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Client :- Techpro

By Samar Seth

I ,as an intern, calculated the ion exchange softener

design for a small sized powerplant of TechPro Inc. in

May 2015, and would like to share the calculations in

the form of this research paper . I have presented the

various entities in the form of an excel sheet, which

can be adjusted and understood with ease. I have

presented the logic lucidly, and would recommend all

readers to go through my articles before attempting to

read this paper . I hope you will gain from this .

Regards

Samar Seth

removing hardness , namely

1. ion exchange and

2.Chemical precpitation methods ( lime and lime soda ash softening ).

So why use ion exchange ? This is because, the level of hardness

content of water required by the client in its power station is

commercial zero i.e. below 5 ppm . After chemical precipitaiton

methods, the general hardness content in the obtained water is

around 100 ppm . Whereas for ion exchange , the soft water has

hardness <5 ppm , which matches with the desired ppm .

Additionally, in ion exchange softener the resin can be regenerated

using chemicals NaCl, which can be obtained cheaply. Whereas in

chemical precipitation methods, lime and soda ash becomes less

feasible due to handling of extra sludge produced in the system ,

hence not used for softening. the soft water has hardness

The Calculations

The client gave a stipulated water flow of 130 m3/hour, requiring 2

softeners , and gave an estimate of 75 ppm as CaCO3 of the feed total

hardness.

As the softeners required are similar, equal flow of water will enter the

two softeners. So the amount of water flow in each individual will be

130 / 2 =65 m3/hour . Hence, the net flow per softener is 65 m3/hour.

Allowing the plant to run for 22 hours, and leaving 2 spare hours for

regeneration of the cation exchange resin, the output between

regeneration for one softener is the product of the operating hours

and the operating flow, ie 22*65 = 1430 m3 of water .

If the feed water sodium present is 42.36 ppm as CaCO3 , then the

ratio of Na to TC is given by (feed water sodium)/(Feed total hardness

+ Feed water sodium ) , which gives (42.36)/(42.36 + 75 ) = .360941,

i.e. 36 % approx.

Regeneration Logisitcs

For this plant, the resin selected is DUOLITE C-20 Na and the mode

of regeneration is co-flow (C/F), which means that the backwash flow

and operating flow will have the same direction.

The regenerant used in this plant is NaCl , due to its easy availability

and low price .

The regeneration level of salt selected is 150 kg NaCl/m3

based on which the capacity of resin is evaluated as per the

characteristics of the resin used .

Exchange Capacity

The excgange capacity of the regenerant is 69 Kg as

CaCO3/M3, and can be corrected using the five tables given below.

correction factor 2 due to the feed hardness is equal to 1, similarly

comparing the values of the correponding items with the above table

the correction factor 3 also turns out to be 1.

(After comparing with the excel sheet)

The net exchange capacity can be obtained by simply multiplying the

standard exchange value by all five correction factors

i.e. 69*1*1*1*.96*.9= 59.62 Kg as CaCO3

Work Done

The work done is equal to the product of the feed total hardness and

output between regeneration for one softener upon 1000, i.e.

1430*75/1000=107.3 Kg as CaCO3

During design calculations it is important to consider some extra

margin, as a lot of water is wasted during regeneration and hence the

waste water for this design calculation is assumed to be 20 m3.

As there shall be some extra load due to waste water that is being

assumed, the work done by the waste water needs to be added to the

previous value. The load due to the waste water is again the product

of the feed total hardness and output between regeneration

( assumed volume of waste water ) , i.e. 20*75/1000=1.5

Adding this waste water work value to the previously work

value gives 107.3+1.5=108.8 Kg as CaCO3.

Resin Volume

The amount of total resin volume can be calculated by dividing the

work done ( total, including waste water) by the net exchange

capacity, which gives108.8/59.62= 1.82489, i.e. 1.824 m3 approx.

Dimensions of Tank

The required bed height has been assumed as 1.5 metres

The area can be calculated by dividing the resin volume by the above

height

i.e. 1.824/1.5=1.216m2

From this the diameter of the tank can be calculated by Area= pi*r^2

as the resin vessel is vertical cylindrical type.

Putting the value of area in the above equation and solving for 'r'

gives .624, and as diameter is twice the radius

d=.624*2=1.249 m

Considering some extra margin the diameter of the tank in the power

plant is taken as 1.3 m for convenience.

So, the bed height of the resin will be calculated using the diameter

as 1.3, so it will be pi*[d/2]^2*h= 1.824/(3.14*0.65*0.65)=1.375 m

With the required extra free board space as 80 %, the Height on

straight (HOS) = Bed height*(1+.8)

, i.e. 1.375*(1+0.8)=2.475 m

Leaving some extra space, the HOS provided is 2.6metres

As mentioned earlier in this paper, salt is used for regenerating the

cation ion exchange resin.

The amount of salt that will be utilized for regeneration depends on

the resin volume and regeneration level

and is given by

Provided Resin Volume*Regeneration Level=150*1.824=273.6 Kg

The salt saturation level in the brine tank is given to be 24%,

so the suggested capacity of brine tank can be calculated as

(Salt Required/Salt concentration)/1.2=950L where 1.2 is the

specific gravity of 24% solution

Thus, the suggested capacity of Brine tank is 950 L.

As 1000L=1m3, so 1500L is equal to 1.5 m3

HOS of Brine tank is 1.5 m, so the area of the brine tank is

Volume/HOS of brine tank=1m^2

The diameter is {(1/pi)^1/2}*2=1.19m

and the selected diameter is 1.2 meters

Regeneration Sequence Of

Softener Unit

Client-Techpro

For one Vessel

Mode of Regneration- Co-flow(C/F)

Area of the Vessel-1.32m2

Regenerant Quantity- 273.6 Kg , 950L of 24%

Brine Solution

Salt Concentration-10%

Backwash

The backwash flow is given as 12.5 m3/(m2*Hour)=12.5 m/hour, and

vessel=1.32*12.5=16.478m3/Hour

If the operation time is decided as 10 minutes, then the volume of

water needed for backwash is 16.478*10/60=16.478/6=2.746

Note- The water that is utilized in backwash needs to be

filtered

Salt Injection

The volume required for salt injection is defined as the regeneration

quantity/Salt concentration/1000/1.05=2.825 m3 after substituting

appropriate values, the design basis is taken to be 10-12% at 2-8 Bed

Volume/Hour (BV/Hour)

The flow rate considered is the bed volume per hour (2

BV/Hour)*Volume of salt injection=2.825*2=5.65 m3/Hour

and the operation is carried out for 30 minutes...

Note

Slow Rinse

The slow rinse process is generally carried out to drive out the left

over salt solution in the resin vessel

The volume required is defined as the designated Bed Volume (2

BV/Hour)*Resin Volume provided= 1.824*2=3.648 m3

The flow rate of slow rinse is 3.599 m3/hour, and the time can be

calculated as Slow rinse Volume/Flow rate = 3.648/3.599=1.0136

hours

Multiplying by 60 to get the answer in minutes gives 60.8 minutes

Note-

Final Rinse

The final rinse for one softener is equal to the service flow of water

entering one softener which is equal to 65 m3/hour

If it is operated for ten minutes then the volume of water that will be

produced is equal to 65*10/60=10.833 m3

Note- Only filtered water should be used for final rinse

In summation for regeneration sequence the total time is the sum of

the time taken for backwash, salt injection, slow rinse and final rinse,

i.e. 10+30+60.8+10=110.8 minutes and the waste water volume

will be equal to 2.746+2.825+3.955+10.833=20.359 m3

excel spreadsheethttps://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1vu6XDV_79sDsq9te6

FzvPaOZ2WF6iFkqY-eUCyFUF4A/edit?pli=1#gid=1767627426

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