and 2 to determine equivalent resistance

6. Calculate the mean values of Rx1 and Rx2 and of

equivalent resistance Req for serial and parallel

7. Compare experimentally determined equivalent

resistances Req for serial and parallel combination
with formulas for series and parallel connections. 270
Wheatstone Bridge

The measurements with bridge circuits differ from

direct measurements in that, the quantity being
measured is compared with a known reference
quantity. The balancing strategy avoids undesirable
interaction effects and generally results in
more accurate measurement than the direct one.
By far the
most common
is the
designed for
of resistance. 272
In the basic circuit in which the measurement of an
unknown resistance Rx is performed by balancing
the variable resistances Ra and Rb until no current
flows through meter A. Under this null condition,
Rx =  Rs
where Rs is the known standard resistance.

Exercise 1

find: (a) R4, and

(b) the current
through R4.

Measurement of insulation and conductor resistance
of cables in series and parallel

Factors that affect cable insulation resistance

measurements are length, type, temperature, and
the equipment connected in the circuit. Each of these
factors must be evaluated to reliably determine the
condition of the cable from the measurements
Insulation resistance is defined as the resistance (in
MW) offered by the insulation to an impressed direct
voltage. The resulting current is called Insulation

The resistance offered, by the insulation of a cable,

in the path of leakage current, is called Insulation
resistance of the cable 274
A Megger is an ohmmeter-type instrument by means
of which the value of a resistance can be measured
and directly indicated by the position of a pointer on
a scale. The megger consists of two principal
elements: a hand-driven magneto type direct current
generator, which supplies the current for making the
measurement; and the moving element with pointer,
by means of which the value of the resistance under
measurement is indicated.

Meggers are equipped with three connection
terminals, labeled Line, Earth, and Guard.
To measure insulation resistance from a conductor to
the outside of the cable, we need to connect the
"Line" lead of the megger to one of the conductors
and connect the "Earth" lead of the megger to a wire
wrapped around the sheath of the cable:
Resistance is
between the
Line and Earth
where current
will travel
through coil 1.

The "Guard" terminal is provided for special testing
situations where one resistance must be isolated
from another, for instance where the insulation
resistance is to be tested in a two-wire cable:

Rather than just measure the resistance of the

second conductor to the sheath (Rc2-s), what we'll
actually measure is that resistance in parallel with
the series combination of conductor-to-conductor
resistance (Rc1-c2) and the first conductor to the
sheath (Rc1-s). 277
If we want to measure only the resistance between
the second conductor and the sheath (Rc2-s), then
we need to use the megger's "Guard" terminal:

Connecting the "Guard" terminal to the first
conductor places the two conductors at almost equal
potential. With little or no voltage between them,
the insulation resistance is nearly infinite, and thus
there will be no current between the two conductors.
Consequently, the megger's resistance indication will
be based exclusively on the current through the
second conductor's insulation, through the cable
sheath, and to the wire wrapped around, not the
current leaking through the first conductor's

Double wound and auto-transformers, principle of
operation, application, precautions, advantages and

Transformers are very important in electrical

engineering, because almost all of its many branches
make use of them. The efficient transmission and
distribution of electricity would be impossible without
power transformers. Electronic equipment in
industry uses transformers in very large numbers.
Communications systems, including television and
telephony, rely on transformers for their operation.
Although transformers differ in size and in
application, all rely on the principle of mutual
inductance for their operation.
If the two coils are
arranged on a core of
magnetic material, this
will increase the amount
of magnetic flux set up
by one coil and will
make sure that most of
it links with the other
coil. In this way mutual
inductance is increased.

The arrangement is a simple

double-wound transformer.
The winding fed with current
is called the ‗primary winding‘
and the other the ‗secondary
Each winding must be made with insulated
conductors to prevent short circuits within the
winding itself, or to the magnetic circuit or core,
which is usually earthed for safety on power
Alternating current in the primary winding will set up
an alternating magnetic flux in the core, the self-
inductance of the winding inducing in it an EMF
opposing the supply voltage. This EMF will be almost
the same in value as the applied voltage, and for
practical purposes the two may be assumed to be
equal. If all of the changing magnetic flux set up by
the first winding links with the second, the EMF
induced in each turn will be the same regardless of
whether it forms part of the primary winding or of
the secondary winding.

An autotransformer has only one tapped winding,

which is both the primary and secondary of the

step-down step-up
autotransformer autotransformer 283
The major advantage of the autotransformer which
will be smaller, lighter and cheaper than its double-
wound counterpart. The disadvantages of the
autotransformer are as follows:
1 There is a direct metallic connection between the
input and the output, whereas the coupling in a
double-wound transformer is magnetic only, giving
electrical isolation of the two windings.
2 In the event of an open-circuit fault in the common
part of the winding, the input voltage of a step-down
autotransformer would appear on the output
terminals. Because of this danger, the IEE Wiring
Regulations limit the use of autotransformers.
However, they are used in high-voltage transmission
systems, as starters for induction and synchronous
motors, and for voltage control in some types of
discharge lamp. 284
To indicate the danger of input voltage appearing at
output terminals of a step-down autotransformer in
the event of an open circuit in the common winding

Construction details. Simple calculations

The single-phase transformer will consist of primary

and secondary windings mounted on a magnetic

Core materials
Since it is always be subjected to alternating
magnetisation, the core material and construction
must be chosen to reduce iron losses to a minimum,
or the transformer will not be efficient.
Most transformer cores are made from laminated
silicon steel, the laminations reducing eddy currents
and the silicon steel keeping hysteresis loss to a
minimum. Laminations must be arranged so as to
reduce the air gaps in the magnetic circuit.
The laminations must be tightly held together by
clamping or by taping, or they are likely to vibrate
and produce excessive noise. Some small high-
frequency communications transformers have cores
cast of solid ferroxcube, the eddy-current loss thus
being kept to a reasonable level.
packs of laminations being laid up to form
shaped core

Core arrangements

A core-type transformer, the

windings being split, with
part of each wound on each
side of the magnetic circuit
to reduce leakage flux.

Leakage is reduced still

further by using the shell-
type arrangement. Both
windings are placed on the
centre limb, the two outer
limbs providing parallel
return paths for the
magnetic flux. 289

Windings are usually made of copper, although some

experiments using aluminium as a conductor
material have been carried out. Cylindrical or
concentric windings, where the lower-voltage
winding is completely surrounded by the higher-
voltage turns, are used mainly for core-type circuits.

Sandwich or disc-type windings, where the two
windings are split into alternately mounted sections,
are used generally on shell-type circuits, except for
very high voltage transformers which use the
cylindrical type of winding.

High voltage Low voltage

winding winding

A transformer with an output voltage greater than its
input is called a step-up transformer, whereas a step-
down transformer has a lower output voltage than its
input. If a voltage or turns ratio is quoted for a
transformer, this is always put in the order
input : output, which is primary : secondary.

The voltage per turn of the two windings are equal.

primary volts V1
primary volts per turn = =
primary turns N1
secondary volts V2
secondary volts per turn = =
secondary turns N2
V1 V2 V1 N1
= =
N1 N2 V2 N2
Example 1
A transformer with 1000 primary turns and 250
secondary turns is fed from a 230 V AC supply.
Calculate the secondary voltage and the volts per
V1/V2 =N1/N2 so V2 = V1 × N2/N1

V2 = 230 x 250/1000 = 57.5 V

Example 2
A neon-sign transformer has an output of 4500 V
and is fed at 230 V. If the secondary has 2000
turns, calculate the number of primary turns.

V1/V2 =N1/N2 so N1 = N2 × V1/V2

N1 = 2000 × 230/4500 = 102.2 V 293

If we assume that our transformer is 100% efficient,
then power input = power output,

V1 x I1 = V2 x I2 V1/V2 = I2/I1
Neither of the assumptions made is strictly true
but, since the error involved is small, the resulting
expression is a useful one.

Example 3
A 50 kVA transformer has a voltage ratio of
3300:400 V. Calculate the primary and secondary
S =V1 x I1 so I1 = S / V1 = 50000/3300 = 15.2 A
S =V2 x I2 so I2 = S / V2 = 50000/400 = 125 A
Exercise 1
The single-phase transformer feeding a soil-
warming system is supplied at 230 V, 50 Hz, and
must provide a 20 V output. The full-load secondary
current is 180 A, and the secondary has 45 turns.
(a) the output kVA of the unit
(b) the number of primary turns
(c) the full load primary current
(d) the volts per turn.

Exercise 2
A 75 kVA transformer has step-down ratio of 12:1,
2400 primary turns and a primary voltage of 3.3 kV.
(a) the number of secondary turns
(b) the secondary voltage
(c) the volts per turn
(d) the full load primary and secondary currents.

Transformer losses, efficiency and regulation

Losses actually occurring can be considered under

two headings: iron (core) losses and copper (I2R)
Iron losses occur in the magnetic core of the
transformer, causing it to heat up. Iron losses can
be divided into
1) hysteresis losses
2) eddy-current losses
Iron losses depend on the frequency of the supply,
and the maximum magnetic flux density in the
transformer core. For power transformers, the
supply frequency is almost always constant, and
since the supply voltage is virtually constant,
there is very little change in the core flux density.
Thus it is reasonable to assume that the iron losses
in a transformer remain constant regardless of the
load conditions – for example, the iron loss on no
load will be the same as that on full load.

Magnetising current is quite small, so that the

copper loss due to it may be ignored, and the total
copper losses of a power transformer on no load
may be assumed to be zero. Power loss in a
resistive circuit is given by the expression P = I2R,
and since winding resistances are largely constant,
copper losses depend on the square of the load
Thus a transformer operating

on half load will have only one
quarter of the copper loss it
has when providing full load.
load 298
As well as providing for the output power, the input
to a transformer must supply the transformer losses.

efficiency = (output power/input power) × 100%

input power − power losses

efficiency = × 100%
input power

output power
efficiency = × 100%
output power + power losses

Example 4

The full-load copper and iron losses for a large

power transformer are 16 kW and 12 kW,
respectively. If the full-load output of the
transformer is 950 kW, calculate the losses and
efficiency of the transformer
(a) on full load
(b) on 60% of full load
(c) on half load.
Total loss = copper loss + iron loss =16 + 12=28kW
output power
efficiency = × 100%
output power + power losses

a) efficiency =[950/(950 + 28)] × 100% = 97.1%

b) At 60% full load, iron loss remains at 12 kW.

Copper loss = (60/100)2× 16 kW = 5.8 kW

Total loss = 5.8 + 12 = 17.8 kW

output power x 0.6
efficiency = × 100%
output power x 0.6 + power losses

efficiency =[950x0.6/(950x0.6 + 17.8)]×100%=


c) At half load, iron loss remains at 12 kW.

Copper loss = (50/100)2× 16 kW = 4.0 kW

Total loss = 4.0 + 12 = 16.0 kW

output power x 0.5
efficiency = × 100%
output power x 0.5 + power losses

efficiency =[950x0.5/(950x0.5 + 16.0)]×100%=



On no load there will be no secondary current

and no voltage drop. On full load the output voltage
will fall, and the difference between no-load voltage
and full-load voltage, expressed as a percentage of
no-load voltage, is called the voltage regulation.

no-load voltage − full load voltage

regulation = × 100%
no-load voltage

Example 5

A power transformer provides 400 V on no load

and 390 V on full load. Calculate the voltage
no-load voltage − full load voltage
regulation = × 100%
no-load voltage

regulation= (400−390)/400=(10/400)×100% = 2.5%

Exercise 3

A transformer with a voltage regulation of 4%

provides 220.8 V on full load.
Calculate its no-load terminal voltage.
Resistance values for conductors at any temperature
other than the standard temperature (usually
specified at 20 deg Celsius) on the specific
resistance table must be determined through yet
another formula:
RT = Rref [1 + a(T - Tref)] (W)

RT = conductor resistance at temperature "T"

Rref = conductor resistance at reference temperature
a = temperature coefficient of resistance for the
conductor material (1 / oC).
T = conductor temperature in degrees Celsius.
Tref = reference temperature that a is specified at
for the conductor material. Tref, usually 20o C, but
sometimes 0o C. 305
Material ―a" per deg C
Nickel Element 0.005866
Iron Element 0.005671
Molybdenum Element 0.004579
Tungsten Element 0.004403
Aluminum Element 0.004308
Copper Element 0.004041
Silver Element 0.003819
Platinum Element 0.003729
Gold Element 0.003715
Zinc Element 0.003847
Steel* Alloy 0.003
Nichrome Alloy 0.00017
Nichrome V Alloy 0.00013
Manganin Alloy +/- 0.000015
Constantan Alloy 0.000074
* Steel alloy at 99.5 % iron, 0.5 % carbon 306
Moving Iron Vane Movement The moving iron vane
movement can be used to measure both AC current and
voltage. By changing the meter scale calibration, the movement
can be used to measure DC current and voltage. The moving
iron vane meter operates on the principle of magnetic repulsion
between like poles. The measured current flows through a field
coil which produces a magnetic field proportional to the
magnitude of current. Suspended in this field are two iron vanes
attached to a pointer. The two iron vanes consist of one fixed
and one moveable vane. The magnetic field produced by the
current flow magnetizes the two iron vanes with the same
polarity regardless of the direction of current through the coil.
Since like poles repel one another, the moving iron vane pulls
away from the fixed vane and moves the meter pointer. This
motion exerts a force against a spring. The distance the moving
iron vane will travel against the spring depends on the strength
of the magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field
depends on the magnitude of current flow. Figure 3 Moving Iron
Vane Meter Movement As stated previously, this type of meter
movement may also be used to measure voltage. When this
type of movement is used to measure voltage, the field coil
consists of many turns of fine wire used to generate a strong
magnetic field with only a small current flow. 307