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# Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Reinforced Concrete
Design-II
By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali
Civil Engineering Department
UET Peshawar
www.drqaisarali.com

Course Content
Mid Term

Introduction

Course Content
Final Term

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Midterm

= 25 %

Final Term

= 50 %

Session Performance = 25 %
Assignments

= 10 % (6 Assignments )

Quizzes

= 15 % (6 Quizzes)

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Lectures Availability

## All lectures and related material will be available on

the website:

www.drqaisarali.com

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Lecture-01

Introduction
By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali
Civil Engineering Department
UET Peshawar
www.drqaisarali.com

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Topics
Concept of Demand and Capacity
Flexural Design of Beams using ACI Recommendations
Shear Design of Beams using ACI Recommendations
Example

Demand

## These actions when act on the structure will induce internal

disturbance(s) in the structure in the form of stresses (such
as compression, tension, bending, shear, and torsion).
The internal stresses are also called load effects.

Capacity

demand.

Beam

will

resist

the

(Demand)

## applied load up to its

capacity and will fail
when demand exceeds
capacity

Failure

## To avoid failure, capacity to demand ratio should be kept

greater than one, or at least equal to one.

## It is, however, intuitive to have some margin of safety i.e., to

have capacity to demand ratio more than one. How much?

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Failure

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Example 1.1

## Calculate demand in the form of stresses or load effects on

the given concrete pad of size 12 12.
50 Tons

12
12

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## Concept of Capacity and Demand

Example 1.1

effects as demand are compared to the load carrying
capacity of the structure in the relevant units.
50 Tons

## of resistance should be able to

carry a stress of 765.27 psi.

strength

12

concrete

12

= 765.27 psi

of

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Example 1.2

## Determine capacity to demand ratio for the pad of example

1.1 for the following

## compressive strength of concrete (i) 500 psi (ii) 765.27 psi

(iii) 1000 psi (iv) 2000 psi. Comment on the results?
50 Tons

12
12
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Example 1.2

## Solution: As calculated in example 1.1, demand = 765.27 psi.

Therefore capacity to demand ratios are as under:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

## In (iii) and (iv), there is some margin of safety normally called as

factor of safety.

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Safety Factor

## It can be achieved easily if we fix the ratio of capacity to

demand greater than 1.0, say 1.5, 2.0 or so, as shown in
example 1.2.

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Safety Factor

## For certain reasons, however, let say we insist on a factor of

safety such that capacity to demand ratio still remains 1.0.
Then there are three ways of doing this:

e.g. 70 ton instead of 50 ton in the previous example,

## Take a reduced capacity instead of actual capacity such as

1500 psi for concrete whose actual strength is 3000 psi

Doing both.

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## Concept of Capacity and Demand

Working Stress Method

## In the Working Stress or Allowable Stress Design method,

the material strength is knowingly taken less than the actual
e.g. half of the actual to provide a factor of safety equal to
2.0.

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## Concept of Capacity and Demand

Strength Design Method

## In the Strength Design method, the increased loads and the

reduced strength of the material are considered, but both based on
scientific rationale. For example, it is quite possible that during the

The factors of 1.2 and 1.6 used by ACI 318-11 (Building code
requirements for structural concrete, American Concrete Institute
load respectively are based on probability based research studies.

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## Concept of Capacity and Demand

Strength Design Method

## Similarly, the strength is not reduced arbitrarily but

considering the fact that variation in strength is possible due
to imperfections, age factor etc. Strength reduction factors
are used for this purpose.

## Factor of safety in Strength Design method is thus the

combined effect of increased load and reduced strength,
both modified based on a valid rationale.

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10

## In Pakistan, the use of metric ton is very common; therefore

we will refer to Metric Ton in our discussion.

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Example 1.3

## Design the 12 12 pad to carry a load of 200 tons. The

area of the pad cannot be increased for some reasons.

## Allowable strength = fc/2 = 1.5 ksi (for Working Stress method)

200 Tons

12
12
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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## Concept of Capacity and Demand

Example 1.3

Solution:

Demand in the form of load (P) = 200 Tons = 200 2204/1000 = 440.8 kips

Demand in the form of load effects (Stress) = (200 2204)/ (12 12)
= 3061.11 psi = 3.0611 ksi

Capacity in the form of strength = 1.5 ksi (less than the demand of 3.0611 ksi).

## There are two possibilities to solve this problem:

Increase area of the pad (geometry); it cannot be done as required in the example.

Increase the strength by using some other material; using high strength concrete,
steel or other material; economical is to use concrete and steel combine.

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## Concept of Capacity and Demand

Example 1.3

Solution:

Let us assume that we want to use steel bar reinforcement of yield strength fy =
40 ksi. Then capacity to be provided combinely by both materials should be at
least equal to the demand. And let us follow the Working Stress approach, then:

{P = Rc + Rs (Demand=Capacity)}

(Force units)

## Capacity of pad = Acfc/2 + Asfy/2

(Force units)

Therefore,
440.8 = (144 3/2) + (As 40/2)

As = 11.24 in2 (Think on how to provide this much area of steel? This is how

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Example 1.4

## Check the capacity of the plain concrete beam given in figure

below against flexural stresses within the linear elastic range.
Concrete compressive strength (fc) = 3 ksi
2.0 kip/ft

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20-0
12

Beam section
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Example 1.4

Solution:

in-kips

calculated as:

## = My/I (linear elastic range)

Therefore, M = I/y
Reinforced Concrete Design II

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Example 1.4

Solution:

=?

## The lower fibers of the given beam will be subjected to tensile

stresses. The tensile strength of concrete (Modulus of rupture) is
given by ACI code as 7.5 f , (ACI 18.3.3).
f = 7.5 3000 = 411 psi

= 328.8 in-kips

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## Flexural Design of Beams Using ACI

Recommendations
Load combinations: ACI 318-11, Section 9.2.
Load Combinations: ACI 318-11, Section 9.2.

U = 1.4(D + F)

(9-1)

(9-2)

(9-3)

(9-4)

(9-5)

(9-6)

(9-7)

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14

## Flexural Design of Beams Using ACI

Recommendations
Strength Reduction Factors: ACI 318-11, Section 9.3.

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Recommendations
Design:

For Mn = Mu

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15

Recommendations
Design:

## max = 0.851(fc/fy){u/(u + t)}

Where,
u = 0.003
t = Net tensile strain (ACI 10.3.4). When t = 0.005, = 0.9 for
flexural design.
1= 0.85 (for fc 4000 psi, ACI 10.2.7.3)

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## Flexural Design of Beams Using ACI

Recommendations
Design:
max and min for various values of fc and fy

fc (psi)

3000

4000

5000

fy (psi)

40000

60000

40000

60000

40000

60000

min

0.005

0.0033

0.005

0.0033

0.0053

0.0035

max

0.0203

0.0135

0.027

0.018

0.0319

0.0213

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## Shear Design of Beams using ACI

Recommendations
When Vc/2 Vu, no web reinforcement is required.
When Vc Vu, theoretically no web reinforcement is
required. However as long as Vc/2 is not greater
than Vu, ACI 11.1.1 recommends minimum web
reinforcement.

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## Shear Design of Beams using ACI

Recommendations
Maximum spacing and minimum reinforcement
requirement as permitted by ACI 11.4.5 and 11.4.6
shall be minimum of:

smax = Avfy/(50bw),

d/2

24 inches

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17

## Shear Design of Beams using ACI

Recommendations
When Vc < Vu, web reinforcement is required as:
Vu = Vc + Vs
Vs = Vu Vc
Avfyd/s = Vu Vc
s = Avfyd/(Vu Vc)

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## Shear Design of Beams using ACI

Recommendations
Check for Depth of Beam:
Vs 8 f bwd (ACI 11.4.7.9)
If not satisfied, increase depth of beam.

Vs 4

half.

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Recommendations

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## Shear Design of Beams using ACI

Recommendations
Placement of Shear Reinforcement

## Sd = Design Spacing (Vc < Vu )

Smax = Maximum Spacing (Vc > Vu)
Vu is the shear force at distance d from the face of the support.
Vc and Vc/2 are plotted on shear force diagram.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

## Design the beam shown below as per ACI 318-11.

W D.L = 1.0 kip/ft
W L.L = 1.5 kip/ft

20-0
Take f c = 3 ksi & fy = 40 ksi

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

(assumption).

## W D.L = 1.0 kip/ft

W L.L = 1.5 kip/ft

20-0

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14
Beam section

40

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

## W u = 1.2D.L + 1.6L.L (ACI 9.2)

= 1.2 (1.0 + 0.292) + 1.6 1.5 = 3.9504 kips/ft

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

## Step No. 03: Analysis.

Flexural Analysis:
Mu = W u l2/8 = 3.9504 (20)2 12/8 = 2370.24 in-kips
3.9504 kip/ft

## Analysis for Shear in beam:

Vu = 39.5 {10 (17.5/12)}/10 = 33.74 k

33.74 kips
39.50
SFD

2370.24

BMD

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

For Mn = Mu

Asfy(d a/2) = Mu

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

First Trial:

Assume a = 4

## As = 2370.24 / [0.9 40 {17.5 (4/2)}] = 4.25 in2

a = Asfy/ (0.85fcbw)

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Second Trial:

## As = 2370.24 / [0.9 40 {17.5 (4.76/2)}] = 4.35 in2

a = 4.35 40/ (0.85 3 14) = 4.88 inches

Third Trial:

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

min = 3

## 3 3000 /40000 = 0.004

200/40000 = 0.005

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

## max = 0.851(fc/fy){u/(u + t)}

t = Net tensile strain (ACI 10.3.4). When t = 0.005, = 0.9 for flexural design.

concrete.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

## Design for flexure:

Bar Placement: 10 #6 bars will provide 4.40 in2 of steel area which is
slightly greater than required.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

## Positive steel can be curtailed 50 % at a distance (l/8) from face of

the support.

For Curtailment and bent up bar details refer to the following figures
provided at the end of this lecture:

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Vu = 33.74 kips

f bwd

50

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

## Spacing required (Sd) = Avfyd/ (Vu Vc)

= 0.750.224017.5/ (33.7420.13) 8.5

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

## Maximum spacing and minimum reinforcement requirement as

permitted by ACI 11.4.5 and 11.4.6 is minimum of:

smax = 24

## Therefore smax = 8.75

Reinforced Concrete Design II

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Other checks:

Vs 8
8

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:

Solution:

Other checks:

Check if Vs 4

If Vs 4

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:
Step 05: Drafting (Shear Reinforcement)

3.9504 kip/ft

33.74 kips

39.50
kips

20.13 kips
10.06 kips

x1
x2

x1 = (10.06)(10)/(39.50) 2.5 ft
x2 = (20.13)(10)/(39.50) 5.0 ft

Note:
As Sd Smax we will provide sd up to 7.5 ft from
the face of support. Beyond this point, theoretically
no reinforcement is required, however, we will
provide #3 2-legged stirrups @ 12 in c/c.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example 1.6
Flexural and Shear Design of Beam as per ACI:
Step 05: Drafting (Flexural Reinforcement)

#3, 2 legged
vertical stirrups @ 12" c/c

## #3, 2 legged vertical stirrups @ 8.5" c/c

2 #4 bars

s/2 = 4.25"

C (5 + 5) #6 Bars
1" Spacer bars @ 3' c/c

B
L/8 = 2.5'
7.5'

5.0'
L = 20.0'

## Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

5 #6 Bars
L/8 = 2.5'
7.5'

2 #4 Bars

2 #4 Bars

#3, 2 legged
stirrups @ 8.5" c/c
5 #6 Bars

20"

## #3, 2 legged vertical stirrups @ 8.5" c/c

2 #4 Bars

#3, 2 legged
stirrups @ 8.5" c/c
20"

#3, 2 legged
stirrups @ 12" c/c
20"

(5 + 5) #6 Bars

(5 + 5) #6 Bars

14"

14"

14"

SECTION A-A

SECTION B-B

SECTION C-C

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3D Model
SketchUp Model

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

References
ACI 318-11
Design of Concrete Structures (13th Ed.) by Nilson,
Darwin and Dolan

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Appendix

Exact curtailments lengths for simply supported positive moments (to be measured from face of the support)
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Appendix

L1

L1

L2

L2

L1

L2

L2
8

L2

L1

Figure: Cutoff for bars in approximately equal spans with uniformly distributed loads

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The End

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