These are all the notes needed for the theoretical part of the Electricians License 'A' Maltese syllabus.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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These are all the notes needed for the theoretical part of the Electricians License 'A' Maltese syllabus.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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(Domestic)

Licence (A)

General House Installation

(Lighting and Domestic Appliances)

Electrical Theory

1

Background Information on Units and Quantities

Name Symbol Quantity Symbol Symbol

meter m length l L

kilogram kg mass m M

second s time t T

ampere A electric current I I

kelvin K thermodynamic T Θ

temperature

mole mol amount of substance n N

candela cd luminous intensity Iv J

2

22 SI Special Derived Units

Derived quantity name Symbol other SI units SI base units

plane angle radian rad m · m-1 = 1

solid angle steradian sr m2 · m-2 = 1

frequency hertz Hz s-1

force newton N m · kg · s-2

pressure, stress pascal Pa N/m2 m-1 · kg · s-2

energy, work, quantity of heat joule J N·m m2 · kg · s-2

power, radiant flux watt W J/s m2 · kg · s-3

electric charge, quantity of electricity coulomb C s·A

electric potential, potential volt V W/A m2 · kg · s-3 · A-1

difference, electromotive force

capacitance farad F C/V m-2 · kg-1 · s4 · A2

electric resistance ohm Ω V/A m2 · kg · s-3 · A-2

electric conductance siemens S A/V m-2 · kg-1 · s3 · A2

3

22 SI Special Derived Units (cont.)

Derived quantity Special name Symbol other SI units SI base units

magnetic flux weber Wb V·s m2 · kg · s-2 · A-1

magnetic flux density tesla T Wb/m2 kg · s-2 · A-1

inductance henry H Wb/A m2 · kg · s-2 · A-2

Celsius temperature degree Celsius °C K

luminous flux lumen lm cd · sr cd · sr

illuminance lux lx lm/m2 m-2 · cd · sr

activity (of a radionuclide) becquerel Bq s-1

absorbed dose, specific energy gray Gy J/kg m2 · s-2

(imparted), kerma

dose equivalent, et al. sievert Sv J/kg m2 · s-2

catalytic activity katal kat s-1 · mol

4

Electrical units and standards

ampere (A), the unit of electric current.

as that constant current which, if maintained in two

straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of

negligible circular cross section, and placed 1 meter

apart in vacuum, would produce between these

conductors a force equal to 2 × 10-7 newton per

meter of length.

5

The volt (V) is the unit of potential difference and

of electromotive force. It is defined as the

potential difference between two points of a

conducting wire carrying a constant current of 1

ampere (A) when the power dissipated between

these points is equal to 1 watt (W). From the

ampere and the volt, the ohm (W) is derived by

Ohm's law, and the other derived quantities follow

in a similar manner by the application of known

physical laws.

to 1 volt per ampere. The ohm is defined as the

resistance between two points of a conductor

when a constant potential difference of 1 volt,

applied to these points, produces in the conductor

a current of 1 ampere 6

The remaining units of electrical and magnetic

quantities

1 ampere-second (As). The coulomb is the

quantity of electricity carried in 1 second by a

current of 1 ampere.

[C = As] Q=I*t

coulomb per volt. The farad is the capacitance of a

capacitor between the plates of which there

appears a potential difference of 1 volt when it is

charged by a quantity of electricity of 1 coulomb.

Henry (H): The unit of inductance, equal to 1

weber (Wb) per ampere. The henry is the

inductance of a closed circuit in which an

electromotive force of 1 volt is produced when the

electric current in the circuit varies uniformly at

the rate of 1 ampere per second.

(the reciprocal of resistance), equal to 1 ampere

per volt.

[S = A/V] G = I/V

8

Tesla (T): The unit of magnetic flux density, equal

to 1 weber per square meter.

[T = Wb/m2] B = F/A

volt-second. The weber is the magnetic flux which,

linking a circuit of one turn, would produce in it an

electromotive force of 1 volt if it were reduced to

zero at a uniform rate in 1 second.

[Wb = Vs]

9

Prefix Symbol Magnitude

exa E 1018 DIMENSIONAL PREFIXES

peta P 1015

tera T 1012

giga G 109 100 = 1

101 = 10

mega M 106 102 = 10 * 10 = 100

kilo k 103 103 = 10 * 10 * 10 = 1000

10-1 = 1 / 10 = 0.1

hecto h 102

10-2 = 1 / 10 / 10 = 0.01

deka da 101 10-3 = 1 / 10 / 10 / 10 = 0.001

deci d 10-1

centi c 10-2

Express 9.213 * 102 in decimal

milli m 10-3 number

micro m 10-6

nano n 10-9 Solve 5 * 102 + 3.2 * 103

pico p 10-12

femto f 10-15

atto a 10-18 10

Ohm's law

(voltage), electric current, and resistance in an

electric circuit. In 1827 Georg Simon Ohm

discovered that at constant temperature, the

current I in a circuit is directly proportional to the

potential difference V, and inversely proportional to

the resistance R, or I = V/R. Ohm's law may also

be expressed in terms of the electromotive force E

of an electric energy source, such as a battery, or E

= IR. In an alternating-current circuit, when the

combination of resistance and reactance, called

impedance Z, is constant, Ohm's law is applicable

and V/I = Z.

11

RESISTANCE NETWORKS

parallel, and series and parallel circuit.

Series Circuit

to the sum of the resistance

on each component.

RT = R1 + R2

sum of the voltage on every component.

each component. IT = I1 = I2

VT = V1 + V2

12

Example 1

resistance and current?

equation V0 = V1+ V2 + V3 +...+ Vn, and then

resistance using equation R0 = R1 + R2 + R3 +...+

Rn, and finally you can find out the current using

equation I0 = I1 = I2= I3= I4 =...= In.

Total voltage is 9 + 1 + 16 + 4 = 30 V

Total resistance is 30 + 10 + 40 + 20 = 100 ohm

Using ohm's law, I = V / R, then we can find out

the total current. I = 30 / 100 = 0.3 A

13

Example problem 1

What is the voltage drop across A, B and C?

What is the resistance of C?

What is the total resistance?

What is total current?

14

Parallel Circuit

in every component.

VT = V1= V2

the product of resistance on to the sum of current in

each component divided by each component.

the sum of resistance of IT = I1 + I2

each component.

RT = (R1*R2)/(R1+R2)

15

Example 2

and voltage? And voltage

and current on A, B, and C?

out the total resistance. Using equation 1/R0 = 1/R1

+ 1/R2 +...+ 1/Rn, we can find out the total

resistance.

1/R = 1/15 + 1/15 + 1/30 = 5/30, R = 6 ohm

total voltage. V = 5A * 6W = 30 V

16

Using equation V0 = V1= V2= V3 =...= Vn, we now

know the voltage on A, B, and C, which is 30 V

each. Using ohm's law again, we can find out the

current through A, B, and C.

IA = 30V/15W = 2 A,

IB = 30V/15W = 2 A,

IC = 30V/30W = 1 A .

I0= I1 + I2 + I3 + I4 +...+ In), we get 5 A which is

the total current.

17

Example problem 2

voltage, and current?

What is the voltage across A, B

and C? What is the current

through A, B, C, and D?

18

Series - Parallel Circuit

voltage of parallel.

VT = V1 + V2 = V1 + V3

the resistance of parallel.

RT = R1 + [(R2 * R3) / (R2 + R3)]

and to the sum of the current of parallel circuit.

IT = I1 = I2 + I3 19

Example 3

What is current through A, B, C, and D?

What is resistance of C?

What is total current and resistance?

circuits, we know that the voltage on D is equal to

C, which is 80 V. We also know A and B have the

same voltage. Using the voltage law, we can find

out the voltage on A and B, which is 230 - 80 =

150 V each. 20

Now we get all the voltages on each component.

Using ohm's law, we can find out the current through

A, B, C, and D. IA= 150V/30W = 5 A; IB = 150V/30W

= 5 A; ID = 80V/40W = 2 A; IC = 10-2 = 8 A. The

sum of the current on A and B is equal to that of C

and D (I0 = I1 = I2= I3= I4 =...= In for serial circuit)

IA+IB = IC+ID.

The resistance of A+B is 15 ohm RT =(R1*R2)/(R1+R2)

The resistance of C is RC = 80V/8A = 10W. Therefore,

the resistance of C+D is 8W.

R = 15+8 = 23 W; I = 230V /23W = 10 A 21

ELECTRICAL POWER IN DC CIRCUITS

energy from one form to another. Its units are

joules per second. One joule per second is called a

watt W (symbol P).

Example 1

what is its power?

22

When current flows through a wire, the wire gets

hot: i.e., power is dissipated. (This heat is why the

filament in a light bulb glows.)

This leads to the definition of potential difference:

when a current of one ampere flows through a

resistor, one watt of power is dissipated by the

resistor when a potential difference of one volt

appears across it.

In general the power, P, voltage and current are

related by: P = V * I

Example 2

If a current of 30A flows through a resistor to which

a voltage of 100V is applied, what power is

dissipated in the resistor?

From P = V I

P = 100V × 30A = 3, 000W (or 3 kW.) 23

Multiple choice:

If a current of 3 A flows along a wire with a

potential difference of 4 V between the ends, how

much power is dissipated along the wire?

(a) 0W; (b) 7W; (c) 12W; (d) 4/3 W

Multiple choice:

What is the power consumption of a 100W resistor if a

50mA current flows through it?

(a) 0.25W; (b) 2.5x106W; (c) 2.5x10-4W; (d) 5x1024

5W

From Ohm‘s law, there are three equivalent

expressions for the power dissipation in a circuit:

P = V I , P = V2/R, P = I2R

Exercise 1 I R

power?

(b) In the circuit if V = 8V and R = 2, what is the

power?

(c) Finally, what is the power if V = 8V and I = 0.25A?

25

Series and Parallel Circuits

In a series circuit:

The same current flows through each resistor. Hence

in the diagram the power dissipated in them are

P1 = I2R1 , and P2 = I2R2 , respectively and the total

power dissipated is

PT = I2(R1 + R2)

the power can also be written as PT = V2/(R1 + R2)

. 26

10W 5W

Example 3

since 10W is twice as big as 5W, the power dissipated

in the 10W resistor will be twice that dissipated in the

5W resistor.

If I = 2A the power dissipation,

P = I2R, will be 22 × 10 = 40W in the 10W resistor

and 22 × 5 = 20W in the 5W resistor.

Exercise 2

(a) If above R1 = 5W and R2 = 15W, how much

more power is used in the 15W resistor?

(b) If I = 0.8A, calculate the power dissipation in

each resistor.

(c) How much energy is dissipated over 30 minutes? 27

Example 4

resistance is less than either of the two individual

resistors. (This is because there are more ways for

the current to flow.)

across the two parallel

resistors is the same, V .

Hence the total power in the

resistors in parallel is

28

Exercise 3

Consider a 10W and a 5W resistor connected in

parallel across a 2V source.

(b) What is the power dissipated in the 5W resistor?

(c) How does the total power dissipated differ from

the case if the same resistors were connected in

series?

29

Example 5

The series circuit below represents a power source

with an internal resistor Rs. If a load resistor R is

connected across the terminals A and B, how does

the power to load, PL, depend upon R?

I R The current I is

given by

V = I(Rs + R)

A V Rs B I = V/(Rs + R)

PL

to load is thus

PL = V2R /(Rs + R)2

Rs R 30

Maximum Power:

power across the load resistance is when R = Rs,

i.e., when the load resistance is equal to the

internal resistance of the source (perhaps a

battery or generator). This is called resistance

matching.

Exercise 4

(a) What is PL when R = Rs?

(b) What is PL when R = 100Rs?

(c) What is PL when R = 0.001Rs?

(d) The maximum power will be given when

dPL/dR=0, use the rule of differentiation to show

that the maximum is at R = Rs. 31

Short Circuit:

R = 0, the power to load is

PL = (V2 × 0)/(Rs + 0)2 = 0/Rs = 0 (W)

there must be a resistance to extract power.

Open Circuit:

infinite resistance, R = , and no current flows.

Again the power to load vanishes: a current must

flow to extract power.

32

ELECTRICAL ENERGY, COST OF ENERGY,

TARIFFS RATE

exists in various forms—including kinetic, potential,

thermal, chemical, electrical (see electricity), and

nuclear— and can be converted from one form to

another. For example, fuel-burning heat engines

convert chemical energy to thermal energy;

batteries convert chemical energy to electrical

energy. Though energy may be converted from one

form to another, it may not be created or destroyed;

that is, total energy in a closed system remains

constant.

33

In the electricity supply industry the SI units of watts

and joules are too small. Instead, the units used are:

(1kWh = 103×60×60 J= 3 600 000 J=3600 kJ)

understand why your electricity is not sold in joules!

Multiple choice:

If a household electricity metre changes from 5732 to

5786 units, how much electrical energy has been

dissipated in the house?

(a) 2 × 108J (b) 2 × 1010J (c) 2 × 106J (d) 5.4×103J

34

Multiple choice:

If a current of 3A flows along a wire with a

potential difference of 4V for one hour, how much

energy is dissipated?

(a) 12 J; (b) 720 J; (c) 4,320 J; (d) 43,200 J

35

The cost of electricity, is expressed in terms of a

unit cost (€ cent per kWh) delivered to the

customer. This cost value, includes the capital cost

of the generating plant and equipment,

transmission and distribution system; the cost of

fuel burned and the cost of developing, operating

and maintaining the system in whole.

= number of units * cost per unit

36

Enemalta tariffs

Residential kWh

1 2,000 0.1190

2 6,000 0.1340

3 10,000 0.1520

4 20,000 0.2090

5 60,000 0.2320

37

Domestic kWh

1 2,000 0.1610

2 6,000 0.1730

3 10,000 0.1890

4 20,000 0.2090

5 60,000 0.2320

38

Non-Residential kWh

Band Cum

(€ cents) (€ cents) (€ cents)

1 2,000 0.1040 0.1060 0.0990

2 6,000 0.1120 0.1140 0.1070

3 10,000 0.1250 0.1270 0.1200

4 20,000 0.1400 0.1420 0.1350

5 60,000 0.1570 0.1590 0.1520

6 100,000 0.1420 0.1440 0.1370

7 1,000,000 0.1290 0.1310 0.1240

8 5,000,000 0.1120 0.1140 0.1070

9 10,000,000 0.0860 0.0880 0.0810

39

Non-Residential kVAh

Band Cum

(€ cents) (€ cents) (€ cents)

1 2,000 0.0960 0.0980 0.0910

2 6,000 0.1030 0.1050 0.0980

3 10,000 0.1150 0.1170 0.1100

4 20,000 0.1290 0.1310 0.1240

5 60,000 0.1440 0.1460 0.1390

6 100,000 0.1310 0.1330 0.1260

7 1,000,000 0.1190 0.1210 0.1140

8 5,000,000 0.1030 0.1050 0.0980

9 10,000,000 0.0790 0.0810 0.0740

40

Exercise 1

system based on kVAh instead of kWh, what saving

will be in term of € if factory total consumption is

75000 kWh annually and power factor is 0.99 after

having installed power factor correction equipment?

41

Maximum demand rate

Consumers being billed against this tariff are charged as

follows:

•A periodical maximum demand rate. (Maximum demand

is the highest power demand measured in KW or KVA. It

is measured within a definite period of time)

•A per unit rate of either kWh or kVAh.

€ 17.20/kW or € 17.20/kVA

reduced rates

42

RESISTANCE OF CONDUCTOR

section can be calculated as

(W)

with its specific resistance ρ (Wm), its length l (m),

and its cross-sectional area A (m2).

Conductor resistance increases with increased length

and decreases with increased cross-sectional area, all

other factors being equal.

Specific resistance is a constant for the type of

conductor material being considered at specified

temperature. 43

Specific resistance at 20 deg C

Nichrome V Alloy 108.1

Manganin Alloy 48.21 Specific Resistance

Constantan Alloy 45.38 (r) is a property of

Steel* Alloy 16.62 any conductive

Platinum Element 10.5 material, which is

Iron Element 9.61 defined as

resistivity, a figure

Nickel Element 6.93 used to determine

Zinc Element 5.90 the end-to-end

Molybdenum Element 5.34 resistance of a

Tungsten Element 5.28 conductor given

Aluminum Element 2.650 length and cross-

sectional area.

Gold Element 2.214

Copper Element 1.678

Silver Element 1.587

* = Steel alloy at 99.5 % iron, 0.5 % carbon 44

Example 1

How much cross-sectional area of the aluminium

conductor has to be bigger than the cooper one if

both of them are of the same length and they

should perform electrically the same?

has to be 58% bigger than the cooper one.

45

Exercise 1

overhead power cable if the cross-sectional area of the

cable is 95 mm2.

Exercise 2

a resistance of 0.16Ω. If the wire is drawn out until its

cross-sectional area is 1 mm2, determine the resistance

of the wire.

46

Temperature resistance dependence

increases, most conductors increase in resistance,

insulators decrease in resistance, whilst the

resistance of some special alloys remain almost

constant.

47

There are two types of temperature coefficient of

resistance: positive and negative.

resistance as the temperature rises, while a

negative coefficient of resistance decreases the

resistance as the temperature rises.

Positive Negative

temperature temperature

coefficient coefficient 48

Some typical values of temperature coefficient of

resistance measured at 0°C are given below:

Copper 0.0043/°C

Aluminium 0.0038/°C

Nickel 0.0062/°C

Carbon -0.00048/°C

Eureka 0.000 01/°C

that its resistance falls with increase of

temperature.)

49

Definition of temperature coefficient of resistance

the change of resistance per degree C change of

temperature to the resistance of the same material

at some definite temperature.

Definite temperature at 0oC

If the resistance of a material at

0°C is known the resistance at any

other temperature can be

determined from:

R1=R0(1+a0t1)

R0 = resistance at 0°C

R1 = resistance at temperature t1°C

a0 = temperature coefficient of resistance at 0°C 50

Exercise 3

its temperature is 0°C. Determine its resistance at

70°C if the temperature coefficient of resistance of

copper at 0°C is 0.0043/°C

Exercise 4

A carbon resistor has a resistance of 1kΩ at 0°C.

Determine its resistance at 80°C. Assume that the

temperature coefficient of resistance for carbon at

0°C is -0.0005/°C

51

Definite temperature at 200C

(approximately 20°C), R20, and the temperature

coefficient of resistance at 20°C, a20, are known then

the resistance R2 at temperature t2 is given by:

R2=R20[1+a20(t2-20)]

R2 is the resistance at t2

R20 resistance at 20oC

t2 final temperature

a20 temperature coefficient of

resistance at 20°C

52

Exercise 5

A copper cable at 20oC has a resistance of 90Ω. The

temperature is raised and the resistance measured

reads 104Ω. If the temperature coefficient of

resistance of copper at 20oC is 0.004/oC, calculate

the final temperature.

Exercise 6

An aluminum overhead cable has a resistance of

100Ω, when the effective daytime ambient

temperature is 68oC. During night, the effective

ambient temperature falls to 20oC. Calculate the

night time resistance if the temperature coefficient

of resistance of aluminum at 20oC is 0.0038/oC

53

Resistance at 0oC is not known

some other temperature t1, then the resistance at

any temperature can be found as follows:

R1/R2 = (1+a0t1)/(1+a0t2)

R1 is resistance at temperature 1

R2 is resistance at temperature 2

t1 lower temperature

t2 upper temperature

a0 temperature coefficient of resistance at 0°C

54

Exercise 7

A nickel conductor has a resistance of 250Ω when

its temperature is 25oC. If the temperature is

raised to 120oC, calculate the value of the final

resistance. Assume temperature co-efficient of

resistance of nickel at 0oC is 0.0062/oC.

Exercise 8

the temperature is 10oC. A current flows through

the wire and the temperature rises such that the

resistance then reads 175Ω. If the temperature

co-efficient of resistance of aluminum at 0oC is

0.0038/oC, calculate the temperature rise.

55

VOLTAGE DROP AND POWER LOSS IN CABLES

circuit due to the resistance in the conducting line.

This is why longer electrical runs in a building

require thicker wire and why AC power is

transmitted over high-voltage lines. Higher current

requires thicker and more expensive wires, but

higher voltage does not. The high-voltage lines are

reduced by transformers near the end of the line

Resistance of cable (R) x Current through cable (I)

Voltage drop% = (voltage drop/voltage at source)x100

56

Whenever a voltage drop occurs in a cable, power

is being lost across that voltage drop. This power

must be paid for as well, so it is in the interest of

the consumer to minimize power loss in cables.

Resistance of cable (R) x Current through cable2 (I2)

or

Voltage drop in cable (V) x Current through cable (I)

Power wasted in cables

Reduction in the efficiency of lamps and heaters

Difficulty for fluorescent lamps to start up

Improper speed attainment of motors

Inability of motors to change position of centrifugal

switches (lack of speed) 57

Exercise 1

The voltage at the terminals of a water pump

motor is 234V whereas the voltage at the supply

end is 240V. Calculate the percentage voltage

drop.

Exercise 2

A twin copper cable having a cross sectional area of

75mm2, supplies a 20kW load 1000m from source.

If the terminal voltage is 400V when the winter

ambient temperature is 20oC, calculate;

the resistance of the cable

the current absorbed by the circuit

the supply voltage

the percentage power loss in cable

continue on next page 58

During the summer period, the effective ambient

temperature of the cable is raised to 75oC and the

supply voltage is kept constant. Calculate;

the resistance of the cable

the current absorbed

the voltage across the load

the voltage drop across the cable

the percentage power loss in cable

temperature co-efficient of resistance of copper at

20oC is 0.004/oC

59

INSULATION RESISTANCE IN CABLES

equipment is to

(1) isolate current-carrying conductors from metallic

and structural parts and

(2) insulate points of unequal potential on conductors

from each other.

The resistance of such insulation should be

sufficiently high to result in negligible current flow

through or over its surface.

60

Testing insulation resistance

conductors, or from live conductors to earth, will

result in a leakage current.

This current could cause deterioration of the

insulation, as well as involving a waste of energy

which would increase the running costs of the

installation. Insulation will sometimes have high

resistance when low potential differences apply

across it, but will break down and offer low

resistance when a higher voltage is applied.

61

Required test voltages and minimum resistance

Nominal circuit voltage Test voltage Minimum insulation

(V) resistance (MW)

Extra-low voltage circuits

supplied from a safety 250 0.25

transformer

Up to 500 V except for

500 0.5

above

Above 500 V up to 1000 V 1000 1.0

The insulation resistance tester must be capable of maintaining

the required voltage when providing a steady state of current of

1mA.

62

Methods and equipment used for the insulation

resistance tests

complete installation with the main switch off, with phase and

neutral connected together, with lamps and other equipment

disconnected, but with fuses in, circuit breakers closed and all

circuit switches closed. Where two-way switching is wired, only

one of the two wires will be tested. To test the other, both two-

way switches should be operated and the system retested. If

preferred, the installation can be tested as a whole when a value

of at least 0.5 MW should be achieved, for the usual supply

voltages. In the case of a very large installation where there are

many earth paths in parallel, the reading would be likely lower. If

this happens, the installation should be subdivided and retested,

when each part must meet the minimum requirement.

63

64

The testing equipment must be capable of delivering a

current of 1 mA at the minimum allowable resistance level,

which is:

250 kW for the 250 V tester

500 kW for the 500 V tester

1 MW for the 1,000 V tester

Basic instrument accuracy required is +/-5%

It must have a facility to discharge capacitance up to 5 mF

which has become charged during the test or may be

combined with the low resistance ohmmeter

65

HEAT ENERGY AND MECHANICAL ENERGY

It can be chemical energy, electrical energy, heat

(thermal energy), light (radiant energy), mechanical

energy, and nuclear energy.

Definition: Heat energy (or just heat) is a form of

energy which transfers among particles in a

substance (or system) by means of kinetic energy of

those particle. In other words, under kinetic theory,

the heat is transferred by particles bouncing into

each other.

66

Heat energy moves in three ways:

from one item to another. If you stirred a pan of

soup on the stove with a metal spoon, the spoon

will heat up. The heat is being conducted from the

hot area of the soup to the colder area of spoon.

from a cooler spot to a warmer spot. If a soup pan

is made of glass, we could see the movement of

convection currents in the pan. The warmer soup

moves up from the heated area at the bottom of the

pan to the top where it is cooler. The cooler soup

then moves to take the warmer soup's place. 67

68

Radiation is the final form of movement of heat

energy. The sun's light and heat cannot reach us by

conduction or convection because space is almost

completely empty. There is nothing to transfer the

energy from the sun to the earth.

The sun's rays travel in straight lines called heat

rays. When it moves that way, it is called radiation.

When sunlight hits the earth, its radiation is

absorbed or reflected. Darker surfaces absorb more

of the radiation and lighter surfaces reflect the

radiation.

69

As a form of energy, the SI unit for heat is the joule

(J), though heat is frequently also measured in the

calorie (cal), which is defined as "the amount of heat

required to raise the temperature of one gram of

water from 14.5 degrees Celsius to 15.5 degrees

Celsius." Heat is also sometimes measured in "British

thermal units" or Btu.

kilojoules (315,000 joules) of energy. With that

energy you could:

Jog for 6 minutes

Bicycle for 10 minutes

Walk briskly for 15 minutes

Sleep for 1-1/2 hours

Run a car for 7 seconds at 80 km/h

Light a 60-watt light bulb for 1-1/2 hours 70

The amount of heat energy (Q) gained or lost by a

substance is equal to the mass of the substance (m)

multiplied by its specific heat capacity (Cg) multiplied

by the change in temperature (final temperature -

initial temperature)

Q = m x Cg x (Tf – Ti)

amount of heat required to raise the temperature of

1kg of the substance by 1oC (or by 1 K).

The units of specific heat capacity are J oC-1 kg-1 or

J K-1 kg-1

71

Specific Heat Capacities of Some Substances

[Cg (J K-1 kg-1 or J oC-1 kg-1)]

potassium hydroxide

mercury Cg = 139.5 Cg = 1180

solid

72

Example 1

temperature of 250g of water from 20oC to 56oC.

Q = m x Cg x (Tf - Ti)

m = 0.25 kg

Cg = 4181.3 J oC-1 kg-1

Tf = 56oC

Ti = 20oC

Q = 0.25 x 4181.3 x (56 - 20)

Q = 0.25 x 4181.3 x 36

Q = 37 632 J = 37.6 kJ

73

Example 2

of aluminium from 15o to 35oC. Calculate the mass

of aluminium.

Q = m x Cg x (Tf - Ti)

Q = 216 J

Cg = 897 JoC-1kg-1

Ti = 15oC

Tf = 35oC

216 = m x 897 x (35 - 15)

216 = m x 897 x 20

216 = m x 17940

m = 216 ÷ 17940 = 0.012kg = 12g

74

Example 3

temperature of 50 l of water from 20oC to 50oC, if

the power of electrical heater is 1500W.

Q = m x Cg x (Tf - Ti)

m = 50 kg

Cg = 4181.3 J oC-1 kg-1

Tf = 50oC

Ti = 20oC

Q = 50 x 4181.3 x (56 - 20)

Q = 50 x 4181.3 x 30

Q = 6271950 J

Q=Pxt

T = Q/P = 6271950/1500 = 4181.3 s = 1.16 h

Assuming 85% efficiency it will take 1.45 h

75

Mechanical energy

They are motion energy and stored mechanical

energy.

has because it is moving. Motion energy is also

called kinetic energy.

something has stored in it because of its height

above the ground or because it is stretched or bent

or squeezed (e.g. in a stretched rubber band).

Stored mechanical energy is also called potential

energy.

76

Kinetic energy calculation

one half times the mass of the object times the

square of the speed of the object. In symbols:

EK = (1/2)mv2

Example 4

How much kinetic energy does an object have if its

mass is 5.0 kg and it is moving at a speed of 4.0 m/s

77

Potential energy calculation

called gravitational potential energy, or potential

energy due to gravity.

Since the work done on the object when it is lifted

becomes the gravitational potential energy, the

formula for gravitational potential energy equals the

mass of the object times the acceleration due to

gravity times the height that the object is lifted, as in:

Eg = m g h (J)

m= mass (kg)

g = gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2)

h = displacement (m)

78

Example 4

What is the gravitational potential energy for a 4 kg

object that is lifted 5 m?

Eg = m g h (J)

Eg = 4kg x 9.81m/s2 x 5m = 196.2 (J)

Example 5

horizontally an object applying a force of 500 N?

E = F x m (J)

E = 500 N x 10 m = 5000 (J) = 5 (kJ)

79

Example 6

How many water would be raised from 40 m depth if

1.2 kW motor of water pump was running for 5 min?

Assume 97% efficiency of the motor and 70%

efficiency of the pump.

E = P x t = 815 x (5 x 60) = 24450(J)

E = m g h (J)

m = E / (g h) = 24450 (J) / [9.81(m/s2) x 40(m)] =

= 62.31 (l)

80

CONVERSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY INTO

HEAT & MECHANICAL ENERGY

Heat

E = m Cg Dt

(Kg J Kg-1 0C-1 0C )

(J)

E=Pt=UIt

(VAs = Ws = J)

E=PFt

(Pa m3 s-1 s )

(N m-2 m3 =J)

Mechanical energy

81

ILLUMINATION, QUANTITY & UNITS, SYMBOLS

Luminous flux

emitted by a light source or received by a surface

Quantity of light

The quantity of light, or luminous energy, is a

product of the luminous flux emitted multiplied by

time; luminous energy is generally expressed in

klmh.

Q = F * t (lmh) 82

Luminous efficacy

lamp in relation to its electrical power and is therefore

expressed in lumen per watt (lm/W). The maximum

value theoretically attainable when the total radiant

power is transformed into visible light is 683 lm/W.

Luminous efficacy varies from light source to light

source, but always remains well below this maximum

value.

F lm

h = =

P W

83

84

Luminous intensity

An ideal point-source lamp radiates luminous flux

uniformly into the space in all directions; its luminous

intensity is the same in all directions.

In practice, however, luminous flux is not distributed

uniformly. This results partly from the design of the

light source, and partly on the way the light is

intentionally directed.

It makes sense, therefore, to have a way of

presenting the spatial distribution of luminous flux,

i.e. the luminous intensity distribution of the light

source.

Luminous intensity I is

the luminous flux F

radiating in a given

direction per solid

angle W. 85

luminous luminous flux F lm

= ; I= = cd

intensity spatial angle W sr

source in all directions (lm)

Luminous intensity is power that is radiated from a

source in specific direction (cd)

LED 0.005 cd

Candle 1 cd

100W incandescent bulb 150 cd

Automobile headlamp (high beam) 10000 cd

Lighthouse 300000 cd

Flash tube (peak value) 1000000 cd86

The unit for measuring luminous intensity is

candela (cd). The candela is the primary basic unit

in lighting technology from which all others are

derived.

The candela was originally defined by the luminous

intensity of a standardized candle.

Later thorium powder at the temperature of the

solidification of platinum was de-fined as the

standard; since 1979 the candela has been defined

by a source of radiation that radiates 1/683 W per

steradian at a frequency of 540 ·1012 Hz.

87

A2

A1

I = 1 cd

r1

r2

intensity (I) ―about the intensity of a normal wax

candle‖ is positioned at the center of a sphere of 1 m

radius, then every area of 1 m2 on the inside of that

sphere will receive a luminous flux of 1 lm.

88

Illuminance

Illuminance is the means of evaluating the density of

luminous flux. It indicates the amount of luminous

flux from a light source falling on a given area.

Illuminance need not necessarily be related to a real

surface. It can be measured at any point within a

space. Illuminance can be determined from the

luminous intensity of the light source. Illuminance

decreases with the square of the distance from the

light source (inverse square law).

F lm

E= = 2 = lx

A m

89

Luminance

Whereas illuminance indicates the amount of

luminous flux falling on a given surface, luminance

describes the brightness of an illuminated or

luminous surface. Luminance is defined as the ratio

of luminous intensity of a surface (cd) to the

projected area of this surface (m2).

nit lux

In terms of visual perception, we

perceive luminance. It is an

approximate measure of how ―bright‖

a surface appears when we view it

from given direction. 90

Horizontal luminance Eh and vertical luminance Ev in

interior spaces.

Average illuminance Em is

calculated from the

luminous flux F falling on

the given surface A.

E = F / A [ lm/m2 = lx ]

E = I * W / A = I * (A/r2) / A

E = I / r2 [ cd/m2 ]

COSINE LAW, POINT TO POINT METHOD

The illuminance of a surface The illuminance of a

F` F point

a

Ig

r

h g

a Ev

E’ = F’/A Eh E

E = Ig /r2

E’ = F*cos a/A

Ev = E*cosg = (Ig /r2)*cosg

E‘ = E*cos a

a is the angle between Eh = E*sing = (Ig /r2)*sing

illuminated surface and n E

i

Mean value Em = S

the plane perpendicular i=1 n

to light 92

Light source Example:

I I = 20000 cd

r

H=8m

h g

350

300

y x

illumination (lx)

250

200

I 150

Ey =

h2

100

50

I * cos g 0

Ex = 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71

r2 angle

h

cos g =

r

h I * cos3 g

r= Ex =

cos g h2 93

Example 5

A lamp of 1200 cd is placed 3.5 m above a surface.

Find out the illumination at point ―X‖ 2 meters away

from the centre line.

g = tan-1 (2/3.5) = 29.750

I * cos3 g

Ex = = 1200 cos3 29.75/3.52 = 64.1 lx

h2

Exercise 1

Two lamps being fixed 6 m apart on the height of 3 m

above a surface. They are same with luminous

intensity of 1500cd. Find out the illumination on the

surface midway between the lamps and below each

lamp.

94

Exercise 2

lamps mounted in a straight line 6 m apart and 2.5

m above the road surface. Calculate the illuminance

of the driveway halfway between two lamps.

95

PHOTOMETRY AND LIGHTMETERS

Photometry is the science of measuring visible light in

units that are weighted according to the sensitivity of

the human eye.

For the visible part of the spectrum (380nm -

780nm) a separate set of parameters is defined.

These photometric values derive from the

radiometric quantities by weighting them with the

spectral response function for intensity of the

human eye.

Luminous Intensity [lm/sr = cd]

Illuminance [lm/m² = lux]

Luminance [cd/m²]

96

Light meters

measures the illuminance on a surface. The electrical

resistance of some semiconductors, such as

selenium, changes with exposure to light and this

property is used in an electrical circuit connected to

a galvanometer. This meter may be calibrated in lux

or foot-candles.

97

Measuring the lighting qualities of a lighting

installation can serve a number of purposes. In the

case of new installations measurements are taken to

check that the planned values have been obtained.

Measurements recorded on existing installations help

the planner to decide what maintenance or

renovation work is required.

Measurements can also be taken during the planning

process for the evaluation and comparison of lighting

concepts. The factors that are measured are initially

illuminance and luminance.

To ensure that results of measurements taken are

usable the measuring equipment must be of a

suitably high quality.

98

When measuring a lighting installation, a series of

parameters have to be taken into account and

documented in a report.

This initially involves the recording of specific

qualities of the environment, such as reflectance

factors and colours of room surfaces, the time of day,

the amount of daylight and the actual mains voltage.

Features of the lighting installation are then recorded:

the age of the installation, the lighting layout, the

types of luminaries, the type and condition of the

lamps and the overall condition of the installation.

The type of measuring equipment and the class of

accuracy of the measuring device has to be recorded.

99

To record illuminance for an entire space, a floor

plan is made of the space and has to include

furniture. The arrangement of luminaries and the

points at which measurements are to be taken are

then entered. The measuring points are the central

points on a 1-2 m grid, in the case of high rooms up

to a 5 m grid.

Measurements can also be taken at individual

workplaces, in which case an overall light measuring

grid is created for the area.

Horizontal illuminance is measured at the individual

measuring points at the height of the working plane

of 0.85 m

Cylindrical illuminance for determining the formation

of shadows on a 1.2 m plane of reference.

100

Measuring illuminance

on the working plane in

empty or open

furnished spaces is

made according to a

regular grid of 1 to 2

meters.

the measurement of

illuminance at

workplaces.

101

LUMEN METHOD CALCULATIONS

estimation of the dimensioning of a lighting

installation; it allows the designer to determine the

number of luminaries required to produce the

defined illuminance on the working plane, or vice

versa, the illuminance on the working plane

produced by a given number of luminaries.

specific points in the space, which means that other

methods must be applied to calculate the

uniformity of a lighting installation or to determine

illuminance levels at specific points.

102

The deciding factor in this calculation is the

utilisation, which is derived from the geometry of

the space, the reflectance of the room surfaces and

the efficiency and the distribution characteristics of

the luminaries used.

each individual case, there are tables available,

which contain the utility of a standardised space

with changing room geometry, changing reflection

factors and luminaries with a variety of distribution

characteristics.

103

The lumen method formula is easiest to understand in

the following form.

E = (n × N × F × UF × LLF)/A (lux)

plane (lx)

n = number of lamps in each luminary

N = number of luminary

F = lighting design lumens per lamp, i.e. initial bare

lamp luminous flux (lm)

UF = utilisation factor for the horizontal working plane

LLF = light loss factor (maintenance factor)

A = area of the horizontal working plane

104

Utilisation Factor

luminous flux emitted by the lamps and luminous

flux which reaches the working plane. It is a

measure of the effectiveness of the lighting scheme.

Factors that affect the value of UF are as follows:

(b) flux distribution of luminary

(c) room proportions

(d) room reflectance

(e) spacing/mounting height ratio

105

The Utilisation factor (UF) can be read off the table

from the column showing the corresponding room

index and line showing the appropriate combination

of reflectance factors of ceiling (rC), walls (rW) and

floor (rF) or for greater accuracy, calculated through

interpolation.

Room Reflectance

surfaces:

(a) the ceiling cavity,

(b) the walls, and

(c) the floor cavity (or the horizontal working plane).

affect the quantity of reflected light received by the

working plane. 106

Room proportion

The room index RI describes the influence of the

room geometry on the utilisation factor. It is

calculated from the length and width of the room,

and the height h above the working plane under

direct luminaries and height Hm above the working

plane under predominantly indirect luminaries.

L*W

RI =

Hm * (L+W)

L = length of room

W = width of room

Hm = mounting height, i.e. the vertical distance

between the working plane and the luminaries. 107

Utilisation factor UF for typical interior luminaries

narrow-beam

luminaries

(A 60,DIN 5040)

108

wide-beam

luminaries

(A 40, DIN 5040)

109

indirect luminaries

(E 12, DIN 5040)

110

Light output ratio of luminary (LOR) takes into

account for the loss of light energy both inside

and by transmission through light fittings. It is

given by the following expression.

Light Loss (maintenance factor) Factor

Light loss factor (LLF) is the ratio of the illuminance

produced by the lighting installation at the some

specified time to the illuminance produced by the

same installation when new. It allows for effects such

as decrease in light output caused by

(a) the fall in lamp luminous flux with hours of use,

(b) the deposition of dirt on luminaries, and

(c) reflectance of room surfaces over time.

In fact, light loss factor is the product of three other

factors:

LLF = LLMF x LMF x RSMF

LMF = luminaries maintenance factor

RSMF = room surface maintenance factor 112

Lamp lumen maintenance factor (LLMF) is the

proportion of the initial light output of a lamp

produced after a set time to those produced when

new. It allows for the decline in lumen output from a

lamp with age. Its value can be determined in two

ways:

(a) by consulting a lamp manufacturer's catalog for

a lumen depreciation chart, and

(b) by dividing the maintained lumens by the initial

lamps lumens.

113

Luminaire maintenance factor (LMF) is the proportion

of the initial light output from a luminaries after a set

time to the initial light output from a lamp after a set

time. It constitutes the greatest loss in light output

and is mainly due to the accumulation of atmospheric

dirt on luminaries. Three factors must be considered in

its determination:

(a) the type of luminaries,

(b) atmospheric conditions, and

(c) maintenance interval.

proportion of the illuminance provided by a lighting

installation in a room after a set time compared with

that occurred when the room was clean. It takes into

account that dirt accumulates on room surfaces and

reduces surface reflectance.. 114

Light loss factor LLF in relation to the degree of

deterioration in the space.

115

Example 1

Project data: Reflection factors:

Eavg = 350 lx ceiling 80%

F= 6700 lm (2x36W TL36W) walls 80%

room length L=8 m working surface 30%

room with W=4 m LLF = 0.8

mounting height Hm = 2.15 m

height of the working surface = 0.85 m

K 883 853 833 553 533 772 752 732 881 851 831 551 531 331

0.60 51 33 27 32 26 40 32 27 46 32 26 30 26 26

0.80 58 41 34 39 33 47 39 33 52 38 33 37 32 32

1.00 63 46 40 44 38 52 44 38 55 43 38 41 37 36

1.25 68 53 47 50 45 57 50 45 59 49 44 47 43 42

1.50 71 57 51 53 49 60 54 49 62 52 47 50 46 46

2.00 75 63 58 59 54 64 59 54 64 57 52 54 51 50

2.50 78 68 63 62 59 67 62 58 66 60 56 58 55 54

3.00 80 71 67 65 62 69 65 62 68 62 59 60 58 57

4.00 83 75 71 68 65 71 68 65 69 65 62 62 60 59

116

5.00 84 78 74 70 68 73 70 68 70 67 64 64 63 61

room index

LxW 8 x4

k= = = 1.24

Hm x (L+W) 2.15 x (8+4)

E = (n × N × F × UF × LLF)/A (lux)

350 x (8 x 4)

N= = 3.07 = 3

6700 x 0.68 x 0.8

117

Optimal positioning of the light fittings

For optimal distance between the fittings (d) is

given the following formula:

e d

d = Hm x

h

h Hm

e = 3.74 m

e

3.74

d = 2.15 x = 2.68 m

3.00

118

The illuminance at a point

Ep is calculated from the

luminous intensity I and

the distance ―a‖ between

the light source and the

given point.

Ep = I / a2

@ 00 170 cd / 1000 lm

2350lm, then

I = 0.17x 2350 = 400 cd

on 2m distance there

would be illuminance of

E = I / a2 = 100 lx.

119

MOVING COIL AND MOVING IRON VOLTMETERS

AND AMPERMETERS

both the quantity measured by the instrument and

the principle of operation. Three general principles

of operation are available:

(i) electromagnetic, which utilizes the magnetic

effects of electric currents

(ii) electrostatic, which utilizes the forces between

electrically-charged conductors

(iii) electro-thermal, which utilizes the heating

effect.

120

The most common analogue instrument or meter is

the permanent magnet moving coil instrument and it

is used for measuring a dc current or voltage of a

electric circuit.

measure alternating voltages and currents. In

moving –iron instruments the movable system

consists of one or more pieces of specially-shaped

soft iron, which are so pivoted as to be acted upon

by the magnetic field produced by the current in

coil.

121

Permanent Magnet Moving Coil

Instruments (PMMC)

permanent magnet to provide a magnetic field and a

small lightweight coil is wound on a rectangular soft

iron core that is free to rotate around its vertical

axis. 122

PMMC instrument

123

When a current is passed through the coil windings,

a torque is developed on the coil by the interaction

of the magnetic field and the field set up by the

current in the coil. The aluminium pointer attached

to rotating coil and the pointer moves around the

calibrated scale indicates the deflection of the coil. A

balance weight is also attached to the pointer to

counteract its weight.

carrying a B = flux density in (T)

current of I l = length of the vertical side of

amps, the force the coil in (m)

on a coil side I= current in (A)

F = B I l n (N)

124

In order to return the coil to its original position

when there is no current through the coil, a

hairsprings attached to each end of the coil. These

hairsprings are not only supplying a restoring torque

but also provide an electric connection to the

rotating coil. With the use of hairsprings, the coil will

return to its initial position when no current is

flowing though the coil. The springs will also resist

the movement of coil when there is current through

coil. When the developing force between the

magnetic fields (from permanent magnet and electro

magnet) is exactly equal to the force of the springs,

the coil rotation will stop.

125

The resulting torque in a coil or motion of a coil in a

magnetic field is due to the combined effect of

deflecting torque, controlling torque and damping

torque.

field produced by the permanent magnet causes a

deflecting torque, which results in rotation of the

coil.

The value of control torque depends on the

mechanical design of the control device. For spiral

springs, the controlling torque is directly proportional

to the angle of deflection of the coil.

126

As the coil moves in the field of the permanent

magnet, eddy currents are set up in the metal core.

The magnetic field produced by the eddy currents

opposes the motion of the coil. The pointer will

therefore swing more slowly to its proper position

and come to rest quickly with very little oscillation.

This is a dumping torque.

i.e. at final deflected position, the controlling torque

becomes equal and opposite to the deflecting

torque. The deflecting angle is directly proportional

to the current in the movable coil.

127

A multi-range ammeters and voltmeters

circuit and it therefore connected in series with the

components carrying the current.

a low resistance made up

of manganin (low

temperature coefficient of

resistance) is connected in

parallel to the moving coil

and instrument may be

calibrated to read directly

to the total current.

128

Swamping resistance (manganin) which has a

temperature coefficient practically zero is connected

in series with the coil resistance in order to reduce

the error due to the variation of resistance

(temperature change) of the moving coil. The

swamping resistance is usually three times that of

coil thereby reducing a possible error of, say, 4% to

1%.

129

Example 1

gives a full-scale deflection (FSD) for a current of

500 μA. Determine the value of shunt resistance

required if the instrument is to be employed as an

ammeter with a FSD of 5 A.

100 * 0.0005

Rsh = = 0.01 W

5-0.0005

130

Multi-range voltmeters is constructed by a connecting

a resistor in series with a PMMC instrument. Unlike an

ammeter, a voltmeter should have a very high

resistance R and it is normally connected in parallel

with the circuit where the voltage is to be measured.

modified to act either as an ammeter or as a

voltmeter.

131

Example 2

A PMMC meter with a coil resistance 100Ω and a full

scale deflection current of 100 μA is to be used as

voltmeter. The voltmeter ranges are to be 50, 100

and 150V. Determine the required value of

resistances for each range.

50 - 100 * 0.0001

R50 = = 0.4999 MW

0.0001

100 - 100 * 0.0001

R100 = = 0.9999 MW

0.0001

150 - 100 * 0.0001

R150 = = 1.4999 MW

0.0001

132

Moving-iron Instruments

There are two general types of moving-iron

instruments:

2. Attraction (or single-iron) type.

is due to forces on a small piece of magnetically

‗soft‘ iron that is magnetized by a coil carrying the

operating current.

Controlling torque consists of

1. Spring control (repulsion type)

2. Gravity control (attraction type)

133

The deflecting torque is proportional to the square of

the current in the coil, making the instrument

reading is a true ‗RMS‘. Rotation is opposed by a

hairspring that produces the restoring torque.

Moving iron instruments having scales that are

nonlinear and more dense in the lower range of

calibration.

134

In repulsion type moving–iron instrument consists of

two cylindrical soft iron vanes mounted within a fixed

current-carrying coil. One iron vane is held fixed to

the coil frame and other is free to rotate, carrying

with it the pointer shaft. Two irons lie in the magnetic

field produced by the coil that consists of only few

turns if the instrument is an ammeter or of many

turns if the instrument is

a voltmeter. Current in

the coil induces both

vanes to become

magnetized and repulsion

between the similarly

magnetized vanes

produces a proportional

rotation.

135

Attractive type instrument consists of a few soft iron

discs (B) that are fixed to the spindle (D), pivoted in

jewelled bearings. The spindle (D) also carries a

pointer (P), a balance weight (W1), a controlling

weight (W2) and a damping piston (E), which moves

in a curved fixed cylinder (F).

At equilibrium i.e. for

steady deflection,

Deflecting torque =

Controlling torque.

136

Shunts and multipliers for MI instruments

shunt with the appropriate inductance, and shunts

are rarely incorporated in moving iron ammeters.

Thus the multiple ranges can effectively be obtained

by winding the instrument coil in sections which may

be connected in series, parallel or series-parallel

combination which in turn changing the total ampere-

turns in the magnetizing coil.

137

For moving-iron voltmeters: Voltmeter range may be

altered connecting a resistance in series with the

coil. Hence the same coil winding specification may

be employed for a number of ranges.

An ordinary

arrangement with a

non-inductive

resistance in series

with the fixed coil –

results in error that

increases as the

frequency increases.

The change of impedance of the instrument with

change of frequency introduces error in signal

measurements. In order to compensate the

frequency error, the multiplier may be easily

shunted by the capacitor. 138

INDUCTION WATTMETERS AND ENERGY METERS

It has two laminated electromagnets. One (series)

is excited by the current in the main circuit, other

(shunt) by current proportional to the voltage of

the circuit.

A thin aluminium disc

cuts the AC fluxes and

two eddy currents are

produced with

associated fluxes. The

deflection torque is

produced due to

interaction of these

eddy currents fluxes

and inducing fluxes Induction wattmeter

and is proportional to

RMS of current and voltage. 139

This instrument is spring controlled, which is fixed on

spindle of the moving system which carries a pointer.

The scale is uniform and extended over 3000

Normally it can handle around 100A current. In case

of greater current, it should be connected to current

transformer.

wattmeter is that energy meter is equipped with

registration mechanism, so that all instantaneous

readings of power are summed over a definite period

of time.

140

Main parts of the induction energy meter

magnetic circuit

2.Voltage coil and

magnetic circuit

3. Rotating disk

4. Disk axis

5. Permanent magnet

6. Display

speed once the disc rotates. The speed of

rotating disc can be controlled by changing

magnet‘s position. 141

Wiring of 3 phase energy meters

142

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CELLS

materials used to convert chemical energy into

electrical energy. A voltaic or chemical cell consists

of two electrodes made of different types of metals

or metallic compounds placed in an electrolyte

solution.

cells.

has an abundance of electrons (negative electrode -

anode) or an abundance of positive charges (positive

electrode - cathode).

143

An electrolyte is a solution which is capable of

conducting an electric current. The electrolyte

of a cell may be a liquid or a paste. If the electrolyte

is a paste, the cell is referred to as a dry cell; if the

electrolyte is a solution, it is called a wet cell.

ampere flowing for one hour. If you multiply the

current in amperes by the time of flow in hours, the

result is the total number of ampere-hours.

Ampere-hours are normally used to indicate the

amount of energy a battery can deliver.

144

The purpose of a battery is to store chemical energy

and to convert this chemical energy through the

chemical reaction into electrical energy when needed.

A voltaic cell develops a potential difference when

electrodes of two different metals are immersed in an

electrolyte. One electrode accumulates a positive

charge. The potential difference is due to the

difference in charge between the two electrodes.

145

Primary Cells

recharged after their voltage output has dropped to

a value that is not usable, are called primary cells.

Dry cells that are used in flashlights and remote

controllers e.g. Leclanché Cells ( AA, AAA, C, D) or

mercury cells (button cells) are examples of primary

cells.

Secondary Cells

condition are called secondary cells. The most

common example of a secondary, or rechargeable

cell, is the lead-acid automobile battery.

146

Leclanché Cell

moist paste rather than a liquid as an electrolyte. Dry

cells with a zinc cup for an anode, a carbon rod for a

cathode, and a paste made of powdered carbon,

Ammonium chloride, Zinc Chloride, and Manganese

dioxide for an electrolyte.

147

The Leclanché Cell (carbon-zinc) cell is one of the

oldest and most widely used types of dry cells. The

carbon in the battery is in the form of a rod in the

centre of the cell which acts as the positive terminal.

The case is made from zinc and acts as the negative

electrode. The electrolyte for this type of cell is a

chemical paste-like mixture which is housed between

the carbon electrode and the zinc case. The cell is

then sealed to prevent any of the liquid in the paste

from evaporating.

The advantage of a carbon-zinc battery is that it is

durable and very inexpensive to produce. It has a

good shelf life.

Disadvantages are high internal resistance and

limitation of 1.5 volts.

148

Mercury Cell

that is shaped like a button, while the other

is a cylindrical cell that looks like a regular flashlight

battery. Each cell produces about 1.35 volts. These

cells are very rugged and have a relatively long shelf

life. The mercury cell has the advantage of

maintaining a fairly constant output under varying

load conditions. For this reason, they are used in

products such as electric watches, hearing aids,

cameras, and test instruments.

149

New silver-oxide cell Silver-oxide cell

(zero-mercury, zero lead) (conventional)

150

Lead Acid Cells – secondary cell

consists of a series of

cells, with each cell

containing a lead

peroxide positive plate

and a lead negative

plate immersed in a

dilute sulphuric acid

solution. This sulphuric acid solution is known as

electrolyte. The whole arrangement is kept in a leak-

proof casing. Each cell delivers around 2 volts and

when six cells are connected in series there would

be 12 V.

151

When a lead-acid battery

is discharged, electrolyte

and the active material

on the plates of the

battery are consumed to

produce water and lead

sulphate.

is charged, electrical

energy is added to the

battery, causing the water

and lead sulphate to be

consumed and produce

electrolyte and active

material. 152

Voltage and Specific Gravity During Charge and

Discharge

153

Nickel Cadmium Cell - secondary cell

electrolyte is potassium hydroxide. The negative

electrode is made of nickel hydroxide, and the

positive electrode is made of cadmium hydroxide.

The nominal voltage of a nickel-cadmium cell is 1.25

volts. The nickel-cadmium battery has the advantage

of being a dry cell that is a true storage battery with

a reversible chemical reaction (i.e., it can be

recharged). The nickel-cadmium battery is a rugged,

dependable battery. It gives dependable service

under extreme conditions of temperature, shock, and

vibration. Due to its dependability, it is ideally suited

for use in portable communications equipment.

154

INTERNAL RESISTANCE, EMF, TERMINAL VOLTAGE

the resistance of the electrolyte between electrodes.

Any current in the battery must flow through the

internal resistance. The internal resistance is in

series with the voltage of the battery (EMF), causing

an internal voltage drop.

With no current flow, the voltage

drop is zero; thus, the full battery

voltage (EMF) is developed across

the output terminals (VB). If a

load is placed on the battery, load

resistance (RL) is in series with

internal resistance (Ri).

155

When current flows in the circuit (IL), the internal

voltage drop (IL * Ri) drops the terminal voltage

of the battery. Thus, internal resistance reduces

both the current and voltage available to the load.

VL = EMFB – IL * Ri

156

SERIES, PARALLEL AND SERIES-PARALLEL

COMBINATION

When several cells are connected in series, the total

voltage output of the battery is equal to the sum of the

individual cell voltages. In the example of

the battery where four 1.5V cells provide a total of

6 volts. When we connect cells in series, the positive

terminal of one cell is connected to the negative

terminal of the next cell. The current flow through a

battery connected in series is the same as for one cell.

Ri =Ri1+Ri2+Ri3+Ri4+Ri5 (W)

E =E1+E2+E3+E4+E5 (V)

157

Cells connected in parallel, give the battery a greater

current capacity. When cells are connected in parallel,

all the positive terminals are connected together, and

all the negative terminals are connected together. The

total voltage output of a battery connected in parallel

is the same as that of a single cell. Cells connected in

parallel have the same effect as increasing the size of

the electrodes and electrolyte in a single cell.

E=E1=E2=E3 (V) Ri

Ri = (W)

Ri=Ri1=Ri2=Ri3 (W) 3

158

Serial parallel combination

of each series connected cells. In our case 4.5 V.

159

METHOD OF CHARGING

Classification by application

Main power source Stand by power source

Constant Constant Two step Compensating

voltage voltage/ constant (trickle/floating )

Constant voltage charge

current

160

Constant Voltage: A constant voltage charger is

basically a DC power supply which in its simplest

form may consist of a step down transformer from

the mains with a rectifier to provide the DC voltage to

charge the battery. The lead-acid cells used for cars

and backup power systems typically use constant

voltage chargers. In addition, lithium-ion cells often

use constant voltage systems, although these usually

are more complex with added circuitry to protect both

the batteries and the user safety.

voltage they apply to the battery to maintain a

constant current flow, switching off when the voltage

reaches the level of a full charge. This design is

usually used for nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal

hydride cells or batteries. 161

Constant voltage / constant current method

This method charges the battery by controlling the

current at 0.4 Ah and controlling the voltage at

2.45V/cell(unit battery) at room temperature of 200C

to 250C. Proper charging time is 6 to 12 hours

depending of the discharge rate.

162

Constant voltage / constant current method

uses two constant-voltage devices. At the initial

stage, the battery is charged by the first constant

voltage device of high setup voltage. When the

charge current, the value of which is detected by

the current detection

circuit, has reduced to

the present value, the

device is switched

over to the second low

setup voltage, for

trickle charge voltage.

163

Method of charging lead-acid battery

charge profile of the following:

Bulk charge (I): Initially the battery is charged at a constant

current rate until the cell voltage reaches a preset value -

normally a voltage near to that at which gassing occurs.

Constant Voltage (U): When the preset voltage has been

reached, the charger switches into the constant voltage

phase and the current drawn by the battery will gradually

drop until it reaches another preset level.

Equalize (I): Finally the charger switches again into the

constant current mode and the voltage continues to rise up

to a new higher preset limit when the charger is switched off.

This last phase is used to equalize the charge on the

individual cells in a gassing process.

164

Battery capacity

is a measure (typically in Amp-hr) of the charge

stored by the battery, and is determined by the mass

of active material contained in the battery. The more

electrolyte and electrode material there is in the cell,

the greater the capacity of the cell. Thus a small cell

has less capacity than a larger cell, given the same

chemistry

The battery capacity represents the maximum

amount of energy that can be extracted from the

battery under certain specified conditions. However,

the actual energy storage capabilities of the battery

can vary significantly from the "nominal" rated

capacity, as the battery capacity depends strongly on

the age and past history of the battery, the charging

or discharging regimes of the battery and the

temperature. 165

Efficiency of a Lead Acid Cell

ampere-hour efficiency =

output(discharge), Ah x 100%

=

input (charge), Ah

watt-hour efficiency =

average discharge, Wh x 100%

=

average charge, Wh

166

Example 1

Discharged 12V battery is charged for 10h at 12A, at

average charging terminal voltage of 15V. When

connected to the load, a current of 10A for 8h at an

average terminal voltage of 12V discharges the

battery. Find out the ampere-hour and watt-hour

efficiency.

10 x 8 x 100%

ampere-hour efficiency = =66.7%

10 x 12

10 x 8 x 12 x100%

watt-hour efficiency = =53.3%

10 x 12 x 15

167

MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM

states that magnet is is made up of a very large

number of small, magnetized particles. When a bar

of iron is not magnetized, the small magnetic

particles are arranged in a random manner. When

the bar of iron becomes a magnet, the magnetic

particles are aligned so that their individual magnetic

effects add together to form a strong magnet.

168

The other theory of magnetism is associated with

the electron. The orbiting electrons cause circulating

currents and form microscopic magnetic dipoles. In

addition, both the electrons and the nucleus of an

atom rotate (spin) on their own axes with certain

magnetic dipole moments.

169

In the absence of an external magnetic field the

magnetic dipoles of the atoms of most materials

(except permanent magnets) have random

orientations, resulting in no net magnetic moment.

The application of an external magnetic field cause

both an alignment of magnetic moments of the

spinning electrons and an induced magnetic moment

due to a charge in orbital motion of electrons.

170

A fundamental law of magnetism state that unlike

poles attract each other and like poles repel each

other.

171

Magnetic flux

Magnetic flux is given symbol F, and is measure of

the magnetic field: its unit is the weber [Wb]

Characteristics of lines of magnetic flux are:

The direction of a line of magnetic flux at any point in

a non magnetic medium, such as air, is that of the

north seeking pole of a compass needle placed at that

point.

Each line of magnetic flux forms a closed loop.

Lines of magnetic flux never intersect

Lines of magnetic flux are like stretched elastic cords,

always trying to shorten themselves.

Lines of magnetic flux which are parallel and in the

same direction repel one other and vise versa. 172

172

Magnetic Field

Currents produce magnetic fields, a phenomenon

described mathematically by the Biot-Savart Law and

Ampère's Law. The magnetic field generated by a

current travels in a circular path around the current in

a plane perpendicular to the flow of charge i.e.

current.

field that, unlike electric field, does not begin on a

charge and end on a charge. On the contrary,

magnetic fields close in on themselves, forming a

circular field path. 173

Right hand rule

(T)

=4p 10-7 (H/m)

The magnetic field in space around an electric current

is proportional to the electric current which serves as

its source, just as the electric field in space is

proportional to the charge which serves as its source.

174

Magnetomotive force

establish magnetic flux in the magnetic circuit (its

analogy in the electric circuit is e.m.f. which establish

a current in the electrical circuit).

F = N x I (Ampere-turn)

175

Magnetic field intensity (strength)

per unit length of the magnetic circuit

F Nx I A

l H = = [ ]

l l m

F =H x l [A ]

N x I=H x l [A ]

I

176

Magnetic flux density

passing through unit area perpendicular to the

―direction‖ of the flux.

F Wb

B= [ =T ]

A m2

177

Permeability

Permeability symbol (m) is the specific measure of a

material's acceptance of magnetic flux, analogous to

the specific resistance of a conductive material (ρ),

except inverse (greater permeability means easier

passage of magnetic flux, whereas greater specific

resistance means more difficult passage of electric

current).

Permeability of free space or vacuum and non

magnetic materials, symbol m0 is defined as

B H

m0 = = 4p 10-7 [ ]

H m

178

For ferromagnetic material permeability increases by

factor mr, called relative permeability, where mr > 1

(up to 7000 and even more).

mr

1.4 800

cast steel

cast iron

cast iron

0 0

0 10000 0 10000

H(A/m) H(A/m)

Absolute permeability

B

m= = mr X m0 B = mr m0 H

H 179

Example 1

A coils of 200 turns is wound uniformly over a

wooden ring having a mean circumference of 600 mm

and a uniform cross sectional area of 500 mm2. If the

current through the coil is 4 A, calculate:

(a) the magnetic field strength,

(b) the flux density, and

(c) the total flux

Nx I 200 x 4

H = = = 1333 A/m

l 0.6

B = mr m0 H = 1 x 4p10-7 x 1333 = 1.675 mT

180

Comparison of magnetic and electric circuit

Magnetic circuit Electric circuit

F=F*S E=I*R

Reluctance S F H*l 1 l

S= = = *

F=H* l[A/m*m=A] F B*A m A

1 l A ]

[

F = B * A [ T * m2 = Wb ] =

mr* mo

*

A Wb

l [ W] 181

A

Exercise 1

turn coil carries a current I=20 mA which sets up a

flux within the iron and across the air gap. If the iron

cross section is 0.8×10-4 m2, the mean length of flux

path in iron is 0.15 m, mr=800 in iron and air gap

length is 0.75 mm, calculate the air gap flux density.

It may be assumed that the flux lines flow straight

across the air gap, i.e. air gap cross section is also

0.8×10-4 mm2.

Answer: 0.16 T

182

Electromagnetic induction

be induced in a conductor which is moving relative to

an external magnetic field. A current will flow if a

complete circuit is present.

conductor is moving, or changing in magnitude, such

that magnetic field lines are moving across the

conductor, an electric current is induced in the

conductor, if the conductor is part of a complete

circuit.

183

Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction states that:

dF

E = -N [V]

dt

E is the electromotive force (emf) in volts

N is number of turns

F is the magnetic flux in weber

dF

is rate of change of flux linkages

dt

such a direction that the current it drives around the

circuit opposes the change in magnetic flux which

produces the emf. 184

Three principal methods of inducing an e.m.f.

1. Self induction

df(t)

e (t) = - N

dt

185

2. Induction by motion

df

e= - = B l v

dt

186

2. Induction by motion (rotation)

A’ = A cos a

df d

e (t ) = - N = -N ( B A cos w t )

dt dt

e (t ) = N B A w sin w t

187

3. Mutual induction

d f (t )

N e 2 (t ) = - N 2

2 dt

188

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic

field

When a current-carrying conductor is placed in a

magnetic field, there is an interaction between the

magnetic field produced by the current and the

permanent field, which leads to a force being

experienced by the conductor.

F = B l I (N)

189

Force between parallel current-carrying conductors

will set up a magnetic field and the fields will interact

proportional to the

currents I1 and I2

and length l, and

inversely proportional

to distance d.

I1 I2

F = m0 l [N ]

2p d

190

AC and DC

or current that changes polarity or direction,

respectively, over time.

current that maintains constant polarity or direction,

respectively, over time.

191

An alternating current is thus one which rises in one

direction to a maximum value, before falling to zero

and repeating in the opposite direction. Instead of

drifting steadily in one direction, the electrons

forming the current move backwards and forwards

in the conductor.

The time taken for

an alternating

quantity to complete

its pattern (to flow in

both directions and

then return to zero)

is called the periodic

time (symbol T) for

the system, which is

said to complete one

cycle in this time. 192

The number of complete cycles traced out in a given

time is called the frequency (symbol f ), usually

expressed in hertz (Hz), which are cycles per second

(c/s). If there are f cycles in one second, each cycle

takes 1/f seconds, so that

1 1

T = ( s) f = ( Hz)

f T

A frequency of 50 Hz is the standard for the supply

system in many parts of the world, including the

Malta, but 60 Hz systems are also common for mains

supplies.

1 1

T= = = 0.02( s)

f 50

193

Advantages of AC systems

alternator) is more robust, less expensive, requires

less maintenance, and can deliver higher voltages

than its DC counterpart.

(b) The power loss in a transmission line depends on

the square of the current carried(P = I2R). If the

voltage used is increased, the current is decreased,

and losses can be made very small. The simplest way

of stepping up the voltage at the sending end of a

line, and stepping it down again at the receiving end,

is to use transformers, which will only operate

efficiently from AC supplies.

(c) Three-phase AC induction motors are cheap,

robust and easily maintained.

194

(d) Energy meters, to record the amount of electrical

energy used, are much simpler for AC supplies than

for DC supplies.

(e) Discharge lamps (fluorescent, sodium, mercury

vapour etc.) operate more efficiently from AC

supplies, although filament lamps are equally

effective on either type of supply.

(f) Direct-current systems are subject to severe

corrosion, which is hardly present with AC supplies.

195

Peak, average and rms values of sinusoidal waves

continuously, so that it is not possible to state its

value in the same simple terms that can be used for

a direct current.

instants of time, and will be different for different

instants. Symbols for instantaneous values are small

symbols,v(t) for voltage, i(t) for current

reached during alternation, usually occurring once in

each half-cycle. Maximum values are indicated by Um

for voltage, Im for current and so on.

196

Average or mean value is the average value of the

current or voltage. If an average value is found over

a full cycle, the positive and negative half-cycles will

cancel out to give a zero result if they are identical.

In such cases it is customary to take the average

value over a half-cycle. Symbols used are Uav for

voltage Iav for current.

time(ms) 0 0.25 0.5 0.75

volts(V) 0 45 72 91

time(ms) 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75

volts(V) 104 118 142 185

time(ms) 2.0 2.25 2.5 2.75

volts(V) 240 278 295 300

time(ms) 3.25 3.5 3.75 4.0

volts(V) 248 195 85 0

197

The average value of voltage will be the average

length of lines (expressed in volts). To find this, we

add the voltage represented by each line and divide

by the number of lines.

0 45 72 91 104 118 142 185 240 278 295 300 280 248 195 85 0

Uav = = 157(V )

17

the system is the square root of the average value

of the squares of the instantaneous values. The

symbols used for RMS values are U, I.

02 452 722 912 1042 1182 1422 1852 2402 2782 2952 3002 2802 2482 1952 852 02

U= = 186.6(V )

17

198

199

Sinusoidal waveforms

Loop

connected to

slip rings

Fleming‘s

rotates in

right hand

magnetic

rule

field

external

prime mover

200

Induced EMF

e(t ) = E sin wt

there are 2p radians in 360◦, so 1 radian =

360◦/(2p) = 57.3◦ approximately.

The total angular movement after t seconds of a

wire loop rotating at f revolutions per second and

giving an output of f cycles per second will be 2pft

radians. w = 2pf 201

Peak, average and rms values of sinusoidal waves

and is said to be ‗sinusoidal‘ in shape.

202

average value =2 × maximum value/p

=0.637 × maximum value

Eavg = (2/p )Emax =0.637 x Emax

=0.707 × maximum value

E = Emax / √2 (V)

=0.707Emax/0.637 Emax = 1.11

203

Example 1

Find the maximum and average values for a 230 V

supply.

or

204

Concept of capacitance

separated conductors, an electric field is present

within the space between those conductors.

Capacitors are components designed to take

advantage of this phenomenon by placing two

conductive plates (usually metal) in close proximity

with each other. There are many different styles of

capacitor construction, each one suited for particular

ratings and purposes.

205

When a voltage is applied across the two plates of a

capacitor, a concentrated field flux is created

between them, allowing a significant difference of

free electrons (a charge) to develop between the two

plates.

accumulated electrons in the form of an electric field,

they behave quite differently than resistors (which

simply dissipate energy in the form of heat) in a

circuit. Energy storage in a capacitor is a function of

the voltage between the plates, as well as other

factors. 206

Factors affecting capacitance

determining the amount of capacitance created. These

factors all dictate capacitance by affecting how much

electric field flux (relative difference of electrons

between plates) will develop for a given amount of

electric field force (voltage between the two plates).

2. Plate spacing e = Permittivity of dielectric

3. Dielectric material (absolute, not relative)

A = Area of plate overlap in

eA square meters

C= (F) d = Distance between

d plates in meters

207

‖Relative‖ permittivity means the permittivity of a

material, relative to that of a pure vacuum.

The greater the number, the greater the permittivity

of the material. Glass, for instance, with a relative

permittivity of 7, has seven times the permittivity of

a pure vacuum, and consequently will allow for the

establishment of an electric field flux seven times

stronger than that of a vacuum, all other factors

being equal.

208

Material Relative permittivity (dielectric constant)

Vacuum ------------------------- 1.0000

Air ---------------------------- 1.0006

PTFE, FEP ("Teflon") ----------- 2.0

Polypropylene ------------------ 2.20 to 2.28

ABS resin ---------------------- 2.4 to 3.2

Polystyrene -------------------- 2.45 to 4.0

Waxed paper -------------------- 2.5

Transformer oil ---------------- 2.5 to 4

Hard Rubber -------------------- 2.5 to 4.80

Wood (Oak) --------------------- 3.3

Silicones ---------------------- 3.4 to 4.3

Bakelite ----------------------- 3.5 to 6.0

Quartz, fused ------------------ 3.8

Wood (Maple) ------------------- 4.4

Glass -------------------------- 4.9 to 7.5

209

"Ohm‘s Law" for a capacitor

conductors do. However, there is a definite

mathematical relationship between voltage and

current for a capacitor, as follows:

du

i=C

dt

i = instantaneous current through the capacitor

C = capacitance in Farads

(volts per second)

210

The capacitor acts as a LOAD

by the capacitor from

to the rest of the rest of the circuit -

the circuit charging

increasing

voltage

by the capacitor to the

to the rest of

rest of the circuit -

the circuit

discharging

decreasing

voltage 211

Capacitors act somewhat like secondary-cell

batteries when faced with a sudden change in

applied voltage: they initially react by producing a

high current which tapers off over time.

• A fully discharged capacitor initially acts as a short

circuit (current with no voltage drop) when faced

with the sudden application of voltage. After

charging fully to that level of voltage, it acts as an

open circuit (voltage drop with no current).

• In a resistor-capacitor charging circuit, capacitor

voltage goes from nothing to full source voltage

while current goes from maximum to zero, both

variables changing most rapidly at first, approaching

their final values slower and slower as time goes on.

212

213

214

Series and parallel capacitors

When capacitors are When capacitors are

connected in series, the connected in parallel, the

total capacitance is less total capacitance is the

than any one of the series sum of the individual

capacitors‘ individual capacitors‘ capacitances.

capacitances.

C1 x C 2

CT =

C1 + C 2

1

CT = CT = C 1 + C 2

1 1 1

+ +…..

C1 C1 Cn 215

Capacitors, like all electrical components, have

limitations which must be respected for the sake of

reliability and proper circuit operation.

Working voltage: Since capacitors are nothing more

than two conductors separated by an insulator (the

dielectric), one has to pay attention to the maximum

voltage allowed across it. If too much voltage is

applied, the ‖breakdown‖ rating of the dielectric

material may be exceeded, resulting in the capacitor

internally short-circuiting.

Polarity: Some capacitors are manufactured so they

can only tolerate applied voltage in one polarity but

not the other. This is due to their construction: the

dielectric is a microscopically thin layer of insulation

deposited on one of the plates by a DC voltage during

manufacture. These are called electrolytic capacitors,

and their polarity is clearly marked. 216

Resistance, Capacitance and Inductance in AC circuits

Resistance in AC circuit

flow of electrons at all periods of time, the

waveform for the voltage drop across the resistor is

exactly in phase with the waveform for the current

through it.

217

The power dissipated by the resistor

Average power

P = Urms x Irms (W)

―polarity‖ of power tells us that the resistor is always

dissipating power, taking it from the source and

releasing it in the form of heat energy. Whether the

current is positive or negative, a resistor still

dissipates energy.

218

Inductance in AC circuits

by dropping a voltage directly proportional to the rate

of change of current. u=L (di /dt)

In accordance with Lenz's Law, this induced voltage is

always of such a polarity as to try to maintain current

at its present value. That is, if current is increasing in

magnitude, the induced voltage will ―push against‖

the electron flow; if current is decreasing, the polarity

will reverse and ―push with‖ the electron flow to

oppose the decrease. This opposition to current

change is called reactance, rather than resistance. 219

The instantaneous power

Average power = 0

instantaneous voltage and the instantaneous current

(p = i x e), the power equals zero whenever the

instantaneous current or voltage is zero. Negative

power means that the inductor is releasing power back

to the circuit, while a positive power means that it is

absorbing power from the circuit. Since the positive

and negative power cycles are equal in magnitude and

duration over time, the inductor releases just as much

power back to the circuit as it absorbs over the span of

a complete cycle. 220

The power that surges back and forth in thus manner

is called reactive power (Q) to distinguish it from the

active power (P). The unit of reactive power is VAr,

while the unit for active power is W. Both powers

function independently of each other and they can

not be converted into the other and they have to be

treated as separate quantities in electrical circuit.

221

This opposition to alternating current is similar to

resistance, but different in that it always results in a

phase shift between current and voltage, and it

dissipates zero power.

Because of the differences, it has a different name:

reactance. Reactance to AC is expressed in ohms, just

like resistance is, except that its mathematical symbol

is X instead of R. To be specific, reactance associate

with an inductor is usually symbolized by the capital

letter X with a letter L as a subscript, like this: XL.

follows:

XL = 2pf L (W)

222

Capacitance in AC circuits

electrons through them directly

proportional to the voltage drop,

capacitors oppose changes in voltage

by drawing or supplying current as de

they charge or discharge to the new i=C

dt

voltage level. The flow of electrons

―through‖ a capacitor is directly

proportional to the rate of change of

voltage across the capacitor. 223

The instantaneous power

Average power = 0

changes in voltage; it merely absorbs and releases

power, alternately.

224

Since capacitors ―conduct‖ current in proportion to

the rate of voltage change, they will pass more

current for faster-changing voltages (as they charge

and discharge to the same voltage peaks in less

time), and less current for slower-changing voltages.

What this means is that reactance in ohms for any

capacitor is inversely proportional to the frequency of

the alternating current.

1

XC = (W)

2pf C

is exactly opposite from that of inductive reactance.

Capacitive reactance (W) decreases with increasing AC

frequency. Conversely, inductive reactance (W)

increases with increasing AC frequency. 225

Inductors oppose faster changing currents by

producing greater voltage drops; capacitors oppose

faster changing voltage drops by allowing greater

currents.

226

Concept of reactance and impendence

of electrons. It is present in all conductors to some

extent (except superconductors!), most notably in

resistors. When alternating current goes through a

resistance, a voltage drop is produced that is in-

phase with the current.

Resistance is mathematically symbolized by the

letter ―R‖ and is measured in the unit of ohms (W).

227

Reactance is essentially inertia against the motion of

electrons. It is present anywhere electric or

magnetic fields are developed in proportion to

applied voltage or current, respectively; but most

notably in capacitors and inductors. When

alternating current goes through a pure reactance, a

voltage drop is produced that is 90o out of phase

with the current. Reactance is mathematically

symbolized by the letter ―X‖ and is measured in the

unit of ohms (W).

228

Impedance is a comprehensive expression of any and

all forms of opposition to electron flow, including both

resistance and reactance. It is present in all circuits,

and in all components.

When alternating current goes through an

impedance, a voltage drop is produced that is

somewhere between 0o and 90o out of phase with the

current. Impedance is mathematically symbolized by

the letter ―Z‖ and is measured in the unit of ohms

(W), in complex form.

IR IL IC

U U

IR = IL = -j IC = jUwC

R wL

229

AC series circuits

XL

Ztotal = R + jXL j = arc tan

R

Ztotal = 5 W + j3.142 W

3.142

j = arc tan

Ztotal = (500) + (3.142900) 5

32.10 j = 32.10

Ztotal = 52 + 3.1422 = 5.9W 230

Active power

XL= 3.142W; R = 5W; Z = 5.9W

P = I2 R

ET 10 P = 14.37 W

I= = = 1.695 A

Z 5.9 Reactive power

EL = I x XL = 1.695 x 3.142 Q = I2 XL

Q = 9.03 VAr

EL = 5.33 V

Apparent power

ER = I x R = 1.695 x 5 = 8.48 V S= P2 + Q2

S = 16.97 VA 231

Power triangle Power factor

referred to as the

Q (VAr) power factor. Power

j factor is equal to 0

for purely inductive

P (W) load and equal to 1

for purely resistive

load. In every other

S= P2 + Q2 case 0 < pf < 1.

Q = P x tan (j) P

cos j =

S

232

Series resistor-capacitor circuits

Ztotal = R - jXC

XC

j= tan-1

Ztotal =5 W - j3.142 W R

j= tan

5

Ztotal = 52 + 31.832 = 32.22 W 81.10

j = 81.10

233

XC= 31.83 W; R = 5 W; Active power

P = I2 R = 0.312 x 5

Z = 32.22 W

P = 0.481 W

ET 10

I= = = 0.31 A Reactive power

Z 32.22

Q = I2XC = 0.312 x 31.83

EC = I x XC = 0.31 x 31.83

Q = 3.06 VAr

EC = 9.87 V Apparent power

S = P 2 + Q2

ER = I x R = 0.31 x 5 = 1.55 V

S = 3.1 VA 234

Power triangle Power factor

P (W)

The term cos j is

j referred to as the

power factor. Power

Q (VAr)

factor is equal to 0

S (VA) for purely capacitive

load and equal to 1

for purely resistive

load. In every other

S= P2 + Q2 case 0 < p.f. < 1.

Q = P x tan (j) P

cos j =

S

235

Series inductor-capacitor circuits

XL = 2pf L = 2 x p x 50 x 0.1 = 31.42 W

Ztotal = jXL - jXC

-900

Ztotal = -j8.37 = 8.37 W 236

XL= 31.42 W; XC= 39.79 W;

Active power

Z = 8.37 W

P = 0.00 W

ET 10

I= = = 1.195 A Reactive power

Z 8.37

Q = I2Z = 1.1952 x 8.37

EC = I x XC = 1.195 x 39.79

Q = 11.95 VAr

EC = 47.55 V Apparent power

EL = I x XL = 1.195 x 31.42 S= P2 + Q2

= 37.55 V S = 11.95 VA 237

Effect of frequency on inductive reactance

XL = 2pf L (W)

the inductive reactance is shown to increase in

direct proportion.

238

Effect of frequency on capacitive reactance

XC = 1/2pfC (W)

the inductive reactance is shown to decrease in

inverse proportion.

239

Resonance in series circuits

and inductive reactance equal), the two impedances

cancel each other out and the total impedance drops

to zero.

f = 159.155 Hz

XC = 1/(2pfC) = -j100 (W)

240

This series-resonant effect, with inductive and

capacitive reactances equal and opposite, may be

brought about in a number of ways:

1. Change in inductance, give a proportional change

in inductive reactance (note that XL = 2πf L, so XL ∝

L if f is constant).

2. Change in capacitance, giving an inversely

proportional change in capacitive reactance (note

that XC = 1/2πf C so XC ∝ 1/C if f is constant).

3. Change in frequency. If L and C are constant, XL ∝

f and XC ∝ 1/f , so an increase in frequency will

increase inductive reactance and decrease capacitive

reactance.

1

At some frequency these two values fr =

2π√LC

(inductive and capacitive reactance) would

be equal and series resonance would occur. 241

Variation of resistance,

reactance and impedance

with frequency in a R-L-C

series circuit

can be formed across the

individual components of

series LC circuits at

resonance, due to high

current flows and

substantial individual

component impedances.

R-L-C series circuit 242

Power in single phase circuits

The electrical unit of power is the watt, which

represents a rate of expending energy of one joule

each second. (W=J/s)

applied to it, so that a direct current of I amperes

flows, the power dissipated, P watts, will be given by

2

V

P = VxI = I 2 R =

R

for an AC circuit, P is the average power, while V

and I and RMS voltage and RMS current,

respectively. This power is dissipated in the resistor

as heat. 243

Since both voltage and current values are

continuously changing in the AC system, power will

also fluctuate and the rate of dissipating energy is

the instantaneous power, which is given by

p = vi

phase, and the power at any instant can be found by

multiplying the voltage and current at that instant.

244

Voltage, current and power waves for resistive

AC circuit

Example 1

A 3 kW immersion

heater is connected

to a 230 V AC supply.

Calculate the current.

P 3000

I= = = 13( A)

V 230

245

Power in the capacitive AC circuit

instantaneous power is: p = vi. In the first quarter-

cycle of voltage, v and i are both positive, so their

product, the power wave is also positive. In the

second quarter-cycle of voltage, v is positive but i is

negative, so the power wave goes negative.

246

During its first and third quarter-cycles, the voltage

is increasing and the supply provides energy to

charge the capacitor. During the second and fourth

quarter-cycles of voltage, the reducing PD across

the capacitor allows it to discharge, returning its

energy to the supply.

The positive pulses represent energy supplied to the

capacitor, while the negative pulses represent

energy supplied by the capacitor as it discharges.

247

The interchange of energy dissipates no average

power in a pure capacitor, so no heating occurs.

Since we have voltage and current, but no average

power, the expression P = VI is no longer true. The

product of voltage and current in this case is called

reactive power and is measured in reactive

voltamperes (VAr). The current to a capacitor which

does not contain resistance does not dissipate

energy, and is called reactive current.

248

Example 1

supply. Calculate the reactive current and reactive

voltamperes.

1 1

Xc = = = 318(W)

2pfC 2p 50 x10 -6

V 230

I= = = 0.723( A)

Xc 318

249

Power in the inductive AC circuit

instantaneous power is: p = vi. In the first quarter-

cycle of voltage, v and i are both positive, so their

product, the power wave is also positive. In the

second quarter-cycle of voltage, v is positive but i is

negative, so the power wave goes negative.

250

During its first and third quarter-cycles, the current

is increasing and the supply provides energy to

magnetic field of the inductor. During the second

and fourth quarter-cycles of voltage, the reducing

current across the inductor allows it to discharge,

returning its energy to the supply.

The positive pulses represent energy supplied to the

inductor, while the negative pulses represent energy

supplied by the inductor as it discharges.

251

Power in resistive and capacitive AC circuits

reactance in series, the voltage and current will

have a relative phase angle between 0◦ and 90◦,

depending on the ratio of resistance to reactance

Although, there is still some energy returned to the

supply, (negative pulses), the energy drawn from

the supply (positive pulses), is greater. The net

energy drawn

from the supply

will be dissipated

as heat in the

resistive part of

the circuit.

252

The ratio of resistance to reactance in the circuit

must have some bearing on the power dissipated,

because power is expended in a resistive circuit, but

not in a reactive circuit.

Example 2

A circuit connected to a 230 V AC supply consists of

a resistance of 28.8 (W) in series with a capacitor of

reactance 38.4(W). Calculate (a) the circuit current,

(b) the circuit phase angle, and (c) the power

dissipated.

Z = R 2 Xc 2 = 28.82 38.42 = 48W

V 230 VR IR R 28.8

I= = = 4.79 A cos f = = = = = 0.6

Z 48 V IZ Z 48

P = VI cos f = 230 x4.79 x0.6 = 661(W )

P = I 2 R = 4.792 x28.8 = 661(W ) 253

Example 3

A 10 W resistor and a capacitor are connected in

series to a 120 V, 60 Hz supply. If the power lost in

the circuit is 360 W, calculate the capacitance.

P P

P = I R......I = .......I =

2 2

R R

P 380

I= = = 36 = 6( A)

R 10

V 120

Z= = = 20(W)

I 6

Xc = Z 2 - R 2 = 20 2 - 10 2 = 17.3(W)

1 1 1

Xc = .....C = = = 153mF

2pfC 2pfXc 2p 60 x17.3 254

Power in resistive and inductive AC circuits

series, current lags supply voltage by an angle of φ◦,

which will vary from almost 0 to nearly 90◦.

Energy is both taken

from the supply and

returned to it, that

taken from the supply

exceeding the energy

returned.

dissipated as heat in the resistive part of the circuit.

255

Example 4

A 4 W resistor and a pure inductive reactance of 3 W

are connected in series to a 200 V AC supply.

Calculate (a) the current, (b) the circuit phase angle

and (c) the power dissipated.

Z = R 2 Xc 2 = 4 2 32 = 5W

V 200

I= = = 40 A

Z 5

VR IR R 4

cos f = = = = = 0.8..........f = 36.90

V IZ Z 5

P = VI cos f = 200 x 40 x0.8 = 6400(W )

P = I 2 R = 40 2 x 4 = 6400(W )

256

Example 5

A choke connected to a 130 V, 50 Hz supply has a

resistance of 5 W and dissipates 500 W. Calculate its

inductance.

P 500

P=I RI =

2

= = 10( A)

R 5

V 130

Z= = = 13W

I 10

X L = Z 2 - R 2 = 132 - 52 = 12W

XL 12

X L = 2pfL L = = = 0.0382( H ) = 38.2(mH )

2pf 2p 50

257

Power in general

The dissipated power can then be calculated by any

one of the three methods:

2

V

P = VI cos f ..............P = I R..............P = R

2

R

Where:

P = power dissipated (W);

V = supply voltage (V);

I = circuit current (A);

φ = circuit phase angle;

R = circuit resistance (W);

VR = PD across the resistive component (V).

258

Concept of power factor and its effect

dissipate no power. In most practical cases this will

not happen, but where the phase angle between

current and voltage is large, the ‗in-phase‘ or ‗active‘

component of current will be smaller than the

‗reactive‘ component. In AC circuits, the product of

voltage and current need not result in the power

dissipated in watts, this product that gives volt-

amperes, is called apparent power.

Power factor (often abbreviated to PF) is defined as

PF= = = cos f = =

apparent power VI V Z

259

In a predominantly inductive series circuit, where

current lags voltage, the power factor is called a

lagging power factor. Similarly, in a predominantly

capacitive series circuit, where current leads voltage,

the power factor is called a leading power factor.

The power factor can vary between definite limits,

being 1 (unity) for purely resistive circuits, where the

phase angle is 0◦ and P = VI; or 0 (zero) for purely

reactive (inductive or capacitive) circuits, where the

phase angle is 900 and P = 0.

260

Example 1

An AC single-phase motor takes 5 A at 0.7 power

factor lagging when connected to a 230 V, 50 Hz

supply. Calculate the power input to the motor. If the

motor efficiency is 80% calculate the output.

= 805 × 0.80 watts = 644 W

261

Example 2

Instruments connected to

a single-phase AC motor give

the following readings:

wattmeter, 1800 W,

voltmeter, 230 V,

ammeter, 10 A. Calculate the operating power factor

of the motor.

PF= = = 0.783 lagging

apparent power 230x10

262

Components of power

Power diagram for Power diagram for

resistive and resistive and

inductive AC circuit capacitive AC circuit

power, thus P = VI cos φ = apparent power × power

factor

Reactive power is the quadrature component of

apparent power, thus Q = VAr = VI sin φ

of a right-angled triangle,(VA)2 = (W)2 + (VAr)2 263

Example 1

A single-phase load consists of:

(1) 12 kW of lighting and heating at unity power

factor

(2) 8 kW of motors at 0.8 power factor lagging

(3) 10 kVA of motors at 0.7 power factor lagging.

Calculate: 7kW 8kW 12kW

(a)the total kW,

j2 j1

(b)the total kVAr,

(c)the total kVA, 6kVAr

10kVA

(d)the overall

power factor and 7.14kVAr I=S/V=

the total supply 10kVA 30000/230

current at 230 V. =130.43 A

kW 7 8 12 27

PF= = = = 0.9

kVA (7 8 12) 2 (6 7.14) 2 30 264

Example 2

A single-phase 3.73 kW motor is 85% efficient at full

load and is fed from a 230 V supply. Calculate its

full-load current if it operates at a power factor of

(a) unity, (b) 0.85 lag, and (c) 0.6 lag.

P

P(W ) = VI cos jh I =

V cos jh

3730

Ia = = 19.95( A)

220 x1x0.85

3730

Ib = = 23.47( A)

220 x0.85 x0.85

3730

Ic = = 33.24( A)

220 x0.6 x0.85

265

All the disadvantages of a low power factor are due

to the fact that a given load takes more current at a

low power factor than it does at a high power factor.

The most important disadvantages of operating a

load at a low power factor are as follows.

(1) Larger cables, switchgear and transformers may be necessary both

within an installation and in the supply mains feeding it.

(2) Low-power-factor working causes operating difficulties on high-

voltage transmission lines.

(3) Because of the effects of items (1) and (2), electricity companies

usually penalise the consumer whose load is at a poor power factor by

charging more for the electrical energy used.

(4) Larger cables may be needed within an installation to carry the

extra current at low power factor. Alternatively, extra load can be

connected to a cable if the power factor of the existing load it carries

is improved.

(5) Higher currents give rise to higher copper losses in cables and

transformers.

(6) Higher currents give larger voltage drop in cables, and a change in

load gives a larger change in voltage drop if the power factor is low.

This is called ‗poor voltage regulation‘. 266

Measurement of resistance by substitution

on the fact that two resistance must be equal,

which, when substituted for each other in the same

circuit, give the same current-strength.

galvanometer‘s needle must be

adjusted with rheostat, to

suitable position.

way to bring galvanometer‘s needle back in same

position. The added rheostat resistance is equal to

resistance R. 267

Example 1

R Rh 14W Rh 15W

deflection 4503 4709 4405

47.9 - 45.3

R = 14 = 14.76W

47.9 - 44.5

applicable if the resistances are not too small, and

requires only galvanoscope to prove the equality of

two circuits.

268

Measurement of resistance by direct methods

resistance Rx. Pay attention about polarity.

voltmeter is in range 2-4V. Read the value of voltage

V and current I and write down in table. Adjust Rd to

another value so that V is in the range 2-4V. 269

3. Repeat points 1 and 2 with resistor Rx2

in serial and perform measurements according points

1 and 2 to determine equivalent resistance Req.

in parallel and perform measurements according

points 1 and 2 to determine equivalent resistance

Req.

equivalent resistance Req for serial and parallel

combination.

resistances Req for serial and parallel combination

with formulas for series and parallel connections. 270

271

Wheatstone Bridge

direct measurements in that, the quantity being

measured is compared with a known reference

quantity. The balancing strategy avoids undesirable

interaction effects and generally results in

more accurate measurement than the direct one.

By far the

most common

is the

Wheatstone

bridge

designed for

precise

measurement

of resistance. 272

In the basic circuit in which the measurement of an

unknown resistance Rx is performed by balancing

the variable resistances Ra and Rb until no current

flows through meter A. Under this null condition,

Ra

Rx = Rs

Rb

where Rs is the known standard resistance.

Exercise 1

(b) the current

through R4.

273

Measurement of insulation and conductor resistance

of cables in series and parallel

measurements are length, type, temperature, and

the equipment connected in the circuit. Each of these

factors must be evaluated to reliably determine the

condition of the cable from the measurements

obtained.

Insulation resistance is defined as the resistance (in

MW) offered by the insulation to an impressed direct

voltage. The resulting current is called Insulation

current.

OR

in the path of leakage current, is called Insulation

resistance of the cable 274

A Megger is an ohmmeter-type instrument by means

of which the value of a resistance can be measured

and directly indicated by the position of a pointer on

a scale. The megger consists of two principal

elements: a hand-driven magneto type direct current

generator, which supplies the current for making the

measurement; and the moving element with pointer,

by means of which the value of the resistance under

measurement is indicated.

275

Meggers are equipped with three connection

terminals, labeled Line, Earth, and Guard.

To measure insulation resistance from a conductor to

the outside of the cable, we need to connect the

"Line" lead of the megger to one of the conductors

and connect the "Earth" lead of the megger to a wire

wrapped around the sheath of the cable:

Resistance is

measured

between the

Line and Earth

terminals,

where current

will travel

through coil 1.

276

The "Guard" terminal is provided for special testing

situations where one resistance must be isolated

from another, for instance where the insulation

resistance is to be tested in a two-wire cable:

second conductor to the sheath (Rc2-s), what we'll

actually measure is that resistance in parallel with

the series combination of conductor-to-conductor

resistance (Rc1-c2) and the first conductor to the

sheath (Rc1-s). 277

If we want to measure only the resistance between

the second conductor and the sheath (Rc2-s), then

we need to use the megger's "Guard" terminal:

278

Connecting the "Guard" terminal to the first

conductor places the two conductors at almost equal

potential. With little or no voltage between them,

the insulation resistance is nearly infinite, and thus

there will be no current between the two conductors.

Consequently, the megger's resistance indication will

be based exclusively on the current through the

second conductor's insulation, through the cable

sheath, and to the wire wrapped around, not the

current leaking through the first conductor's

insulation.

279

Double wound and auto-transformers, principle of

operation, application, precautions, advantages and

disadvantages

engineering, because almost all of its many branches

make use of them. The efficient transmission and

distribution of electricity would be impossible without

power transformers. Electronic equipment in

industry uses transformers in very large numbers.

Communications systems, including television and

telephony, rely on transformers for their operation.

Although transformers differ in size and in

application, all rely on the principle of mutual

inductance for their operation.

280

If the two coils are

arranged on a core of

magnetic material, this

will increase the amount

of magnetic flux set up

by one coil and will

make sure that most of

it links with the other

coil. In this way mutual

inductance is increased.

double-wound transformer.

The winding fed with current

is called the ‗primary winding‘

and the other the ‗secondary

winding‘.

281

Each winding must be made with insulated

conductors to prevent short circuits within the

winding itself, or to the magnetic circuit or core,

which is usually earthed for safety on power

transformers.

Alternating current in the primary winding will set up

an alternating magnetic flux in the core, the self-

inductance of the winding inducing in it an EMF

opposing the supply voltage. This EMF will be almost

the same in value as the applied voltage, and for

practical purposes the two may be assumed to be

equal. If all of the changing magnetic flux set up by

the first winding links with the second, the EMF

induced in each turn will be the same regardless of

whether it forms part of the primary winding or of

the secondary winding.

282

Autotransformers

which is both the primary and secondary of the

machine.

step-down step-up

autotransformer autotransformer 283

The major advantage of the autotransformer which

will be smaller, lighter and cheaper than its double-

wound counterpart. The disadvantages of the

autotransformer are as follows:

1 There is a direct metallic connection between the

input and the output, whereas the coupling in a

double-wound transformer is magnetic only, giving

electrical isolation of the two windings.

2 In the event of an open-circuit fault in the common

part of the winding, the input voltage of a step-down

autotransformer would appear on the output

terminals. Because of this danger, the IEE Wiring

Regulations limit the use of autotransformers.

However, they are used in high-voltage transmission

systems, as starters for induction and synchronous

motors, and for voltage control in some types of

discharge lamp. 284

To indicate the danger of input voltage appearing at

output terminals of a step-down autotransformer in

the event of an open circuit in the common winding

285

Construction details. Simple calculations

and secondary windings mounted on a magnetic

core.

286

Core materials

Since it is always be subjected to alternating

magnetisation, the core material and construction

must be chosen to reduce iron losses to a minimum,

or the transformer will not be efficient.

Most transformer cores are made from laminated

silicon steel, the laminations reducing eddy currents

and the silicon steel keeping hysteresis loss to a

minimum. Laminations must be arranged so as to

reduce the air gaps in the magnetic circuit.

The laminations must be tightly held together by

clamping or by taping, or they are likely to vibrate

and produce excessive noise. Some small high-

frequency communications transformers have cores

cast of solid ferroxcube, the eddy-current loss thus

being kept to a reasonable level.

287

packs of laminations being laid up to form

shaped core

288

Core arrangements

windings being split, with

part of each wound on each

side of the magnetic circuit

to reduce leakage flux.

further by using the shell-

type arrangement. Both

windings are placed on the

centre limb, the two outer

limbs providing parallel

return paths for the

magnetic flux. 289

Windings

experiments using aluminium as a conductor

material have been carried out. Cylindrical or

concentric windings, where the lower-voltage

winding is completely surrounded by the higher-

voltage turns, are used mainly for core-type circuits.

290

Sandwich or disc-type windings, where the two

windings are split into alternately mounted sections,

are used generally on shell-type circuits, except for

very high voltage transformers which use the

cylindrical type of winding.

winding winding

291

A transformer with an output voltage greater than its

input is called a step-up transformer, whereas a step-

down transformer has a lower output voltage than its

input. If a voltage or turns ratio is quoted for a

transformer, this is always put in the order

input : output, which is primary : secondary.

primary volts V1

primary volts per turn = =

primary turns N1

secondary volts V2

secondary volts per turn = =

secondary turns N2

V1 V2 V1 N1

= =

N1 N2 V2 N2

292

Example 1

A transformer with 1000 primary turns and 250

secondary turns is fed from a 230 V AC supply.

Calculate the secondary voltage and the volts per

turn.

V1/V2 =N1/N2 so V2 = V1 × N2/N1

Example 2

A neon-sign transformer has an output of 4500 V

and is fed at 230 V. If the secondary has 2000

turns, calculate the number of primary turns.

If we assume that our transformer is 100% efficient,

then power input = power output,

V1 x I1 = V2 x I2 V1/V2 = I2/I1

Neither of the assumptions made is strictly true

but, since the error involved is small, the resulting

expression is a useful one.

Example 3

A 50 kVA transformer has a voltage ratio of

3300:400 V. Calculate the primary and secondary

currents.

S =V1 x I1 so I1 = S / V1 = 50000/3300 = 15.2 A

S =V2 x I2 so I2 = S / V2 = 50000/400 = 125 A

294

Exercise 1

The single-phase transformer feeding a soil-

warming system is supplied at 230 V, 50 Hz, and

must provide a 20 V output. The full-load secondary

current is 180 A, and the secondary has 45 turns.

Calculate

(a) the output kVA of the unit

(b) the number of primary turns

(c) the full load primary current

(d) the volts per turn.

295

Exercise 2

A 75 kVA transformer has step-down ratio of 12:1,

2400 primary turns and a primary voltage of 3.3 kV.

Calculate

(a) the number of secondary turns

(b) the secondary voltage

(c) the volts per turn

(d) the full load primary and secondary currents.

296

Transformer losses, efficiency and regulation

two headings: iron (core) losses and copper (I2R)

losses.

Iron losses occur in the magnetic core of the

transformer, causing it to heat up. Iron losses can

be divided into

1) hysteresis losses

2) eddy-current losses

Iron losses depend on the frequency of the supply,

and the maximum magnetic flux density in the

transformer core. For power transformers, the

supply frequency is almost always constant, and

since the supply voltage is virtually constant,

there is very little change in the core flux density.

297

Thus it is reasonable to assume that the iron losses

in a transformer remain constant regardless of the

load conditions – for example, the iron loss on no

load will be the same as that on full load.

copper loss due to it may be ignored, and the total

copper losses of a power transformer on no load

may be assumed to be zero. Power loss in a

resistive circuit is given by the expression P = I2R,

and since winding resistances are largely constant,

copper losses depend on the square of the load

current.

Thus a transformer operating

loss

on half load will have only one

quarter of the copper loss it

has when providing full load.

load 298

Efficiency

As well as providing for the output power, the input

to a transformer must supply the transformer losses.

efficiency = × 100%

input power

output power

efficiency = × 100%

output power + power losses

299

Example 4

power transformer are 16 kW and 12 kW,

respectively. If the full-load output of the

transformer is 950 kW, calculate the losses and

efficiency of the transformer

(a) on full load

(b) on 60% of full load

(c) on half load.

Total loss = copper loss + iron loss =16 + 12=28kW

output power

efficiency = × 100%

output power + power losses

300

b) At 60% full load, iron loss remains at 12 kW.

output power x 0.6

efficiency = × 100%

output power x 0.6 + power losses

97.0%

301

output power x 0.5

efficiency = × 100%

output power x 0.5 + power losses

96.7%

302

Regulation

and no voltage drop. On full load the output voltage

will fall, and the difference between no-load voltage

and full-load voltage, expressed as a percentage of

no-load voltage, is called the voltage regulation.

regulation = × 100%

no-load voltage

Example 5

and 390 V on full load. Calculate the voltage

regulation.

303

no-load voltage − full load voltage

regulation = × 100%

no-load voltage

Exercise 3

provides 220.8 V on full load.

Calculate its no-load terminal voltage.

304

Resistance values for conductors at any temperature

other than the standard temperature (usually

specified at 20 deg Celsius) on the specific

resistance table must be determined through yet

another formula:

RT = Rref [1 + a(T - Tref)] (W)

Rref = conductor resistance at reference temperature

a = temperature coefficient of resistance for the

conductor material (1 / oC).

T = conductor temperature in degrees Celsius.

Tref = reference temperature that a is specified at

for the conductor material. Tref, usually 20o C, but

sometimes 0o C. 305

Material ―a" per deg C

Nickel Element 0.005866

Iron Element 0.005671

Molybdenum Element 0.004579

Tungsten Element 0.004403

Aluminum Element 0.004308

Copper Element 0.004041

Silver Element 0.003819

Platinum Element 0.003729

Gold Element 0.003715

Zinc Element 0.003847

Steel* Alloy 0.003

Nichrome Alloy 0.00017

Nichrome V Alloy 0.00013

Manganin Alloy +/- 0.000015

Constantan Alloy 0.000074

* Steel alloy at 99.5 % iron, 0.5 % carbon 306

Moving Iron Vane Movement The moving iron vane

movement can be used to measure both AC current and

voltage. By changing the meter scale calibration, the movement

can be used to measure DC current and voltage. The moving

iron vane meter operates on the principle of magnetic repulsion

between like poles. The measured current flows through a field

coil which produces a magnetic field proportional to the

magnitude of current. Suspended in this field are two iron vanes

attached to a pointer. The two iron vanes consist of one fixed

and one moveable vane. The magnetic field produced by the

current flow magnetizes the two iron vanes with the same

polarity regardless of the direction of current through the coil.

Since like poles repel one another, the moving iron vane pulls

away from the fixed vane and moves the meter pointer. This

motion exerts a force against a spring. The distance the moving

iron vane will travel against the spring depends on the strength

of the magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field

depends on the magnitude of current flow. Figure 3 Moving Iron

Vane Meter Movement As stated previously, this type of meter

movement may also be used to measure voltage. When this

type of movement is used to measure voltage, the field coil

consists of many turns of fine wire used to generate a strong

magnetic field with only a small current flow. 307

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