Você está na página 1de 456

HyperMesh Introduction

Pre-Processing for Finite Element Analysis

HyperWorks is a division of Altair

altairhyperworks.com

Altair Engineering Support Contact Information


Web site

www.altairhyperworks.com

Location

Telephone

e-mail

Australia

64.9.413.7981

anzsupport@altair.com

Brazil

55.11.3884.0414

br_support@altair.com

Canada

416.447.6463

support@altairengineering.ca

China

86.400.619.6186

support@altair.com.cn

France

33.1.4133.0992

francesupport@altair.com

Germany

49.7031.6208.22

hwsupport@altair.de

India

91.80. 6629.4500
1.800.425.0234 (toll free)

support@india.altair.com

Italy

39.800.905.595

support@altairengineering.it

Japan

81.3.5396.2881

support@altairjp.co.jp

Korea

82.70.4050.9200

support@altair.co.kr

Mexico

55.56.58.68.08

mx-support@altair.com

New Zealand

64.9.413.7981

anzsupport@altair.com

North America

248.614.2425

hwsupport@altair.com

Scandinavia

46.46.460.2828

support@altair.se

United Kingdom

01926.468.600

support@uk.altair.com

In addition, the following countries have resellers for Altair Engineering: Colombia, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Israel, Russia,
Netherlands, Turkey, Poland, Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia
Official offices with resellers: Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Malaysia, Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, Taiwan, United
Kingdom, USA
Copyright Altair Engineering Inc. All Rights Reserved for:
HyperMesh 1990-2014; HyperCrash 2001-2014; OptiStruct 1996-2014; RADIOSS1986-2014; HyperView1999-2014;
HyperView Player 2001-2014; HyperStudy 1999-2014; HyperGraph1995-2014; MotionView 1993-2014; MotionSolve 20022014; HyperForm 1998-2014; HyperXtrude 1999-2014; Process Manager 2003-2014; Templex 1990-2014; TextView
1996-2014; MediaView 1999-2014; TableView 2013-2014; BatchMesher 2003-2014; HyperMath 2007-2014;
Manufacturing Solutions 2005-2014; HyperWeld 2009-2014; HyperMold 2009-2014; solidThinking 1993-2014; solidThinking
Inspire 2009-2014; solidThinking Evolve 1993-2014; Durability Director 2009-2014; Suspension Director 2009-2014;
AcuSolve 1997-2014; AcuConsole 2006-2014; SimLab2004-2014 and Virtual Wind Tunnel 2012-2014.
In addition to HyperWorks trademarks noted above, Display Manager, Simulation Manager, Compute Manager, PBS,
PBSWorks, PBS GridWorks, PBS Professional, PBS Analytics, PBS Desktop, PBS Portal, PBS Application Services,
e-BioChem, e-Compute and e-Render are trademarks of ALTAIR ENGINEERING INC.
Altair trademarks are protected under U.S. and international laws and treaties. Copyright 1994-2014. Additionally, Altair software
is protected under patent #6,859,792 and other patents pending. All other marks are the property of their respective owners.
ALTAIR ENGINEERING INC. Proprietary and Confidential. Contains Trade Secret Information. Not for use or disclosure outside of
ALTAIR and its licensed clients. Information contained inHyperWorks shall not be decompiled, disassembled, or unlocked,
reverse translated, reverse engineered, or publicly displayed or publicly performed in any manner. Usage of the software is only as
explicitly permitted in the end user software license agreement.
Copyright notice does not imply publication

Table of Contents

HyperMesh Desktop Introduction


Pre-processing for Finite Element Analysis

Chapter 1 - Basic Interaction with HyperMesh Desktop ....................................... 7


1 - Getting Started With HyperMesh Desktop .................................................................. 7
2 - Opening and Saving Files ........................................................................................ 18
3 - Controlling the Display.............................................................................................. 21
4 - Working with Panels ................................................................................................. 32
5 - Organizing a Model .................................................................................................. 37
Exercise 1a - Interacting With HyperMesh Desktop ....................................................... 47

Chapter 2 - Geometry ............................................................................................ 63


1 - Importing, Exporting and Repairing CAD .................................................................. 63
Exercise 2a - Loading and Repairing CAD Geometry .................................................... 74
2 - Simplifying Geometry ............................................................................................... 81
Exercise 2b - Simplifying CAD Tools ............................................................................. 84
3 - Generating a Midsurface .......................................................................................... 92
Exercise 2c - Midsurface ............................................................................................. 100
Exercise 2d - Midsurfacing with Advanced extraction options ...................................... 122
4 - Generating and Editing Surfaces ............................................................................ 133

Chapter 3 - 2D Meshing ....................................................................................... 141


1 - Automeshing .......................................................................................................... 141
Exercise 3a - 2D Shell Meshing and Topology Refinement ......................................... 150
2 - Checking and Editing Mesh .................................................................................... 159
Exercise 3b - Refining Topology to Achieve a Quality Mesh ........................................ 173
Exercise 3c - Checking and Editing Mesh .................................................................... 186
3 Comparison Tool ................................................................................................... 214
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 3
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

4 - Batch Meshing ....................................................................................................... 215

Chapter 4 - Solids and 3D Meshing .................................................................... 221


1 - Creating and Editing Solid Geometry ..................................................................... 221
2 - Tetra Meshing ........................................................................................................ 227
Exercise 4a - Tetra Meshing........................................................................................ 239
Exercise 4b - Tetra Meshing Process Manager ........................................................... 255
3 - Solid Meshing ........................................................................................................ 269
Exercise 4c - 3D Solid Meshing with Hexas and Pentas.............................................. 274
4 - Shrink Wrap ........................................................................................................... 281
Exercise 4d - Shrink Wrap Meshing ............................................................................ 282

Chapter 5 - 1D Meshing and Connectors ........................................................... 289


1 - 1D meshing ............................................................................................................ 289
1.1 - 1D Elements ....................................................................................................... 291
1.2 - HyperBeam ......................................................................................................... 292
1.3 - Connectors.......................................................................................................... 293
Exercise 5a - 1D Meshing and Connectors ................................................................. 300

Chapter 6 - HyperMorph ...................................................................................... 319


1 - Introduction to Morphing Technology using HyperMorph........................................ 319
2 - Free Hand .............................................................................................................. 322
Exercise 6a - Using Free Hand ................................................................................... 326
3 - Domains and Handles ............................................................................................ 332
Exercise 6b - Using Domains and Handles ................................................................. 346
4 - Morph Volumes ...................................................................................................... 354
Exercise 6c - Using Morph Volumes............................................................................ 358
5 - Map to Geometry ................................................................................................... 366
Exercise 6d - Using Map to Geometry ......................................................................... 368

Chapter 7 - Analysis Setup .................................................................................. 371


1 - General Analysis Setup Process & Tools ............................................................... 371
2 - Part Replacement Tool........................................................................................... 389
Exercise 7a - Analysis Setup and Loading .................................................................. 391

Chapter 8 - Capstone Project .............................................................................. 413


1 - Bringing it all together ............................................................................................ 413
Exercise 8a - Capstone Project ................................................................................... 414

Appendix A - HyperWorks Desktop Customization .......................................... 431


DEMO A1 - HyperMesh Desktop Customization ......................................................... 431
DEMO A2 - HyperMesh Desktop Customization ......................................................... 432
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 4
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B - HyperWorks Collaboration Tools & Assembly ........................... 433


1 - HyperWorks Collaboration Tools ............................................................................ 433
1.1 - Benefits ............................................................................................................... 433
1.2 - Components: Explore, Organize, Connect........................................................... 434
1.3 - Terminology and Concepts .................................................................................. 437
1.4 - Organize Browser & User Interface ..................................................................... 439
1.5 - Creating and Using a Personal Library ................................................................ 441
2 - HyperWorks Assembly Browser ............................................................................. 445
2.1 - Modules............................................................................................................... 446
Exercise B1 - Creating and Using a Personal Library .................................................. 449

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 5
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 6
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Chapter 1

Basic Interaction with


HyperMesh Desktop
1- Getting Started with HyperMesh Desktop
In this section, you will explore the basic layout of the HyperMesh Desktop user interface.

Overview of Finite Element Analysis


Finite Element Analysis was first developed over 60 years ago as a method to accurately
predict the reaction of complex parts to various inputs. Prior to the development of FEA, the
only way to validate a design or test a theory was to physically test a part. This was and still
is both time consuming and expensive. While FEA will never replace the final physical
testing and validation of a design, it can drastically reduce the time and money spent on
intermediate stages and concepts.
FEA in its infancy was limited to large scale computing platforms but the development of
powerful personal computers, combined with intuitive software packages such as
HyperWorks, has brought FEA to the engineers desktop. This has broadened its use and
accuracy many fold.
Finite Element Analysis is now a vital and irreplaceable tool in many industries such as
Automotive, Aerospace, Defense, Consumer Products, Medical, Oil and Gas, Architecture
and many others.
FEA is performed in three stages; Pre-Processing, Solving and Post Processing. These
stages are outlined below.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 7
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Step 1: Pre- Processing


Pre-Processing is the act of preparing (meshing) a model for analysis. Complex geometry is
broken down into simple shapes (elements) in the act of meshing. This allows the solver in
the next step to predict the action of these elements and analyze the reaction of a complex
part to external forces and interactions. The part is meshed and then definitions for the type
and thickness of the material(s) are added. Next, forces and constraints are applied. The
model is then prepared for the analysis with information the solver will need to perform its
calculations. The model is then written in a format that the solver can understand and is
sent to the solver for processing.

Step 2: Solving
Solving is performed by any of the many commercially available software written to perform
Finite Element Analysis. Some of these include popular packages such as RADIOSS,
OptiStruct, Acusolve, Nastran, LS-Dyna, Abaqus, and Ansys, as well as others. The solver
takes the information provided in the file (input deck) created in HyperMesh in Step One and
calculates the parts reactions to the inputs defined. Common outputs are Displacement,
Stress, Strain and Acceleration. These results are stored in a file that then can be read in
HyperView in the Post-Processing stage.

Step 3: Post-Processing
Post-Processing is where the results of the solver solution can be reviewed and analyzed.
HyperView can provide presentation quality color contoured plots and animations
highlighting any of the requested results. Information can be queried, displaced and even
graphed in numerous windows allowing for customization geared toward the desired
audience.

8 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

HyperMesh Desktop Introduction


Running HyperMesh Desktop

Windows: The installation process creates a HyperWorks group under All


Programs on the Start menu. The default name of the group can be changed during
installation. Most applications can be started using the following instructions.
o
o
o

From the Start Menu, select All Programs.


Click Altair HyperWorks (version or the name defined during installation).
Select the name of the program you want to run HyperMesh Desktop.

Or
o

User can create a Windows Shortcut by right clicking on the above program
and selecting Create Shortcut.

UNIX and Linux:


o At the prompt, type <install directory>/scripts/hm.
o Set up an alias.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 9
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Mac OS X: The HyperWorks Mac OS X applications can be invoked as follows.


o

The icons in the Applications Menu under the default location (if defaults were
used) or the chosen install folder location.

The install location under scripts via a terminal window. (For example, the
command /Applications/AltairHyperWorks/altair/scripts/hm under a terminal
window would launch HyperMesh.)

The Start-In Directory


The Start-In Directory or Working Directory is the location from which the HyperWorks
Desktop application is launched. This directory defines where certain settings files are
written by default, and where customization files will be searched.

Configuration files (hmmenu.set, hmsettings.tcl, hwsettings.xml, hm.mac, etc.)

History File (command.cmf)

HyperMesh Model Files, FE Data and Geometry Files. (User can browse to different
directories for opening and saving)

The file browser will also use this directory as its default location for browsing for files. This
can be considered as the "current working directory".
This directory can be changed, thereby changing the location where these files are written to
or read from. This has the benefit of allowing different settings to be stored in different
directories to give control over the HyperWorks Desktop environment for different projects or
use cases.

10 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Changing the Start-in Directory on Windows


On Windows, the default start-in directory for HyperWorks is the My Documents directory.
This can be changed by editing the "Start in" field on the application executable or its
shortcut.
1. Locate and right-click the relevant HyperWorks Desktop application icon from the
Start menu Altair HyperWorks <Version> group.
Or
Locate and right-click the HyperWorks Desktop executable file
(e.g. <altair_home\hw\bin\<platform>\hw.exe)
2. Select Properties to open the properties dialog.
3. Select the Shortcut tab.
4. Edit the Start in field to contain the path to the directory in which you want to run the
HyperWorks Desktop application. This directory becomes the start-in directory.
5. Click OK.
6. Start the HyperWorks Desktop application as defined in the "Starting HyperWorks
Desktop Applications" section.

Changing the Start-in Directory on Linux


On Linux, the start-in directory is defined by the directory from which the user runs the
application startup script.
1. cd to the directory in which you want to run the HyperWorks Desktop application.

Start the HyperWorks Desktop application as defined in the "Starting


HyperWorks Desktop Applications" section.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 11
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Settings Files
HyperWorks Desktop writes several different settings files. HyperMesh writes
command.cmf, hmmenu.set and hmsettings.tcl.
HyperWorks Desktop writes hwsettings.xml. Each of these files is detailed below.

command.cmf
The command.cmf file is a command history file containing the commands executed in
HyperMesh whenever any operation is performed. This file can be used to rerun operations
or as a basis for determining the commands required to automate a given process. The
command.cmf file is written to the start-in directory for each session. Deleting this file simply
results in a new file being created on the next operation.

hmmenu.set
The hmmenu.set file stores information about panel options, panel settings, user profiles,
graphics settings, element check settings, penetration check settings, and several other
settings. The hmmenu.set file is written to the start-in directory after each session is closed.
Deleting this file resets the stored settings to their default values. It is possible to customize
the location where this file is read from during start-up. HyperWorks Desktop uses the
following search order to find the hmmenu.set file. If copies exist in multiple locations, only
the first one found in the search order is used:
1. Start-in directory
2. Home directory
3. HW_CONFIG_PATH environment variable
4. Installation directory

12 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

hmsetting.tcl
The hmsettings.tcl file stores information on the browsers, the user interface layout (tab
locations, command window, panel location, toolbars, etc...), keyboard preferences,
import/export settings, recent files, and other various settings. By default, the hmsettings.tcl
file is written to the My Documents directory on Windows and in ~/.altair on Linux after each
session is closed. Deleting this file resets the stored settings to their default values. It is
possible to customize the location where this file is read from during start-up and written to
on exit. HyperWorks Desktop always writes the hmsettings.tcl file back out to the location
where it originally read it from for that session. The following order is used to find the
hmsettings.tcl file:
1. HM_SETTINGS_DIR environment variable. If this is defined, the search stops
even if the file doesn't exist.
2. My Documents directory on Windows or ~/.altair on Linux

hwsetting.xml
The hwsettings.xml file stores information on the browsers, the user interface layout (tab
locations, command window, panel location, toolbars, etc...), keyboard preferences,
import/export settings, recent files, and other various settings. By default, the hwsettings.xml
file is written to the My Documents directory on Windows and in ~/.altair on Linux after each
session is closed. Deleting this file resets the stored settings to their default values. It is
possible to customize the location where this file is read from during start-up and written to
on exit. HyperWorks Desktop always writes the hwsettings.xml file back out to the location
where it originally read it from for that session. The following order is used to find the
hwsettings.xml file:
1. HW_SETTINGS_DIR environment variable. If this is defined, the search stops
even if the file doesn't exist.
2. My Documents directory on Windows or ~/.altair on Linux

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 13
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Online Help
HyperMesh offers comprehensive documentation in the online help. The Help can be
accessed through the menu bar or the use of the h key on your keyboard. If the user
accesses help through the use of the h key, the help documentation is intelligent,
opening in the section representing the panel that the user is actively in. Help also contains
detailed tutorials on many advanced HyperMesh functions.

14 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop


Example: how to use HyperWorks Online Help to search documentation about comments
created by HyperMesh in the input deck.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 15
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

HyperMesh Desktop Graphical User Interface

Title Bar It tells you which product is active


Menu Bar It enables access to many types of functionality. It places functionality into
groups, accessible via pull downs
Toolbar It gives access to commonly used tools via icons
Browser contains the following tabs:

Solver, Model, Utility, Include, Import, Export, Connector, Entity State, Entity
Editor, etc.

Graphics area displays the model


Menu Pages divides the main menu into groups based on function
Panel area menu items / functions for interacting with HyperMesh
Sub-panels divides panel into similar tasks related to panels main function
Command Window lets the user type in and execute tcl commands

Available through the View drop down menu (turned off by default)

Status Bar shows status of operations being performed

Indicates the current Include file, Component Collector, and Load Collector

16 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

HyperMesh Desktop Clients


HyperWorks applications can be selected from the Client Selector toolbar.
The Client Selector button on the left-most end of the toolbar allows you to select
HyperMesh, HyperView, HyperGraph 2D, HyperGraph 3D, MediaView, and TextView.
The toolbars, view controls, and menu bars change based on the application you select.

HyperMesh Desktop Keyboard Shortcut and Setting


The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys F1
through F12, or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 17
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

2 - Opening and Saving Files


Bringing data files into HyperMesh and saving them are frequent operations every user
should understand. This section will help you become proficient with the various ways this
can be done in HyperMesh. The remaining exercises in this course will assume you know
how to open and save files in HyperMesh.
In this section, you will learn how to:

Open a HyperMesh file

Import a file into a current HyperMesh session

Save the HyperMesh session as a HyperMesh model file

Export all the geometry to an IGES file

Export all the FE data to a OptiStruct Analysis input file

Delete all data from the current HyperMesh session

Import an IGES file

Import a OptiStruct Analysis file to the current HyperMesh session

File Operations
The following file operations are located in the Standard toolbar which can be accessed by
selecting View > Toolbars > HyperWorks > Standard.

18 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 19
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

20 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

3 - Controlling the Display


When performing finite element modeling and analysis setup, it is important to be able to
view the model from different vantage points and control the visibility of entities. You may
need to rotate the model to understand the shape, zoom in to view details more closely, or
hide specific parts of the model so other parts can be seen. Sometimes a shaded
visualization is best, while other times wireframe visualization is needed to work on details
inside the model.
HyperMesh has many functions to help you control the view, visibility, and visualization of
entities. This section introduces you to these functions.
In this section, you will learn how to:

Control the points of view, mouse, and toolbar.

Control the visibility of entities using the Mask panel.

Control how entities look by using toolbars and the Model Browser.

Rename components.

Identify and delete empty components.

Delete all the geometry lines.

View Control
View control is accomplished through the use of the Standard Views toolbar icons, and 3D
View Controls toolbar, and the mouse.

Standard Views Toolbar Icons

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 21
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

3D View Controls Toolbar Icons

22 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop


From pull down menu Preferences > Geometry Options or click o from keyboard,
you can manage the rotate angle and the zoom factor linked to the previous buttons.

Mouse Controls The preferred method for Display Control is the use of the Mouse
Buttons. With the CTRL key held on the keyboard the mouse provides total control
over rotation, zoom and pan.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 23
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Model Visualization

Various surface shading options are available on the Toolbar:

From pull down menu Preferences > Geometry Options or click on o from keyboard.

24 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Transparency

Transparency is available from the Toolbar, allows surface shading in a component


to be set to any level of transparency (Viewing the midsurface of solid geometry).

Various FEM shading options are available on the Toolbar:

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 25
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

See the pull down menu Preferences > Meshing Options or click o from keyboard, to
get more details.

26 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Display Toolbars
Display Toolbar
The display and masking tools allow the user to show and hide select entities that might
interfere with the desired visualization. The icons can be found on the Display toolbar and
are used as follows:

Spherical Clipping
The Spherical Clipping panel allows you to focus on specific areas of the model by
displaying only the portions of a model inside a 3D spherical volume, while masking
everything outside the sphere. If you want to work on a small section of a large model
without masking or turning off any entities, enable the clipping and pick the center and the
radius of the clipping sphere. It can be accessed using the icon
panel shown below.

HyperWorks 13.0

and will open the

HMD Introduction 27
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Browsers

Browsers display information in a tree view; collectors such as components or groups


appear at the top level of the hierarchy, while collected entities such as elements or
surfaces display as "children" nested within the collector to which they belong.

Different browsers are customized for usage with regard to the types of parts that you
want to work with.

Most browsers have similar basic functionality for sorting entities, filtering entities,
and finding entities and include a context-sensitive right-click menu and sets of control
buttons.

28 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

The Selector
is a tool to interactively select any type of supported entity via the
browser, or by selecting within the graphics area.

Model View
The Model View (
) resides on the Model Browser and allows you to view the model
structure while providing full find, display, and editing control of entities.
The model structure is viewed as a flat, listed tree structure within the browser. However, if
the model has an assembly hierarchy then the Model Browser accommodates this
hierarchical structure.
The browser can list every named entity within the session and places those entities into
their respective folders; however, it does not support non-named entities such as nodes and
elements. Some of the more important entities within the model include: assemblies,
components, multibodies, properties, materials, entity sets, groups, load collectors, system
collectors, vector collectors, and beamsectcols -- all of which are placed into a tree-like
display.
To open the Model View, click the Model item located within the View menu. The browser
displays on one of the tab area sidebars.
The Model View is a powerful tool for controlling the visualization of the model.
In the Model Browser the user can:

Complete Listing of all HyperMesh Entities in Model

Each Collector is expandable and lists all contained Entities

Turn on and off the display of the geometry

Control the color of the collector (Right click)

and elements

HyperWorks 13.0

of collectors

HMD Introduction 29
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Create, Card Edit, Delete and control component visualization by Right clicking on
the collector list

Component View (

Lists All Components in Model

Colors Model by Component

Quickly Sort by Name, ID, Color, or Property

Display State Icons (Geometry and FE: ON/OFF Single Picking)

Global Controls to Operate on all Components (All, None, Reverse)

Browser Modes (Graphics/Browser List Picking for: Select, Show/Hide, Isolate)

30 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Mask View

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 31
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

4 - Working with Panels


Much of the functionality in HyperMesh is centered around the use of panels. While there
are often many ways to get to a function within HyperMesh, most often the actions lead the
user to the panel area to select entities, enter values and execute functions. The panel area
is split into seven pages and on each page are panels that allow the user to utilize all of the
functionality in HyperMesh. Even if the user accesses a function through the use of the
menu bar or the toolbars, much of the information will be entered in the panel area. While
this manual cannot explain the functionality of every panel, much of the panel functionality is
common amongst all of the panels and thus learning one panel will assist the user in the use
of all panels.
This section introduces you to common panel attributes and controls as it guides you
through translating nodes and elements using the Translate panel and measuring distances
between nodes using the Distance panel.
In this section, you will learn how to:

Use the entity selector and the extended entity selection menu to select/unselect
nodes and elements from the graphics area

Use the direction selector to define vectors along which to translate nodes and
elements

Switch between different entities to select and methods to define vectors

Toggle between two options

Enter, copy/paste and calculate numbers

Use the rapid menu functionality to execute commands with the mouse buttons
rather than clicking buttons

Interrupt, but not exit, a panel to go to another panel using the keyboard function
keys

Panel Layout
In HyperMesh, panels have three general layouts. The Basic Panel, Panel with Sub-Panels
and Panels with Sub Panels organized in Columns. Their look and functionality will be
described below.

The Basic Panel

Translate panel

32 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Panel with Sub-Panels

Project/to plane panel

Panel with Sub-Panels as icons

Surfaces panel

Panel with Sub-Panel and Columns

Surface Edit/trim with nodes subpanel

Generally panels are used in a left to right manner and those with columns are used in a left
to right and top to bottom manner using the following steps:

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 33
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Step 1: What to Do
This step only applies to panels with subpanels. The user picks the functionality within the
panel that is desired by picking the appropriate subpanel radio button. The example below
to the left is from the Project panel and the to plane sub functionality is chosen. The
example below to the right is from the Surfaces panel and the square sub function is
chosen.

Step 2: Method to Use


This step only applies to panels with subpanels that are organized in columns. Often,
subpanels are organized into different columns when there are more than 7 subpanel
options. The column organization groups like functionality together in instances where the
entire panel is not needed for information entry. In this case the user picks the subpanel in
Step 1 and then chooses the method they wish to use within that sub panel and follows the
column top to bottom. The example below shows the Surface Edit panel with the trim
with surfs/plane sub functionality chosen. You can see the three columns providing
access to either the with plane, with surfs or self-intersecting surfs options.

Surface Edit/trim with surfs/planes subpanel

Step 3: What to do it to
In this step the user will select the entities they wish to perform the function on. The entity
selection is shown below.

34 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop


Step 4: How to do it
In this step the user defines parameters that dictate how the function will be performed.

Step 5: Do the action


Clicking the green action button performs the desired function while the reject button will
reject the last performed function.

Tools within the Panels


Within the panels there are many buttons and options that will be explained below:
Switches These allow the choice of multiple options through a popup menu
Toggles The toggle will change the function between 2 options.
Reset This will reset the selection of any entities.
Text input fields Operate like text fields in most programs
Extended Selection Clicking the yellow selection button will open the extended selection window. This provides
numerous tools allowing for the advanced selection of entities.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 35
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Direction/Plane Selection

X, Y, Z Axis -

N1, N2 and N3 o

Select 2 Nodes (N1 & N2) This defines a direction from N1 to N2 where a
vector type direction is required. When a plane is required the plane is
defined as that which is normal to the vector N1 to N2 and its location at the
B node.

Select 3 Nodes (N1, N2 and N3) This defines a plane whose normal
defines a direction when a vector direction is required. Positive of the normal
is defined by the Right Hand Rule. In the event a plane is required the
plane is that which is created by the 3 nodes with its location at the B node.

36 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

5 - Organizing a Model
Organizing model data can be beneficial when creating a valid solver input file. Basic tasks
used to organize model data such as placing elements and loads into groups (collectors),
organizing collectors into assemblies, renaming, deleting, reordering, and renumbering are
discussed in this section.
In this section, you will learn how to:

Create geometry and organize it into components

Organize elements into components

Rename components

Identify and delete empty components

Delete all the geometry lines

Reorder the components in a specific order

Renumber all the components, starting with ID 1 and incrementing by 1

Create an assembly

Organize the constraints

Model organization is at the heart of a quality Finite Element Analysis. The model can be
organized in a multitude of different ways as desired by the user, but below are the basics
for model organization.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 37
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Collectors
The basis for model organization is the collector. HyperMesh has many different types of
collectors:

*NOTE: Property and Material collectors do not contain any entities and are used to define
material and physical properties in the model. They are called collectors for uniformity.

Collectors can be created in a number of ways.

HyperMesh Model Browser:

Right clicking in the Model Browser opens a menu from which the selection
of Create allows for creation of any type of collector.

Right clicking in the Model Browser will also allow you to edit, rename,
change ID, change color and delete collectors as well.

Pull down Menus


Selecting the Collectors Pull-Down and then selecting Create will provide the ability
to create any of the non-property collectors.

38 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Material and Property Collectors can be created in a similar manner using the
Material and Property Pull-Downs.

Collectors Toolbar
The Icons can be used to create collectors as well.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 39
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Favourite Toolbar

Model Organization Model Browser


Model Browser:

View collectors and assemblies in a hierarchical tree format

Create, delete, and rename collectors

Edit collector attributes

Organize collectors into assemblies (Drag and drop)

Also available using the Collectors icon

40 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Model Organization Model Browser & Current Collector


The Current Collector determines what collector new entities are placed in.
The Current Collector can be determined in two ways: Model View or Status Bar.
Using the Model View:

In the Model View the Current collector will be in BOLD

Note the mid2 collector is in a bold font and thus is the Current collector.

Right clicking on a collector will open a menu that will allow it to be made current.

Using the Status Bar:

In the Status Bar click on the Set Current Component field and select the one you
want to male current from the list that appears in the panel area.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 41
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Model Organization Model Browser & Entity Editor


Create the entities needed for your model using Model browser + Entity Editor.

42 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Model Organization Reference Browser


New entities are created in the current collector:
References represented by the icon
correspond to entities that are referenced by the
specified entity.
Cross-references represented by the icon
correspond to entities that reference the
specified entity.

For example, in the case of a component, Cross-references would list the groups, sets,
output blocks, etc that refer to the selected component. In addition, only for components,
Cross-reference will have sub folders named Node and Element and will list the entities
where the selected components node or element is referred.

Organize
Organize is a tool that can be used to move/copy entities to different collectors.
It can be accessed using the icon
open the panel shown below.

or from pull down menu View > Organize and will

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 43
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Renumber
The Renumber panel allows you to renumber entities. You may also enter a value by which
to offset the IDs of entities.
It can be accessed using the icon
will open the panel shown below.

or from pull down menu View > Renumber and

Delete
The Delete panel allows you to delete data from a model database; preview and delete
empty collectors; preview and delete unused collectors (property, material, curves).
You can also delete an entire model database, if you wish to start with a clean database.
It can be accessed using the icon

or (F2) and will open the panel shown below.

Nodes
The Nodes panel allows you to create nodes using a wide variety of methods.It can be
accessed from pull down menu Geometry > Create > Nodes or (F8) and will open the
panel shown below.

44 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Temp Nodes
The Temp Nodes panel provides a way to control which nodes are on the temporary node
mark. Since all nodes not currently referenced in the model are deleted, the temporary node
mark is provided as a holding area to save the nodes you are not currently using.
It can be accessed using the icon from pull down menu Geometry > Create > Nodes >
Temp Nodes or (Shift+F2)

this will open the panel shown below.

Distance
The Distance panel allows you to determine the distance between two nodes/points or the
angle between three nodes/points, or to change distances or angles.
It can be accessed (F4) and will open the panel shown below.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 45
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Exercise 1a - Interacting With HyperMesh Desktop


This exercise will cover many of the basic concepts that are central to many of the features
in HyperMesh Desktop. By the end of this exercise you should be familiar with the basic
features of the HyperMesh Desktop software.

Step 1: Set the User Profile and retrieve the model file, 01-GUI.hm
3. From the menu bar, select Preferences > User Profiles or select the icon

4. Select the OptiStruct user profile.


5. Click OK.
6. Select File > Open > Model from the menu bar or select the icon

7. Select the file 01a-GUI.hm.


8. Click Open

Step 2: Rotate, Pan and Zoom the model


1. Hold down the CTRL key
2. Click the LEFT Mouse button. (Note the small square in the center of the screen
indicating the rotational center).
3. While holding both the CTRL Key and LEFT Mouse Button, drag your mouse around to
rotate the model.
4. Click near a node (Note the small square moves to the node selected and becomes the
new center of rotation). Continue to rotate the model.
46 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

5. While holding the CTRL Key and the RIGHT Mouse Button, drag your mouse around to
pan the model.
6. While holding the CTRL Key, click the Center Mouse Button (or clickable scroll wheel)
and draw a circle around a portion of the screen.

7. This will zoom into the region surrounded by the drawn circle.

8. While holding the CTRL Key rotate the scroll wheel forward to Zoom Out and backward
to Zoom In.
9. While holding the CTRL Key click the middle mouse button/scroll wheel to fit the model
to the screen.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 47
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Step 3: Use the Model Browser to control visualization


1. Press F on the keyboard to fit the model to the screen. If it does not work, click in the
graphics window and then press F.
2. Make sure the Model Browser tab > Model View icon

is active.

3. Expand the Component category by clicking the + next to it. This will list all of the
components in the model.
4. Using the Geometry

and Elements

Icons, turn on and off components.

48 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Using the Show/Hide Button


turn off and on components in the graphics window.
Right click to hide a component and left click in the area of a hidden component to see a
ghost image of the hidden component. Releasing the button reveals the component.

5. Using the Isolate Button


, right click on a component in the graphics window to
isolate it (turn off all other components) and left click on a hidden component to see a
ghost image of the hidden component. Releasing the button isolates the selected
component.
6. Use the global controls

to turn on, off and reverse all of the components.

7. Highlight components using the Left Mouse Button in the Graphics Area, and note how
the Global Controls now only affect the highlighted components.
8. Use the icon (
Both options.

) to switch the global controls between the Geometry, Elements and

9. Review the other Model Browser Views:


a.

Component View
This view is highly useful when working solely with components as none of the other
collectors are shown in the view. This view contains all of the visibility control and
right click functions of the Model View. Additionally it adds fields that show the
mesh and geometry shading as well as the property and material applied to each
component.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 49
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

b.

Property View
This view allows the user to view all of the properties in the model and color the
entities on the screen by their assigned property. The visibility controls as well
as all right click extended functionality work with this view as well.

c.

Material View
This view allows the user to view all of the materials in the model and color the
entities on the screen by their assigned material. The visibility controls as well
as all right click extended functionality work with this view as well.

50 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop


10. Context-Sensitive Menu - You can change a variety of options by right-clicking on a
folder or entity in the browser's tree display. Options you specify in empty space around
the model apply to the entire model.
11. Right click on the Component folder will open the following context menu.

Try the following functions:


a. Create a new component

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 51
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

b. Rename a component
Left Click on the new component component1 will open below the Entity
Editor tab area, where you can change component name in the Value field.

c. Select the color, in a component row, and change the color of a component.

52 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop


d. Show/Hide & Isolate a component

e. Isolate Only a component (see if you can figure out the difference between
Isolate and Isolate Only)
f.

Delete a component

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 53
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

Step 4: Working with Collectors


1. Right click on the in the Model tab > Model View > Component folder will open the
following context menu, select Create.

2. Left Click on the new component component1 will open below the Entity Editor
tab area, where you can change component name in the Value field.

3. In the Entity Editor, Name it Bucket and select a color.

54 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop


The new collector has been created and now we will move the elements for the bucket
into this new collector.
4. From the menu bar select Mesh > Organize > Elements > To Component or select the
icon

5. In the Model Browser click the Selector Icon


from the graphics window.

. This allows you to pick components

6. Click the bucket in the graphics window, component Scuaufel-GEOM-2D

7. Click the Add To Panel Collector icon


. This will add the selected elements,
included in Scuaufel-GEOM-2D component, to the selection.
8. Click the dest component= button and select the newly created Bucket component.
9. Click move and the elements in the collector will be moved to the new component.

Step 5: Use of Panels and Directional Functions


This step will introduce the user to commonly used functions in panels as well as the use
of the directional definition tools found in many HyperMesh panels.
1. Locate the item in the menu bar that allows you to Translate Elements (Mesh >
Translate > Elements).

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 55
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

2. Select the elements included in the component Support-GEOM-3D.

3. From the direction definition switch select N1, N2, N3.

X,Y and Z axis will translate along those cardinal axis, while N1,N2,N3 allows the user to
define a direction as a vector (N1->N2) or as a normal to a plane defined by the points
N1,N2 and N3 following the right hand rule.
4. Pick a node on the flat face of the Support-GEOM-3D component shown below. A
green dot will appear at the selected node showing that N1 has been defined there. The
blue focus square will automatically move to N2.

5. Continue in a Clockwise direction picking two more nodes on the face defining the blue
N2 and red N3 nodes. Your model should look similar to the picture to the right.
NOTE: It is not necessary that your nodes be identical to the image, just similar.

56 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop


6. Enter 30 in the magnitude= field
7. Click translate -.
The entire component will move 30 model units in the negative direction defined by the
normal of the plane N1, N2 and N3.

8. Click reject.
9. Try moving the component in other directions using both cardinal axis and the N1, N2
and N3 options.
10. Try moving the component using only N1 and N2 and then change the magnitude= field
to N2-N1 and see what that option does.
11. Use the reject button and the opposite direction translation to bring your component
back to the previous location.

Step 6: Using the Mask Function and Selecting Entities


1. Using the Mask Icon

from the Display toolbar to enter the Mask panel.

2. Change the entity selection to elems.


3. Pick a number of elements on the screen.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 57
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

4. Click mask.
This will hide the elements from view but they still can be affected through other panels.

5. Click the Reverse Icon

This will Unmask the hidden elements and will mask all the elements previously shown.

6. Click the Unmask Adjacent Icon

58 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop


This will unmask elements immediately adjacent to those on the screen. This can be
done repeatedly.

7. Click the Unmask All Icon

to bring everything into view.

8. Click the Mask Icon again.


9. Hold the Shift Key down and holding the Left Mouse Button, drag a box in the graphics
window to box select elements.

10. Hold the Shift Key down and holding the Right Mouse Button, drag a box in the
graphics window to de-select elements.
11. Click the yellow elems button to open the extended selection window.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 59
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 1: Basics HyperMesh Desktop

12. Experiment with options, including the following:

displayed Selects entities currently displayed on the screen

all Selects ALL entities in the model, displayed or not.

reverse After selecting a few elements this will reverse the selection.

by collector Displays a list of collectors and entities can be selected by the


collector they are in.

by geoms By choosing either surfs or solids, elements can be selected by


picking the geometry that they were created from. Useful in that a single
geometry selection can select many elements.

save/retrieve Saving a selection places those entities into a 1 slot user mark
that can be retrieved again and again in selections until it is overwritten.

60 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Chapter 2

Geometry
1 - Importing, Exporting and Repairing CAD
HyperMesh is capable of importing geometry from many CAD sources. Most of the popular
CAD packages are read directly, and for those that are not, HyperMesh supports the
popular intermediate languages. HyperMesh attempts to properly clean up surfaces during
import and offers a wide variety of tools to remedy these geometric issues.
The benefits of importing and repairing CAD are:

Restore the surface data of the part (unconnected, missing and duplicate
surfaces)

Create the simplified part needed for the analysis

Mesh a part all at once

Ensure proper mesh connectivity

Obtain a desirable mesh pattern & quality

In this section, you will:

Delete untrimmed surfaces

Close missing surfaces

Set the cleanup tolerance

Equivalence free edges

Delete duplicate surfaces

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 61
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Geometry Import
Importing geometry occurs in the Import tab, which is accessible through the Import
Geometry Icon

or from File > Import > Geometry (drop down menu).

Using this tab the user can import data from popular CAD packages such as:

Unigraphics (NX6, NX7, NX7.5, NX8, NX8.5, NX9.0)


o

UG Part Browser

Supports import of *.prt, *.asm files

Provides a UG part browser

Requires an installation of UG to be accessible, either locally or on a network

CATIA (V4, V5 R23 & V5-6R2013)


o

CATIA V4 (*.model and *.exp)

CATIA V5 Altair license feature required to import V5 files (*.CatProduct,


*.CatPart and *.cgr)

62 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Pro/Engineer (Wildfire 5.0, Creo 2, M060)


o

Supports import of .prt and .asm files.

Additionally HyperMesh supports the import of the following intermediate translational


languages:

STEP (AP203, AP214)


o

Supports import of *.stp files

IGES (v6, JAMA-IS)


o Supports Import of *.igs, *.iges files

Parasolid (v26 (native); v20 (third-party))


JT (10.1)
SolidWorks (2013)
DXF, ACIS, FiberSim, PDGS, Tribon, VDAFS

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 63
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Geometry Export
Exporting geometry occurs in the export tab which is accessible through the Export
Geometry Icon

or from File > Export > Geometry (drop down menu).

Using this tab the user can export data in the following format:

PARASOLID (V9)

IGES (v6, & JAMA-IS)

STEP (AP214)

64 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Topology Repair
Surface Definition

What is Topology
Topology is how surfaces are connected to adjacent surfaces of a part.

Surface connectivity is controlled by the associated surface edges

If a surface edge is associated with more than 1 surface, those surfaces are
considered to be connected (equivalenced)

Surface edges are categorized, named, and colored according to the number of
associated surfaces

Connectivity is really important and critical at the same time, when you need to create a
contiguous mesh over connected faces thus guaranteeing stresses, strains and
deformations that will propagate over the part in a realistic manner. HyperMesh uses a
tolerance calculation to determine when two or more edges should be connected and
provide tools to fix connectivity issues before meshing.
HyperMesh allows easy visualization of surface connectivity through the use of an edge
color scheme shown below:

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 65
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Topology Visualization

In the HyperMesh Visualization toolbar, the Visualization Options Icon


Visualization tab > Topology icon

will open the

This tab will allow the user to:

Display or hide 2D and 3D topology (free, shared, t-junctions, suppressed edges)


based on its type

Control surface transparency

Display 3D mappability with different shading colors related to Mappable solid


regions.

66 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Other functionality in this tab:


Connector
Constraints
Equations
Loads
Morphing
Systems
Vectors
Topology display mode is a default for some panels (surface edit, quick edit, point edit,
edge edit, autocleanup, and automesh).
Display of the topology can be controlled with the Geometry Color Mode icon
included in the HyperMesh Visualization toolbar.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 67
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Topology Repair: General Process


HyperMesh will in most cases create proper and connected geometry accurately
representing the initial CAD geometry.
In some cases you need to work with topology to repair geometry.
The general process is the following:

Figure out what the ideal surface connectivity of the part should be.

Observe the current display of topology colors (free, shared, t-junction). Figure out
what is causing the topology to be displayed this way.

Use the tools in HyperMesh that get the connectivity from what it is to what it should
be as quickly and efficiently as possible.

68 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Topology Repair: Tools


HyperMesh has a supply of tools to repair issues in the geometry.
Below you can find the tools that HyperMesh provides:

Quick Edit panel (Geometry > Quick Edit or F11)

The Quick Edit panel is a tool box of utilities for geometry repair. Many of the tools can be
found in other panels and their functionality is exactly the same. The Quick Edit panel simply
provides a single location for many of the most often used tools. These include:
o

Split surf-node Divides a surface by cutting in a straight line between 2


selected nodes

Split surf-line Divides a surface by cutting in a straight line between a


node normal to selected line.

Washer split Adds a circular edge around a hole in a surface (Mostly


used for creating all quad mesh around a hole)

Unsplit Removes / deletes an edge created by splitting a surface in


HyperMesh

Toggle Change edge type within tolerance

Filler Surf Select a line on a free surface edge to recreate any missing
surfaces

Delete Surf Delete selected surface(s)

Adjust/Set Density Allows to interactively change mesh node density


along selected edges

Replace point Moves/retains points

Add/Remove Point Creates/Deletes a fixed point at the selected locations

Add point on line Creates a user specified number of fixed points along
the selected edge

Release Point Disassociates the selected fixed point from all the
connected edges

Project point Projects free points to existing surfaces or lines

Trim-intersect Removes the edge fillets

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 69
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Edge Edit Panel (Geometry > Edit > Surface Edges)

Toggle > (2 edges pair at a time) toggles edges from one state to another
(free > shared > suppressed, by clicking with the left mouse button) based on
the cleanup tolerance setting.

(Un)Suppress Selects multiple edges to suppress, all of them at once

Replace > (1 edge pair at a time) combines two edges into a shared edge at
the location of one of the original edges, controlling which edge to retain and
which to move.

Equivalence > (multiple edges at a time) searches for free edges and
combine them with a matching edge within the cleanup tolerance.

Unsplit > removes previously created split-lines

Edge fillets > removes fillets from surface edges.

By feature > combines surfaces based on geometric features (angle surfs


and offset surfs )

Point Edit Panel (Geometry > Edit > Fixed Points)

Add > Adds new points to the model geometry to help control mesh pattern
(especially helpful along edges to control node seeding)

Suppress > "Turn off" points in the model geometry. The points are not
deleted, they are ignored when meshing.

Replace > Combines 2 fixed points together at a single location; moves one
point to another, combining them into a single point.

Release > Use this panel to "release" vertices so that they become free
(unattached points) and any shared (green) edges that they were attached to
the point become free (red) edges.

Project > Projects fixed points onto a nearby edge (Useful for aligning mesh
between 2 edges).

70 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Surface Panel (Geometry > Create > Surfaces > Spline/Filler)

Spline/Filler (
): Creates surfaces by filling in gaps, such as a hole in
an existing surface.
The Keep tangency option is valid for surface edge line selection only. It
considers curvature of any surfaces attached to the selected edges and tries
to create a surface tangent to them. This helps to form a smooth transition to
the surrounding surfaces.
The Auto create (free edges only) option is valid for free surface edge line
selection only. It simplifies the selection of the lines bounding the missing
surface. Once a line is selected, HyperMesh automatically selects the
remaining free edges that form a closed loop, and then create the filler
surface.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 71
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Exercise 2a - Loading and Repairing CAD Geometry


This exercise uses the model file, 02a-TOPOLOGY-REPAIR.hm.

Step 1: Open the model file, 02-TOPOLOGY-REPAIR.hm.


Step 2: View the model in topology display toolbar to evaluate its integrity.
1. Observe where the model has incorrect connectivity and missing or duplicate surfaces.
2. Click Geometry > Quick Edit to open the Quick Geometry Edit panel.
Note that the surface edges are now colored according to their topology status. This
occurs because Geometry Color is set to Auto (

3. Click Wireframe Geometry (

).

) to display the model in Wireframe mode.

The toolbar contains icons that control the display of the surfaces and surface edges.
Surfaces can be shaded with or without edges or wireframe. Place your mouse over the
cursor to view a description of the buttons functionality and select the icon drop-down
menu for additional options.

72 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

4. Click Visualization (

) and navigate to the Visualization tab > Topology icon.

Visualization controls the display of the surfaces and surface edges. Surfaces can be
shaded or wireframe. The check boxes within this menu turn the display of the different
edge types and fixed points (surface vertices) on or off.
5. Clear all the check boxes except the Free check box.
Only the free edges should be displayed at this point.
6. Observe the free edges and make note of where they are.
The free (red) edges show where there is incorrect connectivity or gaps.
7. Note the locations where there are closed loops of free edges. These are locations that
probably have missing surfaces.

Free edges indicating surface discontinuities of the clip geometry

8. Select only the Non-manifold check box.


9. Observe the non-manifold edges and make note of where they are.
The non-manifold edges show where there are more than two surfaces sharing an edge,
which might indicate incorrect connectivity or correct T-Connections. For this part, there
are no yellow edges. This indicates that there are not duplicate surfaces or Tconnection.
10. Select all the check boxes.
11. Click the Close button to close the Visualization tab.
12. Click Shaded Geometry and Surface Edges (

The surfaces should now appear solid rather than having only their edges displayed.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 73
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

13. Rotate, zoom, and pan to locate any errors in the geometry.
14. Make note of the areas to be worked on:
A surface that overhangs a round corner
A missing surface

Surface overhanging an edge and a missing surface

Step 3: Delete the surface that overhangs the round corner.


1. Enter the Delete panel in one of the following ways:

From the menu bar click Geometry > Quick Edit > delete surf

OR
From the menu bar click Geometry > Delete > Surfaces
OR
Press F2

74 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

2. In the graphics area, select the overhanging surface shown in the picture below.
From the menu bar click Geometry > Quick Edit > delete surf

3. This will delete the selected surface.


4. Click return to exit the panel.

Step 4: Create surfaces to fill large gaps in the model.


1. Click Geometry > Create > Surfaces > Spline/Filler to create the surface.

2. Clear the Keep tangency check box.


The Keep tangency option is valid for surface edge line selection only. It considers
curvature of any surfaces attached to the selected edges and tries to create a surface
tangent to them. This helps to form a smooth transition to the surrounding surfaces.
3. Verify the entity type is set to lines.
4. Verify the Auto create (free edges only) check box is selected.
The Auto create option is valid for free surface edge line selection only. It simplifies the
selection of the lines bounding the missing surface. Once a line is selected, HyperMesh
automatically selects the remaining free edges that form a closed loop, and then create
the filler surface.
5. Zoom into the area indicated in the following image.
Pick one of the red lines bounding one of the gaps (missing surfaces).
HyperMesh automatically creates a filler surface to close the hole.
Repeat this step to create a filler surface in the other gap.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 75
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Area of missing surfaces

6. Click return to exit the panel.

Step 5: Set the global geometry cleanup tolerance to 0.01.


1. Press O to go to the Options panel.
2. Go to the geometry sub-panel.
3. In the cleanup tol = field, type 0.01 to stitch the surfaces with a gap less than 0.01.
4. Click return to exit the panel.

Step 6: Combine multiple free edge pairs at one time with the equivalence
tool.
1. From the menu bar, click Geometry > Edit > Surface Edges > Equivalence
2. Activate the equiv free edges only check box.

3. Select surfs >> all.


4. Verify that the cleanup tol = is set to 0.01, which is the global cleanup tolerance
specified in the options panel.
5. Click the green equivalence button to combine any free edge pairs within the specified
cleanup tolerance.
Most of the red free edges are combined into green shared edges. The few remaining
are caused by gaps larger than the cleanup tolerance.
76 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Step 7: Combine free edge pairs, one pair at a time, using the toggle.
1. Go to the toggle sub-panel.
2. In the cleanup tol = field, type 0.1.

3. In the graphics area, click one of the free edges shown in the following image.
Use toggle to equivalence the other edges shown in the image

Area where free edges need to be toggled

4. Rotate and zoom into the area if needed. When the edge is selected, it will change from
red to green, indicating that the free edge pair has been equivalenced.

Step 8: Combine the remaining free edge pair using replace.


1. Go to the replace sub-panel.
2. With the selector under moved edge: active, click the leftmost free edge in the graphics
area.
Verify that the selector under retained edge: is now active.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 77
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

4. Select the rightmost red edge.


5. In the cleanup tol = field, enter 0.1.
6. Click replace.

Once the line is selected, HyperMesh posts a message similar to:

7. Click Yes to close the gap.

Edges to retain and move for replacement

8. Click return to exit the panel.

Step 9 (Optional): Save your work.


With the cleanup operations completed, save the model.

78 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

2 - Simplifying Geometry
This section looks at changing the shape of a part in order to simplify the geometry. Certain
details of the shape, such as small holes or blends, may simply not be necessary for the
analysis being performed. When these details are removed, the analysis can run more
efficiently. Additionally, mesh quality is often improved as well. Changing the geometry to
match the desired shape can also allow a mesh to be created more quickly.
In this section, you will learn:

Mesh the part, review the mesh quality and determine the features to be simplified

Remove pinholes, surface and edge fillets

Find and delete duplicated surfaces

Identify part symmetry

Remove pinholes

Create surfaces by filling in gaps

Defeaturing
There are many features on a part that are not critical to the structure of the part and have
little or no effect on the analysis.
These features can include:

Lightening Holes For part weight reduction

Edge Filets For reduction of sharp corners allowing safer part handling

Surface Fillets To meet manufacturing requirements

These features often are process driven and are not function critical.
While our goal is to mesh a part that as closely as possible accurately represents the
geometry, these features often degrade the quality of the mesh.
As such they can be defeatured out of the design allowing for a substantially improved mesh
with little impact on the results.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 79
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Simplifying CAD Tools


Defeature Panel (Geometry > Defeature)

Pinholes: Searches for holes within a surface. Fills them in and leaves a fixed point
at their previous center.

80 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Surf Fillets: Searched for surfaces that act as a fillet between other surfaces and
tangentially extends them to achieve a sharp corner.

Edge Fillets: Searches for rounded edge corner and squares them off.

Duplicates: Finds and deletes duplicate surfaces.

Symmetry: Identifies part symmetry and deletes or organizes the results.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 81
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Exercise 2b - Simplifying CAD Tools


Step 1: Load the model 02b-SIMPLIFYING-CAD.hm

Step 2: View the model in topology display toolbar to evaluate its integrity.
1. Observe where the model has incorrect connectivity and missing or duplicate surfaces.

Step 3: Find and delete all duplicate surfaces.


1. From the Menu Bar, click Geometry > Defeature > Duplicates

2. Click surfs >> displayed.


3. In the cleanup tol = field, type 0.01.
4. Click find.

82 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

The status bar displays the following message, "1 duplicated surface was found."

5. Click delete to remove any duplicate surfaces.

Step 4: Observe the model again to identify any remaining free edges, or
missing or duplicate surfaces.
1. Use the topology display and shaded modes to perform this task. All of the edges in the
model should be displayed as explained below:

green shared edges, indicating that all internal surfaces are connected
(equivalenced).
red free edges, indicating that, around the external profile & holes, all surfaces
edges are not connected (equivalenced) at that edge.
yellow T-junction edges, indicating that these edges are connected (equivalenced)
and associated with 3 or more surfaces.

2. Click return to exit the panel.

Step 5: Removing Edge Fillets


2. Enter the Geometry > Defeature > Edge Fillets
3. Pick the displayed surfaces.
4. Enter 1 for the min radius.
5. Enter 20 for the max radius.
This will guarantee all edge fillets are selected.
6. Click find.
All of the edge fillets will be highlighted.

If there were fillets that you did not wish to be removed they could be right clicked at the
F and they would be deselected and not removed.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 83
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

7. Click remove.
All of the edge fillets will be removed leaving sharp corners in their place. This will result
in better mesh quality as will be shown in the next chapter.

Step 6: Removing Surface Fillets


1. Select the surf fillets sub-panel.
2. Select the displayed surfaces.
3. Set the min radius to 0.1.
4. Set the max radius to 5.
5. Click find.

84 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

The radius around the hole will be selected but the larger fillet will not be. This is
because the larger fillet has a radius of 7 and thus was not found.
6. Click the two surfaces that make the larger fillet (Set the max radius to 8) to highlight
them.

7. Click remove.
The fillets will be removed once again providing for a better mesh quality.

Step 7: Removing Holes


1. Select the pinholes sub panel.
2. Select the displayed surfaces.
3. Set the diameter< field to 5.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 85
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

4. Click find.

The small holes will be selected.


Once again if there is a hole that you do not wish to take out simply right click on it to deselect it.
5. Click delete

The holes are removed and a fixed point is placed at their former center. This will
guarantee a node is in that location but the points can be removed if no node is needed.

Step 8: Removing Edge Fillets


1.

Select the edge fillets sub-panel.

2. Select the surface shown in the picture below to remove the round edge.

86 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

3. Set the edge option as round

4. Enter 1 for the min radius.


5. Enter 20 for the max radius.This will guarantee the edge fillet is selected.

6. Click find. The edge fillet will be highlighted.

7.

Select this edge fillet and click remove.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 87
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

8. Use Geometry > Quick Edit > toggle edge to complete the model.

Step 9 (Optional): Save your work.


With the cleanup operations completed, save the model.

88 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Topology Repair: Strategy

Understand model size & scale to determine an appropriate global element size

Set a cleanup tolerance based upon the previously determined global element size.
o

Set appropriate value in Preferences > Geometry Options > geometry

Cleanup tolerance specifies the largest gap size to be closed by topology


functions

Tolerances > 15-20% of global element size can cause mesh distortions

Can change value multiple times for work on various areas of the model

Use topology Visualization Options tools to determine what needs to be repaired.

Use Edge Edit > equivalence to combine as many free edge pairs as possible
o

Make sure surfaces are not collapsed in undesirable manner

Use Edge Edit > toggle to combine any remaining free edge pairs, 1 by 1
o

use Edge Edit > replace function if more control is needed

Find Defeature > duplicates to check for any duplicate surfaces and delete them

Use Geometry > Create > Surfaces > Spline/Filler to fill in any missing surfaces.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 89
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

3 - Generating a Midsurface
This section uses CAD geometry data for a thin solid clip. Because of the small thickness of
the part, it is assumed that it will be modeled for FEA as shell elements. The elements will
be created on the mid-plane of the part.
In this section, you will learn how to:

Create and Edit a midsurface

Visualize the midsurface by using shading options and transparency

Midsurfacing: Introduction
Often the most accurate representation of a part is through the use of shell elements.
These elements best represent parts that are relatively thin compared to their overall
surface area and typically have a uniform thickness. Shell elements have no physical
thickness representation; they are displayed as two dimensional entities whose thickness is
simply a numerical value assigned to them. FE Solvers assume the shell element to lie at
the middle of the thickness. As that is the case, the mesh created on the surfaces needs to
lie at the mid-plane of the part. CAD geometry is usually created as either a solid part or a
series of faces representing a solid part. Using the midsurface tool in HyperMesh, proper
surfaces can be extracted that lie on the mid-plane of the part and can be meshed
appropriately.

90 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Midsurfacing: Tools
Midsurfaces can be created using Geometry > Create > Midsurfaces panel
auto midsurface This subpanel allows you to extract, in one step, the midsurface of
a more complicated group of surfaces that represent a solid part.

closed solid - When selecting surfaces, the closed solid mode simplifies the
panel for users who do not intend to use any of the advanced options. While in
closed solid mode, select a single surface of the solid geometry and click
extract (or middle mouse). The function automatically determines the enclosed
volume the selected surface belongs to and extracts the midsurface from it.

incomplete solid - When selecting surfaces, the incomplete solid mode


provides for additional options for selecting and orienting the surfaces defining
the body to extract. While in closed solid mode, select a single surface of the
solid geometry and click extract (or middle mouse). The function automatically
determines the enclosed volume the selected surface belongs to and extracts
the midsurface from it.

surface pair The surface pair subpanel offers a simplified function that allows you
to extract a midsurface from two faces that represent the two sides. This function
creates one surface that forms the midsurface.

combine with adjacent plates - This option takes any surfaces that are
adjacent to the two surfaces selected, and extends, trims, or projects the
midsurface created to match the surrounding midsurfaces.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 91
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

combine all adjacent plates - This option takes any surfaces that surround
the two surfaces selected, and extends, trims, or projects the midsurface
created to form continuous geometry with shared edges.

quick edit - Use the Quick Edit sub panel to quickly repair a midsurface by correcting
its targets. It should be used after you have created (or attempted to create) a
midsurface using the auto midsurface sub panel. You first select a surface that you
want to edit/repair; this surface can either be a midsurface that was created earlier, or
a surface that is part of the solid.

You will notice the appearance of new temporary entities displayed in three colors
(yellow, cyan and red), which represent the following:

Surface to offset (yellow): The original surface from which the middle
surface was created by an offset with a variable direction and distance.

Targets (red): User-controlled handles that allow you to change the direction
and distance of the offset. The targets are the red segments that connect
points on the initial surface with the points where the surface must be
offset. The offset is interpolated in between the assigned targets.

92 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Midsurface to Edit (cyan): The midsurface (in-progress) that you can modify
by re-assigning the targets. This surface is updated as you make changes to
the targets. The midsurface (in-progress) can be made permanent by
clicking the update button, when you are satisfied with your editing results.

assign target - Use the Assign Target Midsurface sub panel to repair a midsurface
by correcting its targets. It functions similar to the Quick Edit sub panel, but has
more advanced features. As with the Quick Edit sub panel, it should be used after
you created (or attempted to create) a midsurface. You should first select a surface
to edit/repair. This surface can either be a midsurface that was created earlier, or a
surface that is part of the solid.

You will notice the appearance of new temporary entities displayed in different colors
(yellow, cyan and red), which represent the following:

Surface to offset (yellow):The original surface from which the middle


surface was created by an offset with a variable direction and distance.

Midsurface to edit (cyan): The midsurface (in-progress) that you can modify
by re-assigning the targets. This surface is updated by clicking accept target
after you make changes to the targets. The midsurface (in-progress) can be
made permanent by clicking the update button, when you are satisfied with
your editing results.

Targets (red): User-controlled handles that allow you to change the direction
and distance of the offset. The targets are the red segments that connect
points on the initial surface with the points where the surface must be
offset. The offset is interpolated in-between the assigned targets.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 93
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

New targets (green): New targets that have not been accepted, thus they do
not affect the midsurface. Click accept target to accept them, turning them
to red and incorporating their effects into the cyan midsurface.

Targets being combined (purple): New and existing targets that will be
combined once they are accepted.

Target planes: Planes parallel to the offset surface drawn at target point,
which can be displayed for reference.

replace edge - Use the Replace Edge sub panel to close gaps and slivers by
replacing one edge with another. This function is the same as the one in the Edge
Edit panel and is available here for convenience. The geometry shape doesnt
change, just the topology.

extend surface - This subpanel extends or retracts the edges of selected surfaces
to meet other selected surfaces, or to close gaps between surfaces or holes within a
selected surface.
Several options affect how surfaces extension behaves, including enabling or
disabling the ability to shorten edges as well as extend them, or to force the
extended edges to attempt to maintain the overall shape of the surface.

94 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

View / assign thickness - Use the View/Assign Thickness sub panel to review the
thickness of surfaces (including midsurfaces), or change them. Surfaces that have
thickness data stored are drawn with lines (probes) extending from each vertex of
the surface.

The length of these probes represents the thickness at those locations. Only
surfaces created in the Midsurface panel have thickness information defined by
default, but you can use this sub panel to define/set a fixed, uniform thickness for
any surface.
The assign thickness option allows you to set a constant thickness value to
selected surfaces. To perform this task: enter the new thickness value, select the
surfs that you wish the value to be applied to, and click the assign button which
appears when you activate any of the controls in the assign thickness portion of the
sub panel. To undo, click reject before leaving the sub panel.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 95
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

96 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Midsurfacing: Process & Strategy


1. Obtain a closed volume of surfaces or solids

Midsurface : auto midsurface requires an enclosed volume

Use topology repair techniques if needed

2. For complex parts, try defeaturing the surface defining the volume

This simplifies the part and may give better results with create : solid

3. Generate the midsurface using Midsurface > auto midsurface

Use surface pair for areas that need more control

Use midsurface : editing tools for midsurfaces that need fine tuning

4. View the midsurface and correct errors using the midsurface editing
functionalities

Can generally use quick edit

Midsurfacing: Tips
1. Dont be afraid to delete surfaces

It is sometimes easier to just recreate the midsurface manually.

2. Use your 3D geometry as a reference to make new surfaces.


3. Save copies of surfaces you like in a separate comp in case you do something
you dont like.
4. Be sure to toggle on the view of your surface points.

Release points

Replace points

5. When using the plate edit option, dont defeature fillets.


6. Use Surface edit > Self Intersecting Surface to control the trimming of
intersecting surfaces, instead of having the auto-midsurface tool do it for you.
7. Defeature fillets on a surface, not a solid.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 97
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Exercise 2c - Midsurface
This exercise will cover the basic aspects of geometry repair and preparation for
meshing. It will cover repairing problems with the geometry, midsurfacing and
defeaturing.

Step 1: Open the file 02c-MIDSURFACE.hm

Step 2: Review the model


1. Zoom, Rotate and Pan the model to find the issues with it.

[HINT 1]: Use the Visualization Options Icon to find edges to fix.

98 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

[HINT 2] You can use Geometry > Quick Edit and play with Tolerance value to fix
issues. The tolerance is used to determine if two surface edges are the same and if two
surface vertices are the same. The default tolerance controls if two surface edges are
close enough to be automatically combined to shared edges (green edges).
If you want you can specify a different value, greater than the default value. Increasing
the tolerance can cause serious problems. When this value is set, any features equal to
or less than the tolerance are eliminated.
If there are edges present that are important to the surface, that surface will be distorted,
or will fail to trim properly.
The tolerance value should not be set to a value greater than the node tolerance set in
the options panel (Preferences > Geometry Options) to be used for your element
mesh.
2. Use geometry repair tools to fix the following issues:
o

Duplicate Surfaces to delete with Geometry > Defeature > duplicates

Missing Surfaces to create with Geometry > Quick Edit > filler surface

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 99
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Free Edges to equivalence with Geometry > Quick Edit > toggle edge

100 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Step 3: Create and Edit the Midsurface


1. From the menu bar select Geometry > Create > Midsurfaces > Auto.
This brings you to the auto midsurface sub-panel in the midsurface panel.

2. Set the switch to surfs.


3. Toggle to closed solid.
4. With the surfs button selected pick one displayed surface, the closed solid option will
select all surfaces attached.
5. Click on extract options , you will be placed in a secondary panel, and set offset
from the first toggle menu. Click Return to be back in the midsurface main panel.

6. Click extract.
A new component will be created called Middle Surfaces and the new mid plane
surfaces will be placed in it. Additionally the original component will be set to be partially
transparent so the Middle Surfaces can be seen.

7. Turn off the display of the original component so that only the Middle Surfaces are
displayed.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 101


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

8. There are multiple issues with the model. They need to be repaired. Rotate the model
as shown below and zoom into the area.

9. Zooming in reveals some serious problems with the midsurface in this area. These can
be fixed with the Geometry > Create > Midsurfaces > quick edit sub-panel.

102 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

10. If you have exited the Midsurface panel enter it again.


11. Select the quick edit sub-panel
12. Set the target type to point to point.
13. Set the target location to as selected.
14. Leave the remaining settings and pick the surface shown by the blue arrow (picture
above).

The display will now show the way in which HyperMesh decided to create the middle
surface. That needs to be corrected.

15. Pick the point in the green circle (circle labeled 1) to indicate the point point to offset
whose offset you wish to fix (see image below).
16. Pick the point in the blue circle (circle labeled 2) to indicate which point pilot point it
should have been offset to (see image below). You will need to hold down the left
mouse button to highlight the line, and then click on the line to select a node.

17. HyperMesh then shows what the new surface offset will look like. This is now correct.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 103


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

18. Select update.


19. Rotate the model slightly; a green line is left where the problem area was previously.
Use the toggle subpanel in the Geometry > Quick Edit panel > toggle edge subpanel
to toggle the edge from a shared edge to a suppressed edge.

20. Fit the model to the screen, zoom in and rotate on the highlighted area below.

104 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

21. Go to the Geometry > Create > Midsurfaces panel and select quick edit sub-panel.
22. Set the target type to point to point.
23. Set the target location to as selected.
24. Leave the remaining settings and pick the surface shown by the blue arrow (picture
above).

The display will now show the way in which HyperMesh decided to create the middle
surface. That needs to be corrected.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 105


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

25. Pick the point in the green circle (circle labeled 1) to indicate the point whose offset you
wish to fix (see image below).
26. Pick the point in the blue circle (circle labeled 2) to indicate which point it should have
been offset to (see image below). You will need to hold down the left mouse button to
highlight the line, and then click on the line to select a node.
27. HyperMesh then shows what the new surface offset will look like. This is now correct.
Select update.

28. Repeat step 24-25-26-27 using Point 3 and 4.


[HINT] Use Visualization Mode: Wireframe Geometry while youre working with point 3,
4.

29. HyperMesh then shows what the new surface offset will look like. This is now correct.
Select update.

106 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

30. Rotate the model slightly; a green line is left where the problem area was previously (see
pictures below). Use Geometry > Quick Edit panel > toggle edge subpanel to toggle
the 2 green edges.

31. Rotate the model slightly; a red line is left where the problem area was previously (see
pictures below).

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 107


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

32. Go to the Geometry > Create > Midsurfaces panel > extend surface sub-panel.

33. Use setting as you can see in the picture above and pick the surfaces shown by the
arrow (picture below).

108 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

34. (Optional) Chech the model and see if there are still remaining issues. Use the
midsurfacing tools, point replace, filler surface and other geometry tools to repair the
part, if needed.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 109


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Midsurfacing: Extraction Options

The following options are available by clicking on the extraction options... button:

offset Choose offset to create pieces of the middle surface by offsetting the
model's side surfaces towards the middle. This is the traditional approach for
midsurfacing in HyperMesh.
Surface pairing is automatic and pairs can be further organized using the Plate Edit
panel.
align steps/ keep jump steps This is available only when you select offset.
In the case of a part that has different "steps" of thickness, such as a flat sheet
that is twice as thick at one end as the other but uses an abrupt step-like change
in thickness instead of a constant slope or curve. The align steps option will
align midsurfaces whereas keep jump step will produce steps between the
various midsurfaces as in the original model.

110 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

auto mid position / user mid position This is available only when you select
offset and align steps. If you select auto mid position, HyperMesh will create
a midsurface parallel to the largest side of the volume. This midsurface includes
"offset" data to represent the changes in distance between the midsurface and
the smaller faces at each "step". If you select user mid position, you have to
define the offset of the midsurface, using a value from 0 to 1, to specify the offset
from the largest side of the volume.

The midsurface (with orange nodes) is parallel to the larger face of the solid plate

offset+planes Choose offset+planes to use a midsurfacing algorithm to identify


the places in the model where a piece of plane can be used as a middle surface. The
remaining places in the model that were not identified are used to construct the
middle surface via the offset of the model's sides.

offset+planes+sweeps Choose offset+planes+sweeps to use a midsurfacing


algorithm to identify the places where a piece of plane or a piece of a sweep surface
can be used as a middle surface. A middle surface is constructed again using the
remaining places in the model that were not identified via the offset of the model's
sides.

allow rerun Adds the rerun option to the Auto Midsurface panel. The rerun option
allows you to visualize which points the extraction tool believes to be linked (and which
will therefore collapse to the same point on the midsurface), and manually define lines /
line chains to establish the linkage between points that should collapse to the same
location.

Starting Solid entity

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 111


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Auto-extract its midsurface; Its result contains gaps

Rejecting the midsurface, prepare for rerun, and then extracting again displays the same
midsurface, along with blue highlighting of the lines that connect associated points.

Problem caused by the failure of extraction; it could be fixed by manually specifying the fillet
curves as additional lines to collapse.

use base surfaces The use base surfaces option allows you to select the separatebut-aligned faces that you wish to treat as if they were continuous (in the image below,
these would be the three bottom faces) and create the multiple midsurfaces based on
them.

Extract midsurfaces from multiple solids as if they were a single solid using the align steps
option.

112 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

It uses a new base surfaces setup... Button that allows you to select the desired based
surfs to add; new midsurfaces are created at the specified distance from the selected base
surfaces.

Use this feature to create aligned midsurfaces for non-aligned solids, by specifying each solid
and its offset separately, using a different offset for each.

thickness bound / no thickness bounds This option allows you to set the minimum
and maximum thickness of the plates in the part. If thickness bounds are specified,
middle surfaces are only created for plates with a thickness that falls into the specified
range. This option can improve the robustness of the results and speed up middle
surface creation. If you choose no thickness bounds, midsurface extraction still uses
the max thickness ratio. This is the highest acceptable ratio of the thickest plates
thickness to that of the thinnest plate.
max thicknesses ratio - This is the highest acceptable ratio of the thickest plates
thickness that of the thinnest plate.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 113


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

max R / T ratio This parameter, while always present in the midsurface function, has
now been exposed. Previously this value was hard-coded into the function at a value
of 2.0.
thickness based stitch tol - When the thickness based stitch tol checkbox is active,
the final stitching of midsurfaces is performed with a locally-defined tolerance of 1/5 of
the local thickness. If unchecked, global cleanup tol from the Options panel is used
for stitching.

R/T Information and Tips


The R/T ratio is taken into account on T-, X- and more complex connections only,
as in the center of the picture below. On a curve without a T-connection (like on
the right side on the picture) it does not apply.
If R/T is greater than the value specified in the panel, then this location will not be
recognized as a junction.
If T is different on different sides on the junction (as in the above picture), then
the maximum T is used.
Will work with fillets that have a variable radius across their length.
Use of this parameter with a high value can result in situations where it is not
valid to use a midsurface representation. If these are not areas of high stress and
the results in this area are not of interest, then it is acceptable. This option does
not affect the core midsurface algorithm.

extract by component / cross components This option is useful when you are trying
to extract the midsurface of multiple parts in a single step. If it is toggled to extract by
component, it assumes that each part is contained in its own component, so it extracts
the midsurface of one component at a time. If your model contains a single part
organized in multiple components, you should toggle this option to cross components.

result in Middle Surface comp/result in current comp This toggle specifies if the
midsurfaces are created in the Middle Surface component (created if it does not exist) or
in the current component. It is recommended to use the result in Middle Surface comp
setting.

114 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

sort Middle Surface comp into This option specifies how to organize the midsurfaces
generated in the Middle Surface component when the sort button is clicked. The
original comp option organizes the midsurfaces into their parent surface/solid
components.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 115


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Midsurfacing: Plate Edit


Use the Plate Edit panel to manually edit a plate when the automatic detection of plates is
not correct.

Plates are a group of surfaces in the model in which the middle surface will be inserted.
Each plate has two sides: blue and green. HyperMesh inserts the middle surface between
the two sides of each plate. To open the Plate Edit panel, click plate edit in the auto
midsurface subpanel.
The following options are available by clicking on the plate edit... button:

Controls are grouped into three main columns, with command buttons along the rightmost
edge:

First column, selection of Plate type.

Second column is used for editing plate with visualization option to turn on/off plates
and non plates.

Last column is used for selecting entire plate from graphic area. Multiple plates can
be combined into single plate using merge plate option.

When you enter the Plate Edit panel, HyperMesh organizes the surfaces into components
that reflect their plate type. To display the plates as per their component color, change the
geometry display mode to

on the Visualization toolbar.

116 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Plate types:

Planar plate - Group of surfaces that will have a planar surface inserted in between
them. The inserted middle surface is a trimmed piece of planar surface. Planar
plate's midsurfaces are trimmed using plate edges.

Sweep plate - Group of surfaces that will have a sweep surface inserted between
them.

Offset plate - Group of surfaces that will have a non-planar surface inserted
between them. Midsurface will be created from offsetting one of the side plates
(green plate).

Auto plates - Group of surfaces that automatically have a midsurface inserted


between them. An algorithm determines the plate type for the group of surfaces that
has a midsurface inserted between them.

Transition surface - Transition surface provides more information to the algorithm


regarding inserting surface where two regular plates are intersecting. An algorithm
calculates how far intersecting plates can be extended based on the transition
surface.

Switch side - Each plate has two sides (blue and green) between which
midsurface is inserted. By default, HyperMesh generates the midsurface by offsetting
the green side of the plate. If you are unsatisfied with the midsurface that was
generated from the green side and want the midsurface to be offset from the blue
side, click switch sides. HyperMesh offsets the midsurface from the new green side,
which was blue before using switch side.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 117


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Not a trim surface - Moves the selected surface that you do not want to be used in
the midsurface extraction process into the component, ^Not a trim surface.
HyperMesh ignores the surfaces in the ^Not a trim surface component during the
extraction process.

Plate edge - Acts as cutting plane for planar plates. HyperMesh trims the inserted
midsurface in the planar plate at the plate edge.

Merge plates - Combines multiple plates into a single plate.

Plate Display options:

plates on/off - Turns the display of plates on and off.

non-plates on/off - Turns the display of non-plates (transition and not trim surface)
on and off.

show related midsurface - Select this check box to only display the midsurface
associated with a plate in the graphics area.

restore displayed comps - Select this check box to restore the display of the
components, as they were before you entered the Plate Edit panel, after you exit the
panel.

clear all - Deletes all of the plate information.

How to isolate the required plate you wish to edit.


1. Activate full plate selector > surfs
2. From the graphics area, select the plate you want to isolate.
3. Activate single surface selector > surfs

How to change the plate type.


You can change a group of surface's plate type in the Plate Edit panel.
For example, if a group of surfaces are assigned the plate type Planar, but the offset plate
will provide better results, you can change its plate type to offset.
1. From the plate type drop-down menu, select a new plate type based on the
geometry. Activate the full plate selector
2. Activate the full plate selector > surfs.
3. From the graphics area, select the plate(s) that you would like to change the plate
type for.
4. Click merge plates. HyperMesh changes the plate type.
5. In the dialog that says, "Plate type was changed", click OK.
118 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

How to move fillets/surfaces to a transition surface or not a trim surface.


If some fillets/surfaces are in an incorrect group of plates, you can use the single surface
selector to move them to a transition surface by clicking transition surface, or you can
elect to not use them in the midsurface extraction process by clicking not a trim surface.
1. Activate single surface selector > surfs.
2. From the graphics area, select the fillets/surfaces you wish to move.
3. Click transition surface.
Or
Click not a trim surface. HyperMesh creates a new component, ^Not a trim
surface.
4. You can perform similar actions on other type of plates.

How to generate a new updated midsurface.


If some fillets/surfaces are in an incorrect group of plates, you can use the single surface
selector to move them to a transition surface by clicking transition surface, or you can
elect to not use them in the midsurface extraction process by clicking not a trim surface.
1. When you are finished editing the plates, click update. HyperMesh removes the old
midsurface and regenerates a new, updated midsurface based on the plate
information that you modified.
2. When your model is organized correctly and you are ready to go back to the auto
midsurface panel, click return.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 119


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Exercise 2d - Midsurfacing with Advanced extraction options


This exercise includes CAD geometry data for a box with thin ribs inside of it.
Because the geometry consists of thin planar sections, it is assumed that it will be modeled
for FEA as shell elements.
The elements will be created on the mid-planes of each section
In this exercise, you will learn how to:

Use the offset+planes+sweeps option when midsurfacing.

Manually correct gaps in an auto-generated midsurface using the plates edit


function.

Step 1: Retrieve and View the Model File


1.

From the menu bar, click File > Open.

2.

In the Open Model dialog, open the 02d-PLATE-EDIT.hm model file.

3.

From the menu bar, click Geometry > Create > Midsurfaces > Auto.

4.

In the auto midsurface panel, click the first toggle and select closed solid.

5.

In the graphics area, click any surface.

6.

Click extraction options.

7.

Select offset+planes+sweeps option from dropdown menu.

8.

Click

9.

Click

10. On the Visualization toolbar, change the visualization to Shaded Geometry and
Surface Edges (

).

120 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

11. To review the generated misdurface, hide the Body.1 component in the Model browser.
Some of the plates do not properly cross.

Step 2: Use Plates Edit to Resolve Midsurface Gaps


1.

In Model browser display the Body.1 component.

2.

On the Visualization toolbar, set the geometry display mode to Mixed (

3.

In the auto midsurface panel, click plates edit. HyperMesh populates the Model
browser with plates that were detected by the tool.
Note:

4.

If you havent yet extracted middle surface using either offset+planes or


offset+planes+sweeps option then model doesnt have information about
plates yet. So the plate components will not be populated in this situation.

In the Model browser, hide the Body.1 and Middle Surface components.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 121


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

5.

Activate the full plate selector, and select the green face in the graphics area.
HyperMesh selects all of the plates in the ^Planar plate #0 component.

6.

To hide all of the plates in the ^Planar plate #0 component, right-click on the green
face in the graphics area.

7.

Repeat steps 2.5 and 2.6 for the three remaining exterior sides. The components
^Planar plate #2, ^Planar plate #3, and ^Planar plate #4 are hidden.

8.

Select any face from the long interior rib, as illustrated in the image below. This rib was
split into three groups by the algorithm, and need to be reunited into one plate
component.

9.

Select the two remaining plates from the long interior rib.

10. To merge these three plates into single planar plate specify plate type as planar.

122 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

11. click
or middle-click in the graphics area. The three plates are now the
same color, in a single component.
11. To merge the two remaining internal ribs, repeat steps 2.8 through 2.11.

12. Click update.


12. Click

13. To review the generated misdurface, hide the Body.1 component in the Model browser.
The plates are closer together, but they are still not the full length of the rib due to the
holes that trim the plates.

Step 3: Use Plates Edit a Second Time to Resolve Remaining Gaps


We will need to tell the auto-midsurface algorithm not to trim the plates where the holes are.
1.

In the auto midsurface panel, click plates edit. HyperMesh populates less plate
components in the Model browser because some plates were merged in the previous
steps.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 123


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

2.

Hide all of the components except ^Plate edge.

3.

Using the single surface selector, select all four internal surfaces of the holes in the
graphics area.

4.

Click
. HyperMesh organizes the selected surfaces into a new
component labeled ^Not a trim surface.

124 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

5.

Click update.

6.

Click

8.

To review the generated midsurface, hide the Body.1 component in the Model browser.
There is now a yellow edge where the plates meet, which indicates that the plates are
intersected correctly. It would have been possible to reorganize the plates and create
the not a trim surface component at the same time.

Step 4 (Optional): Save Your Work


1.

From the menu bar, click File > Save.

Summary
The model now contains surfaces on the mid-plane of the part.
You used offset+planes+sweeps and plates edit to avoid gaps in the generated
midsurfaces. You can now mesh these surfaces, or further modify their topology, depending
on the requirements of the analysis.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 125


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Midsurfacing: Midsurface Mesh Tool


The Midsurface Mesh Tool is located at Mesh > Create > MidSurf Mesh menu.
This tool allows you to create a midsurface, create finite elements and assign them related
thickness.

126 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 127


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Midsurfacing: Map Mid-Mesh Thickness Tool


The Map Mid-Mesh Thickness Tool is located at Mesh > Edit > Elements > Midmesh
Thickness menu in RADIOSS, OptiStruct, Abaqus, LS-DYNA, and Nastran user profiles.
This tool can be used for calculating the thickness of a mid-mesh from the solid geometry.
The thickness will be assigned on the mid-mesh either on node card, element card, nodal
thickness on element card or also as properties on elements depending on the solver user
profile.
This tool allows you to create a midsurface, create finite elements and assign them related
thickness.

128 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Input Section The mid-mesh and solid can be specified by selecting


entities in the HyperMesh session interactively, or optionally, external
geometry or FE solver decks can also be selected as input

FE and Geometry displayed Traditional Element Visualization

Thickness Output Options (solver dependent)


Clicking the Calculate Thickness button will begin the operation. The thickness
will be computed and assigned on the mid-mesh.
o

Nodal thickness on elements

Properties on elements

Minimun thickness

Maximun thickness

Assign offset to elements

Maximum Thickness Range Interval:

Correction method:

Scaling at corners (0,10):

Max Midmesh / Solid angle (0,90):

Max thickness gradient (0,10):

Save log file:

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 129


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

View Options In the View section, there are several options for
visualization:

Element Coloring by thickness: Thickness Contour Applied 3D Element


Visualization

3D Element Representation: 3D Element Visualization

Highlight Corrected Elements: 3D Element Visualization Corrected


Elements Highlighted

130 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

4 - Generating and Editing Surfaces


In this section, you will learn how to:

Create surfaces

Edit surfaces

Generating Surfaces
The Surfaces panel is located at Geometry > Create > Surfaces and it allows you to
create surfaces using a wide variety of methods:

Square (

cylinder full / partial (


surface primitives

cone full / partial (


primitives

sphere four nodes / partial (


primitives

torus center and radius / three nodes / partial (


dimensional torus surface primitives

Spin (

drag along vector / line / normal (


lines/nodes along a vector/line/normal

ruled (

spline/ filler (
existing surface

skin (

) -- Creates surfaces by skinning lines

fillet (

) -- Creates constant radius fillet surfaces across surface edges

) Creates two-dimensional square surface primitives


) Creates three-dimensional full/partial cylinder

) Creates three-dimensional full/partial cone surface

) Creates three-dimensional sphere surface

) -- Creates three-

) -- Creates surfaces by spinning lines or a node list around an axis


) -- Creates surfaces by dragging

) -- Creates surfaces by interpolating linearly between lines or nodes


) --, Creates surfaces by filling in gaps, such as a hole in an

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 131


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

from FE (

meshlines (
) -- creates lines from nodes or plot elems; mesh lines closed
chains of mesh lines can be used to generate surfaces or apply loads.

) -- Creates surfaces that closely fit a selection of shell elements

Editing Surfaces
The Surfaces Edit panel is located at Geometry > Edit > Surfaces and it allows you to
perform a variety of surface editing, trimming, and creation functions. This panel also allows
you to offset surfaces in their normal direction.

trim with nodes Allows you to trim (split) a surface using nodes. The surface can
be trimmed with two nodes, with multiple nodes, or with a node normal to and edge.

trim with lines Allows you to trim/split surfaces using a line (or a group of lines).
There are three methods (Trim with cut line, Trim lines, With offset line)

trim with planes / surfs -- Allows you to trim or split surfaces with another surface
or a plane. This function determines the intersection of the selected surfaces and a
plane or a surface and then trims the original surfaces at this intersection

untrim -- Allows you to remove trim lines so that the trimmed surfaces return to
their previous, untrimmed state

offset -- Allows you to offset a group of surfaces by a given distance along the
normals of those surfaces

extend -- Allows you to extend or retracs the edges of selected surfaces to meet
other selected surfaces, or to close gaps between surfaces or holes within a selected
surface. Several options affect how surfaces extension behaves, including enabling
or disabling the ability to shorten edges as well as extend them, or to force the
extended edges to attempt to maintain the overall shape of the surface.

132 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Input

Action

max extension /
extend over edges

Max extension: extend the surface using a maximum extension distance.

to surfaces

This choice is available when Extend over edges is selected. The


extending surfaces will extend as far as necessary to meet these ones.

by distance / by
thickness multiplier

For by distance, type in the maximum distance that you wish the surfaces
to extend.

Extend over edges: extend a surface over edges to another surface

For by thickness multiplier, type in the multiple of the surfaces' assigned


thickness that yields the maximum distance you wish the surfaces to extend.
by filling gaps / by
by distance: This is the literal distance that selected edges will extend,
distance / to surfaces measured in the same units that the model was created for.
by filling gaps: extends the edges of the hole to fill the gap.
surfs: to extend
selector

Use this selector to pick only the surfaces that you wish to extend.
If you selected any shared (green) or non-manifold (yellow) edges as lines:
to extend over, then this selector allows you to specify the corresponding
surfaces so that HyperWorks knows which surface to use to determine the
plane of extension for the shared/non-manifold edge.
Additionally, you may need to use use this selector to specify any "target"
surfaces, particularly if you use the cross extension option described
below. Edges will only extend toward surfaces that are also selected, even if
those additional surfaces have no extending edges. These recipient/target
surfaces will also be trimmed, if the trim result surfaces checkbox
described below is active.

cross extension /
surfs: to target
selector

cross extension allows for all input surfaces to be used as both extension
and target surfaces. This is useful for doing bulk extensions where all
selected surfaces should extend to others within the selection. The input
surfaces will not extend beyond the specified max extension distance, nor
will any of their edges extend if there are no other surfaces within the max
distance.
When selecting this option for extending a surface over an edge, then all
selected surface/edge combinations will be extended or shrunk. Despite the
name, in this case the surfaces will not cross through each other; having
selected to surfaces ensures that they will meet rather than intersect.
surfs: to target simply extends the surfaces toward other surfaces. You
must use this selector to pick the destination surfaces; the extended
surfaces will then extend up to the specified distance to meet those
surfaces. If the target surfaces are too far away, no extension occurs.
When using the surfs: to target option, you can select surfaces already
selected as surfs: to extend. Selecting the same surfaces in both surfs: to
extend and surfs: to target produces the same result as the cross
extension option.
When selecting this option for extending a surface over an edge, then the

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 133


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry
surfs: to extend that you have selected edges for in lines: to extend over
will extend toward the surfaces that you select with the surfs: to target
selector. The target surface does not need to be selected as an extending
surface.
lines: to extend over

Pick the edges that you wish to extend. The surfaces will be extended
across these lines. If you select a free edge, this also selects and highlights
the corresponding surface.

surfs: to extend

Pick the surfaces that you wish to extend.

surfs: to target / cross Extended surfaces will extend in the direction of surfaces selected in surfs:
extension
to target.
If cross extension is selected, all the selected line and surfaces will be
extended.
trim result surfaces

If the checkbox is on and all selected surfaces extend or shorten to have


their edges meet, then the selected surfaces will be trimmed or stitched
regardless of which components they belong to. If the checkbox is off, the
result varies further:
If the selected surfaces are in the same component, they will not be
trimmed but they will be stitched. This is the default stitching behavior for
surfaces in the same component.
If the selected surfs are in different components, they will not be trimmed
or stitched. This is the default stitching behavior for surfaces in different
components. If you need them to be stitched, you must do so by way of
edge equivalence (or some other edge editing).
If the checkbox is on and the selected surfaces extend through their target
surfaces, or even merely to the interior without actually touching any of the
target surface edges, the surfaces will be both trimmed and stitched at the
intersection regardless of whether or not they belong to the same
component. However, if the checkbox is off, the surfaces are not trimmed or
stitched, since they do not meet at any edges.

shrink -- Allows you to shrink the surface by drawing all of its edges (including
internal edges from holes, etc.) "back" away from their starting location

134 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Geometry Dimensioning
Use the dimensioning panel to change one or more dimensions of existing geometry, thus
changing the basic shape of solids and other enclosed volumes.
The Dimensioning function can be accessed through Geometry > Edit > Surfaces >
Dimensioning.

The dimensioning tool allows you to select dimensions of or between surfaces, and modify
those dimensions as required. This is accomplished by means of the use of dimension
manipulators.
The Dimensioning panel's behavior is controlled by several options. In addition, you may
wish to read about some advanced considerations in order to better understand some of
the behavior that results from changing some of the dimensions of existing geometry.
The example below illustrates the sort of reshaping that can be done to a solid entity by
altering selected dimensions.
NOTE: The beige arrows and their attendant numeric values; these are the dimension
manipulators which are used to change the dimensions that they refer to in order to
achieve the results shown in the second figure.

Initial dimensions

Modified dimensions

Dimensioning is based on continuous surface offset functionality. It provides assistance in


the selection of the surfaces to offset so that a change to the selected dimension can occur,
and calculates the offset values required for each surface to achieve the specified
dimension.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 135


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

Dimension Manipulators
A manipulator allows review and modification of a distance between two points. To add a
manipulator, select any two vertices using the point 1 and point 2 collectors.
A dimension manipulator will appear.
A manipulator consists of several objects:

Dimension line - A segment parallel to the line that connects the selected points, but
is shifted off the selected points for visibility. The terms manipulator direction and
manipulator ends are also used, which are the same as the dimension line direction
and the dimension line ends.

Pullout lines - Two parallel segments that connect the ends of the dimension line with
the selected points.

Lock icons - Arrow (movable) and block (locked) images that indicate the lock state of
a manipulator end.

Lock controls - Sphere handles, located near the lock icons, that allow for modifying
the lock state of a manipulator end.

Display/input field A field that displays the current dimension value. This also has
an edit mode for specifying a new value or deleting a manipulator.

Dimension manipulator objects.

For a distance to be modified, one or both manipulator ends must move.


If at least one end shows a movable lock (arrow), launch the manipulator edit mode by
clicking the text.
The text is highlighted when the mouse is over the correct location to indicate that a mouse
click will launch the input mode.
Enter the new distance value and close the input field to accept the value, either by pressing
enter on the keyboard or by clicking outside in the graphics area.
The new dimension, when possible, will be applied.
136 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 2: Geometry

Input field edit mode.

When changing several dimensions, each dimension change is performed separately using
the respective manipulator.
To delete a single dimension manipulator, open its input field, delete its content and close
it. To delete all manipulators, click the clear all button on the panel.
Any manipulators that exist when exiting the panel will be restored again on the re-entering
the panel.
Manipulators are also saved in the database file.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 137


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 2: Geometry

138 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Chapter 3

2D Meshing
1 - AutoMeshing
The optimal starting point for creating a shell mesh for a part is to have surface geometry
defining the part. The most efficient method for creating a mesh representing the part
includes using the Automesh panel and creating a mesh directly on the parts surfaces.
The Automesh panel is a key meshing tool in HyperMesh. Its meshing module allows you
to specify and control element size, density, type, and node spacing, and also perform
quality checks before accepting the final mesh.
A part can be meshed all at once or in portions. To mesh a part all at once, it may be
advantageous to first perform geometry cleanup of the surfaces, which can be done in
HyperMesh.
The purpose for this section is to help you become proficient with using the Automesh
panels meshing module. In this section, you will learn how to:

Mesh all the surfaces at once specifying different element sizes and element types.

Practice changing the element density along surface edges.

Practice checking element quality and changing the mesh pattern by changing the
mesh algorithm.

Preview the mesh on all the unmeshed surfaces.

Practice changing the element type and node spacing (biasing) along surface edges.

Re-mesh surfaces.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 139


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Automeshing
The automesh function in HyperMesh allows for the rapid generation of a quality mesh on
one or multiple surfaces. Within the automesh panel there are many options available which
provide the user a high level of control over the ultimate mesh.

Topology Review
Automeshing of surfaces is dependent on surface topology, which is the connection of
adjacent surfaces edges. Properly connected edges ensure a properly connected mesh.
As discussed in the previous chapter, topology is represented graphically though edge color.

140 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Automeshing: How topology affects the mesh


To properly represent a part with shell elements, those elements must be properly
connected. Unconnected elements are in effect a slice in a part and all stresses, strains and
deformations will stop at the unconnected region.
HyperMesh keeps edges in a part. This means that if you see a surface edge in the mesh
(unless it is suppressed) you will see that same edge in the mesh. HyperMesh will place
nodes along that edge and if the edge is properly connected then there will only be one set
of nodes that will be shared by elements on either side of the edge. Node sharing between
multiple elements is how elements are connected to each other.
Below are examples of how edge topology affects the resultant mesh. There is an example
for each of the 4 topological states (colors).

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 141


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

The Automesh Panel


Automesh Panel Mesh > Create > 2D AutoMesh (F12)

142 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Size and bias Subpanel

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 143


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Mesh with no flow control

144 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
Mesh with Align Control

Mesh with Align and Size Control

AutoMesh > Interactive > secondary panel


This subpanel is the most widely used and is the default for automeshing. Within this panel
the user sets the desired element size and type, chooses options for flowing and mapping
and then is provided with a preview mesh. From within the meshing module there are many
options for mesh refinement.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 145


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Density
o

Adjust Left clicking on an edge will raise the element density on that edge
by one, right clicking will lower the density by one. Clicking
will provide a new preview mesh with the changes.

Calculate Here the user can enter a new element size and either click on
an edge to recalculate the density on that edge or click recalc all and change
the element size for all the surfaces currently being meshed.

Set This option allows for the setting of element densities on a single or all
edges to a user set number.

Mesh Style
o

From this sub panel the user can indicated the type of mesh to create.

This panel also allows the user to define the method or style of meshing. The
style is the manner in which the mesh transitions between different density
values.

146 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Biasing
o

Checks
o

The biasing subpanel allows the user to control the distribution of nodes
during the nodes seeding by selecting biasing in the form of linear,
exponential or bell curve distributions.

The checks subpanel evaluates the quality of the generated mesh.

General Controls

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 147


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Exercise 3a - 2D Shell Meshing and Topology Refinement


Step 1: Load the model 03a-2D-MESH.hm.
Step 2: Automatic 2D Meshing
1. Go to Mesh > Create > 2D AutoMesh to open the Automesh panel.

2. Mesh the part with an element size of 5. Set all of the options to match the picture
above.
3. Review the mesh. Overall the mesh looks pretty good but closer examination of areas
around the part reveals there are some extremely poor quality elements.

148 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
4. Manipulate the part using the Pan, Rotate and Zoom functions and identify areas of poor
mesh formation.
As discussed in the lecture, HyperMesh always maintains all edges in the model except
those that are suppressed.
Turning the mesh visualization off shows the surface edge lines and reveals that there
are many features within the model that interfere with mesh quality. This is very often
the case in geometric models imported from CAD. Topology refinement is used to fix
those areas to improve the quality of the generated mesh.

Step 3: Topology Refinement


The goal of topology refinement is to manipulate the geometry to remove or alter
geometric features that cause poor element quality. HyperMesh has many tools, both
automatic and manual, to assist in this process.
1. Enter the Geometry > Autocleanup panel.
2. From the Autocleanup panel select the edit parameters button.

3. Enter 5 for the element size.


4. Leave the Geometry cleanup option checked and deselect all other options.
5. Click OK.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 149


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
6. Select the edit criteria button, Advanced Criteria Table option checked.
7. Enter 5 for the target element size, 3 for the minimum element size and 6 for the
maximum element size.
8. Click OK.
9. Select all the surfaces and click autocleanup.
HyperMesh has suppressed edges that it felt would not allow elements that met the
criteria to be created.

10. Review the part again having a look at the new mesh that was remeshed automatically
during the topology modification due to the Meshing Options already defined
(Preferences > meshing Options > topology revision: > remesh).
You will see that the quality of the mesh has improved drastically.

150 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
There are still some issues with the mesh though.
11. Using the Mesh > Quick edit panel improve the quality of the mesh using the following
functions:
o

toggle edge

adjust/set density

add/remove point

split surf-node; split surf-line;

Step 4: Interactive 2D Meshing


While automatic meshing is quick and the overall mesh quality is good, HyperMesh
allows the user to interactively manipulate a preview mesh, controlling various settings
before the mesh is finalized.
1. Delete created displayed elements and enter the Mesh > Create > 2D AutoMesh panel.

2. Change the toggle from automatic to interactive.


3. Select the surfaces in the Standard collector.
4. Click on mesh to create 2D shell elements.
HyperMesh now enters in a secondary panel.

The green mesh that is shown is only a preview mesh and to see how changes affect it
click the green mesh button. The mesh will not be finalized until the return button is
clicked.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 151


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

5. From this screen try the following functions and see the effect they have on the mesh.
o

Adjust the edge densities.

Recalculate the entire model to have a 6mm element size.

Change the mesh style so that the element type is all trias and then all R-Trias.

Alter the biasing on edges and determine the difference between linear,
exponential and bell curve biasing.

Recalculate the mesh to have 5mm quad elements on all surfaces.

After each interactive change, click on mesh to update your green mesh to see
effects.
6. Click on return to save the mesh.

Step 5: Model Organization


As this exercise will demonstrate the differences between meshing options, multiple
components will be necessary to separate the various meshes.
1. Create two new components called AlignOnly and AlignAndSize and make them
distinct colors.
2. Organize a copy of all the surfaces into both collectors.

152 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Step 6: Meshing Options


There are a few options in the 2D AutoMesh panel which can have a profound effect on
the mesh created. This section will explore these options.
1. Make the AlignOnly collector current and the only collector visible.
2. From the 2D AutoMesh panel, size and bias sub panel, next to flow select the align
option. Leave the twe size boxes un-selected.

3. Select the surfaces in the AlignOnly collector and click on mesh.

4. Make the AlignAndSize collector current and the only collector visible.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 153


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
5. From the 2D AutoMesh panel, size and bias sub panel, next to flow select the align
and size options.

6. Select the surfaces in the AlignAndSize collector and click on mesh.

7. Utilizing the isolate function in the Model Browser to see the results of the different
meshing options.

Note that the non-aligned standard mesh tends to be more orthogonal following the
direction of the cardinal axis. The Align option allows the mesh to flow with the contours
154 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
of the part and the addition of the size option controls the size of the elements more and
results in less trias.

Step 7: Edge and Surface Deviation


1. Create 2 more component collectors called EdgeDev and SurfDev and make them
distinct colors.
2. Organize a copy of all the surfaces into both collectors.
3. Make Current the EdgeDev collector and the only collector visible.
4. In the the 2D AutoMesh panel select the edge deviation subpanel.

5. Set the values as follows:

6. Mesh the part and if in interactive mode, finalize the mesh.


Note how the mesh size varies depending on surfaces curvature. At rounded edges and
around holes the mesh size drops down to the minimum element size to capture the
curvature. Areas of no curvature are meshed at the largest element size.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 155


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
7. Make Current the SurfDev collector and the only collector visible.
8. Select the surface deviation sub panel.

9. Set the values as follows:

10. Mesh the part. Note how now the mesh size is dependent on and varies with the
curvature of the surfaces. Fillets between and areas of high surface curvature are
captured with smaller elements but large flat areas are of a higher element size.

11. Experiment in these two sub panels and determine how the interactive mesh controls
can be used to enhance the feature capturing abilities of these meshing styles.

156 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

2 - Checking and Editing Mesh


Once a mesh is created, HyperMesh has many tools for checking element quality and
modifying the mesh to make it more desirable. These tools can be used at almost any point
in the meshing process. This section is separated from sections on creating mesh so that
the focus can be on checking and editing tools.
In this section, you will learn how to:

Identify shell element connectivity problems.

Correct shell element connectivity problems.

Review the models shell elements to ensure connectivity problems were


corrected.

Re-mesh the elements along the rib.

Checking and Editing the Mesh: Tools


These mesh editing tools can be found as follows:

Mesh > Check > Nodes

Mesh > Check > Elements

Mesh > Edit > Elements

Mesh > Check > Components

View > Toolbars > HyperMesh > Checks Toolbar

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 157


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Nodal Connection

Edges / T-connection Panel

or Mesh > Check > Nodes > Equivalence

Free edges are defined as a pair of nodes identifying an element edge that are not
shared with another element. Free edges are normally found around the outer
perimeter of a part or around openings within the part.

This panel allows to display free edges to T-connection in the model by creating 1D
elements on each one.
Free edges are displayed as red plot elements in their own component called
^edges.
Free edges within a field of elements typically indicate a discontinuity within the
mesh.
For free edges you can also equivalence nodes within a specified tolerance

Find Panel Tool page > find OR Display toolbar >

158 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
The Find panel allows you to locate entities in a database:
You can use the Find Entities subpanel to find individual elements in your model.
When you find entities, you will often want to turn on the IDs, or save them to the
user mark. At the very least, when you find a hidden entity, it will be displayed.
The Find Attached subpanel finds entities that are attached to other entities. For
example, after you have selected an element, you may use this function to view
the elements that are attached to it, allowing you to move progressively through
the model, row by row. The Find Attached subpanel allows you to find entities
that are attached to geometry or FE entities.
The Between subpanel allows you to find entities that are shared by two or more
of the selected entities. For example, you could find nodes that are shared
between selected components or surfaces, and so on.

Element Quality Paramenters

Check Elements Panel


(F10)

or Mesh > Check > Elements > Check Elements

The Check Elements panel allows you to verify the basic quality of your elements
and to the geometric qualities of those elements:

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 159


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
o

Warpage: The amount by which an element or element face (in the case of
solid elements) deviates from being planar. Warpage of up to five degrees is
generally acceptable. Since three points define a plane, this check only
applies to quads. The quad is divided into two trias along its diagonal, and the
angle between the trias normals is measured.

Aspect: This is the ratio of the longest edge of an element to either its
shortest edge or the shortest distance from a corner node to the opposing
edge ("height to closest node"). Aspect ratio should be less than 5:1 in most
cases.

Skew

trias: calculated by finding the minimum angle between the vector from
each node to the opposing mid-side and the vector between the two
adjacent mid-sides at each node of the element. Ninety degrees minus
the minimum angle found is reported as the skew.

quads: calculated by finding the minimum angle between two lines


joining opposite mid-sides of the element. Ninety degrees minus the
minimum angle found is reported.

Chordal deviation is the perpendicular distance between the actual curve


and the approximating line segments.

160 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
o

Cell Squish: The cell squish criteria describes the non-orthogonality of an


element with respect to its faces for 3D elements or edges for 2D elements. It
is defined as follows:

Length >: The elements that have a length greater than the values specified
are highlighted when the length function is selected. These elements remain
highlighted until you exit the Check Elems panel or you select another check
element function. The shortest distance from a corner node to its opposing
edge (or face, in the case of tetra elements); referred to as height to closest
node.

Length <: The elements that have a length less than the values specified are
highlighted when the length function is selected. These elements remain
highlighted until you exit the Check Elems panel or you select another check
element function.

Jacobian: A measure of the deviation of an element from an ideally shaped


element. The Jacobian value ranges from 0.0 to 1.0, where 1.0 represents a
perfectly shaped element. However, Jacobian values of 0.7 and above are
generally acceptable. The determinant of the Jacobian relates the local
stretching of the parametric space required to fit it onto global coordinate
space. HyperMesh evaluates the determinant of the Jacobian matrix at each
of the elements integration points (also called Gauss points), and reports the
ratio between the smallest and the largest.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 161


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
o

Equia Skew: Opens the equiangle skew utility. This utility is used to find the
number of elements among those displayed that have a normalized
equiangle skew larger than the value specified. The normalized equiangle
skew is defined in the following way:

Area Skew : The area skew criterion describes the deviation of an elements
with respect to an optimal elements. A circle is generated through the three
corner points of the actual triangle. This circle defines a ideally shaped tria
elements, from which the area is computed, A_ideal. The area from the
actual triangle is computed as well, A_actual. The area skew is defined as:
Area skew = (A_ideal-A_actual) / A_ideal.

Taper:

quad (quadrilateral element): is defined by first finding the area of the


triangle formed at each corner grid point. These areas are then compared
to one half of the area of the quadrilateral.

162 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
HyperMesh then finds the smallest ratio of each of these triangular areas
to the quad elements total area (in the diagram above, "a" is
smallest). The resulting value is subtracted from 1, and the result
reported as the element taper. This means that as the taper approaches
0, the shape approaches a rectangle.

tria (triangles): are assigned a value of 0, in order to prevent HyperMesh


from mistaking them for highly-tapered quadrilaterals and reporting them
as "failed".

Interior Angles

tria min/max angle: The minimum/maximum allowable interior angle for


a tria element.

quad min/max angle: The minimum/maximum allowable interior angle


for a quad element

Element Normals

Normals Panel

or Mesh > Check > Elements > Normals

The Normals panel allows you to display and reverse the normals of elements
or surfaces.

The orientation of element normals can also be adjusted. The normal of an


element is determined by following the order of nodes of the element using the
right-hand rule.

Normals can be reversed for both surfaces and elements. For elements there is
an option to adjust the selection to a reference element, by selecting it with the
elem selector and clicking the adjust normals button.

For normal review, you can select between two modes: Normals can be
reviewed showing a vector (positive normal direction) or by colors (color mode
shows the positive side of a shell or surface in red and the negative side in blue).

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 163


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Free edges are defined as a pair of nodes identifying an element edge that are not
shared with another element. Free edges are normally found around the outer
perimeter of a part or around openings within the part.

Checking & Editing 2D Mesh

Quality Index Panel Mesh > Cleanup Elements > Quality Index
OR

Quality Index Panel Mesh > Check > Elements > Quality Index

The Quality Index panel allows you to calculate a single value to represent the
quality of the displayed shell (2-D) model. Criteria settings are stored and
retrieved using a criteria file. Results from the Quality Index (QI) panel can be
saved to a summary file. Edit nodes and elements interactively or by
automatically maximizing element quality.

164 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
There are no subpanels on the Quality Index panel, but there are three pages of
criteria accessed via the page arrow buttons.
While in the QI panel, elements are colored according to how well they adhere to
pre-set quality requirements, rather than according to their component or any other
visualization mode chosen.

The Quality Index value is a function of twelve criteria with user-defined weight
factors. Each criterion has five rating levels. Each element is assigned a penalty
depending on where they fall and is assigned the corresponding element Q.I. color.

The compound Q.I. displays on the right-hand side of the panel, along with the
number and percentage of elements that failed a quality check. This portion of the
panel also includes a slider control that allows you to highlight elements falling at or
below a certain quality level, and a group of buttons to access cleanup tools
(secondary panel, where you can manually alter the placement of nodes to improve
local quality) and save a list of failed elements.

The left-hand portion of the Quality Index panel consists of three pages; the current
page number displays in the upper-left corner of the panel. To either side of the
page number, a small arrow button allows you to page forward or backward to view
the other pages. In addition, one column on pages 1 and 2 includes a toggle at the
column heading; use this toggle to switch the column between displaying the worst
quality value found for each quality check, or the total Q.I. value generated by each
check.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 165


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Page1

Page2

Page3

Page 1-2-3 Cleanup tools


It opens the temporary QI cleanup tools secondary panel, where you can manually
alter the placement of nodes to improve local quality.

166 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Page 1-2 Patch Checker

Page 3 Summary & edit criteria


o

Summary - You can save the quality results of the selected model to this file
(summary file). It exports the information seen in the results pages of this
panel. In addition, it records the IDs of the three elements that have the worst
quality result for each criterion.

Edit criteria - Click this button to open the criteria file editor, from which
you can load, save, and modify files that contain the criteria used by the
Quality Index panel

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 167


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
2D Mesh Quality Report

HTML Mesh Quality Report Mesh > Check > Elements > Quality Report
o

Quality Report - Current Model or Multiple Models

Summary page - Dashboard of results and Links to each report page

Report page for each model - Detailed QI values, Link to criteria &model file

Contour by Element Quality

Perpetual Quality Index visualization mode

Global and local criteria mode

Interactive editable settings in both global and local mode

168 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

2D Remeshing

Automesh panel > 2D Remeshing - This option in automesh panel allow you to
remesh directly a selected group of elements switch from surfs to elems

In HyperMesh there are options to remesh elements using the automatic feature
detection, features or the new option lines.
Using any free form line, the automesh functionality will remesh ensuring that
there is nodal seeding along the selected line. The nodal seeding can be adjusted
as required
Meshing regions where tight control over mesh flow or mesh density will benefit
from this functionality. Other use cases will also include defining weld/adhesive
lines

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 169


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
2D Automeshing QI Optimize

Automesh Panel > QI optimize Options

Checking & Editing 2D Mesh - Other Panels

Create 2D Element Mesh > Create > 2D Elements > Elements

170 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Edit 2D/3D Element Mesh > Edit > Elements >

Combine merges 2 or more elements into 1 single element

Split draws a line to cut elements


Detach disconnects selected elements from other elements
Imprint
Extend

Replace Panel Mesh > Replace (F3)


Merge 2 nodes into 1 node (elements are now connected)

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 171


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Exercise 3b - Refining Topology to Achieve a Quality Mesh


Step 1: Open the model file, 03b-2D-MESH-EDIT-CHECK.hm.
The model for this exercise is 03b-2D-MESH-EDIT-CHECK.hm. Take a few moments to
observe the model using the different visual options available in HyperMesh (rotation, zoom,
etc.).

Step 2: Create a preliminary mesh.


1. From the menu bar, click Mesh > Create > 2D AutoMesh to open the Automesh panel.
2. Set the selector type to surfs.
3. Go to the size and bias sub-panel.
4. In the element size = field, type 2.5.
5. Set mesh type: as mixed.
6. Switch the meshing mode from interactive to automatic.
7. Click surfs >> displayed.
8. Deactivate the flow: > align and size options.

9. Click mesh to mesh the surfaces.

172 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Initial mesh on the defeatured clip model

Step 3: Review the mesh quality.


1. Take a minute to rotate, zoom, and pan the model to review the mesh that was created.
Note the locations where the mesh was not created in rows and columns of quads.
2. From the menu bar, select Mesh > Check > Elements > Check Elements to open the
Check Elements panel.
3. Go to the 2-d sub-panel.
4. In the length < field, type 1.

5. Click the length< button to evaluate the minimum length.


6. Note the elements that failed the check. The topology will be edited to correct of some of
these, leave the rest as is.
7. Click return to exit the panel.

Step 4: Remove short edges by combining fixed points.


1. From the menu bar, click Geometry > Quick Edit > replace point: to open the panel.
2. Verify that the active selector is set to point(s).
3. Select the lower fixed point as indicated in the following image (point to move).
4. Once the point is selected, activate the retained button.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 173


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
5. Select the upper fixed point as indicated in the following image (point to retain).
6. Once the second point is selected, click replace.

Selecting fixed points to be combined

174 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Step 5: Remove the fixed point interior to all surfaces.


You should still be in the Quick Edit panel.
1. Go to add/remove point:
2. Select (mouse button: right click) the four fixed points as shown in the following image.
Each fixed point will be deleted as you select it.
These fixed points are left over from a defeaturing operation where small holes
(pinholes) were removed. They could remain without greatly sacrificing the element
quality, given the element size used for the mesh, but the mesh should be better without
them.

Fixed points to be removed

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 175


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

3. Click return to exit the panel.

Step 6: Add edges to the surfaces to control the mesh pattern.


You should still be in the Quick Edit panel.
1. Go to split surf-line:
2. Zoom into the area indicated below and select the indicated fixed point as node.
3. With the active selector now on line, select the line shown in the following image.
Once both the point and line are selected, an edge will be created from the location of
the fixed point perpendicular to the line and the mesh will be modified accordingly.

Select fixed point and line to split the surface.

176 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

4. Repeat sub-steps 6.2, 6.3 for the following point and line.

Select fixed point and line to split the surface.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 177


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
6. Repeat sub-steps 6.2, 6.3 for the following point and line.

Select fixed point and line to split the surface.

7. Repeat sub-steps 6.2, 6.3 for the following point and line.

Select fixed point and line to split the surface

Step 7: Add edges to the surfaces to control the mesh pattern.


You should still be in the Quick Edit panel.
1. Go to split surf-line
178 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
2. Zoom into the area indicated below and select the indicated fixed point as node.

3. With the active selector now on lines, select the edges shown in the following image (4
edges included in the rectangle).

Once both the point and line are selected, an edge will be created from the location of
the fixed point perpendicular to the line, same for the other lines.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 179


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Step 8: Suppress shared edges causing a small edge.


You should still be in the Quick Edit panel.
1. Go to toggle edge:
2. Select each of the lines in the image below using your left mouse button and click
line(s).
Each line will become suppressed (blue) as you click line(s).

Surface edges to suppress by toggling

2. The mesh will be modified based on topology revision.


180 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Step 9: Review the mesh quality.


1. Take a minute to rotate, zoom, and pan the model to review the mesh that was created.
Note that the mesh now consists completely of rows and columns of quads.
2. Enter the Mesh> Check > Elements > Check Elements panel.
3. Go to the 2-d sub-panel
4. In the length < field, type 1.
5. Click the length button to evaluate the minimum length.
Note the elements that failed the check. There are only two elements that fail the check,
and these fail the check because of the shape of the part. However, they are not too
small compared to the global element size, so you can leave them as they are.

6. Access the Mesh > Create > 2D Automesh panel.


7. Go to the QI optimize sub-panel.
8. Verify that elem size = is set to 2.5 and the mesh type is set to mixed.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 181


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
9. Click edit criteria.
10. In the Target element size field, type 2.500.

11. Click Apply and OK.


12. Select surfs >> displayed to select all displayed surfaces.
13. Click mesh.
Note that the old mesh is replaced by the new mesh.
[HINT] If there is a message saying, "There is a conflict between the user requested
element size and quality criteria ideal element size," click the button, Recompute
quality criteria using size of 2.5.
14. Access the Quality Index panel by clicking Mesh > Check > Elements > Quality
Index.
15. Go to page1 and verify that the comp. QI is 0.01.
This low value indicates that the mesh is good quality. The higher the number, the lower
the mesh quality.

182 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Step 11 (Optional): Save your work.


The part is now meshed and ready to be set up for an analysis. Save the model, if desired.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 183


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Exercise 3c - Checking and Editing Mesh


In this exercise, you will learn how to:

Identify shell element connectivity problems


Correct shell element connectivity problems
Review the models shell elements to ensure connectivity problems were corrected
Remesh the elements along the rib

Exercise
This exercise uses the model file, 03c-2D-MESH-IMPRINT-EXTEND.hm.

Step 1: Retrieve and view the HyperMesh model file.


Open the file 03c-2D-MESH-IMPRINT-EXTEND.hm

Step 2: Review the models free edges to identify shell element connectivity
problems.
1. Access the Edges panel in the following ways:

From the menu bar, select Mesh > Check > Components > Edges.

From the Checks toolbar, select the Edges icon (

Press SHIFT+F3 KEYS

2. With the comps selector active, click any element in the graphics area.
The component containing the element is selected.
184 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
3. Click find edges.
Red, 1-D elements are displayed. They are organized into the new component named
^edges. A red 1-D element is created along each shell element edge that is free; one or
more of the element edges nodes is not shared by the adjacent elements.

Note: For a component name whose first character is ^, the component and its
contents is not written to the input file when the model is exported.
4. Click Shaded Elements and Mesh Lines (

).

5. Observe the red, 1-D elements (free edges).


6. Try to identify gaps in the continuity of the mesh.
Hint: Look closely at free edges interior to the model.
7. In the Model Browser, turn the display off for the component shells to continue to
identify which red, free edges do not belong.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 185


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

8. Turn on the display for the component, shells.

Step 3: Solve the shell element connectivity issues using the Edges panel.
1. In the tolerance= field, type 0.01.
2. Select an element in the graphics area to select the component.
3. Click preview equiv.
The status bar displays the following message: "81 nodes were found."
A sphere, , is created on nodes having a distance between each other equal to or less
than the specified tolerance.
4. Notice that for this exercises model, a sphere is not created on every node along all of
the red, free edges, which do not belong. A larger tolerance must be specified to identify
the rest of the nodes.
5. For tolerance =, increase its value until all 96 nodes are identified as shown in the
following image.
Be careful not to increase too much the tolerance value. Although the 96 nodes will be
identified, an excessively large tolerance value may collapse elements when the
identified nodes are equivalenced. To find out the maximum value that can be safely
used for tolerance without collapsing the elements, press the F10 key to go to the check
elems panel, go to 2-d subpanel and click length. The status bar will display The
min length is 1.49. A tolerance value < 1.49 can safely be used, without causing any
elements to collapse when identified nodes are equivalenced. Click return to go back to
Edges panel.

186 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

The nodes identified with preview equivalence

6. Click equivalence.
The 96 coincident nodes are equivalenced.
7. Rotate and observe the model to see that the mesh still looks as it should and no
elements are collapsed.
8. Click delete edges.
The red, free edges and their component, ^edges, are deleted.
Note: Remain in the Edges panel.

Step 4: Review the models free edges again to confirm that all of the shell
element connectivity problems have been corrected.
1. Click find edges.
Observe the red, 1-D elements (free edges).
Are there any red, free edges that should not belong if the mesh was continuous or if all
of the elements were connected?
Hint: Only red, free edges should exist on the perimeter of the part and on periphery of
internal holes.
2. Use the Model Browser to turn the display off for the component, shells, to observe
that all of the free, red edges belong.
3. After verifying that the model has correct red, free edges, click delete edges.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 187


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Red, free edges that belong

Step 5: Display the element normals and adjust them to point in the same
direction.
1. Go to the Normals panel. The Normals panel can be accessed in the following ways:

From the menu bar, select Mesh > Check > Elements > Normals

From the Checks toolbar, select the Normals icon (

Press the SHIFT+F10 keys

2. Choose the elements subpanel and set toggle to vector display normals.
3. With the comps selector active, select one element from the graphics area to select the
component.
4. Click display normals.
Arrows (vectors) are drawn from the element centroids and show the direction of the
element normals.
Notice the arrows do not all point from the same side of the part. For some analysis, the
element normals should point the same side.
188 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

5. Click size = and enter the size which the normal should be in model units and select
display normals again.
When size = is set to 0, the vector will be 10% of the screen.
6. Toggle vector display normals to color display normals.

7. Click display normals.


The element normals are displayed using colors. The red side of the elements is the
positive normal direction, while the blue side is the negative normal direction.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 189


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
8. Notice each side of the part shows red and blue.
9. Click the orientation: elem selector to make it active.

10. Select an element from the graphics area.

11. Click adjust normals.


All elements on either side of the part are the same color, red or blue.
The status bar displays the following message: "[X] elements have been adjusted."

If after adjusting the normals, there are still elements on one side of the part which are of
different color, change to elems from comps for the entity selector, choose these
elements and click reverse normals.

190 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

12. Click return.

Step 6: Review the quality of the elements using the check elems panel.
1. Access the check elems panel in one of the following ways:

From the menu bar, select Mesh > Check > Elements > Check Elements

From the Checks toolbar, select the Check Elements icon (

Press the F10 key

2. Go to the 2-d subpanel.


3. Verify that jacobian < field is set to 0.7.
4. Click jacobian to determine if any elements have a jacobian of less than 0.7.
Elements having a jacobian of less than 0.7 are highlighted.

5. Notice that several elements on the triangular rib and around the smaller of the two
holes have a jacobian of less than 0.7.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 191


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
The status bar displays a message indicating how many elements failed this check.
6. In the graphics area, click an element.
A window appears that lists each quality check result for the element.

7. Click the right or left mouse button to close the pop-up window.
8. On the right side of the panel, switch from standard to assign plot.
9. Click jacobian to review again.
A legend for jacobian values appears and each element is colored accordingly. The red
elements have a jacobian less than the threshold, 0.7.

10. Verify that quads: min angle < is set to 45.


11. Click min angle to determine if any quad elements have an angle of less than 45.

192 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

12. Notice that a couple of elements on the rib have an angle of less than 45.
13. Verify that the max angle > field is set to 135.
14. Click max angle to determine if any quad elements have an angle greater than 135.

15. Notice that several elements on the rib have an angle greater than 135.
16. Click return.

Step 7: Remesh the elements on the rib using the automesh panel.
1. Access the Automesh panel in one of the following ways:

From the menu bar, select Mesh > Create > 2D AutoMesh
Press the F12 key

2. Verify that you are in the size and bias subpanel.


3. Switch the entity selector to elems.
4. Toggle to interactive.
5. For element size=, type 3.5.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 193


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
6. Select one rib element from the graphics area.
7. Select one element on the plane of elements perpendicular to the rib and in the same
plane as the ribs shortest edge as shown in the following image.

Example of elements to select


8. Select elems >> by face to complete the selection of elements as shown in the following
image.

Elements selected using by face


9. Click mesh.
The meshing module appears.

194 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

10. In the density subpanel, change the element density on the ribs hypotenuse edge to 9.
11. Change the element density on the ribs shortest edge to 5.

Adjusting element edge densities


12. Keep all other element edge densities the same.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 195


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
13. Access the mesh style subpanel.
14. Under mesh method, set the last option to free (unmapped).
15. Under mesh method, select set all.

16. Click mesh to preview the mesh.


17. Go to the checks subpanel, and check the jacobian, quads: min angle, and quads:
max angle.
18. Notice that no elements fail the minimum and maximum angle checks.
Only a couple of elements have a jacobian of less than 0.7. The smallest jacobian is
0.68, which can still be considered good quality.

19. Click return to accept the mesh and go back to the main menu.

196 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Step 8: Use the smooth panel to adjust the node placement on the rectangular
plane of remeshed elements.
1. Click Mesh > Cleanup Elements > Smooth to open the Smooth panel.

2. Go to the plates subpanel.


3. With the smooth: elems selector active, select an element on the rectangular plane of
re-meshed elements.
4. Select elems >> by face.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 197


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
5. For iterations = specify 10.
6. Switch the smoothing algorithm from autodecide to shape corrected.
7. Click smooth.

8. Click return.

Step 9: Remove tria elements from another area of the model using the edit
element panel, split and combine subpanels.
1. On the 2D page, enter the edit element panel or Press the F6 key.
2. Go to the split subpanel.

3. With the splitting line: points selector active, click four screen points as shown the
following image.
Temporary line segments are drawn to connect the points.
4. You can right-click to undo the last line segment drawn or you can click delete line to
start over with selecting points.

198 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

5. Click split.
Elements that have the line pass through them are split. The resulting mesh should look
like the mesh in the following image. There are two pairs of adjacent tria elements.

6. Go to the combine subpanel and set the toggle to combine to quad.

7. Select two adjacent tria elements as indicated in the following image.


8. Click combine.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 199


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
9. Repeat 11.7 and 11.8 for the other two adjacent tria elements.
10. Remain in the edit element subpanel.

Trias to select

Combining trias into quads

Step 10: Dynamically move nodes on the mesh area to improve element
quality.
1. Go to the menu bar Mesh > Cleanup Elements > Element Cleanup, leave all options
with default values. Select elems >> displayed.

2. Click cleanup to get an Element Quality Summary.

Click on continue, if you get the following message:

200 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
3. Go to the Visualization toolbar and set visualization as By Element Quality.
This permanent mode serves as a useful tool to investigate each specific element
criteria, as well as evaluate the overall quality of a mesh.
Element Quality View is a permanent visualization mode that HyperMesh displays in
the upper left-hand corner of the graphics area when you select By Element Quality on
the Visualization toolbar. Use this tool to investigate each specific element criteria, view
a breakdown of all failed and worst elements, resolve all criteria violations at one time,
and evaluate the overall quality of a mesh.
When you select Element Quality View, HyperMesh displays the Multiple Criteria
legend by default.

In this legend, you can:

review the different 2D element criteria's


adjust the initial threshold values assigned to each 2D element criteria
select specific criteria's to investigate further

The Element Quality View tool bases the initial threshold values on the ideal, good,
warn, fail (default), and worst values that are defined in the current 2D element criteria
settings. By default, this tool bases the initial threshold values on the fail column. You
can directly edit these values from the Element Quality View or you can edit them in the
Criteria File Editor.
Note: Any changes that you make in the Element Quality View will impact all of the
other Element Quality View settings. The changes that you make to the threshold
values in the Element Quality View will not affect the values in the criteria file, but any
changes that you make to the criteria file will affect the Element Quality View.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 201


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
When you click a criteria in the Multiple Criteria legend, a single criteria specific legend
appears to the right of the threshold values. The elements are color coded according to
how well they adhere to the quality requirements in the graphics area. In the graphic
area, click on one of these criteria in the legend, it will appear another table for the
selected criteria.

Each 2D element criteria, in the Multiple Criteria legend, has its own single criteria
legend. The single criteria legends consists of a color coded sliding scale, which you can
use to evaluate the elements in the graphics area and resolve all criteria violations.
The colors exhibited in the sliding scale reflect the quality of each element in the
graphics area.
The elements that are of the best quality will always display in blue.
The elements that are of the worst quality will always display in red.
The Element Quality View tool determines the quality of each element using the 2D
element criteria that you defined in the Multiple Criteria legend.
The Element Quality View tool always lists the values in the sliding scale from low to
high, with the lowest value always being at the bottom of the scale and the highest value
always being at the top. This tool always defines the first and last values in the legend
with the minimum and maximum values.
The Element Quality View has Context Menus you can activate with a right-click on
the Multiple Criteria legend.

Note: refer to online help to get more details.


202 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Step 11: For the same area of elements you focused on in the previous step,
optimize element quality by clicking nodes and elements.
1. Go to Mesh > Cleanup Elements > Quality Index panel and select cleanup tools.

2. With the node optimize selector active, click a few nodes of the mesh area you
modified.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 203


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
When a node is clicked, it is repositioned so that the elements attached to it have the
best possible quality based on the criteria specified in the qualityindex panel.
3. Click the selector element optimize to make it active.

4. Click yellow elements in the mesh area with the red circle shown below.

When an element is clicked, it is adjusted to have the best quality possible based on the
criteria specified in the qualityindex panel.
When you click a red element, it may become yellow or the background color (no color
assigned). When you click a yellow element, it may become the background color (no
color assigned).

204 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Step 12: Add a ring of radial elements around the smaller of the two holes.
1. Click the Utility tab. If the Utility Menu is not displayed in the HyperMesh session, go to
View menu > Browsers > Hypermesh > Utility.
2. On the Geom/Mesh page, click Add Washer.

3. The Add Washer along a Circular Holes dialog box will be opened.
4. With the nodes selector active, select one node on the edge of the smaller hole as
indicated in the following image.

Example node to select


5. Click proceed.
A pop-up window for Add Washer along a Circular Hole utility appears.
6. Toggle to Width, and for Value specify 3.0.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 205


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
7. Select the Minimum number of nodes around the hole check box.
8. In the Density: field, enter 12.

Add Washer along a Circular Hole dialog box

9. Click Add.
10. Click Close.
The mesh around the hole should look like the mesh in the following image.

206 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Resulting mesh around the smaller hole

Step 13: Imprint Mesh to different destinations.


1. Open Model Browser and select IMPRINT component, right-click on it and select
Show.
2. Go to Mesh > Edit > Elements > Imprint subpanel.
The imprint subpanel allows you to cause mesh from different, overlapping components
to sync or line up with each other, in order to facilitate better connection modeling
between them.
3. Select component IMPRINT as source, Select component shells as destination and
select destination for remain: option.
This tool takes existing elements and/or components and can be imprinted into elements
and/or components, changing direction and destination.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 207


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Original: Violet elements are offset from yellow.

4. Select create.

Violet source elements are imprinted in destination (yellow).

5. Select reject.
6. Select component IMPRINT as source, Select component shells as destination, select
destination for remain: option and make sure to flag option elems to destination
comp.

208 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Violet source elements are imprinted in destination (yellow), element organized into yellow component.

7. Select reject.
8. Select component IMPRINT as source, Select component shells as destination, select
source for remain: option and make sure to flag option elems to destination comp.

Yellow destination elements are imprinted to Violet elements, element organized into yellow component.

9. Select reject and return.

Step 14: Extend Mesh to different destinations.


1. Open Model Browser, select IMPRINT component, right-click on it and select Hide.
Select EXTEND component, right-click on it and select Show.
2. Go to Mesh > Edit > Elements > Extend subpanel.
The extend subpanel allows you to create smoothly-meshed connections between
different components that do not quite touch, but are meant to. Mesh can be imprinted
such that both components are remeshed to match, or the source comp is remeshed to
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 209


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
match the destination comp, or vice-versa. In addition, you can actually merge the
elements of the source component into the destination component altogether.
3. Select nodes by windows (see red rectangular area in the following picture) from
EXTEND component (source), select component shells as destination and select
along vector for projection: option (select N1 and N2 as shown in the following picture,
red circular area) to define direction.

4. Select create.
The resulted mesh, as shown in the following picture, connects the 2 parts with just 1
element along the projection, the remesh extension option is deactivated.

210 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

5. Select reject.
Repeat step 14.3 and 14.4 with the same options and selections, just make sure to flag
on remesh extension option.
The resulted mesh, as shown in the following picture, connects the 2 parts with
remeshed elements along the projection, the remesh extension option is activated.

Step 15 (Optional): Save your work.


With this exercise completed, you can save the model if desired.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 211


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

3 Comparison Tool
Geometry > Check > Surfaces > Comparison
OR
Mesh > Check > Elements > Comparison.

Note: Currently, only surfaces and 2D elements are supported in the Comparison tool.

Use the Comparison tool to perform a model-based CAD-CAD, CAD-FE or FE-FE


comparison between two models, or two selections of entities. You can also use
this tool to find and report on geometrical/shape differences. When you are
comparing entities, the entities must exist in the HyperMesh database.

The Comparison tool generates results by comparing the source entities to the
target entities. Currently, only 2D elements are supported for the Comparison tool.
The results generated by this tool can be broken down into the following categories:
Matches, Overlapped, Intersected, and Unmatched.

212 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

4 - Batch Meshing
Geometry cleanup and meshing are often cited as time consuming aspects of finite element
modeling. In HyperMesh, these tasks can be performed in batch mode with the
BatchMesher, requiring a minimum of input and user interaction. This section walks the
user through the basic process of meshing a part using the batch mesher.
In this section, you will learn how to:

Define a configuration for the batch mesh

Edit the criteria and parameter files

Run the batch mesh job

Monitor and review the batch mesh job

Batchmesher
BatchMesher tool Start menu, select the Altair HyperWorks [Version] > BatchMesher

BatchMesher is a tool that performs geometry feature recognition, cleanup and


automatic meshing in batch mode for given CAD files.

BatchMesher uses criteria set by you to determine the quality index (QI) of a
model.

Final results are stored in a HyperMesh binary database file containing both the
cleaned-up geometry and the resulting finite element mesh.

The required inputs are set within a parameter file (average element size&type
and geometry features) and a criteria file (target element quality requirements like
Jacobian, warpage, ).

User-defined Tcl procedures can also be supplied to perform both run-based (prerun, post-run) as well as model-based (pre-geometry load, post-geometry load, prebatchmesh, post-batchmesh) customizations.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 213


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

Batch Meshing Process and Required Input


1. Configurations tab Create / specify Configurations

Mesh Type Combination of element criteria and geometric parameters.

Parameter File is used to setup the geometry cleanup and defeaturing


parameters. These parameters are used to define things such as washer layers
around holes, defeaturing pinholes and solid holes, rows of elements along fillets,
and many other options.

Criteria File is used to setup the quality index (QI) mesh criteria. This criteria
is used in QI and batch meshing, and in QI-based element checks. Criteria
definitions can be saved to a file, and loaded for subsequent editing.

Criteria and Parameter File can be edited with the Editor


o

Select 1 Criteria or Parameter file form the table e click on the Edit File
icon

Mesh Type Parameter & Criteria File Element criteria & geometric
parameters combination.

214 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 215


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

2. User Procedures tab Register and specify User Procedures (optional)

BatchMesher can be customized by providing user-defined Tcl procedures that


run at specific times during the BatchMesher process

Procedures can be customized for:

Pre-run (Executed before the first model/job starts)

Post-run (Executed after the last model/job completes)

Pre-geometry load - (Executed immediately after the job begins, before the
input model is imported)

Pre-batch mesh (Executed immediately after the input model is imported,


before the batch mesh begins. Examples include extracting a midsurface or
performing a surface offset)

Post-batch mesh - (Executed immediately after the batch mesh process is


complete. Examples include creating solver specific cards, or exporting the
mesh in a specific format

These scripts can perform a wide range of tasks. Some examples include:
o

Exporting a mesh in solver format

Generating the midsurface of a thin solid geometry

Performing a surface offset to move a sheet geometry to a midsurface


location

Naming and numbering parts to user-specific requirements

216 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing

3. Run Setup tab Set up the BatchMesher job

This tab defines a batch mesh run and the jobs it contains. A table layout is used
to specify each job, along with options that apply to the entire run.
o Specify an input model directory where geometry files are located
o Set Geom Type Select geometry files from the directory
o

Set Mesh Type Select a configuration to use for the mesh type for each
file

(OPTIONAL) Set Pre-Geom Load, Pre-Mesh, Post-Mesh Specify any


user procedures to be performed on each part.

o Specify an output directory where the meshed files will be located


o Submit the batch mesh job

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 217


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 3: 2D Meshing
4. Run Status tab Monitor the Run Status of the job

Once a BatchMesher run is initialized, this tab reports on the status of the run
and its jobs.
o

Use the Run Status tab to keep track of all your submitted jobs

Use Load Mesh button to select a single job from the tree and use this button
to invoke interactive HyperMesh and load the final batch meshed model. The
corresponding criteria file is also loaded in the QI panel so that the quality
checks represent the meshing requirements set in BatchMesher. This can
only be performed on models that have a status of Done.

The Status can have one of 4 values:


o

Working Batch meshing is currently being performed on this model

Pending This model is currently in the queue and has not started the
BatchMesher process yet. Any models with the status can be canceled

Waiting The job will begin automatically at a user-specified date and time

Done The batch meshing process is complete, and results can be


reviewed.

218 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Chapter 4

Solids and 3D Meshing


1 - Creating and Editing Solid Geometry
HyperMesh has several functions that require the definition of a volume, such as creating
tetrahedral and hexahedral meshes. This can be done either with surfaces that enclose the
volume, or with solid geometry entities. Working with solids provides a couple of
advantages over surfaces. Selecting the volume for the function requires only a single click
because solids represent the volume with a single entity, as opposed to surfaces. Solids
that are topologically connected to each other also allow the functions being used to
recognize the connection. Creating mesh in these cases allows the mesh in adjacent
volumes to automatically have proper connectivity.
In this section, you will learn:

What is solid geometry

What is topology

What does 3D topology look like

Solids are geometric entities that define a three-dimensional volume.


Geometric entities are defined as follows:

Point: 0 dimensional; has only x, y, and z coordinates

Line: 1-dimensional; has length, can be curved through 3-dimensional space

Surface: 2-dimensional; has an area

Solid: 3-dimensional, has a volume

Solid Geometry
HyperMesh supports the same solid geometry that is created in popular CAD software.
Solid geometry can be achieved through the importation of native CAD data or can be easily
created from bounding surfaces using the Bounding Surfaces
Geometry > Create > Solids > Bounding Surfaces.
HyperWorks 13.0

option from the

HMD Introduction 219


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Additionally HyperMesh has numerous solid geometry creating tools to assist in the
manipulation of solids. These can be found through the pull-down menu, Geometry >
Create > Solids.

Solids panel

Creates solid geometry of basic shapes:

Square / Block - Cylinder / Cone Sphere Torus

Full or Partial

Bounding Surfs Select surfaces that enclose a volume

Drag along vector Extrude" a cross section along a a defined vector

Drag along normal Extrude" a cross section along surf normal vector

Drag along line Extrude" a cross section along a line

Spin Extrude a cross section via a circular path

220 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Solid Editing
Tools for editing geometry:

Surfaces panel
o

Creates surfaces using various methods (Geometry > Create > Surfaces)

Can be used to split a solid (Geometry > Quick Edit)

Edges of the surface must be equivalenced to edges on the solid.

Solid Edit panel (Geometry > Edit > Solids)

Trim with splits a solid into 2+ solids using:

Nodes

Lines

Planes/Surfaces

Merge combine 2+ adjacent solids into a single solid entity

Detach disconnects connected solids

Boolean advanced trim & merge operations

Union (Solid A + Solid B) same as merge

Intersection (Solid A x Solid B) keeps overlapping portions of 2 solids

Removal (Solid A Solid B) deletes the volume of one solid from


another

Cut (Cut Solid A with Solid B) trims one solid with another solid

keeps both solids, but they no longer overlap

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 221


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Solid Dimensioning panel (Geometry > Edit > Solids > Dimensioning)

Solid Topology & Terminology


Topology governs the connectivity of solids and thus the connectivity of the elements
created from them.

Bounding Faces:
o

A bounding face is a surface that defines the outer boundary of a single solid.

Bounding faces are shaded green by default.

A bounding face is unique and is not shared with any other solid. A single solid
volume is defined entirely by bounding faces.

Fin Faces:
o

A fin face is a surface that has the same solid on all sides--that is, it acts as a fin
inside of a single solid.

Fin faces are shaded red by default.

A fin face can be created when manually merging solids or when creating solids
with internal fin surfaces.

Full Partitions Faces:


o

A full partition face is a surface that defines a shared boundary between one or
more solids.

Full partition faces are shaded yellow by default.

A full partition face can be created when splitting a solid or when using Boolean
operations to join multiple solids at shared or intersecting locations.

222 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Tools for Viewing Solids


3D Topology visualization can be controlled using the
Visualization Toolbar > Visualization Options

In the HyperMesh Visualization toolbar, the Visualization Options Icon


Visualization tab Topology icon

will open the

Display or hide 2D and 3D topology (free, shared, t-junctions, suppressed edges)


based on its type

Control surface transparency

Display 3D mappability with different shading colors related to Mappable solid


regions.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 223


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Geometry Color Mode


Geometry Color Mode
topology or by mappability.

to color geometry by component color or by

224 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

2 - Tetra Meshing
Introduction to Tetra Meshing
HyperMesh provides several methods of generating a tetrahedral mesh. The standard
method creates tetras from an enclosed volume of shell elements, plus several parameters.
This provides the user with a lot of control over the final tetra mesh. The volume tetra
mesher quickly and automatically creates a tetrahedral mesh on an enclosed volume of
surfaces or solid geometry with only a few inputs. Finally, the quick tetra mesh creates a
tetra mesh that maintains user specified quality requirements, but may sacrifice details in the
shape of the part to do so. All methods are valid in certain situations.
The exercise in this section focuses on the standard and volume tetra meshing methods.
In this chapter, you will learn about:

Volume tetra mesher (Mesh > Create > Tetra Mesh > Volume tetra)

Standard tetra mesher (Mesh > Create > Tetra Mesh > Tetra mesh)

Checking tetra element quality

Re-meshing tetra elements

Volume Tetra Meshing


The volume tetra meshing utility, found in the pull-down menu
Mesh > Create > Tetra Mesh > Volume tetra sub-panel.

The Tetra Mesh panel allows you to fill an enclosed volume (bounded by a shell
mesh, tria and/or quad elements) with first or second order tetrahedral elements.

Use the Volume Tetra subpanel as a quick method to generate a shell mesh and fill
the enclosed volume with solid elements.
o

You can choose to create a shell mesh (2-D) using quads, trias, or mixed
elements and a solid mesh (3-D) using tetrahedral elements only or mixed
(tetras and penta) elements.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 225


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Two options are available to control the mesh:

Use Proximity Creates smaller elements next to small features to make a smooth
transition from small to large elements.

Use Curvature Will place more elements along curved surfaces based on user
specified settings.

Standard Tetra Meshing


The standard method of Tetra Meshing can be found through the Mesh > Create > Tetra
Mesh pull-down menu and then select the Tetra mesh subpanel.
Use the Tetra Mesh subpanel to fill an arbitrary volume, defined by its surface using
tria/quad elements, with tetrahedral elements.

Requirements for the shell mesh:

In general you need an enclosed volume (no free edges in the outer faces).

Tetra generation process should handle T and free edges inside the volume
without problems. The regular tetrameshing can fail if the baffle connectivity
is too complex.

There can be no duplicates in the mesh.

Elements should not fold over and overlap each other.

Avoid very low minimum tria angles.

Avoid a large difference in size between adjacent elements.

Avoid a large difference in size between two sides of a wall thickness.

226 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

For quad elements in the shell mesh:

Split quads into 2 trias and create tetra elements under them
- OR

Keep the quad element and create pyramids under them

Process:

Generate a surface mesh of shell elements

Check quality and connectivity of the plate elements

Generate the tetrahedral mesh

Delete the original surface mesh

Edit if necessary to obtain good quality

When using the Standard Tetramesh, the user will select the trias/quads that will define the
mesh and optionally the user can select fixed trias/quads. HyperMesh will, when creating
the tetra mesh, flip the diagonal of the 2D elements if it deems the resulting tetra mesh will
be of a higher quality with the flip. HyperMesh will not do this to elements selected in the
fixed selection.

Floatable Trias/Quads

Adjacent tria faces on the tetrahedral mesh may have their diagonal reversed
from the shell mesh if tetras are better quality

Fixed Trias/Quads:

Adjacent tria faces on the tetrahedral mesh always match the shell mesh

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 227


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Fix Comp Boundaries:

If the float option is chosen for some boundary regions, HyperMesh is


allowed to swap surface shell edges during mesh generation. However, this
prevents the swapping of edges between two components.

Mesh to File:

Check 2D Mesh:

228 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Example about Tetramesh with Edges and T connection:

Geometry: 2 closed volumes of surfaces, the red one has T and Free Edges.

2D and 3D Tetramesh respect Free Edges and T connection.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 229


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Tetra Remeshing
Tetra Mesh Mesh > Create > Tetra Mesh > Tetra remesh sub-panel
Use the Tetra Remesh subpanel to regenerates the mesh for a single volume of tetrahedral
elements.
The Free boundary faces option affects those faces of tetra elements which are on the
outside of the volume, meaning the tetra faces which have only one tetra attached. Those
faces are called free boundary faces.

fixed: The free boundary faces are fixed.

swappable: The edges of the free boundary faces can be swapped. The mesh nodes stay
unchanged.

remeshable: The free boundary faces will be remeshed.

230 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Tetramesh Parameters
Tetra Mesh Mesh > Create > Tetra Mesh > Tetramesh parameters sub-panel
Use the Tetramesh Parameters subpanel to set general qualities of the tetrameshing
engine, such as a maximum element size, growth rate, the balance between speed and
element quality, or whether to perform smoothing operations after initial meshing.

Refinement Box
Tetra Mesh Mesh > Create > Tetra Mesh > Refinement box sub-panel
Use the Refinement Box subpanel to define a specific box-shaped volume within an
existing tetramesh in which to generate finer mesh.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 231


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Tetra Mesh Optimization tool


In order to improve Tetrahedral Element quality, you can use the following tool from:
Menu Bar > Mesh > Check > Elements > Tetra Mesh Optimization

Use this tool to modify an existing tetramesh, either by moving nodes or remeshing, to
meet required parameters. One function is to remove sliver elements--tetrahedral
elements which are so flattened that all of their nodes are very close to planar. If the
element's Aspect Ratio (the ratio of its maximum length to its minimum length) is high,
the element is a sliver; otherwise, it is a wedge.

This sliver is nearly flat in the horizontal plane, while this wedge is nearly flat in the vertical plane.

When you click Tetra Mesh Optimization, you will first be prompted with a temporary
panel to select a set of elements to fix.
232 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

There are many criteria that you can consider in fixing such elements, each of which is
drawn from the Editor Criteria

Tetra Mesh Optimization window > Optimize tetras by:

Editor Criteria , this will open the Criteria File Editor to change the
element quality requirements.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 233


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Tetra Mesh Optimization window > Triangles:

Tetra Mesh Optimization window > Constraints:


o fix shell comp boundariesall option.
o maintain geometry edges option.
o Max tetra size
o Min tetra size
o

234 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Tetra Mesh Optimization window > Check, to examine the mesh and count the
number of bad elements, according to the criteria supplied (Jacobian, Volume Skew,
etc.) The results display in the Status: area.

Tetra Mesh Optimization window > Show Failed to isolates only the failed
elements in the graphics area

Tetra Mesh Optimization window > Apply to begin the fix process. The mesh is
scanned and the program will try to fix as many elements as it can in accordance
with the specified settings and criteria. You can abort the fix attempt early by clicking
holding down the right-mouse button.
Note that there can be a significant delay before HyperMesh finishes its current fix
attempts and stops processing.
The results are shown below:

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 235


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Tetra Mesh Optimization window > Refer to Online help to get more details.

236 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Exercise 4a - Tetra Meshing


Step 1: Load the model
1. Load the model 04a-VOLUME-TETRA-MESH.hm

Step 2: Attempt to TetraMesh the part


1. From the menu bar, enter the Tetra Mesh panel to create a 3D Tetramesh.

2. Select the Volume tetra sub panel.


3. Change the enclosed volume switch to surfs.
4. Attempt to select a surface on the model. (Note: You will not be able to.)
With a properly enclosed model, the Volume tetra sub-panel will automatically select
the entire volume and allow a mesh to be created. With the model now in a topological
display mode, you will note there are many issues with the topology of the model. Only
a fully enclosed volume can be properly tetrameshed, so we need to fix the model.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 237


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 3: Fix the geometry topology.


1. Using the Geometry menu in the menu bar, use the geometry cleanup tools to ensure a
fully enclosed volume.
Hints: Equivalence and Toggle will solve most of the problems. Some issues require
filler surfaces and point replacement. Remember that topology visualization can assist in
finding problems.
The main tool to use is Geometry > Quick Edit
2. Check the Topology with the following tool, verify if you still have free edges and if you
now a closed volume of surfaces. Select the Visualization Options icon
and verify edges.

Step 4: TetraMeshing
With a properly enclosed volume you can now create the TetraMesh
1. From the menu bar, enter the panel to create Tetramesh.

2. Select the Volume tetra sub panel


3. Change the enclosed volume switch to surfs.
4. Select a surface on the model. HyperMesh will automatically select all of the surfaces
that enclose the volume. If this fails, there are still errors in the volume and need to be
corrected using the geometry cleanup tools.
5. Leave all the default values and enter 4 into the element size= field.
6. Click on mesh to mesh the part. The part should now look similar to this:

238 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

7. Mask

half part to see the Tetrahedral Element structure.

8. Now delete the mesh.

Step 5: Using Proximity and Curvature Options


Proximity and Curvature options can provide a mesh that adheres closer to the geometry
in areas of curvature or small cross sections.
1. From the Volume tetra subpanel, select the part and select the Use proximity and Use
curvature options
9. Set the following fields to the values shown:
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 239


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

10. Click on mesh to mesh the part.

Note the areas of curvature have a smaller mesh size to better capture the geometric
curvature.
11. (Optional): Mask

half part to see the Tetrahedral Element internal structure.

240 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 6: Check and Improve the mesh quality.


To improve the overall Tetrahedral Element quality we will check the tet collapse value of
the elements.
Tetra elements whose collapse value falls below the value specified are highlighted when
the tetra collapse function is selected. These elements remain highlighted until the Check
Elems panel is exited.
HyperMesh calculates tetra collapse by the following procedure. At each of the four nodes
of the tetra, the distance from the node to the opposite side of the element is divided by the
square root of the area of the opposite side. The minimum value found is normalized by
dividing it by 1.24, and then reported. As the tetra collapses, this value approaches 0.0.
For a perfect tetra, this value is 1.0.
1. Find the Mesh > Check > Elements > Check Elements option from the menu bar.
2. Select the 3-d sub-panel.
3. Enter 0.3 into the tet collapse< field and click the tet collapse button.

Note the number of failed elements in the dialog bar; the value should be around 111
elements.

4. Save the failed elements by selecting save failed.


5. Select the switch

and choose the option assign plot


, click on tet collapse to view a contour map of 3D Tetra Collapse.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 241


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

6. In order to improve Tetrahedral Element quality, you can use the following tool from:
Menu Bar > Mesh > Check > Elements > Tetra Mesh Optimization

Use this tool to modify an existing tetramesh, either by moving nodes or remeshing, to
meet required parameters. One function is to remove sliver elements--tetrahedral
elements which are so flattened that all of their nodes are very close to planar. If the
element's Aspect Ratio (the ratio of its maximum length to its minimum length) is high,
the element is a sliver; otherwise, it is a wedge.

This sliver is nearly flat in the horizontal plane, while this wedge is nearly flat in the vertical plane.

When you click Tetra Mesh Optimization, you will first be prompted with a temporary
panel to select a set of elements to fix.
7. Select elems > displayed and click on proceed.

242 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

8. A Tetra Mesh Optimization window opens which contains the tools and settings for
fixing slivers and wedges. The utility also has the ability to constrain trias, feature lines,
nodes or elements within a refinement box.

There are many criteria that you can consider in fixing such elements, each of which is
drawn from the Edit Criteria
9. Click on Edit Criteria, this will open the Criteria File Editor to change the element
quality requirements.
10. Select Tetra Collapse, Vol Skew and Aspect Ratio, as shown below.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 243


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

11. Click on Apply and OK.


12. Youre again in the Tetra Mesh Optimization window.
13. The 3 previous criteria are selected in the Optimize tetras by: section.

14. In the Triangles: section, select the following, as shown also in the picture below:

Fix all option.

244 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

15. In the Constraints: section, select the following, as shown also in the picture below:

fix shell comp boundaries option.

maintain geometry edges option.

Max tetra size, enter 4

Min tetra size, enter 0.8

Leave the other options with default values

16. Click on Check button, to examine the mesh and count the number of bad elements,
according to the criteria supplied (Jacobian, Volume Skew, etc.) The results display in
the Status: area.

17. Click on Show Failed to isolates only the failed elements in the graphics area.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 245


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

18. Click on Apply to begin the fix process. The mesh is scanned and the program will try
to fix as many elements as it can in accordance with the specified settings and criteria.
You can abort the fix attempt early by clicking holding down the right-mouse button.
Note that there can be a significant delay before HyperMesh finishes its current fix
attempts and stops processing.
The results are shown below:

19. If the results of the fixes are acceptable, click on Close to exit from Tetra Mesh
Optimization utility
20. If the results of the fixes are unacceptable, click Reject to revert the mesh to its pre-fixed
state.
NOTE: You can only undo one fix operation this way--you cannot "back up" more than
one step!
21. Click on
to unmask all elements.
22. Refer to Online help to get more details.
23. Delete the mesh.
24. Go to Step number 8.

246 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

[OPTIONAL] Step 7 (from Step6-point5): Other methods to check and improve


the mesh quality
1. Use Geometry Cleanup tools and Tetra remesh functions to try to achieve the best
possible mesh. Experiment with different techniques and discover the results.
To improve the overall Tetrahedral Element quality we will check the tet collapse value
of the elements.
Tetra elements whose collapse value falls below the value specified are highlighted
when the tetra collapse function is selected. These elements remain highlighted until the
Check Elems panel is exited.
HyperMesh calculates tetra collapse by the following procedure. At each of the four
nodes of the tetra, the distance from the node to the opposite side of the element is
divided by the square root of the area of the opposite side. The minimum value found is
normalized by dividing it by 1.24, and then reported. As the tetra collapses, this value
approaches 0.0.
For a perfect tetra, this value is 1.0.
2. Go to Mesh > Check > Elements > Check Elements.
3. Select the 3-d sub panel.
4. Enter 0.3 into the tet collapse< field and click the tet collapse button.

Note the number of failed elements in the dialog bar. The value should be around 111
elements.

5. Save the failed elements by selecting save failed.


6. Select the switch

and choose the option assign plot


, click on tet collapse to view a contour map of 3D Tetra Collapse.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 247


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

7. Isolate the failed elements


Failed elements can be isolated on the screen anytime using the following procedure.
A. Go to the mask function.
B. Click the elems button.
C. Select retrieve.
D. Click the elems button again.
E. Select reverse.
F. mask the elements.
8. Using the unmask adjacent button
surrounding the failed elements.

twice to retrieve two layers of elements

9. In the tetramesh panel select the Tetra remesh subpanel.


10. Select the displayed elements and remesh them.

11. Check the tet collapse again and note the number has dropped. Many of the remaining
8 drops in this number.
12. Delete the mesh.

248 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 8: Defining Mesh Patterns


In instances where the user needs to define a specific mesh pattern for surfaces or features,
the volume tetra function can incorporate that pattern into the created tetra mesh.
1. Mesh the flat ring area with an element size of 1 and type of R-Tria.

Set all edges to 60 elements. The resulting mesh pattern should look similar to the one
below.

2. Create a new volume tetra mesh, this time selecting the match existing mesh option.
Make sure to set the tetra element size back to 4.

3. Note the Tetra Mesh has incorporated the defined mesh pattern.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 249


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

250 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Tetra Meshing Process Manager


The Process Manager is a step-by-step tool providing a checklist of procedures to allow the
user to quickly organize and tetmesh a geometric model. Each step is provided in a
hierarchal list providing the order in which the process needs to be performed and providing
specialized tools at each step to simplify the process. These steps, while they can be done
manually, can be performed in the TetraMesh Process Manager
Mesh > Create > TetraMesh Process pull-down menu and then select the Create New
template in a much reduced timeframe.

In this section, you will learn about using the TetraMesh Process Manager to:

Import geometry or an HM File


Clean up the geometry
Organize the model (holes and features)
Establish mesh size and pattern for the organized geometry
Create a 2-D Mesh
Clean up the 2-D mesh
TetraMesh

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 251


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

The TetraMesh Process Manager will create a new tab Process Manager that will show
the step-by-step process required to create the tet mesh.

The current step will be indicated with a white arrow


with a green arrow

while completed steps will be shown

Additionally, the panel area will change from the standard HyperMesh panels and will
provide all the tools and functions needed to complete the current step.
The standard HyperMesh panels can be retrieved at any time by undocking the Process
Manager panels using the icon

Selecting the

icon will redock the Process Manager panels.

252 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Exercise 4b - Tetra Meshing Process Manager


Step 1: Start the Process Manager.
1. From the Menu Bar, select Mesh > Create > TetraMesh Process >Create New to
access the Process Manager.

2. Enter a session name or leave it as my_session.

Note: Creating a session name and saving the session allows the user to stop the
process before completion and then load it again at a later time, picking up the
process at the point it was left off.
3. Select a working folder.
4. Click Create.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 253


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 2: Import geometry.


At this point the TetraMesh Process tab will open in the Tab area and will automatically
assemble the TetraMesh Process Flow.

The first step, Geometry Import, is highlighted and the panel area has been configured with
specific panels for aiding the Tetramesh Process Manager template. You can access the
HyperMesh panels by undocking the Process Manager panels using the
icon in the upper
right corner of the panel area. This will separate the Process Manager panels so that you
can also access the HyperMesh standard panels. To redock the Process Manager panel,
simply click on

in the upper right corner of the Process Manager panel.

1. In the panel area, change the Import Type to HM Model.


2. Click Import Filename:
and select the file 04b-TETMESH_PM.hm
3. Click Import.
The model will import and a green check will appear next to Geometry Import in the
Process Manager indicating that step is now complete.
254 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 3: Clean up the geometry.


1. From the Geometry Color Mode selector (
Shaded Geometry and Surface Edges ( ).
2. In the panel area, select the Edge Tools tab.
3. Click Isolate.

) pick By Topo and click

This will isolate the surfaces with free edges on them.

Isolated Surfaces with free edges.

4. Select the Free Edges tab and click Equivalence.

This will fix all the free edges. If this did not correct all of the free edges, the
Tolerance value could be increased until all free edges are equivalenced.
5. Select the Edge Tools tab and click Isolate again.
A window should appear with the message, No edges found This confirms all
edges have been fixed.
6. Click Display All.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 255


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

7. Click ACCEPT.
The Geometry Cleanup step has been completed and should have a green
checkmark by it.

Step 4: Organize and Cleanup Holes.


This step will allow you to organize the surfaces that form holes in the model. The
TetraMesh Process Manager can automatically sort and organize holes into separate
component collectors based upon their diameter. This will allow you to specify mesh type,
circumference element count, and longitudinal element size for different hole groups.

1. In the panel area, click the + (


) button.
This will add a third line to the table.
2. On the first line, enter 3.3 into the D< field.
This will organize all holes with a diameter between 0 and 3.3 units, as indicated by
the Range field, into a collector.
3. Enter 5 into the second row and 10 into the third.
This will allow HyperMesh to organize the holes into three collectors that will include
holes ranging from 0 - 3.3 units, 3.3 - 5 units and 5 - 10 units collectively.
4. In the Num Circumference Elems field enter 12 for each row.
5. In the Longitudinal Elem Size field enter 1 for each row.
The Num Circumference Elems field governs the number of elements that will be
meshed around the hole while the Longitudinal Elem Size field dictates the unit
size of the elements through the length of the hole.

256 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

6. Click Auto Organize.


All of the holes in the model less than 10 units will now be organized into three
component collectors, each with a different color.

7. Click the HyperMesh Model Browser tab and expand the folder for Components.
You will see three new component collectors with the name solidholes followed by
the numerical average of the diameter range of the holes organized.

Transparent view of model showing all holes and bores organized

8. Return to the TetraMesh ProcessManager tab

9. Click ACCEPT.
The Organize & Cleanup Holes step is now complete should now have a green
checkmark next to it.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 257


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 5: Mesh holes.


1. In the panel area you will notice that each hole diameter row has a Mesh Type field
with a pull-down providing the options of R-tria regular and R-tria union jack.
Verify that all are set for R-tria regular and click Mesh All.
(The R-tria union jack mesh pattern will be discussed in a later step)

You will notice this process provides a perfectly straight tria mesh down the length of
the hole with no twisting.

2. Click ACCEPT.
The checkmark in the Mesh Holes step will now turn green.

258 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 6: Organize and clean up features.


This step allows you to highlight and organize features that require specific mesh controls
beyond the overall mesh pattern that will be applied to the remainder of the part in a later
step. This organizational tool will place the required surfaces into their own collector or
collectors and allow you to set mesh size and pattern requirements for each.
1. In the panel area, click the + (

) button.

2. In the Define New window that opens, type Faces and click OK.

3. Select all five of the flat faces around the circumference of the part as shown in the
following image.
4. Click proceed.

Faces that need to be picked

The panel will switch to the Organize panel with your surfaces pre-selected to move
into a new component called grp_Faces.
5. Click move, then return.

6. Click the + (
) button again.
7. In the Define New window that opens, type TopHole and click OK.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 259


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

8. Rotate the model so you are looking at it from underneath into the center, and select
the surfaces shown in the following image.

9. Click proceed.
10. In the Organize panel, click move, then return.

Your model should then look similar to the following image, with the faces in one
collector and the top hole in another. Your colors may vary slightly.

260 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

11. Click ACCEPT.

Step 7: Organize and Cleanup Fillets.


Often a better mesh can be achieved if your fillets are split down the center. The step will
allow you to automatically split your fillets based on minimum and maximum radius criteria.

1. Click Components.
2. Select the part in an area that has not been organized into a new component so that
the large purple part is selected.
3. Click proceed.
4. Leave the Min Radius at 0 and the Max Radius at 5 and make sure the Suppress
Fillet Tangent Edges option is active.
5. Click Cleanup.
You will notice that many of the fillets now have an edge running down the center
and the original edges are suppressed.
6. Click ACCEPT.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 261


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 8: Mesh Features.


In this step you will mesh the features that you organized in Step 6. The panel area will
show a table with your organized features in it and will give you the option of selecting a
mesh type and size for each feature.

1.
2.
3.
4.

For the Faces feature, click the pull-down under Mesh Type and pick trias.
For the TopHole feature, select R-tria union jack for the Mesh Type.
In the field under Elem Size, enter 0.5.
Click Mesh All.

5. Note the distinctive Union Jack mesh pattern (


) in the top hole area and the
connectivity of the mesh to the previously meshed holes.
6. Click ACCEPT.

Step 9: Organize & Cleanup.


This step allows the user to organize and clean up the remaining portion of the model that
will then fall under the global meshing parameters. As the remaining surfaces are already in
the component you wish them to be in, there is no need for further organization.

1. Click ACCEPT.
262 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 10: Mesh/remesh.


This step is where the remaining model will be globally meshed. Element size and type can
be set for all remaining components that remain unmeshed.

1.
2.
3.
4.

In the Element Size field, enter 1.


Set Mesh Type to trias.
Click Mesh.
Click ACCEPT.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 263


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 11: Elements Cleanup.


At this point the model should be entirely meshed. Proper adherence to the previous steps
ensures a surface mesh that is properly connected and controlled by the previously entered
values. This step will now allow the user to verify a proper mesh and clean up any issues
that are found.

1. In the panel area, click Components.


2. Select all of the components and click proceed.
3. Leave all of the values at their default (Min Size 0.25, Max FeatureAngle 60.0,
Normals Angle 150.0) and click AutoCleanup.
The following message should appear.

This indicates that all failed elements have been fixed and there are no further errors
in the model.
4. (Optional) The Manual tab allows the user to manually check the model for free
edges and t-junctions and fix any that are found. There is also the option to display
normals. Use these options to find and fix any errors.

5. Click ACCEPT.

264 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Note: The Tetramesh Process Manager will automatically place any elements that
fail this AutoCleanup procedure in the user mark. This will allow for easy retrieval of
problem elements and the user can employ the tools from the standard HyperMesh
panels to fix these remaining elements.

Step 12: Tetra mesh.


This is the final step in the TetraMesh Process Manager Template and will be the point
where the model is Tetra meshed. The Process Manager will automatically open the
TetraMesh panel and pre-select all float and fixed elements.
1. Click elems under Float trias/quads to tetra mesh.
The surface elements will be selected under the general mesh selection option. This
will define them as floatable elements, meaning that the diagonals of the underlying
tetra elements can be flipped from the generated shell elements if HyperMesh
determines a better element quality will result.
2. Click elems under Fixed trias/quads to tetra mesh.
The elements that represent the interior of holes and bores will be selected under
this option. The will be defined as fixed elements meaning HyperMesh will always
adhere to the shell mesh pattern with generating the tetra elements.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Click mesh.
Click the Model tab in the Tab area.
Expand the Components list if necessary.
Right-click the tetmesh component.
Select Isolate Only.
The tetra mesh will be displayed.

8. Click Mask (

).

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 265


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

9. Hold the SHIFT key down and while holding the left mouse button down, drag a box
to include roughly half of the model.
10. Click mask.
Your tetra mesh should look similar to the following image.

Step 13 (Optional): Save your work.


1. You can now save your model if you wish.

266 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

3 - Solid Meshing
To mesh solid geometry, the Solid Map panel is used.

In particular are the one volume and multi solid sub panels. These allow for the automatic
creation of Hexa/Penta mesh on mappable shapes.

Location:
o

Mesh > Create > Solid Map Mesh

What it does:
o

Creates hexa-penta mesh in 1 or more volumes

Each volume is defined by selecting a solid


geometry entity

Easy to define shape for the mesh


since only one entity is selected

Each volume must be a mappable shape

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 267


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Mappable Shapes
To use the automatic Solid Map function the geometry must be split into mappable shapes.
Mappable shapes are defined as 2 opposing faces (source and destination) and faces that
directly connect the source and destination (along faces).

While this example shows two faces that are of the same shape and directly oppose each
other, that is not a requirement. The source and destination can be of drastically different
shape and contour and need not lie directly opposite each other.
Requirements and Tips

Shape must be a closed volume

Multiple source faces are allowed

Destination face must be a single face

No edges are permitted that are perpendicular to the drag direction. If they exist they
must be suppressed.

268 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

When splitting solids into Mappable Shapes it is recommended to split the part into
the fewest possible regions to save time and offer more control over the mesh size.
This often means splitting parts in ways that are not perpendicular to surfaces.

Placing a 2D mesh onto a Source face of a mappable shape will allow control over
the pattern of the resulting 3D mesh.

When splitting solids into mappable regions, shared faces will guarantee 3D element
connectivity across the split. This connectivity will also assure that the mesh pattern
is carried through the part as subsequent regions are meshed.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 269


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Mesh connectivity of properly split regions with shared faces is also guaranteed even
when mesh directions of the individual regions are not the same.
NOTE: The mesh pattern on the along faces will always be quads.

270 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Solid Map Meshing


In solid meshing, the ability to be meshed is referred to as mappability. Mappability is
directional and can be likened to putting a surface mesh on one face of the solid, then
extending that mesh along a vector through the solid volume.

The ability to control the mesh pattern of a solid


mesh by placing a shell mesh on the surface has been available in previous versions. To
achieve this, though, the user had to put the shell mesh on the surface before the solid map
function was performed and had to do it for each desired face. The solid map panel
automatically places a shell mesh on the source faces and then enters into a mesh
adjustment panel similar to the one in the automesh panel:

This allows for control over the mesh density and style using tools that work the same as in
the automesh panel.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 271


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Exercise 4c - 3D Solid Meshing with Hexas and Pentas


This exercise will demonstrate a method for splitting a solid and then use the solid map
function to create Hexa/Penta Solid elements. It is important to note that this is simply one
way of splitting this solid. As with any solid geometry there are often many ways of
obtaining a fully mappable solid and while some are better than others, there is rarely a
right way of doing it. Experience is the key with this function; so experiment with different
techniques for solid splitting and observe the results you get.

Step 1: Import the model


1. Locate and import the file 04c-STAND-SOLID-MAP.prt
This model is in a ProE .prt format.

Step 2: Defeaturing
Small fillets make the geometry substantially more difficult to split into mappable regions
and result in a far more complex solid mesh. In many cases, these fillets are for
manufacturing purposes and can be eliminated from the geometry.
1. Defeature all of the small internal surface fillets.

HINT: Setting the search values to be 0.5->5.5 will select all of the fillets needed. This
range will also result in the fillet shown in the picture below to be selected (fillet in the red
circle area). This fillet must be removed (mouse >Right Click) from the selected fillets,
before to proceed with remove, as defeaturing it would cause a sharp point that would
act as a severe stress concentration area.

272 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 3: The first split


There is no set method for splitting a solid and often the first cut is the hardest, as picking
the location to begin can be confusing. Often it is easiest to find areas that look to be close
to being mappable. Many regions are only one cut away from becoming mappable and
these frequently are the best place to start. In the case of this model, these areas are the
flat feet. One cut will separate them from the rest of the solid and they will immediately
become mappable.
1. Turn on Mappable visualization:

2. In the solid edit panel select the trim with plane/surf subpanel.

3. Select the solid and using the N1 N2 N3 option, define a plane on the flat area as shown
in the picture below.

4. Trim the solid and the result will be a mappable region on the foot.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 273


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

5. Repeat this trim on the other side of the part.

Step 4: Splitting out further mappable regions.


With the first splits done, now we can look to what is remaining and determine how these
regions can be made mappable. It is often easiest to visualize this by masking the areas
already split into mappable regions, thus showing only the areas of the part that remain to
be split.
1. Mask the two mappable solids that were created in Step 3.

2. From the trim with plane/surf subpanel, select the solid and define a plane on the flat
recessed area.
3. Trim the solid.

274 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

4. Repeat on the other side.


The solid is now in three distinct regions; the two outer regions being mappable and the
central region which is still un-mappable.

5. Mask the two newly created mappable solids.

Step 5: The last trims.


With the thin slice of the part remaining, it is now important to determine which feature(s)
is (are) causing this solid to remain non-mappable.
Remember that the rules state that a mappable solid can have multiple source faces but
only ONE destination face.
The surfaces that make up the face of the pocket that was on the complete solid
(highlighted in white in the picture below) occur on both sides of the remaining solid.
This means there are multiple surfaces on both sides of the solid and thus violate the
mappable rules.
In instances where specific regions prevent a solid from mapping, trimming those
regions out can result in a mappable solid.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 275


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

1. Select the trim with lines subpanel.

2. From the with sweep lines column, pick the remaining solid.
3. For the sweep lines, select the outline of one of the surface shown in white above.

4. As this model is aligned with the Global Axis, select the sweep to: option to be by a
vector >> z-axis, select the sweep all option, and then trim the solid.

276 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

5. Repeat this process for the other side.


This will result in a fully mappable solid.
6. Save the model.

Step 6: Solid Meshing


With a fully mappable solid, the solid meshing tools can now be used to create the 3D
elements.
1. Enter the solid map panel and select the multi solids subpanel.

2. Set the options shown below and mesh the solids.


HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 277


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

The interactive multi solid meshing will allow for 2D mesh customization prior to the
creation of the 3D mesh. HyperMesh will show the order in which each solid is to be
meshed and will indicate the direction in which the mesh will be extruded.

Additionally the panel now allows the user to alter the 2D mesh that will be used as the
pattern to extrude the 3D elements. A panel similar to that used in interactive shell
meshing is opened and the pattern mesh is displayed on the solids.

Using procedures identical to 2D meshing, edge densities can be adjusted, element


sizes can be re calculated, mesh styles can be changed and other meshing options can
be altered. Clicking the mesh button will show the solid mesh but the mesh will not be
finalized until the return button is clicked so further changes can be made.
3. Use the edge density, master face style and options sub panels to make changes to
the mesh and see their outcome on the 3D mesh, proceed to mesh the solids. When
happy with the 3D mesh, return from the function and save the part.

278 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

4 - Shrink Wrap
Shrink wrap meshing is a method to create a simplified mesh of a complex model when
high-precision models are not necessary. This is often the case for power train components
during crash analysis. The model's size, mass, and general shape remains, but the surface
features and details are simplified, which can result in faster analysis computation. You can
determine the level of detail retained by determining the mesh size to use, among other
options. Shrink wrap functionality was added to HyperMesh in the 9.0 release but has had
its capabilities greatly expanded in the later versions. The key additions are:

Both solids and surfaces are valid as input to the shrink wrap it is no longer
necessary to mesh the model beforehand.

Shrink Wrap meshing has been improved for loose and tight algorithms by improving
the mesh flow and uniformity of the resulting mesh.

Feature recognition for tight wrap is automatic; no need to manually define features.

New generate solid mesh option has been introduced to provide a hexa only voxel
output. A jacobian parameter is definable to control the quality of the hexa mesh.

New mesh orientation option is available to control the resulting shell/solid mesh
which will be orientated to either the global or user defined local system.

Panel Options and Settings


The Shrink Wrap function can be accessed through the pull-down menu through
Mesh > Create > Shrink Wrap Mesh and the panel shown below will open.

Shrink wraps can be generated using two algorithms: Loose or Tight. These determine how
closely the resulting mesh adheres to the details of the underlying model, and are best
suited to different use cases which will vary for any given use.

Loose Shrink Wrap - generate a loose-fitting shrink wrap mesh that generally
conforms to the model.

Tight Shrink Wrap - generate a tight-fitting mesh that adheres closely to the
underlying model, capturing as many features as possible.

The panel options for both Loose and Tight are the same and are as follows:

Comps Selection of the comps, elems, surfs or solids used to create the shrink
wrap mesh.

element size= - Sets the desired target element size for the shrink wrap mesh.

generate solid mesh - If selected, HyperMesh creates a solid hexa mesh under the
2d shell mesh.

mesh orientation - Switch to choose element orientation with the global system or
previously created local system.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 279


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Exercise 4d - Shrink Wrap Meshing


Step 1: Open the model 04d-SHRINK-WRAP-MESH.hm.
Step 2: Create a loose shell shrink wrap mesh in the loose_gap component.
1. Click Shaded Geometry and Surface Edges if the model is not shaded yet.
2. Review the surface geometry on the screen. Notice the gap in the geometry.

3. From the pull-down menu, select Mesh > Create > Shrink Wrap Mesh.
4. Select the component in the graphics area.
5. Select the loose wrap option.
6. For element size, enter 4.

7. Click mesh to create the shrink wrap.


8. Expand the Component folder in the Model Browser.
9. Hide the surfaces component in the Model Browser.
10. Click return to exit the panel.

280 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 3: Review the solid geometry.


1. Show the block component in the Model Browser.
2. Review the model to see the features.
3. Hide the block component in the Model Browser.

Step 4: Create a loose shell shrink wrap mesh in the loose component.
1. Hide the loose_gap component in the Model Browser.
2. Right-click the loose component and click Make Current.
3. From the menu bar select Mesh > Create > Shrink Wrap Mesh.
4. Activate the loose wrap option.
5. Click comps and select block from the component list.
6. For the element size, enter 10.
7. Click mesh to create the mesh.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 281


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

8. Click reject to reject the mesh.


9. Change the element size to 5 and click mesh to create the mesh.

10. Click reject to reject the mesh.


11. Change the element size to 3 and click mesh to create the mesh.

The shrink wrap mesh with the geometry hidden

12. Click reject to reject the mesh.


282 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 5: Create a tight shell shrink wrap in the tight_shell component.


1. Hide the loose component using the Model Browser.
2. Right-click tight_shell and click Make Current.
3. Click comps and select the block component.
4. Activate the tight wrap option in the shrink wrap panel.
5. Make sure the element size is set to 3.

6. Click mesh to create the mesh.

Step 6: Create a tight solid shrink wrap in the tight_solid component


1. Hide the tight_shell component in the Model Browser.
2. Right-click the tight_solid component in the Model Browser and click Make Current.
3. Click comps and select the block component
4. Make sure the element size is set to 3.
5. Activate the generate solid mesh option.
6. Change the minimum jacobian to 1.

7. Click mesh to create the mesh.


HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 283


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

8. Click reject to reject the mesh.


9. Change the minimum jacobian to 0.7.
10. Click mesh to create the shrink wrap.

11. Click

to open the Mask panel.

12. If not already set, set the panel collector to elems.


13. Use SHIFT + left mouse button to select a group of elements.
14. Click mask to mask the elements.
15. Click unmask all and return to exit the panel.

284 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

Step 7 (Optional): Change the minimum jacobian to 0.3 for optimized mesh.
1. Delete the elements displayed in the graphics area.
2. From the menu bar select Mesh > Create > Shrink Wrap Mesh.
3. Click comps and select the block component from the list.
4. For the minimum jacobian, enter 0.3.

5. Click mesh to generate the mesh.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 285


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 4: Solids & 3D Meshing

286 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

Chapter 5

1D Meshing and Connectors


1 - 1D Meshing
1D elements perform a critical function in Finite Element Analysis as they can be used to
connect nodes together, attach dissimilar meshes, distribute loads and in general provide a
quick and easy way to attach things together.
There are numerous types of 1D elements ranging from infinitely rigid simple connections to
complex cross sectioned elements that can be stressed.
This chapter will cover many of the most widely used 1D elements and also cover an
important tool in HyperMesh called connectors. Connectors can provide a quick and easy
way to create many 1D elements with little work.

1D Meshing

HyperBeam

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 287


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

Connectors

288 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

1.1 - 1D Elements
1D mesh are simple connections between nodes, allow accurate testing of connectors (such
as bolts) and similar rod-like or bar-like objects that can be modeled as a simple line for FEA
purposes.
You can create 1D Element from the following panel:

1D elements currently supported include bar2s, bar3s, rigid links, rbe3s, plots,
rigids, rods, springs, welds, gaps and joints.

Plot elements are generated in the Edit Element, Line Mesh, Elem Offset, Edges, or
Features panel.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 289


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

1.2 - HyperBeam
HyperBeam Tool Properties > HyperBeam

The HyperBeam View


(available in the Model Browser once the application is
opened), allows you to create & control HyperBeam beam-section data in HyperMesh.
HyperBeam View can be divided into the following sections: Section Browser & Parameter
Definition, Graphics Window, Results Panel and the Toolbar.

290 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

1.3 - Connectors
Connectors: What are they?
Connectors are a geometric representation of connections between entities. The advantage
of connectors is the ability to create multiple connections at a single time. Hundreds or even
thousands of connections that would normally have to be created manually one at a time
can be mass created, even before the part is meshed. They can be used to create
numerous types of connection elements such as:

Spot Welds

Bolts

Trim Masses

Seam Welds

Area Connections (Adhesives)

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 291


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

Connectors: Terminology

Link Entities - The entities that are being connected


o

User can explicitly define link entities or specify a search tolerance

Can be components, elements, surfaces, nodes, or tags

Typically components are linked

Connector Location - Where the entities are linked


o

Nodes created at the node location

Points created at the point location

Lines created on the line

Elements created at the element location (adhesives only)

Surface created at the surface location (adhesives only)

Connector Realization The creation of the finite element representation of that


connector
o

The line may be split into multiple projection locations as specified by


the offset, spacing, and density values

Rigids, springs, etc., or custom configurations such as ACMs, CWELDS, etc.

Connector State Whether an FE representation of a connector has been created


o

Unrealized - The initial status of the connector entity upon creation

Realized - The status only if creation of the FE weld representation at the


connector was successful

Failed The status if creating the FE weld representation at the connector


was not successful

# of Layers number of FE weld layers to attempt to generate for the connector


o

2T, 3T, etc.

292 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

Connect When Specifies when the link entity information is added to the
connector
o

Now - Allows you to add link entity information now. For this option, you must
select the connect what entities and num layers to successfully create a
connector.

At FE Realize - The link entities to the connector are determined while


realizing the connector. The link entities are determined by the projections
and proximity from the connector location.

Re-Connect Rule Defines method for connector re-attachment during part


swapping/replacement
o

None - If a link entity is deleted, the link entity is removed from the connector

By ID - If a link entity is deleted, the connector retains the ID of the link entity,
and will to a new entity with that ID upon realization

By Name Same as the by id rule except that the entity name is retained

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 293


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

Connectors: Tools

Connectors >

Spot

Bolt

Seam

Area

Apply Mass adds a mass value to entities


o

Used to represent mass of parts that are not present in the model

FE Absorb Create new connectors from existing elements of recognizable FE


representations of welds, bolts, adhesives, etc.

Add Links Add link entities to existing connectors

Unrealize Delete FE representations of welds / bolts / adhesives associated


with existing connectors

Compare Checks the MCF against displayed model file

Quality Check for duplicate connectors, combines connectors, and checks the
quality of realized elements

294 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

Import Master Weld Files to automatically create connectors

Connector Browser Hierarchal browser that provides information and the ability
to edit connectors.

Shows:
o

Type of Connector

Link Information

State of connector

Editable
o

Edit link entities, export mwf files, etc

Found in Tab Browser Area

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 295


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

296 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

Visualization

Controls how connectors are displayed:

Color connectors by state, layers, or component

Visibility by state or layers (can turn the display on or off)

Control size of connector display

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 297


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

Exercise 5a - 1D Meshing and Connectors


This exercise will cover the basics behind the creation and visualization of 1D element,
ranging from simple rigid entities to more complex 1D elements with a defined cross
section to automatic 1D element creation through the use of connectors.

Step 1: Load the model 05a-1D-MESHING.hm and set the user profile to
OptiStruct.
Step 2: RBE2 Elements
RBEs (Rigid Body Elements) are the most simple of 1D elements and simply connect
two or more nodes together.
In the case of an RBE2, one node serves as the Independent and the other(s) the
Dependent node(s). The Dependent node(s) simply follow the motion of the
Independent node in the Degrees of Freedom that have been linked. These elements
are useful to simply represent welds or to tie together two dissimilar meshes. One word
of caution though is that RBE2 elements, as they rigidly link nodes together, can induce
stiffness to the model that may not be desired.

1. Create a component called Rigids and make the color red.


2. Rotate the model as shown in the picture and zoom into the highlighted region.
3. Enter the mesh creation panel for Rigids.

298 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

4. Make sure the create sub panel is active.


5. Ensure that all 6 DOFs are selected.

6. Select the red circled node first (Independent Node) and the yellow circled node second
(Dependent Node).

A rigid element (RBE2) will be created connecting the two nodes.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 299


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

7. Continue to make a few more RBE2 elements down the line.


8. Change the switch next to dependant node to multiple nodes.

9. Pick a node for the independent node and then pick multiple nodes for dependent.
10. Click create.
An RBE2 with multiple dependant nodes connected to one single independent will be
created.

11. Select the update sub-panel

12. Pick the RBE2 created with multiple dependant nodes.


13. Click the connectivity radio button
14. Click the nodes button next to dependent:
15. Right click one of the dependent nodes, it will become de-selected.
16. Left click a new node to select as the dependent node.

300 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

17. Click update.


You will note that the connectivity of the RBE2 has changed to remove the deselected
node and include the newly selected node. Update can also be used to change the
independent node, the DOFs of the element and switch RBE2 independent and
dependent nodes.

18. Click return to exit the panel.

Step 3: RBE3 Elements


RBE3 elements are useful to distribute loads without inducing unwanted stiffness. It is
not an element to be used to model a connection, but rather an element to induce a
motion in a node as a function of the weighted average of other nodes.
1. Go to Mesh > Create > 1D Elements > RBE3.
The RBE3 panel will open. You will notice it looks similar to the RBE2 with the only
changes being the reversal of the Independent and Dependent nodes and the addition of
a weight field.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 301


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

2. Rotate and zoom so that you are looking down at the large hole in the blue upper part.
In this step you will create a very common rigid element feature often called the wagon
wheel or the spider web. When complete the reason will be obvious.
This type of feature is used to link the nodes around the circumference of a hole to a
single node in the center. This can then be used to:
Connect the feature to something else (bolting two parts together).
Constrain the central node. (Bolting to a fixture) (RBE2)
Distribute a central load. (RBE3)
To create this feature, a node must be placed at the center of the hole. This can be
accomplished through the use of the Distance panel.
3. Press F4 to enter the Distance panel.
4. Pick the three nodes sub panel.
5. Pick any three nodes around the interior of the hole.
6. Click the green circle center button.
A yellow temp node will be placed at the circle center.

7. return out of the function back into the RBE3 panel.


8. Select the new temp node as the dependent node.
9. Pick all the nodes around the interior of the hole as the independent nodes.
HINT: Using the extended selection by path option will make this task much quicker.
Simply select the by path option, click any node on the circumference then click another
node a ways further around. HyperMesh will automatically select all the nodes between
using the shortest route. Continue in this manner until all the nodes are selected.
10. Set the weight at 1.
11. Click create.
The Wagon Wheel or Spider Web will be created.

302 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

Step 4: Bar Elements Creating the beam section


RBE2 and RBE3 elements are considered rigid elements. They are infinitely strong
and as such experience no stress and thus cannot be analyzed. In the event the 1D
element is actually a structural entity that needs to be studied, a bar is used. The bar
element (CBEAM in OptiStruct) has a definable cross section and material assigned to it
and thus will display stress results in post processing.
Before the element can be created, a cross section, a material, and a property need to
be defined and then applied to the element(s).
1. From the menu bar, select Properties > HyperBeam.
HyperBeam is a tool within HyperMesh that allows for easy and graphical creation of
cross sections for beam elements.

2. From the HyperBeam panel select the standard section sub panel.
3. From the standard section type switch pick standard H section.

4. Click create.
The graphical HyperBeam interface will now open:

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 303


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

From within this interface the physical dimensions of the beam section can be defined.
5. Set the dimensions as shown below:

6. Go to the Model browser and right click on the word H_section.1, select Rename and
rename it H_Beam.

304 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

7. Click File > Exit.


The beam section has now been created.
8. Right click in the Model Browser window and create a property.
9. Name it H_Beam.
10. Select the property H_Beam and define its card using Entity Editor. In the Card Image
ssign it a PBEAM.

11. Select Material in the Entity Editor and assign it the material Steel (select form the
Material yellow button).

12. The beam section needs to be assigned to this card. Select Beam Section in the Entity
Editor and assign it the Beamsection H_Beam (select form the Beamsection yellow
button).

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 305


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

The inertial information calculated from the cross section will automatically be placed
into the value fields in the card.

Step 5: Bar Elements Creating the bar elements


With the property and cross section defined the Bar element can now be created.
1. Go to Mesh > Create > 1D Elements > Bars panel.

2. Click the orientation switch immediately next to the N1 button and select x-axis.
3. Click the property = button and pick the H_Beam property.
4. Pick any node on the blue upper component elements for node A.
5. With the focus automatically switching to node B, pick any node on the green lower
component elements.
The CBEAM element will automatically be created.

306 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

You will note that the element is displayed as a line in the color of the component it was
created in. Aside from the CBEAM label, it looks identical to the RBE2 and RBE3
elements created previously.
The 1D Element Representation mode allows for the graphical representation of the
cross section of the 1D element.
6. Click the 1D Element Representation button (
Element Representation icon (

) and pick the 1D Detailed

).

7. Zoom on the CBEAM element.


It now shows the actual cross section. This cross section is selectable and reflects the
color of the component. It also is a live view so that if any aspect of the element is
changed, it will show that.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 307


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

8. Re-open HyperBeam and change the dimensions to see the changes reflected on the
part.

9. Create a brand new cross section of some other standard type and file > exit.

10. Right click on the H Beam property card in the HyperMesh Model Browser and card
edit the property.
11. Click the beamsection button and pick the new cross section.
12. Return out of the card and see the change in the model.

Step 6: Combining 1D Elements


A typical bolt representation consists of a wagon wheel inside the two bolt holes
connected at their centers with a CBEAM that has a solid circle section that represents
the bolt. In this step you will create one of those common structures.
1. Create a component called Bolts and give it a unique color.
2. Re-open HyperBeam and create a standard section as solid circle beam with a
diameter of 5.

308 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

3. Create a PBEAM property named Bolt with a material of Steel and the solid circle
beam section just created.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 309


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

4. Pick one of the two circle pairs between the Blue Upper Component and the Purple
Flanges Component to create the bolt in.

5. Put temp nodes at the center of both the upper and lower holes
6. Create an RBE2 wagon wheel in each of the holes.
7. Create a CBEAM element connecting the center of the RBE2 elements with the Bolt
Property.
8. Repeat this for the other hole.

Step 7: Connectors
Connectors are a quick way of creating multiple and complex rigid entities representing
welds, bolts and adhesives.
First you will use the Connectors panel to create a weld of rigid elements similar to
those created in Step 2, Item 6. In that case, two nodes were selected and a single
RBE2 was created. To run down the entire length of the edge would have required each
node be picked individually. You will now accomplish the same result using connectors
in a fraction of the time.
1. From the menu bar, select Connectors > Create > Spots.

310 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

2. From the spot submenu, next to location, click the nodes button and pick by path.
3. On the opposite edge from the one used in Step 2, Item 6 to create the RBE2 elements,
pick the first node and using the by path option, proceed down the entire edge until all
the nodes are selected.

4. Next to connect what, make sure to select comps and pick the blue Upper Plate
collector and the teal Arm collector.
5. Make sure elems is selected by the toggle and num layers should be total 2 as there
are only 2 layers being connected.
6. tolerance = should be set for 10 (this determines the distance HyperMesh will search
from the node to find nodes of both collectors to create the welds. The distance is a bit
over 6, so 10 should work fine.)
7. For type= select rigid (this option allow you to establish what type of element will be
created.)
8. Change the mesh independent switch to mesh dependent.
9. Under mesh dependent, change the switch from quad transition to remesh.
10. Verify the panel has all the settings shown below:

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 311


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

11. Click create.


The entire row of rigid elements will be created with this one click.

The process can be used to create these types of rigids or rigids that will represent spot
welds. These elements can even be created before the part is meshed (must pick geom
instead of elems for the connect what option) and in that case a fixed point will be
placed at either end of the element, guaranteeing that a node will be there when the
mesh is created.
12. Experiment with creating other connectors in the model with other options in the panel.
13. From the connectors tools enter the Bolt panel.

312 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

14. Zoom to the section of the model shown below.

15. Pick one node on the circumference of each of the holes on the purple Flanges
component, as location:.
16. Set connect what to comps and pick the purple Flanges component and the green
Lower component.
17. Set the tolerance to 20 and fill in the rest of the panel as shown below.

18. Click on realize & hole detect details...


19. Set the values in the panel as the following:

20. Click return and then select create.


Immediately two rigid bolts are created.
If desired, the type can be set as Bolt (CBAR), and a PBAR card in combination with a
beam section can be defined, and the bolt can be analyzed.
Bolt (Washer) types will not only select the nodes around the circumference but will grab
nodes around a washer ring as well.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 313


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

21. Experiment with other options in the panel.

Step 8: Connector Browser


1. From the View menu activate the Connector Browser by selecting Browsers >
HyperMesh > Connector.

314 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

The Connector Browser will appear and display all of the connectors in the model.
From the browser you can see information about the connectors, reasons for realization
failure and when you right click on a connector you can edit the connectors.
2. Experiment with the Connector Browser.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 315


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 5: 1D Meshing and Connectors

316 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Chapter 6

HyperMorph
1 - Introduction to Morphing Technology using
HyperMorph
HyperMorph is a mesh morphing module in HyperMesh that allows you to morph an FE
model in useful, logical, and intuitive ways which result in minimal element distortion.
HyperMorph can be used to:

Rapidly change geometry of existing model interactively or parametrically

Map an existing mesh onto a new geometry

Generate and edit shape variables for optimization

HyperMorph Highlights:

Freehand morphing: Direct morphing of the mesh without any morphing entities

Morph Volumes: Efficient setup of morphing for complex FEA models

Section Morphing: Map to new design lines using line difference

Morphing Constraints: Preserve model attributes while morphing

Morphing Shapes: Transfer morphing between different meshes (the shape can be
positioned to other parts of the model, animated to review the morphing and transfer
loads from one model to another

To provide greater control as well as an efficient morphing, you can use:

Constraints

Symmetries

Biasing factors

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 317


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

After morphing has been performed, you can visualize the quality of the mesh, and can
automatically smooth it if needed. A re-mesh can also be performed, keeping the morphing
entities like handles, domains and shapes intact.

Accessing HyperMorph
HyperMorph can be accessed in one of the following ways:

From the menu bar, go to Morphing, and select the appropriate function:

On the Tool page click on HyperMorph, and click on the appropriate panel

318 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

HyperMorph Entities

Handles controls model shape during morphing

Domains divides a model into regions (for domain based morphing)

Morph Volume A cube shaped volume that morphs all entities that are
located inside the shape (for volume based morphing)

Constraints Control the motion of nodes during morphing

Symmetries forces regions to be morphed symmetrically

Shapes model state during morphing saved for retrieval at a later point

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 319


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

2 - Free Hand
Location: Morphing > Free Hand
Use this panel to morph your mesh without needing domains, handles, or morph volumes.
Separate options exist for moving selected nodes directly, recording actions made in other
panels, "sculpting" meshes with different virtual tools, and saving a morph as a shape.
The freehand panel consists of several subpanels, changes made on one subpanel do not
affect the others, and are persistent so that you can switch freely between subpanels
without losing any settings already made:

move nodes
Use this panel to select specific nodes and move them directly to new locations while
optionally morphing the surrounding mesh.
Using the move nodes subpanel, you can translate and rotate nodes, move nodes
normal to a mesh, move nodes to a vector, node list, line, plane, surface, mesh, or
equation, and apply a shape. For each morphing option, you can choose whether or
not the morphing should be interactive. You can also control how those node
movements apply to the surrounding mesh.
Note: In the morph options panel, morphing subpanel, there is an option for
setting the minimum step size for interactive morphing. If the distance or angle
fields are set to values other than zero the morphing will be performed in discrete
steps with the given step size rather than an arbitrary value based on the position of
the mouse and relative to the size of the model. For example, setting the distance to
1.0 means that interactive translation will be performed in increments of 1.0, such as
1.0, 2.0, 11.0, etc. For distance, the value is given in model units. For angle, the
value is given in degrees. The minimum step size applies when using the
manipulator or using translate, rotate, or move normal options.

320 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

The freehand panel has several types of movement:

Manipulator You may then click and drag one of the three arrows of the
manipulator to translate the nodes, click and drag one of the three arcs of the
manipulator to rotate the nodes about the center of the manipulator, or click and drag
one of the three right angles of the manipulator to move the nodes in a plane.
The images below show a triad manipulator and where to click on it to translate it
along a vector, rotate it about an axis, or translate it in a plane.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 321


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

record
Use this panel to turn any panel into a morphing panel. When you click start in this
panel, the positions of all the nodes in the model are recorded. You can then go
outside of the freehand panel and use any tool in HyperMesh to move the nodes in
the model to new positions. When you return to this panel and click finish, those
node movements will be transformed into a morph which can be undone, redone, or
saved as a shape.
This feature can be particularly useful when using the Quality Index panel to adjust
a basic morph for the sake of mesh quality.
For example: after morphing, go to the Record panel and click start, go to the
Quality Index panel to adjust and fix any poorly-formed elements resulting from the
morph, and then return to the Record panel and click finish.

In the below example, sculpting resulted in poorly-shaped elements (highlighted in


the left image). Adjustments made in the Quality Index panel resolved the problems
on the left side of the mesh to produce the image on the right. By recording the node
movements in the Quality Index panel those node movements can be saved as part
of a shape and can be undone.

sculpting
Use this subpanel to mold a mesh with a variety of virtual tools for example,
creating hemispherical divots, cone-shaped projections, or molding sections with
feature lines.

Areas of the mesh can be pushed or pulled to reshape it, creating either indentations
or projections on the mesh.
322 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Tool shapes include ball, cone, cylinder, node list, line, plane, surface, and mesh.
Use different tools to simplify the creation of different types of deformation.

For example, use the ball along a node list or line list to create a curved channel with
a rounded bottom and ends, but use the cone to create a channel with a V-shaped
bottom. Similarly, the ball can create a hemispherical divot or protrusion, while the
cone can create a conical pit or spike.
The following images illustrate use of the "ball" tool to create a raised ridge along a
node list:

Here two nodes are selected, but the tool is not yet applied.

Here, the ball tool has been applied to the mesh as if it had been rolled from one node to the other.

save shape
Use this subpanel to save a current morph as a shape. This feature is a limited
version of the save as shape subpanel located in the Shapes panel.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 323


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Exercise 6a - Using Free Hand


This exercise shows how to translate Nodes to Increase the Length of a Propeller Blade.

Figure 1: Original blade

Figure 2: Blade after morphing

Step 1: Load the model.


Open the HyperMesh file, 06a-PROPELLER-FREE-HANDS.hm.
Step 2: Morph the blade.

Method1 - Fixed Value based method.


1. Click the Morphing > Free Hand, then select the move nodes subpanel.
2. Verify that the morphing method is set to translate.
3. For the translate value, key in z= -100.
4. Open the View folder in the Model Browser.
324 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

5. Click

next to View1 to set the view.

6. For moving nodes and fixed nodes select the nodes as displayed in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Node and element selections.

7. For affected elements select the elements between fixed nodes and moving nodes.
8. For mv bias and fx bias keep the default value (1.0)

9. Click morph to alter the blade of the propeller.

The length of the propeller blade has increased by 100. The fixed nodes do not move.
The affected elements were stretched evenly to maintain element quality.
The stretching of the elements takes place between the moving nodes and the fixed
nodes.
10. Click undo to go back at the original shape of the propeller.

Method2 - Interactive based method, using manipulators.


11. Youre still in the move nodes subpanel.
12. Verify that the morphing method is set to manipulator.
13. Leave the other parameters and options with the actual values.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 325


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

14. Select nodes (moving and fixed) and elements (affected) as you did before.

15. You should see the manipulator. If you want you can select another node as origin: as
shown in the picture below to set the manipulator in a different position.

16. Zoom in and rotate close to the manipulator area.

326 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

17. Click and drag, graphically, one of the three yellow arrows of the manipulator to
translate the nodes.

18. Click and drag, graphically, one of the three yellow arcs of the manipulator to rotate the
nodes about the center of the manipulator, click undo.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 327


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

19. Click and drag, graphically, one of the three yellow right angles of the manipulator to
move the nodes in a plane.

You may create more than one manipulator at a time by switching the toggle between
single manipulator and multiple. When switched to multiple, clicking the new manip
button will allow you to create a new manipulator by selecting one or more moving
nodes. The different manipulators may have different selected entities and different
parameters, and can be moved independently of one another. Moving a manipulator,
clicking a manipulator, or simply moving the mouse over one of the manipulators will
cause the panel to be updated to parameters for that manipulator, allowing you to
change the parameters or the entities associated with them if you desire.

328 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

The manipulators can be set to be active or inactive by switching the toggle to either
manip:active or manip:inactive. When active the manipulators will morph the model
when moved. When inactive the manipulators will only change their own position and
orientation when moved.

Summary
Method1 - The length of the propeller blade has increased by 100.
The fixed nodes do not move.
The affected elements were stretched evenly to maintain element quality.
The stretching of the elements takes place between the moving nodes and the fixed
nodes.

Method2 - The length of the propeller blade has increased using interactive by clicking and
dragging one of the three
arrows/arcs/right angles of the manipulator to respectively translate/rotate/move the
nodes.
The fixed nodes do not move.
The affected elements were stretched evenly to maintain element quality.
The stretching of the elements takes place between the moving nodes and the fixed
nodes.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 329


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

3 - Domains and Handles


The domains and handles approach consists of dividing the mesh into regions called
domains with associated handles.

What are domains and handles?


Domains consist of selected nodes and elements.
Domains and handles are divided into two basic groups, global and local.
The global group consists of global domains, each of which is associated with a number of
global handles. Global handles will only influence the nodes in the global domain to which
they are associated. Global handles and domains are best for making large scale shape
changes to the model.

The local group consists of five types of local domains: 1D domains, 2D domains, 3D
domains, edge domains, and general domains. Local handles/edge domains can only
influence nodes contained in the domains they are associated with. Local handles/edge
domains are intended to be used to make small scale, parametric changes to the model.

While a model can contain both global and local handles and domains, it is not necessary to
have both types of domains and handles in a model.

330 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

The following table describes the various domains and their symbols when they are created.

When global domain and handles are generated using autogenerate or created with the
create handles option turned on, HyperMorph generates eight global handles, one at each
of the eight corners of a box laid out along the global axes surrounding the model. These
global handles are named corner followed by a number from one to eight.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 331


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Morphing Domains & Handles


Location: Morphing > Create > Domains

HyperMorph will also place at least one global handle within the box in areas of the models
peak nodal density. These handles are named handle, followed by a number.
Location: Morphing > Create > Domains

The automatic global handle generation works particularly well for space-frame models such
as full car models. However, for small models such as a control arm or bracket, the
recommendation is for you to build your own local domains and handles since you are more
likely interested in changing the local area rather than the entire model.
If the autogenerate process does not create handles in the positions where you want them
to be, you can always delete them, reposition them, or create additional handles. Handles
can be further classified as independent or dependent. An independent handle creates
displacements to the model only when it is moved. A dependent handle creates
displacements influenced from its own movements plus that of other handles it is linked to.
A handle can be made dependent on one or more handles. This allows you to create as
many layers of dependencies between your handles as you desire. For example, you can
make all the handles at one cross section of a beam (modeling using 2D shell elements)
dependent on a single handle allowing you to move an entire cross section while only
having to select one independent handle.

332 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

What is a partition?
The most important factor in local morphing is partitioning. It is logically dividing a 2D
domain into smaller 2D domains, such as where the angle between elements exceeds a
certain value or where the domain changes from flat to curved, is called partitioning.
Proper partitioning makes morphing faster and easier. By activating partition domains
user can invoke partitioning when auto-generating or when creating a domain. If the user is
unsatisfied with the results of the partitioning he/she can change the partitioning parameters
namely domains angle and curve tolerance.
Figure below shows an example of partitioning. For the model on the left, the 2D domain
was created without partitioning. For the model on the right, partitioning was used. Note
how the 2D domains divide along angle and curvature change boundaries.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 333


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Morphing operation - move Handles


Location: Morphing > Morph
The Morph panel consists of several subpanels: move handles, alter dimensions, set
biasing, set constraints, save as shape, apply shapes, and morph surfaces.
There are four common buttons in many of the Morph subpanels: undo, redo, undo all, and
redo all. These buttons allow you to move forward or backward through the morphs that you
have applied to your model. They remain active when you leave the panel but are not saved
with your model unless you check the box labeled save morphs with file in the global
subpanel of the Morph Options panel. Thus you could either perform an undo all before
saving your model in order to return it to the unmorphed state, or check the save morphs
with file box to save all of the morphs on the undo/redo list along with the file so that they
can be undone when the file is reloaded. You can also clear or compress the morphs stored
in the undo/redo list in the global subpanel of the Morph Options panel.
Many subpanels of the Morph panel contain a button labeled options. This button
replaces the symmetry links and constraints checkboxes from earlier versions of
HyperMorph. Clicking this button will take you to the Morph Options panel where you are
able to adjust a large number of parameters that affect morphing.
Location: Morphing > Morph > move handles
The move handles subpanel allows you to move handles and morph a mesh.

334 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Morphing operation - alter dimensions.


Location: Morphing > Morph > alter dimensions
The alter dimensions subpanel allows you to morph your mesh by selecting handles and
altering the distance between them. There are many dimensional types that can be altered.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 335


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Morphing operation - set biasing.


Location: Morphing > Morph > set biasing
Use this panel to change the biasing factors associated with each handle. You must click
update to apply bias changes to the handles, unless you update them interactively.

Clicking screen edit while the bias factors are displayed will hide the edit windows.
The initial bias factor for all handles is 1.000 except for dependent handles automatically
generated at the ends of 1-D domains which are given a bias factor of 3.000. Higher bias
values will increase the influence that handle has over nearby nodes. Lower bias values
decrease the influence. Bias values of 1 give linear results that result in morphs with sharp
angles at the handle locations.
For exponential biasing a bias value of 2 will result in morphs with a gentle curvature
through the handle locations.
For sinusoidal biasing a bias value of 2.0 for a handle at one end of an edge domain and 0.5
for a handle at the other end will give a perfect circular or elliptical curve for the domain.

336 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Morphing operation - set constraints.


Location: Morphing > Morph > set constraints
Similar to the Morph Constraints panel, this sub-panel allows you to fix certain nodes in
place so that they do not move during a morph.

However, the functionality is limited compared to that found in the Morph Constraints
panel. Refer to that panel for greater details on constraints.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 337


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Morphing operation - Shapes.


Location: Morphing > Morph > save shape
The save shape sub-panel allows you to save the active morph as a shape entity.

Handle and Node Perturbations: You can save a shape as either handle or node
perturbations.
The difference becomes important when the model is reparameterized or when domains,
handles, and symmetries are created or deleted.
When a shape is saved as node perturbations, it always has the same shape no matter
what changes occur with the morphing entities.
If the shape is saved as handle perturbations, changes in the relationships between
handles and nodes will alter the resultant node perturbations when the shape is reapplied.
Location: Morphing > Morph > apply shapes
The apply shapes sub-panel allows you to saved shapes to the current mesh. This feature
is a limited version of the apply shapes sub-panel located in the shapes panel.

338 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Optimization using HyperMorph Shapes in HyperStudy


You can perform an Optimzation in HyperStudy with one of the following methods:
1. You can start HyperStudy from the Application pull down menu

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 339


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

2. You can export these HyperMorph Shapes to be used in HyperStudy as


parametrized file model.

Note:
a. HyperMesh HyperStudy connection is not limited to shape variables, other
properties such as thicknesses, loads can also be imported from a HyperMesh
model to a HyperStudy session.
b. Please refer to HyperStudy Online Help to get more details.

340 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Morphing operation Morph Surfaces


Location: Morphing > Morph > morph surfaces
Use this panel to Morph the surfaces in the model to adhere to any morphing of mesh nodes
that were previously associated with them.

Surface morphing will only morph surfaces that have nodes associated with them and
whose associated nodes have been morphed. There are several ways that result in a node
being associated with a surface. When you automesh a surface, the nodes for the elements
are automatically associated with the surface. Also, you can use the node edit panel to
associate nodes to surfaces. Note that after morphing nodes, the morphed nodes will no
longer be associated with their surfaces, but HyperMorph will save (and accumulate) the
associations so that the surfaces can be morphed at a later time.
There are no inputs on this subpanel; all surfaces are morphed when you click morph
surfaces. If the results are unsatisfactory, you may reject them.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 341


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Morphing operation Symmetries


Location: Morphing > Create > Symmetries
The Symmetry panel allows you to create symmetries that influence handles, morph
volumes, domains, blocks, rwalls, and shapes.

342 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 343


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Exercise 6b - Using Domains and Handles


In this exercise you will create domains, handles and morph the model.

Step 1: Load and review the model.


Open and review the HyperMesh model 06b-DOMAINS-HANDLES.hm.

Step 2: Auto generate 2-D domains and handles.


1. Click the Morphing menu in the menu bar and pick Create > Domains.
2. Change the create method to auto functions.

3. Click generate.
Based on the models geometric features, all of the models elements are organized into
various domains and local handles are created and associated with the domains.

344 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Step 3: Move elements into a new 2-D domain.


1. Set the selector for methods to 2D domains. Toggle to the elems selector if not already
there.
2. Click

to clear the elements that were already selected.

3. Using elems >> by window, select the elements indicated in figure 1.

Figure 1: Elements to select to move into a new domain

5. Verify that partition 2D domains is active.

6. Click create to create the domain.


Local handles are created for the new domain. You should now have two local domains.
Elements can only belong to one domain at a time. Thus, the elements you selected
were moved into the new domain. This functionality makes it very easy to group
elements into different domains.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 345


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Step 4: Split the edge domain of the radius to have more control when
morphing.
1. Click the edit edges subpanel in the Morphing > Domains panel.
2. Verify that the split option is selected.
3. With the domain selector active, select the edge domain of the parts radius as indicated
in the Figure 2.
The node selector automatically becomes active once the edge domain is selected.
Click the domain selector to make it active and see that you selected the desired edge
domain.

Figure 2: Edge domain to select

346 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

4. Click the node selector to make it active.


5. Select the node on the positive Y-axis end of the radius, as indicated in the Figure 3.

Figure 3: Node selection to split the edge domain of the radius

6. Click split to split the edge domain at the node.


7. Repeat the above process to further split the edge domain of the radius, this time at the
node indicated in the Figure 4.

Figure 4: Node selection to further split the edge domain of the radius

8. When complete, click return to exit the panel.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 347


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Step 5: Add local handles to the 2-D domain on the parts left side.
1. Click the Morphing menu, and pick Create > Handles.
2. For name=, enter local.
3. Click the attached to: domain selector to make it active.
4. Select the 2-D domain on the parts left side by selecting its red icon, as indicated in the
following image.

Figure 5: Adding handles to a 2-D domain

5. Click the by nodes: nodes selector to make it active.


6. Select the two nodes as indicated in the previous image.
7. Click create to create the handles and add them to the 2-D domain.

8. Click return to exit the panel.

348 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Step 6: Perform basic morphing to understand how domains and handles


interact with each other and the mesh.
1. Click the Morphing menu, and pick Morph.
2. Select the move handles subpanel if not already there.
3. Change the mode to interactive if not already set.
4. Switch from manipulators to on plane.
5. Click the N1 selector to make it active.
6. For N1, N2, and N3, select any three nodes on the model to define a plane.
7. With the handles selector active, select the two handles on the right-hand end of the
part, as indicated in figure 6, marked by the red circle.

Figure 6: Example result of morphing the model

If you select one or more handle, those handles follow the handle you drag.
8. Click morph.
The message, pick handles and move to new location appears in the status bar.
9. Click on and drag one of the selected handles to morph the part.
As you drag the handle, the meshs size and shape is adjusted.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 349


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Notice that the following occurs as the selected local handle is moved:

The handles selected in step 6.7 above follow the handle you are dragging.

All of the elements belonging to the selected local handles 2-D domain are affected
by moving that local handle.

The 2-D domains non-selected local handles act like anchors (they do not move).

The nodes on the edge domains and between any two non-selected local domains
do not move.

None of the elements in the other 2-D domain are affected.

10. Click undo.


The HyperMorph module allows for multiple levels of undo and redo for all morphing
operations. This functionality is available for any particular HyperMesh session and its
current model as long as the session and its model remain open.
11. Click

to clear the selected handles.

12. With the handles selector active, select one or more global handles.

13. Click morph.

350 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

14. Click on and drag any global handle to morph the part.

Summary
The following occurs as the selected global handle is moved:

The handles selected in Step 6.7 above follow the handle you are dragging.
The non-selected global handles act like anchors (they do not move).
All of the elements, local handles and edge domains are affected.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 351


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

4 - Morph Volumes
Location: Morphing > Create > Morph Volumes
The Morph Volume panel allows you to create, edit, save, load, convert, and delete morph
volumes.

A morph volume (or "mvol") is a six-sided prism that can be used to manipulate a mesh by
manipulating the shape of the morph volume, while maintaining tangency.
Morph volumes are very malleable; the length and curvature of each edge can be modified
independently of the others, and adjacent morph volumes can be linked through various
tangency conditions. This malleability allows you to enclose a given mesh with morph
volumes, alter the morph volumes to fit your model, and then change the shape of your
model by modifying the morph volumes. Morph volumes present a simple, powerful, and
intuitive way to morph.

Matrix: a morph volume with handles at the corners.

Drag: volumes dragged along a node list

352 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Hexa convert: volumes spun about an axis

Drag: profile lines dragged along a line to create morph volumes.

This rectangular matrix has X, Y, Z density of 3,3,3

This cylindrical matrix has X, Y, Z density of 2, 8, 1

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 353


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

The length and curvature of each edge of a morph volume can be modified independently.

Adjacent morph volumes can be linked through tangency conditions. This allows you to
update the characteristics of the morph volumes. Handles are placed at each of the vertices
of the morph volumes. Morphing involves moving these handles. Morph volumes thus
present a very simple, powerful, and intuitive way to morph.

Morph volumes will only morph the mesh for nodes that have been registered. In some
cases, nodes within morph volumes are automatically registered when the morph volumes
are created, while in others only the selected nodes or nodes on selected elements are
registered. If the morph volumes do not appear to be morphing nodes inside them, you may
need to register those nodes. (See the update mvols subpanel for more details.)
Although morph volumes can be created, edited, and deleted in this panel, the actual
morphing of morph volumes is performed either in the Morph panel, where you can move
the handles, or the map to geom panel, where you can map morph volume edges to a
variety of entities. Morph volumes behave very much like domains (by moving the handles
associated with the morph volumes the enclosed mesh can be manipulated) but morph
volumes have the additional feature that you can morph them independently of the enclosed
mesh. For instance, if you wish to change the shape of your morph volumes without
affecting the mesh you can set the morph volumes to be inactive. This allows you to use all
of the morphing capabilities to modify the shape and position of your morph volumes to
better fit your mesh. Then you can switch the morph volumes back to being active and use
them to morph the mesh.
Note that when you set your morph volumes back to being active, you may be asked
whether you want to remove the inactive handle perturbations from the morph list. Clicking
yes, which is recommended, will make it so that the undo and redo buttons do not undo
and redo the inactive movements of your morph volumes. Clicking no will treat the morph
volume perturbations just like any other morphing. The toggle that allows you to switch
354 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

morph volumes between being active and inactive can be found in the parameters
subpanel of the Morph Volumes panel, and in the morphing subpanel of the Morph
Options panel. (See the parameters subpanel for more details.)

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 355


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Exercise 6c - Using Morph Volumes


This exercise shows how to change the Shape of the B-pillar with the help of Morph Volume

Figure 1: B-Pillar before and after morphing

Step 1: Load and review the model.


Open the HyperMesh file, 06c-MORPH-VOLUMES.hm.

Step 2: Create morph volumes.


1. Click the Morphing menu in the menu bar and pick Create > Morph Volumes
2. Switch the creation method to pick on screen.
3. For handle placement, select corners only.
4. Keep the auto-tangent check box selected.

5. Click the XZ Right Plane View (

) icon to set the view.

6. Draw a window by clicking at the four places shown in Figure 2.

356 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Figure 2: Points for creating the morph volume

Note:

A morph volume is created, enclosing the area.

Step 3: Split the morph volumes.


1. Click the split/combine subpanel in the Morphing panel.
2. Verify the split toggle is set to split mvols: by edges

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 357


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

3. Select an edge of the morph volume close to location 1 (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Locations to split the morph volume

The green colored cross moves to the location of the black dot.

4. Click split.
The morph volume is split into two.

358 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Follow the same steps to create another split at location2 (see Figure3).

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 359


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Step 4: Change the profile of the b-pillar.


Method1 - Fixed Value based method.
1. Click the Morphing menu and pick Morph. Click the move handles subpanel if not
already open.
2. Set the morphing method to translate.
3. Set direction as along xyz.
4. Fill in the following values:
x val = 0
y val = 100.00
z val = 0

5. Select the eight handles by window as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Select handles for morphing

6. Click morph.
Rotate the model to observe that the b-pillar is morphed.

360 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

7. Click undo to go back at the original shape of the b-pillar.

Method2 - Interactive based method, using manipulators.


8. Youre still in the move nodes subpanel.
9. Verify that the morphing method is set to interactive and manipulators.
10. Leave the other parameters and options with the actual values.

11. Click the XZ Right Plane View (

) icon to set the view.

12. Select the eight handles by window as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Select handles for morphing


HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 361


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

13. You should see the manipulator. If you want you can select another node as origin: to
set the manipulator in a different position.

14. Zoom in and rotate close to the manipulator area.

15. Click and drag, graphically, one of the three yellow arrows of the manipulator to
translate the nodes,
click undo.

16. Click and drag, graphically, one of the three yellow arcs of the manipulator to rotate the
nodes
about the center of the manipulator, click undo.

362 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

17. Click and drag, graphically, one of the three yellow right angles of the manipulator to
move the
nodes in a plane, click undo.

You may create more than one manipulator at a time by switching the toggle between
single manipulator and multiple. When switched to multiple, clicking the new manip
button will allow you to create a new manipulator by selecting one or more moving
nodes. The different manipulators may have different selected entities and different
parameters, and can be moved independently of one another. Moving a manipulator,
clicking a manipulator, or simply moving the mouse over one of the manipulators will
cause the panel to be updated to parameters for that manipulator, allowing you to
change the parameters or the entities associated with them if you desire.
The manipulators can be set to be active or inactive by switching the toggle to either
manip:active or manip:inactive. When active the manipulators will morph the model
when moved. When inactive the manipulators will only change their own position and
orientation when moved.

Summary
The b-pillar is morphed in a smooth fashion with minimum distortion to the elements in both
methods.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 363


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

5 - Map to Geometry
Location: Morphing > Map to Geometry
The Map to geom panel does not include any subpanels, but its layout changes
dynamically depending on the options chosen, beginning with the type of geometry you wish
to map to.

You can complete inputs in any order, but since the panel layout can alter depending on the
inputs chosen, it is best to work from left to right to avoid negating any settings you've
already made if an "earlier" input setting changes the options for inputs you have already
selected.
Some of the types of geometry that can be mapped are shown below:

The following is an example of Map to Geom. The marked nodes and line are selected in
the picture on the left and the fit to line option chosen. The picture on the right shows the
results of clicking the automap button. HyperMesh distributes the selected nodes along the
specified line, and the rest of the mesh stretches to accommodate the mapping.

364 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

In the following example the highlighted morph volume edges are mapped to the line while
the dimmed edges are selected as follower edges. The highlighted edges are mapped
directly to the line while the follower edges are given a similar morphing.
Note that the number of handles per edge was increased to three to improve the accuracy of
the mapping.

The User Control panel can also be used to place handles and edge domains before the
previously selected mapping operation takes place.
This capability is useful when mapping a mesh to a surface.
After selecting the mesh and surface you can go to the User Control panel and fit each
edge of the mesh to the lines around the surface. Then when you map, the mesh will be fit
to the surface.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 365


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

Exercise 6d - Using Map to Geometry


In this exercise, you will use the line difference approach to change the Curvature of a
Bumper to a Curved Line

Figure 1: Bumper before and after morphing

Step 1: Load and review the model.


Open the HyperMesh file 06d-MAP-TO-GEOM.hm.

Step 2: Morph the bumper.


1. Click Morphing > Map to Geometry to open the Map to Geom panel
2. Change the geometry selector to line difference.
3. Select from line: and to line: as shown in figure 2.

Figure 2: from line and to line

366 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

4. Toggle the morphing entity (2nd column) from map domains to map nodes.
5. Select nodes >> displayed.
6. Use no fixed nodes (2nd column, 2nd row).
7. Use map by line axis morphing with a value of 1.0 for mvbias and fxbias (column 3).

8. Click map.

Summary
The profile of the bumper is changed to follow the new section line.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 367


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 6: HyperMorph

368 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Chapter 7

Analysis Setup
Analysis setup is the definition of all information for an analysis besides the mesh including:

Specification of the solver to be used

Creation of materials, properties, etc.

Assignment of a solver specific format to HyperMesh entities

Creation of boundary conditions (constraints, loads, contacts, etc.)

Definition of other required information (solution requests, general run parameters,


etc.)

1 - General Analysis Setup Process & Tools


General Setup Process

Importing Geometry

Creating Collectors

Create & Edit Geometry Data

Obtain line and surface geometry from an external file, or hand digitize the
data

Reconcile conflicts in the geometry and prepare it for use

Create & Edit FE Model

Build the model by using element-building panels

Create Properties & Materials

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 369


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Verify the Quality of the Model

Create Boundary Conditions, Load Steps and Control Cards

Create Boundary Conditions (Loads and Constraints)

Create Load Steps

Define Control Cards

Run Analysis with Solver (OptiStruct)

Result Visualization

General Setup Process Tools


1) Load the appropriate template for that solver

Preferences > User Profiles OR

370 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

2) Create the entities needed for your model

Collectors pull-down menu

Collectors toolbar OR

Model browser + Entity Editor

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 371


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Entity Editor Solver Specific Data

You can create and edit this data using the Entity Editor.

Card Image: you can change the Card Image assigned to an


entity using the Entity Editor. Edit an entities ID and Name:
To change the Card Image, click the Value field and then select a
new Card Image from the drop-down menu. The Card Images
available in the drop-down will depend on the user profile and the
entity type.

372 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Property & Material: Element property and material assignment


rules are based on the user profile. You can modify the entity
selection in the Entity Editor by assigning another entity or
entities from the Selection List dialog or from the Entity
Selector.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 373


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

3) Load the proper card image or type where needed.

Collectors pull-down menu

Set a current element / load type for an element / load configuration

Any new elements / loads of that configuration created will have that
element / load type

Change the element / load type of existing elements / loads

Generally use the elem types or load types panel

Elements and loads will always have a type and configuration

Sometimes collectors may not need a card image

Entities Configuration and Types:

4) Enter values in the card images as required

Card Image > Use Model browser + Entity Editor to edit a collector:

Model Browser select a collector

Go to Entity Editor and View/Edit the card image of the


selected collector.

374 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Card Image > Collectors toolbar > Card Edit


of all collectors.

Preferences > Graphics pulldown menu

to check card images

template labels (type)

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 375


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Solver Browser

The Solver Browser provides a solver perspective view of


the model structure in flat, listed tree structure.
Hierarchical structures are only available for card images that allow
variations with themselves.

Displays solver-based cards in a tree format

Uses organization & structure of the represented solver

Performs basic actions involving cards

Create new cards

Delete existing cards

Edit attributes of existing cards

Display controlled in the menu bar:


View > Browsers > HyperMesh > Solver

376 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

The Solver Browser includes toolbars, a context-sensitive menu, and


controls built into the display tree.

5) Enter values in the card images as required Create Boundary Conditions, Load
Steps and Control Cards

Load Collectors

The final step in the model building process is to apply constraints and
forces and to create or assign coordinate systems. Before you apply
loads, you need to create a Load Collector.

Loads are displayed in the color assigned to the load collector. The
size of loads and constraints is based on model units and can be
modified from within the boundary condition panels.

HyperMesh stores and displays all loads in the global coordinate


system and, if needed, it transforms the loads appropriately to any local
nodal output coordinate system.

Load collectors collect and organize loads. Load Collectors are


created, edited, and deleted from one of the following Tools:

Model Browser select a collector

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 377


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Model Browser + Entity Editor they are shown under the


Load Collector folder.

From the pull down menu Collectors > Create > Load
Collectors or

Loads and equations can be organized into a load collector using the
Organize panel

New loads and equations are automatically

378 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Load Collectors BCs Types

Boundary Conditions define limits as well as loads on geometry and


mesh.

Load entities have associated load configurations.

BCs Entity can be created from one of the following Tools:

FE Loading

Loads (constraint, force, pressure, moment, temperature, flux,


velocity, acceleration)

Equations (mathematical link between nodes)

Contacts

Group (defines contact between entities)

Contact Surfs (defines a list of entities that can be used as master


or slave in a group).

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 379


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Load Collectors BCs > Load on Geometry

Loads can be created on geometry as well as FE entities

The Loads on Geometry panel allows you to map loads or boundary


conditions from geometry entities (loads on geometry) to the associated
FE mesh entities (loads on mesh).
More than one mesh can be associated with the geometry entity to
which the loads are applied.
The loads are mapped to all the meshes associated with the geometry
entities to which they are applied.

The loadcols selection box lists a group of load collectors that contain
the loads on geometry to be mapped.

Once a load collector is selected, click map loads to perform the


mapping.

380 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Load Steps Setup > Create > Load Steps

OR
Load Steps Tools > Load Steps Browser

The Load Steps allows you to create and update collections of load
collectors, groups, and output blocks.

Not all options will apply to each user profile.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 381


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

The Load Steps allows you to select and combine Load Collectors
previously defined that contain Loads and Constraints entities.

The current load step displays in the name = field in the upper left.

Multiple Load Steps are allowed in the same analysis.

Load Steps Card Images

382 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Control Cards Setup > Create > Control Cards

Control cards allow you to add input and output parameters to a


model, including location and names of the input, output and scratch
files; the type of run (analysis, check or restart); overall running of the
analysis or optimization; and type, format and frequency of the output.

Control cards are assigned to your model from within the Control
Cards panel. This panel lists all of the control cards defined for the
solver/user profile that you currently have loaded; you can disable,
enable, or delete cards as desired.

Control Cards > Card Images (OptiStruct User Profile):

6) Model Summary

Tools > Summary Template

The Summary Template allows you to obtain a summary of component


element counts or element properties of the current model. You can
define your own summary by creating a template file.

Displays a text window with various types of information about the


model

Helps to review the model and make sure all information has been
entered properly

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 383


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

7) Run Analysis with Solver (OptiStruct)

Optimization > OptiStruct

To run the analysis click on OptiStruct

384 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

8) Result Visualization in HyperView

HyperWorks Solver View > Results

You can view a different input/result file clicking on View

Click on Results
to open Hyperview and load h3d file
by default (model+results); click on Apply.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 385


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

In HyperView you can review results using Contour panel

Deform panel

, animate

and many others.

386 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 387


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

2 - Part Replacement Tool

The Part Replacement dialog enables you to replace elements in an existing


component/part with new elements. It also restores the referenced items in the
original model to the new part, for example 1-D connections, masses, equations,
boundary conditions, and loads. A message log is provided, which lists the
entities being replaced and reconnected as well as cases that require or will
require user interaction.

The Part Replacement dialog generates a log file that contains a list of the
entities being replaced and reconnected in addition to cases that require user
interaction.

Full component replacement

All references

New component: model or external file

Result preview and checks

Update loads, boundary conditions, connections, contacts, etc.

View > Browsers > HyperMesh > Utility tab > Part Replacement

388 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Preferences > User Profiles OR


that solver

Utility tab > Part Replacement

, Loads the appropriate template for

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 389


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Exercise 7a - Analysis Setup and Loading


This exercise will focus on setting up a model for analysis. At the end of this exercise,
you will run an analysis in OptiStruct. While this exercise is focused on an OptiStruct
Analysis setup, the methods and techniques explored here are applicable to a setup in
any solver.

Step 1: Load the file 07a-ANALYSIS-SETUP-OPTISTRUCT.hm and the


OptiStruct user profile.

Step 2: Studying the Model


The normal process for setting up an analysis would be the setup of materials,
properties and components before the meshing of the model. As this exercise focuses
only on analysis setup, the mesh has already been created for you.
This model is a quarter segment of a submarine pressure hull. The exercise will cover
the steps required to analyze the stress on the hull of a decent to a depth of 300 meters
and determine if the hull design can handle that pressure.
1. Take a few minutes to familiarize yourself with the model and get a concept of the size
and scale of the parts.
2. Based upon measurements and knowledge of how large a submarine is, what would you
assume to units of this model to be?
Now that the scale of the model has been determined, it is important to establish a unit
scheme. These are often dictated by corporate standards, but in this case it will be
established by the units that were used to create the model.
For this analysis, the Millimeter-Ton-Second scheme will be utilized.
390 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

The first step in any analysis should be model organization. This frequently occurs
before the model is meshed but can be done post mesh as well.
To make sure each step has the information already available, the ideal order is to
create materials first, then properties and then finally component collectors.

Step 3: Model Organization


In this step we will take the elements that represent the Hull and place them into the Hull
component. The collector that holds the remaining Rib elements will then be renamed
Ribs.

Component collectors are, as previously discussed, used for model organization. One of
the most logical organization schemes for this model would be a component for the Hull
elements and then another for the Ribs. This, of course, is only one method and could
be altered for any number of organizational reasons.
1. Right click in the Model Browser and select Create > Component

2. A new component will be created and you can edit it using Entity Editor. Enter Hull
in the Name: field. Assign it a unique color.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 391


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

3. Organize (

) the Hull elements into the Hull component.

HINT: Using the extended selection option of By Geom and picking the 20 surfaces that
make up the hull is the easiest way to get all of the appropriate elements.

392 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

4. Rename the Middle Surface component to Ribs.

Step 3: Material and Property Creation.


1.

Right click in the Model Browser and select Create > Material.

2. A new material will be created and you can edit it using Entity Editor. Enter Steel in
the Name: field.
3. Pick a color.
4. For Card Image select MAT1 (A Linear Elastic Isotropic Material)
5. Click [E], [NU] and [RHO] to open the fields.
These fields are the material properties for the material being created and are defined as
follows:

[E] Youngs Modulus (Modulus of Elasticity)


[NU] Poissons Ratio
[RHO] Density

As it has been established the Millimeter-Ton-Second unit scheme will be utilized, the
Youngs Modulus needs to be in terms of Newton/mm2 (MPa) and the Density in
Ton/mm3. Poissons ratio is unit-less and is the same no matter what the unit scheme.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 393


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Enter the following values:


[E] 2.4e+5

[NU] 0.3

[RHO] 7.85e-9

At this point you can see that a new field has been created in the Model Browser,
Material, and the new material, Steel, is included in it.
6. Right click in the Model Browser and select Create > Property.
While the elements (quads and trias) have been created, they need to be defined as an
entity the solver can analyze. In the case of OptiStruct, these 2D elements are defined
as PSHELL. Creating the PSHELL property will give these elements their definition
(card Image) and will allow for the definition of the material thickness they have.
7. A new property will be created and you can edit it using Entity Editor. Enter Hull in
the Name: field.
8. Pick a color.
9. For Card image select PSHELL.
10. Set the value for Thickness [T] field at 19.
11. Go to the Material field; Select from list the material Steel, to assign this material to
the property.

394 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 395


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

12. Right click in the Model Browser and select Create > Property.
13. Using the techniques explored, create a property with the name Ribs with the following
settings:
Card image = PSHELL
Material = Steel
Thickness = 13
Set a color.

Step 4: Property and Material Assignment.


Property and material can be created without creating a component at the same time.
This is usefull when the components already exists, you can assign property and
material later.
As the component were created prior to the creation of the properties, it is now
necessary to assign the property to them.
1. From the Model Browser, select component Ribs.
2. The Entity Editor will open, Go to the Property field; Select from list the property
Ribs, to assign this property (and associated material Steel) to the Ribs
component.

396 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

3. From the Model Browser, select component Hull.


4. The Entity Editor will open, Go to the Property field; Select from list the property
Hull, to assign this property (and associated material Steel) to the Hull component.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 397


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Step 5: Load Collector Creation


1. From the Model Browser, create a LoadCollector.
2. The Entity Editor will open, Name it Pressure.
3. Assign it a unique color
4. Leave the Card image as none
5. Create the load collector.

6. Follow the previous steps to create another LoadCollector called Constraints.


398 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Step 6: Model Loading


With the elements properly assigned a card image (through the property) and a material,
it is now necessary to create the loads on the model. As this is a submarine hull, a
constant pressure will be applied to the exterior of the hull, directed inwards normal to
the elements.
To establish the orientation of the pressure load, the element normals direction must first
be discovered.
1. Go to View > Toolbars > HyperMesh > Checks toolbar, select the Normals
icon

2. In the elements sub-panel select all of the elements in the Hull collector.

3. Click display normals.


Arrows should now indicate the element normal direction.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 399


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

The element normals should be pointing outward from the hull, so if they are not, click
reverse normals.
4. Make the Pressure Load Collector current.
5. From the BCs pull-down, proceed to the Create > Pressures panel.
6. In the create sub-panel, select the elements in the Hull collector.
7. Set the magnitude = to -3.0. (This value is in MPa and corresponds to the
approximate pressure at a depth of 300 meters)
The direction switch under the magnitude field allows for the direction of the pressure to
be set. If this value is NOT set then the default is to make the pressure normal to the
element. The value previously entered was negative so that the pressure is opposite the
element normal and thus directed inwards.
8. Change the magnitude%= toggle to uniform size = and set it to 200.
This option establishes the size of the arrow that will graphically represent the load.
Magnitude% will make the arrow length the set percentage of the value of the load in
model units. For example in our case of a 3.0 magnitude load, a magnitude%= value of
200 would result in a load arrow of 6 units in length. Uniform size will set the length to
the set number of model units regardless of the magnitude value.
9. Click the load types= button and select PLOAD.

PLOAD is the standard pressure loading card in OptiStruct Analysis. For explanations of
other types of pressures and loads you can refer to the online help.
10. Create the pressures. The model should now look similar to this picture.
400 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Step 7: Save the Model


While this step is optional, it is good practice to frequently save your model.

Step 8: Constraints
Constraints hold the model in place. Without them any force applied to the model would
send it flying off. Constraints typically represent the physical restrictions on a part, some
examples being welds, fasteners or other parts that constrain the part and allow it to
resist the forces applied. These are represented through the use of an SPC (single point
constraint) which restricts the movement of a single node in any of 6 degrees of freedom
(X,Y Z translational and X,Y,Z rotational)
In the case of this model, a special constraining system called Symmetric Constraining is
used. This is a common practice when analyzing a part with some form of symmetry. In
the case of this Submarine Hull model, it represents of the complete hull circle.
Analyzing only part of a symmetric model saves time in both model setup and analysis.
The results can be assumed to be identical across planes of symmetry, assuming the
loading is also identical across the plane.
1. From the Model Browser, select Load Collector Pressure and right click on Hide
2. Make current the Constraints load collector.
3. From the BCs pull down, proceed to the Create > Constraints.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 401


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

4. Select the YZ Front Plane View

5. Select or de-select the appropriate check boxes so that the only DOFs selected are 2, 4
and 6.

6. Using a box select (HINT: Shift-Left Mouse Drag a box) to pick the nodes shown in the
image below.

7. Click create.
8. Select and de-select the appropriate check boxes so that the only DOFs selected are 3,
4 and 5.

9. Using a box select pick the nodes shown in the image below.

402 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

10. Click create.


11. Select the XY Top Plane View

12. Select and de-select the appropriate check boxes so that the only DOFs selected are 1,
5 and 6.

13. Using the standard views and model rotation tools, select all of the nodes on both
remaining edges of the Hull elements.
You will have to manually select the nodes at the end of the ribs, component Ribs,
zoom and rotate the model.

14. Click create.


HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 403


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

15. The model is now properly constrained for the analysis.

Step 9: Define the LoadStep


This step in the analysis setup is to establish a load step. A load step is combination of
constraints and loads that will define a single analysis in the solver. Multiple load steps
can be defined in a single model allowing for one run of the solver to conduct numerous
studies.
1. From the Model Browser, create a LoadCollector.
2. The Entity Editor will open, name it as pressure load.
3. Go to the SPC field; Select from list the Loadcol Constraints.

4. Go to the LOAD field; Select from list the Loadcol Pressure.

5. Go to the ANALYSIS field; select the checkbox and set analysis TYPE as Statics
from the menu.

6. The Load Step pressure load is defined.

404 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Step 10: Control Cards


Control cards are special cards in the deck that control aspects of the solver run.
They can be used to:

Set parameters of the analysis.

Control aspects of the analysis.

Request certain types of output.

1. From the Setup pull-down, proceed to the Create > Control Cards panel.
2. Find the FORMAT card ans click on it. (Use the next button move scroll through the
cards).
3. Change the number_of_formats field to 2.
4. Change the second FORMAT card to HM.
This will provide output in both HyperView (H3D) and HyperMesh (HM) formats.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 405


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

5. Click return and then use next to find the SCREEN card.
6. Set the SCREEN_V1 to OUT

7. From the Model Browser, have a look at the cards created.

406 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Step 11: Run the Analysis


For any other solver the next step should be to export a solver deck and use the
individual solver tools to being the study. As OptiStruct is an Altair product it can very
easily be invoked from within HyperMesh.
1. From the Optimization pull-down, select OptiStruct .
2. Set the panel options to match those below.
NOTE: Your model name and path will differ from the picture, leave the default.

3. After the settings are made, click the OptiStruct button to begin the analysis.
4. A new window will open to show that the OptiStruct analysis is running.
5. When the message ANALYSIS COMPLETED appears, the run is complete and the
window can be closed.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 407


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

Step 12: Post Process


While the workings of HyperView will be discussed in greater length in the Post
Processing section of the class, this step will cover basic post processing steps to review
the analysis you just ran.
1. In the HyperWorks Solver View dialog box, click the Results button to load the results
in HyperView

2. If you want, you can load a different input/result file clicking on Load model (load .fem
as input file) and Load results (load .res as result file); leave h3d format for now and
click on Apply.

3. Enter the Deformed Panel


.
4. Set the Value to 100 and click Apply.

408 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

5. Change the animation type to Set Linear Animation Mode.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 409


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 7: Analysis Setup

6. Go to the Contour Panel

7. Select the Result Type to be Element Stress 2D&3D (t).


8. Change Averaging Method to Advanced.
9. Set Display > Interpolate Color.
10. Click Apply.

11. Click the animate icon

12. Rotate the model to review it using the same keys and buttons as HyperMesh.

Step14: Engineering Review


1. Given that the Yield Strength of an HSLA Steel is around 360 MPa, do you think this
structure, as designed, will survive a dive to a depth of 300 meters?
2. Using the Card Editing functions, experiment with thickness values to determine how the
changes affect the stress and deformation of the model and achieve a model that does
not exceed the yield strength.
NOTE: The more weight of the structure, the less weight that can go in it so try to keep
the materials as thin as possible.
410 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

Chapter 8

Capstone Project
1 - Bringing it all together.
At this point all of the major topics have been discussed, demonstrated and tried. Now it is
time to put them all together and experience a project on the full process that the engineer
will experience using HyperMesh in a real world situation. This final exercise will cover the
following topics:

Importing a Model

Geometry Cleanup

1D Meshing

2D Meshing

3D Meshing

Analysis Setup

Model Loading

Analysis

Post Processing

Each of these topics has been covered in previous chapters and the student is encouraged
to use this manual as a reference guide to assist in performing these tasks.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 411


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

Exercise 8a - Capstone Project


This is a pseudo realistic situation where you as an analyst will be asked to determine the
inertial effects of a thrust scenario on a satellite in orbit. This will be an idealized analysis as
satellites typically do not have thrusters of this sort and in that we will be assuming many
things. We will also be ignoring other external factors such as micro gravity.

Step 1: Loading the model and setting the User Profile


1. Import the IGES model SolarPanels.igs.
In most cases you will be asked to start your analysis from a CAD model. This is a
geometric representation of the solar panels that will be attached to the satellite that we
need to study.
2. Import the HyperMesh Model SatelliteBody.hm.
There are often times when you or a coworker will have a HyperMesh model of a part
that needs to be included in your model. In this case we can import a HyperMesh model
into our current session.

3. Save the model.


Name the model whatever you wish but be aware of the location the model is being
saved. It will be the working directory unless that has been changed during the session
of HyperMesh.
4. Load the OptiStruct User Profile.

Step 2: Clean up the geometry


1. There are some issues with the model that need to be fixed to assure an accurate
representation of the geometry. Find and fix them.
HINT: Do not use the AutoCleanup tool on this model. Remember to use visualization
tools. There are 4 areas that need to be fixed (Component Body).
2. Eliminate the solar panel mounting holes on the satellite body.
Holes can have an especially detrimental effect on the quality of mesh and if they are not
needed, it is best to remove them.
412 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

HINT: The holes locations are important as we will be attaching the solar panels at their
location after we mesh. Make sure there is a fixed point at each hole location so a node
will be placed there in the mesh.

Step 3: Organize the model


1. Move the Solar Panel surfaces to a component called SolarPanels (Choose any color
you wish).
2. The component Electrnics is misspelled. Correct the spelling of the component name to
Electronics.
3. Green is often a poor choice for a component color as it can hide topological colors of
shared edges. Change the color of the Engine component to Grey.
4. Rename the component Body to Body-Aluminum

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 413


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

Step 4: Materials and Properties


The best practice for model setup is to create your materials first, then your properties
and then your mesh. This prevents the need to go back and assign properties later.
HINT: You can use Model Browser + Entity Editor.
1. Create a Material for the Aluminum body of the satellite.

Type: ISOTROPIC

Name: Aluminum

Card image: MAT1

E: 7.0e+04

NU: 0.330

RHO: 2.1e-09

414 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

2. Create a Material for the Electronics Packages.

Type: ISOTROPIC

Name: Electronics

Card image: MAT1

E: 1000

NU: 0.300

RHO: Leave Blank for now. To be explained later

3. Create a Material for the Solar Panels.

Type: ISOTROPIC

Name: SolarPanels

Card image: MAT1

E: 2.0e+04

NU: 0.400

RHO: 1.0e-09

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 415


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

4. Create a Property for the elements that will make up the Body of the satellite.

Type: 2D

Name: Body-Aluminum

Card image: PSHELL

Material: Aluminum

Thickness: 5.00mm

416 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

5. Create a Property for the elements that will make up the Electronics.

Type: 3D

Name: Electronics

Card image: PSOLID

Material: Electronics

6. Create a Property SolarPanels for the elements that will make up the SolarPanels.

Type: 2D

Name: SolarPanels

Card image: PSHELL

Material: SolarPanels

Thickness: 1.50mm

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 417


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

7. Create a Property for the elements that will make up the Engine.

Type: 3D

Name: Engine

Card image: PSOLID

Material: Aluminum

418 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

8. Assign the properties to the appropriate components.


HINT: The Components view can help.

Step 5: Mesh the part


When solids are connected to surfaces, as is the case with the Electronics Packages
and the Engine, it is often best to model the solid elements first.
1. Split the Engine into mappable regions and solid mesh with an element size of 100.
Make sure to have a good circular pattern of elements. Also make sure you always
have at least two elements through the thickness.

2. Solid Mesh the electronics Packages with a size of 100.

3. With the solids now meshed, mesh the body of the Satellite with an element size of 100.
Assure good mesh pattern and quality as the quality of the analysis is highly dependent
on mesh quality.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 419


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

TIP: Avoid using automatic element cleanup as it can cause distortion in solid elements
that are connected to shells.
HINT: Differences in mesh densities for edges across from each other cause trias.
Projecting points to edges can help mesh pattern problems around nodes enforced by
fixed points.

4. Mesh the Solar Panels with an element size of 200.

Step 6: Import the Satellite Dish


Often we can take information from previously run FEAs and incorporate it into our FEA
model. In this case, we will take a Satellite Dish that has been previously modeled and
saved in an OptiStruct.fem format and import it into our model.
1. Import the file Dish.fem.
This model has previously defined materials and properties.

420 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

2. Verify that all the components have materials and properties assigned to them.

While the elements are properly imported into location, importing an FEM file will not
connect the nodes of the imported model into the existing model. We need to attach the
dish supports to the body of the satellite.
Equivalence the nodes at the 4 connection points where the Dish Supports meet the
Body of the Satellite.
HINT: Node equivalence is found on the Replace panel.

Step 7: Connect the Solar Panels to the Body


1. Using HyperBeam, create a BeamSection that is a thinwalled box that is 100mm on
each side and 10mm thick. Name it Square_SolarPanel_Support.
2. Create a PBAR property and assign the Square_SolarPanel_Support and assign the
material Antenna that was imported in with the Dish.
3. Create a component for the Solar Panel Supports.
4. Create BAR2 elements that connect the top and bottom innermost nodes to the nodes at
the center of the connection holes you eliminated previously. Make sure they have the
Solar Panel Support property and align them with the Z axis.
5. Turn on the beam visualization mode to assure they were created properly.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 421


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

Step 8: Analysis Setup.


By this stage all elements should be properly assigned properties and all properties
should be assigned materials. Shell elements should have thicknesses and a PSHELL
card and solids should have a PSOLID card. At this stage we begin the loading of the
model.
422 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

The analysis we will be conducting is an Inertial Relief Analysis. This method was
specifically designed to study spacecraft and aircraft in flight. The difficulty of studying
situations such as those is the lack of a constraint system. Free flying objects are not
constrained in a traditional manner so the SPC (Single Point Constraint) we have used
up to now will not work for this type of study. Instead we shall define a structure of
SUPPORT1 constraints. These work to limit Rigid Body Motion (movement of the entire
structure without deformation) but do not constrain the body against local deformation
and thus are ideal for studying a free flying object.
An inertial relief analysis can only have 6 TOTAL Degrees Of Freedom (DOF)
constrained. When creating the SUPPORT1 constraint system, the exact location of the
constraints is not critical but typically follows this pattern:
a) Create a SUPPORT1 constraint at an extreme location of the part with X, Y and
Z translational DOF constrained (1, 2 and 3).
b) Pick another node at an extreme location and whichever direction that node is
from the original node, that DOF is removed. For example, if to reach the second
node you traveled in the Z axis direction, the Z DOF (3) would be removed
making a new DOF of 1 and 2.
c) For the final location, pick one more extreme position and remove the DOF that
corresponds to the direction moved from the constraint created in step b. For
example, if you traveled in the Y axis direction from the b constraint, you would
remove the Y DOF (2) and would make the final constraint DOF 1 only.
1. Create a Load Collector called Supports.
2. Create the load types SUPORT1 constraints in the following pattern.

3. Now a force needs to be applied to the thruster. While it is not entirely representative of
an engine giving thrust, what we will do is to place a distributed force on the nodes of the
flat outer ring of the engine. The net force we will place on the thruster is 500N.
HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 423


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

Because this net force is to be split across many nodes, we need to calculate the portion
of the force that will be applied on each node.
4. Create a Load Collector called Thrust.
5. Count the number of nodes on the flat outer ring of the thruster.
HINT: HyperMesh has a count function and selecting the nodes by plane makes
counting them easy.

Number of nodes on Thruster _138___________


6. Divide the Net Force (500N) by the number of nodes counted.
500N/138 (number of nodes) = 3.623 N (Force per node)
7. Create forces in the Z direction at each node with the value calculated above.
Now all of the loads are in place for our Inertial Relief Analysis. Next a Control Card
must be set to tell the solver this will be that type of analysis.

424 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

8. In the PARAM control card, activate the INREL keyword and give it a value of -1.
This value indicates it is an Inertia Relief Analysis with SUPPORT1 constraints. For
more information about the PARAM, or any other control card, consult the OptiStruct
Format Reference Guide in the HELP Documentation.

The final step in setting up an analysis is to define a LOAD STEP. The load step is a
combination of loads and constraints that represent an analysis in the solver. There can
be multiple load steps in a single model containing any combination of defined loads and
constraints. This saves time as multiple runs of a solver can be defined in one model.
9. Create a Linear Static Load Step that combines the Supports Constraints and the
Thrust Force.
HINT: Remember that the Supports are SUPPORT1 loads and NOT SPCs. Make sure
you reference them in the correct location.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 425


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

The model is now set to run. Save it.

Step 9: Emergency Engineering Change


At the last minute it has been decided that the Dish on this satellite is not large enough
to properly broadcast back to Earth. Engineers have determined the Dish needs to be
4500mm in Diameter.
Much time has been spent setting up the model. While it would be possible to remodel,
remesh and re-setup the analysis, this would take time. Morphing is a perfect tool to
quickly alter the already created mesh.
1. Using Morphing, create a domain and then change the dimension of the diameter of the
Dish to 4500mm.
HINT: Its a 2D Domain.

426 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

Step 10: Run the Analysis


With everything set up and the emergency engineering change dealt with, it is time to
run the analysis.
1. Run the Analysis in OptiStruct.

Step 11: Post Process


1. In the HyperWorks Solver View dialog box, click the Results button to load the results
in HyperView.
2. You can load a different input/result file clicking on Load model (load .fem as input file)
and Load results (load .res as result file); click on Apply.

3. Change the animation type to Set Linear Animation Mode (


4. Go to the contour panel (

).

).

5. Select the Result type to be Von Mises Stress (s).


6. Change Averaging method to Advanced.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 427


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Chapter 8: Capstone Project

7. Click Apply.

Step 12: Design Changes


As you can see from the results, the bottom of the satellite is not strong enough.
1. Using the tools within HyperMesh, increase the strength of the satellite. Some options
are:

Material Thickness

1D Reinforcement Beams.

Material Changes

Keep in mind though that it costs roughly $3,000-$4,000 per Pound to place something
in Low Earth Orbit and closer to $10,000/lb for a Geosynchronous Orbit, so try to
engineer the design and not just beef it up!

428 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix A: HyperMesh Desktop Customization

Appendix A

HyperMesh
Desktop Customization

DEMO A1 - HyperMesh Desktop Customization


Description
The purpose of this example is to show how the user can create and/or use a script in
Hypermesh Desktop.
Add a button to the User Page on the Utility Menu which executes the script
modeltour.tcl.
This script is located in the installation under hm\scripts, so a path is not
needed.
The name of the button should be Model Tour.
The pop up help string should be Explore HyperMesh Session.
The color and location are up to you.

HyperMesh commands used


*createbutton()

TCL/TK commands used


none

Hints
On Windows, the working directory is located in the My Documents folder.
Create a new text file called userpage.mac in this location and add the
appropriate commands to make the button evaluate the tcl file.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 429


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix A: HyperMesh Desktop Customization

DEMO A2 - HyperMesh Desktop Customization


Description
The purpose of this example is to show how the user can create and/or use a script in
Hypermesh Desktop.
Add a pair of buttons to the User Page on the Utility Menu.
The first one shall call an editor with a certain file (tcl script myScript.tcl), the
other one shall run this tcl script.
This is a starting point to write scripts.
The file name might be myScript.tcl in the local directory.
The names of the buttons should be "Test" and "Edit".
The pop up help strings should be Test myScript.tcl" and "Edit myScript.tcl.
The color and location as well as the macro names are up to you.

HyperMesh commands used


*createbutton()

TCL/TK commands used


none

Hints
On Windows, the working directory is located in the My Documents folder.
Create a new text file called userpage.mac in this location and add the
appropriate commands to make the button evaluate the tcl file.

Step 1: Create the userpage.mac text file


1. On Windows, the working directory is located in the My Documents folder.
2. Create a new text file called userpage.mac in this location or use the previuos
one.
3. Copy the tcl file located at ..\Model Files\CHAPTER-9-APPENDIX-A-HMDCUSTOM\A2\myScript.tcl in the My Documents folder.

Note: Please refer to the Demo Model Files folder and Online Help to get more
details.

430 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Appendix B

HyperWorks
Collaboration Tools & Assembly
1 HyperWorks Collaboration Tools
HyperWorks Collaboration Tools is a set of modules that deliver enterprise features and
functionality to HyperWorks users. Tightly integrated into the HyperWorks suite of
applications, HWE includes: With the HyperWorks Desktop collaboration tools, you can
explore and organize your personal data, collaborate in teams, and connect to other
data sources, such as corporate PLM systems to access CAD data.

1.1 - Benefits
HyperWorks Collaboration Tools provides many benefits that challenge users and team
managers to manage their CAD data. Some of these benefits are listed below:

Well organized container for each project type

Centralized location of project data files

Easy access for team members

Version controlled project data files

Does not require any additional software installation

Ability for team members to view/modify project data files

Real time monitoring for individual projects

Integrated seamlessly within any Altair HyperWorks applications

Able to add new parsers to read in different metadata types

Customize toolbar to sites specification

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 431


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

1.2 - Components: Explore, Organize, Connect

Explore CAE contents and metadata easily and quickly

Integrated into all Desktop native file dialogs

Easily search & retrieve files

Automated indexing of selected folders

View properties associated with files, with automatic metadata


extraction

Organize CAE simulations in a content browser

Organize simulation data and files into libraries

Browse local and shared libraries to find and retrieve contents

Retain pedigree via full version control

Synchronize to work with up to date information

432 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Connect to third-party PLM systems for CAD search and retrieve

Connect to PLM systems

Seamlessly connect to corporate PLM systems for CAD retrieval

Search & retrieve directly within PLM repository

Retrieve and load CAD files directly into HM

Initially available as OTB feature to pull CAD


data from Teamcenter

Connect to other published contents

Browse your teammates


published resources

Existent Enterprise Data Sources


(e.g. Material DB)

Create a generic pull connection

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 433


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Connect from HyperWorks Desktop to corporate PDM (Bi-Directional


Integration)

Search for Parts, CAD, BOM

Browse product structure for desired part(s)

Download and import directly into HyperWorks

Publish contents meshes, solver decks, results,


... back to PDM

434 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

1.3 - Terminology and Concepts


Common terminology used with the HyperWorks Desktop collaboration features.
Repository
A Repository is where data, information, and associated files are located.

There are two out-of-the-box repositories:

My Computer is an unmanaged repository

Unmanaged: Contents are not versioned and files are not


moved from their current locations on the disk.

Personal is a managed repository

Managed: Contents can be versioned, allowing for full


lineage of the content and the files are moved to the
librarys managed vault

Additional repositories can be added, such as corporate


PLM systems

Repositories may contain one or more libraries

Library
Libraries can be created within a repository to logically organize or group the contents
stored within a repository by using the appropriate profile type

There are three types of profiles

CAE Profile (default)

Contains out-of-the-box content definitions for CAE content


types

General Profile

HyperMesh model, results file, solver deck

Will only contain non-content definitions

Managed Profile

Contains out-of-the-box content definitions for material


information

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 435


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Workspace

Corresponds to a local directory where files are retrieved from the vault
so they can be viewed and/or modified by users.

maintains knowledge of what contents have been retrieved from the


repository at any given time.

For an unmanaged library the workspace is not used; since no file


movement occurs

For a managed library the default workspace directory:


C:/Documents and Settings/<user>/hweDefaultWS

Vault
An area, associated with a repository, where managed content files are moved and
stored.

Content Type

Contents stored within a library are typed, according to content


definitions, based on the Altair Unified Data Model (UDM)

Contents are organized by the following methods:

Category

A special type of content which can be used to classify or


organize other content

Folder

A folder refers to the physical location of a file on the


operating system, in a vault or a workspace

436 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

1.4 - Organize Browser & User Interface


HyperWorks Collaboration Tools features are mostly setup within the HyperWorks
Organize Browser.
The Organize Browser user interface can be accessed within HyperWorks Desktop by
clicking on the top window pull-down menu:
View > Browsers > HyperWorks > Organize

Organize Browser - User Interface

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 437


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Organize Browser Toolbar

Organize Browser Using and Setting Organize Browser Preferences


Users can set the Organize preferences such as: editing applications, diff applications,
and map file extensions.
To access the Organize preferences:
1. Right click within the Content browser to display the Context menu.
2. Click Set Preferences.

438 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

1.5 - Creating and Using a Personal Library


Using the Collaboration tools within the Organize browser is very easy and simple to
use.
In this section, we will show you how to set up your first Personal library and populate it
with CAE files.
From there, we will show you some of the top level features how the Collaboration tools
can help your CAE process.

Creating a Personal CAE library

Adding CAE files to the Personal library

Searching for CAE files

Loading in a CAE model

Viewing Model Properties

Viewing Version History

Access to corporate material information

Guarantee that accurate properties are used in simulations

Seamless Integration within HyperWorks Desktop environment

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 439


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Accessibility

Find what youre looking for using full search and filter capabilities:
Search for materials based on robust set of properties
Simple keyword searches + advanced queries
Full text search search within files
Filter materials by material type, solver type, etc.

Simple Query

Save commonly used queries for efficiency and reuse

440 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Integration

Content preview
Preview stress-strain curves
Overlay and compare curves

Access to material library during import process

Add new materials to library


Add individual materials interactively
Bulk load and add materials automatically
Extract material information from existing solver decks
Add new materials during material creation process

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 441


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Automatic metadata extraction

Maintain pedigree
Version history
Compare properties between versions
Compare files between versions

Use Cases & Connectors Examples

Examples of Use Cases


Retrieve CAD from PLM System
Retrieve BOMs from PLM System
Publish FE Meshes/Solver Decks to PLM System
Publish CAE Results & Reports to PLM System
Retrieve Material information from Material Database

Examples of Existing Connectors


Siemens Teamcenter
PTC Windchill
Other PLM Vendors
Material DB (e.g. Key To Metals)
Other 3rd Party Enterprise Applications

442 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

2 HyperWorks Assembly Browser

Build FE assembly models

Maintain properties from PDM FE PDM

Seamless Integration within HyperWorks Desktop environment

Batch meshing integration

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 443


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

2.1 - Modules

With the ever growing need to reduce model build times and manage models
more effectively, a new and innovative approach to the way models are
constructed within HyperMesh is underway.

A new HyperMesh entity, called the Module entity, will enable users to manage
their model data in a modularized fashion.

Modularization allows for light-weight self-containment of parts & sub-assemblies

module
[moj-ool]
a separable component, frequently one that is interchangeable with others, for
assembly into units of differing size, complexity, or function.

Currently used by the Assembly browser

NVH Director

Crash Profile

Teamcenter Integration

Modules are created when BOMs are loaded

In HW 13.0, weve taken the first steps to expose Modules as a new entity in
HyperMesh.

444 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Current Module

The user will be able to set a current module similar to current component from
Assembly Browser
Status Bar

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 445


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Organization within Modules

Organize components, properties or materials from one module to another.

Show Contents - The user will be able to review the contents of a module.

The user will be able to set a current module similar to current component from

Assembly Browser

Status Bar

446 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Exercise B1 - Creating and Using a Personal Library


In this exercise, you will learn to:

Set up a first Personal library and populate it with CAE files

Search for files both in the Organize Browser

Load files into HyperMesh using the Organize Browser

Viewing Model Properties and Version History

Step1: Creating a Personal CAE library


The first step to use any part of the Collaboration tools is to setup a library. The library
will store all the files you wish to be part of that given library.
Note: If youve upgraded your HyperWorks Desktop to version 13.0, then is highly
recommended to remove C:\Users\<username>\.Altair folder before to open
HyperMesh Desktop.
To create a Personal CAE library:
1. Create two directories as shown below:

Create the folder My_HWCT under C:/ C:/My_HWCT

Create the folder Libraries under C:/My_HWCT


C:/My_HWCT/Libraries

2. The Organize Browser user interface can be accessed within HyperWorks


Desktop by clicking on the top window pull-down menu.
Go to View >Browsers > HyperWorks > Organize to open the Organize
Browser.

3. Click the Organize tab.


4. Click the Repository: arrow and select Personal from the list.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 447


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

5. Click the Library: arrow and select <New Library>.

6. In the New Library dialog, fill in the fields as shown below:

7. Click OK.

448 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Step2: Adding CAE files to the Personal library


Once you have created your personal library, then the next step is to populate it with
files. You can simply add files one at a time, or by directories.
To add a directory of files to a given library:
1. Right click in the Content browser to access the Context menu.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 449


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

2. Click Add Files and Folders.

3. In the Select Files/Folders dialog, click Add Folder


Files/Folders to Add section.

icon in the List of

4. In the Select File dialog box, locate the following folder:


..\Model Files\CHAPTER-10-APPENDIX-B-HWCTC\demos

450 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

5. Click OK.
6. Back in the Select Files/Folders dialog, click OK.
7. When the HyperWorks Organize confirmation dialog appears, click Ok.
Wait for the indexing process to complete (it should take 10-20 seconds or few
minutes, depending on your client.).
Please wait till the entire directory has been indexed. Or you will not be able to
complete the exercise. It will complain "Library is currently locked"

8. When the indexing process has completed (will take few minutes), a confirmation
dialog will appear asking to refresh the Organize browser, click Yes.
If the dialog will not appear just click on Refresh.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 451


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Step3: Searching for CAE files


Once your library has been populated with your CAE files, the Organize browser
provides a simple searching tool to find any files in a given library.
To perform a simple search for a CAE file within a given library:
1. Right click in the Content browser and then click Show Find from the Context
menu.

2. Click the Options for searching

icon and click Use Wildcards.

3. In the Find: text box, enter: cleaned_up_geom*

452 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

4. Press Enter.
5. It should find and highlight the file: cleaned_up_geom.hm

Step4: Loading in a CAE model


Once you have found the proper file, you can quickly load in the model by simply rightclicking on the file and click option to load in the file.
To check-out a file and load it into a HyperMesh graphics area:
1. Right click on the cleaned_up_geom.hm file from the Content browser to
access the Context menu.
2. From the Context menu, click Get.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 453


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

3. Right click on the cleaned_up_geom.hm file and from the Context menu click
Load HM model.

4. The model will load automatically into the HyperMesh graphics area to the right.

454 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Step5: Viewing Model Properties


The Organize browser has a built-in feature that extracts the meta-data for each file that
has been populated into a given library.
While the files are being imported into a library, it also indexes and categorizes each of
the files meta-data.
These CAE meta-data can come in handy when you want to quickly review the
properties of each file without loading into HyperWorks.
To view the meta-data of any given file within a given library:
1. Click anyone of the files within the Content browser.

2. Click Show/Hide Properties

icon from the Content browser tool bar.

3. A sub panel should appear below to the Content browser showing the
Properties panel.

HyperWorks 13.0

HMD Introduction 455


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc.

Appendix B: HyperWorks Collaboration Tools

Step6: Viewing Version History


On each instance when a file has been updated and checked-in; it will record a new
version number into a library. This feature helps to track the number instances of that file
has been checked-in. However, more importantly users can retrieve a particular version
of that same file to review what changes were made.
To review the version history of a file:
1. Click anyone of the files within the Content browser.
2. Right click on anyone of the files from the Content browser to access the
Context menu.
3. From the Context menu, click Version History.

4. The Version History sub-panel should appear similar as below.

If this file has multiple in-checks, you will see the different version umbers under
the Version column.

5. To return back to the main Organize browser, click on the blue arrow icon

456 HMD Introduction

HyperWorks 13.0
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering, Inc