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CONCEPT NOTE:

AQUAPONIC
SYSTEMS
AND
TECHNOLOGIES
To showcase sustainable food security initiatives
in urban and village-based communities

Subhrankar Mukherjee

PhD,MBA

E-mail: [subra@sankalpacmfs.org] ; [subhmukh@engr.colostate.edu]

Appropriate Technology

Division

Sankalpa Research Center


SRC/ATD/AP.01 Revision 2
25th April 2013

CONCEPT NOTE:

AQUAPONIC SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES


To showcase sustainable food security initiatives in urban and village-based communities
Subhrankar Mukherjee PhD,MBA
E-mail: [subra@sankalpacmfs.org] ; [subhmukh@engr.colostate.edu]

INDEX
1
2

Introduction..............................................................................................................2
What is Aquaponics?...............................................................................................2

2.1

Comparison of Aquaponics with traditional approaches ...................................................... 3

Types of Aquaponic Systems ..................................................................................3

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

Raft system............................................................................................................................ 3
Media-filled bed.................................................................................................................... 4
Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)............................................................................................ 4
Aquaponics Day-to-Day Operation ...................................................................................... 4

Highlights of Aquaponic Systems & Technologies ...............................................4

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

Need for a greenhouse........................................................................................................... 5


Aquaponic is Organic............................................................................................................ 5
Aquaponic farms are ecologically sustainable ...................................................................... 5
Aquaponic farms are more efficient than other forms of fish farming.................................. 6
Aquaponic system eliminates mosquitoes............................................................................. 6

5
6
7
8

Financial analysis.....................................................................................................6
Holistic development model ....................................................................................7
Agri-tourism & Eco-Park Program Development ...............................................7
Conclusions...............................................................................................................8
Annex: Photo-diary of Aquaponics & Spirulina Eco-Park (ASEP) at Ullon

Keywords: Aquaponics, aquaculture, water, fish farming, vegetables, hydroponics, soil-less plant culture,
nutrient-rich water, natural fertilizer, natural microbial process, sustainable ecosystem, organic, raft system,
Nutrient Film Technique (NFT), holistic development, agri-tourism.

Copyright 2011 Sankalpa Trust


Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this document, but changing it is not allowed.

Concept Note:
Aquaponic Systems and Technologies

Introduction

Aquaponics (AP) is a portmanteau of the words


aquaculture (intensive fish farming) and hydroponics (soil-less plant culture). In aquaponic systems, the nutrient-rich water from growing fish in a
re-circulating system provides a source of natural fertilizer for the growth of plants, organically. As the
plants absorb the nutrients, they bio-purify the water
that the fish live in. The growth of useful bacteria in
the system promotes the proliferation of natural microbial processes which allow the fish and plants to
grow in a symbiotic relationship. This process, which
can be thought of as bio-mimicry, creates a sustainable ecosystem where both plants and fish can live,
using less water and space, producing no waste water
and pollutants compared to conventional methods,
while using semi-skilled and local labor as inputs for production of food for food security, and resulting in
long-term creation of sustainable livelihoods.
The main advantage of Aquaponics over competing technologies for fish and vegetable growth are: [5]

Water Reuse: Aquaponic systems are completely contained systems that reuse most of the water
from the fish holding tanks. Wastes are removed, water is treated and recycled back to the tanks.
Water loss during waste removal/evaporation is typically 1-1.5% of the total volume of water.

Space and Production Efficiency: The productivity is higher than conventional aquaculture,
while allowing for optimal year-round growth. Market-sized fish can be produced in 9 months
compared to 15-18 months in conventional fish farms. It takes 197.6 acres of open ponds to produce the same amount of shrimp that an aquaponic farm can raise on just 6.1 acres of land![5]

Biosecurity: Aquaponic fish farms, which are fully closed and controlled and operate without any
inputs of chemicals, drugs or antibiotics, are biosecureas diseases and parasites cannot get into
the system. This ensures a more natural product for consumers. AP systems can be (a) located near
markets or within urban communities that will use the fish, rather than by natural water sources
like oceans or rivers, thus having a smaller carbon footprint due to reduced transportation requirements; and (b) need not be located on water supply systems or for drainage requirements.

Aquaponic systems, which have been under progressive development for over 40 years, can be designed to
be economically and environmentally sustainable, while enhancing productivity, profitability and the quality of food security, through continuous improvements in both, hard and soft aquaponic technology.
Pleas turn to the annex to view a photo-diary of the Aquaponics & Spirulina Eco-Park (ASEP) at Ullon.

What is Aquaponics?

Aquaponics is the cultivation of fish and vegetables/


plants together in a constructed, re-circulating ecosystem utilizing natural bacterial cycles to convert fish
wastes to plant nutrients, as shown in the schematic.
Aquaponic systems are closed loop facilities that retain
and treat the water within the system. The water flows
from the fish tank through a treatment process and is
then returned to the fish tank. This is an environmentally-friendly, natural food growing method that harnesses the best attributes of intensive aquaculture and
hydroponics without the need to discard any water or
filtrate or add chemical fertilizers, and capitalizes on the benefits and eliminates the drawbacks of either.
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Concept Note:
Aquaponic Systems and Technologies

2.1 Comparison of Aquaponics with traditional approaches


Aquaponics solves many problems faced by hobbyists, hydroponists and fisheries, as tabulated below:[2]
Table 1: Comparison of aquaponic approach with traditional approaches [2],[3]
Soil-based Gardening

Hydroponics

The problems with traditional soil-based gardening


are:

The problems with hydroponics


are:

Weeds;

Relatively large amounts


of water required, at
regular intervals;

Knowledge required to
know when to water,
when and how to fertilize, and what is the composition of the soil;

Heavy digging, the


bending, the back strain;

Presence of soil-borne
insects;

Pests.

Relies on the careful application of expensive, man-made


nutrients made from mixing
together a concoction of
chemicals, salts and trace elements;

Intensive Aquaculture
The problems with intensive
aquaculture are:

The tank water becomes


polluted with fish effluent
which gives off high concentrations of ammonia.

Because of this unhealthy


environment fish are prone
to disease and are often
treated with medicines, including antibiotics.

The strength of this mixture


needs to be carefully and constantly monitored, along with
pH values, using expensive

meters;
Water in hydroponic systems
needs to be discharged periodically, as the salts and
chemicals build up in the water which becomes toxic to
the plants. This is both inconvenient and problematic;

Water has to be discharged


at a rate of 10-20% of the
total volume in the tank
daily. This uses a tremendous amount of water.

Aquaponics
The advantages of aquaponic
systems are:

Give fish inexpensive fish


feed, food scraps, and food
that you grow yourself.

We need to carefully
monitor the aquaponic system during the first month,
but once the system is established, we only need to
check pH and ammonia
levels occasionally, or if
plants or fish seem
stressed.

We NEVER replace the


water; we only need to top
it off as it evaporates.

This polluted water is often


pumped into open streams
where it pollutes and destroys waterways.

Prone to a disease called


pythium or root rot.

Pythium is virtually nonexistent in aquaponic systems.


Fish disease is rare in an
aquaponic system.

Types of Aquaponic Systems

There are three primary aquaponic methods emerging in the aquaponic industry. The common components
are the fish tank and plant bed. The variables include filtration components, plumbing components, the type
of plant bed and the amount and frequency of water circulation and aeration. [3], [4]
3.1 Raft system
In a raft system (also known as float, deep channel and deep flow) the plants are grown on Styrofoam
boards (rafts) that float on top of water.Often, this is in a tank separate from the fish tank. Water flows continuously from the fish tank, through filtration components, through the raft
tank where the plants are grown and then back to the fish tank.
The beneficial bacteria live in the raft tank and throughout the system. The
extra volume of water in the raft tank provides a buffer for the fish, reducing
stress and potential water quality problems. This is one of the greatest benefits of the raft system. In addition, the University of the Virgin Islands and
other research programs have worked to develop and refine this method for
over 25 years. The raft system is a well developed method with very high
production per square foot.
In a commercial system, the raft tanks can cover large areas, best utilizing the
floor space in a greenhouse. Plant seedlings are transplanted on to one end of
the raft tank. The rafts are pushed forward on the surface of the water over time and then the mature plants
are harvested at the other end of the raft. Once a raft is harvested, it can be replanted with seedlings and set
into place on the opposite end. This method optimizes floor space, which is especially important in a commercial greenhouse setting.

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Concept Note:
Aquaponic Systems and Technologies

3.2 Media-filled bed


A media-filled bed system uses a tank or container that is filled with gravel,
perlite or other media for the plant bed. This bed is periodically flooded with
water from the fish tank. The water then drains back to the fish tank. All
waste, including the solids, is broken down within the plant bed. Sometimes
worms are added to the gravel-filled plant bed to enhance the break-down of
the waste. This method uses the fewest components and no additional filtration, making it simple to operate. The production is, however, much lower
than the two other methods described here. The gravel media-filled bed is
often used for hobby applications where maximizing production is not a goal.
However, vertical towers, shown on the right have high productivity and are
space saving, and therefore highly recommended for professional growers.
3.3 Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)
NFT is a method in which the plants are grown in long narrow channels. A
thin film of water continuously flows down each channel, providing the plant
roots with water, nutrients and oxygen, as shown on the right.
As with the raft system, water flows continuously from the fish tank, through
filtration components, through the NFT channels where the plants are grown
and then back to the fish tank. In NFT, a separate bio filter is required, however, because there is not a large amount of water or surface for the beneficial
bacteria to live. In addition, the plumbing used in a hydroponic NFT system
is usually not large enough to be used in Aquaponics because the organic nature of the system and living water will cause clogging of small pipes and
tubes. NFT Aquaponics has shown great potential at our ASEP at Ullon.
3.4 Aquaponics Day-to-Day Operation
An aquaponic system is not difficult to maintain but there are daily and periodic tasks that must be done to
ensure a healthy system. Some of these operations are:

Fish feeding

Plant seeding, rotation and harvesting

Observation and monitoring

Water quality testing

Cleaning filters and system

Highlights of Aquaponic Systems & Technologies

The key to a successful aquaponic system is the beneficial bacteria which convert the fish wastes into nutrients that the plants use. [5]
A key feature of aquaponic technology is that it re-uses water, which is re-circulated continuously throughout the system. All of the tanks and various aquaponic components are connected by pipes. Water flows
from the fish tank to the mechanical filter where solid waste is removed. The water then flows into a biological filter that converts ammonia to nitrate. Some systems use special tanks that are designed to promote
good bacteria growththe bacteria act as a filter. After being treated in the mechanical and biofiltration
components, the water flows back to the fish tank.
More than 50% of the waste produced by fish is in the form of ammonia, secreted through the gills and in
the urine. The remainder of the waste, excreted as fecal matter, undergoes a process called mineralization
which occurs when Heterotrophic bacteria consume fish waste, decaying plant matter and uneaten food,
converting all three to ammonia & other compounds. In sufficient quantities, ammonia is toxic to plants
and fish. Nitrifying bacteria, which naturally live in the soil, water and air, convert ammonia first to nitrite
and then to nitrate which plants consume. In aquaponic systems, the nitrifying bacteria will thrive in the
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Concept Note:
Aquaponic Systems and Technologies

gravel in the fish tanks and in the growing medium in the grow bed. The plants readily uptake the nitrate in
the water and, in consuming it, help to keep the water quality safe for the fish.
Briefly, some of the important factors to be considered for building and operating an aquaponic system are:

Water quality and waste management


Dissolved oxygen
Temperature
pH and alkalinity
Waste removal: Ammonia, Nitrites, Nitrates, solid and suspended waste
Carbon dioxide

4.1 Need for a greenhouse


A greenhouse generally provides protection from environmental factors such as heat, cold, wind, rain and
insect intrusion. For Indian climates, a greenhouse is particularly beneficial to protect the crops from rain,
wind and insects. The type of greenhouse and the specific environmental control equipment can vary
widely, depending on the particular climatic conditions.
4.2 Aquaponic is Organic
Organic foods are produced under conditions in which all inputs are controlled.
Aquaponic systems, which provide a unique method of raising fish that can completely control the production environment, are based on completely natural processes that mimics lakes, ponds, rivers and waterways on earth. Being a closed-loop system, aquaponic systems can better ensure that fish and plants are not
being exposed to synthetic fertilizers or pesticides, growth hormones, sewage sludge, antibiotics or any
other artificial feed or treatments. The only input to an aquaponic system is fish food. The fish eat the food
and excrete waste, which is converted (by beneficial bacteria) to a form that that plants can use. In consuming these nutrients, the plants help to purify the water. The fish and vegetables are healthy and safe to eat,
because herbicides, pesticides or other harsh chemicals cannot be used in an aquaponic system.
As long as it is ensured that the fish food is organic, the fish and vegetables produced using aquaponic
technologies can therefore be classified as organic products. Other forms of aquaculture that allow water to
flow freely in and out of the holding ponds or cages can not control what chemicals and pollutants are being carried with the water, or contained in the soil.
4.3 Aquaponic farms are ecologically sustainable
Aquaponic farms are designed to be energy and space efficient, and re-circulate/re-use water, all with
minimal waste. As an enclosed system, the aquaponic farm can be located on poor and rocky soil, virtually
almost anywhere! As it is self-contained, the farm can be located close to consumershence the rationale
for urban aquacultureresulting in reduced transport and a smaller carbon footprint. The solid waste removed from aquaponic farms can be sold to traditional agriculture farms for enriching their soil. The aquaponic farm does not need to be located near to water supplies, nor requires system drainage, as in intensive aquaculture. Moreover, irrigation claims about 70% of the water used in traditional agriculture, and the
excess water leaving farms is often contaminated with silt, pesticides, herbicides and fertilizersmaking it
unfit for reuse.
Thus, aquaponic farms use much less water than many other aquaculture and agricultural systems. To
grow about 11,168 kg of lettuce and 5,000 kg of fish per year, the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI)
aquaponic farm requires a daily water addition of only 1,646 liters of water[6], which is about 1.5% of the
total systems volume of 109,776 liters of water, in order to compensate for water lost in waste removal,
evaporation and evapotranspiration from plants. Now, compare this water consumption rate to a UNESCO
statistic: an average 1-lb head of lettuce requires an average of 60 liters of water to grow. Therefore, the
aquaponic farm can produce the same amount of lettuce as traditional agriculture using half the amount of
water, plus producing 5,000 kg of fish, over and above the vegetables, in the bargain!

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Concept Note:
Aquaponic Systems and Technologies

4.4 Aquaponic farms are more efficient than other forms of fish farming.
Aquaponic farms outperform other types of fish farming in growth rates, diverse revenue streams, scalability, array of products and flexibility of location. Importantly, they are more eco-friendly and can provide
better quality products for consumers. Production levels in aquaponic farms are often higher than those
from other forms of fish farming. Year-round growth is possible due to the controlled environmental conditions.
4.5 Aquaponic system eliminates mosquitoes
A network associate in Hawaii, Friendly Aquaponics, Inc., reports that an additional benefit of running an
aquaponic farmthat they noticed after the first system was operational for six monthswas that the mosquitoes on their seven-acre farm had COMPLETELY disappeared! A copy of their report documenting this
amazing benefit will be provided to anyone who is interested to know more about their studies. [8]

Financial analysis

Aquaponic enterprises, like any other commercial activity, shall require adequate investments in equipment, proper design of its facilities, and excellent management and marketing skills. Additionally, the entrepreneur needs to be a skilled fish culturist and plant grower. With these resources and qualifications, an
aquaponic farmwhich uses natural resources like water and land efficiently and produce multiple productscan be economically viable. For commercial ventures, Aquaponics can be highly profitable.
According to the literature[6][7], the aquaponic system at the University of the Virgin Islands (a) was constructed and fully outfitted for $40,490 (not including labor), which is equivalent to about Rs.18.6 Lakhs
(at an exchange rate of Rs.46 to US$1); and (b) uses 187,775 gallons (or 710,803 liters) of water annually,
to produce approximately:

11,000 pounds (or 5,000 kg) of fish per year; at Rs.100/kg, this translates to Rs. 5 Lakhs per year;

37,800 heads of lettuce with the estimated weight of 0.65 pounds per head, which equals to 24,570
pounds (or 11,168 kg) of lettuce per year; at Rs.40/kg, this translates to Rs. 4.5 Lakhs per year.

This implies that:

The direct economic value of aquaponic products comprising 5,000 kg of tilapia and 11,168 kg of
lettuce totals to about Rs.9.5 Lakhs per year.

Let us consider the cost of labor for construction to be 50% of material cost, so the facility cost in
the USA would be about (Rs.18.6 Lakhs x 1.5) = Rs.28 Lakhs; then, assuming that material and labor cost in India is half that of the US, derate that amount by 50% to reflect lower material and
construction costs in India, which means that an equivalent aquaponic facility in India would cost
about (Rs.28 Lakhs x 0.5) = Rs.14 Lakhs;

Thus, the [Facility Cost : Annual Sales Revenue] ratio is [Rs. 14 Lakhs/Rs.9.5 Lakhs] = 1.5.

A significant operational advantage of aquaponic systems over traditional fish and vegetable production
methods is the low labor cost. Most of the commercial aquaponic applications documented in the classic
manual, The IBC of Aquaponics [4], are run by family-oriented management systems. Large commercial
operations require one full-time, semi-skilled employee per 1,000 m2 of enclosed space; for each 4,000 m2
of enclosed space, an extra full-time person will be required to help with the fish and plant harvesting.
There are NO special skills required to operate any facet of the aquaponic systems. Therefore, the payback/break-even point from commercial aquaponic projects should be considerably less than two years. As
we gain from the learning curve, the cost economics of aquaponic systems should improve, whilst the cost
of production of traditional methods sharply increase, as the cost of land, water and labor resources continue to rise uncontrollably.
Aquaponic systems are not only eco-friendly, but they also makes good business senseespecially in
a world of dwindling but escalating costs of natural resources!

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Concept Note:
Aquaponic Systems and Technologies

Holistic development model

The conjoint processes of (a) biomethanation of


agricultural and human/livestock waste; (b) growth of
Spirulina, the Super Food; (c) Vermicomposting; & (d)
Aquaponicshas the potential of becoming the
centerpiece of sustainable urban and village development,
as it has important links and synergies with other
sustainable and appropriate technologies that have already
been demonstrated and implemented elsewhere, most
notably, at the Sankalpa Research Center1 at Village
Baidyapur, Nadiawhich promotes participatory
practices and demonstrates appropriate technologies for
sustainable rural development. [9]
The schematic on the right describes a distributed model
for implementing a sustainable and integrated program for
creating sustainable livelihoods, health, food and energy
security for target beneficiaries, which can produce:
(a) Methane fuel from biomethanation of agricultural, livestock and domestic waste;
(b) Vermicompost;
(c) Spirulina productivity enhancement, by utilizing
the large amounts of CO2 present in biogas; and
(d) Fish and vegetables from aquaponic systems, which after human consumption produces agricultural waste products that can be recycled as input materials for biomethanation, in a mutually beneficial waste-to-wealth recycling loop, between the blocks depicted above.
A Concept Note[9] which provides more details of the above holistic approach can be downloaded at:
[http://www.sankalpacmfs.org/src/wp/Concept_Integrated_Bio_Spi.pdf] ~ 518 kb.

Agri-tourism & Eco-Park Program Development

Agri-tourism is becoming more popular, as tourists, school groups and the general public wish to be rejuvenated by coming close to the rural life, meet and interact with individuals involved in agriculture and
learn how and where their favorite foods are grown. Agri-tourism in aquaponic-related theme parks highlight educational tours that include seminars and workshops, picnic and camping sites on aquaponic farms,
farmers markets and farm festivals. Increased revenue streams and product awareness are the primary
benefits for aquaponic mediated agri-tourism programs. [10]
An aquaponic facility is especially attractive as an Eco-Park2, because:
(a) The technology is unique, naturally simple and also high-tech, all at the same time;
(b) It draws on the curiosity of a wide variety of people and groups;
(c) School children of any age can learn about biology, horticulture and many other disciplines of science, all in a setting where the technology is implemented to grow food and earn a profit;
(d) Home gardeners, garden clubs, business groups, restaurateurs and traditional farmers are all candidates for joining the tours.

Please visit our Sankalpa Research CenterNadia website at: [www.sankalpacmfs.org/src/] for more details

Please download [http://www.sankalpacmfs.org/asep/Concept.ASEPm.pdf] for more details.

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Concept Note:
Aquaponic Systems and Technologies

Once having visited an aquaponic eco-tourist site, a visitor will be tempted to return again and again to see,
learn, enjoy and finally, purchase fish and vegetables for their own use, at special rebates.
Tours of an aquaponic facility provide visitors with an opportunity to learn about the economic and practical side of modern urban aquaculture and high-tech farming, while incorporating the many facets of science involved in the daily operation of the business. The operators can offer tours and programs focusing
on specific areas of information. For instance, a workshop on plant propagation, culturing or lighting might
be just what a kitchen garden club is looking for, while a group of biology students is keen to learn more
about the species of fish being cultured.
One of the greatest advantages of agri-tourism is the diversification of the farm operation. Adding an EcoPark as a new enterprise, such as tours or on-site sales of produce adds another source of income to an aquaponic farm and provides an opportunity to increase agricultural awareness and education among the public. In addition, Eco-Parks and agri-tourism attract customers to farms. Adding a picnic site or beautiful
garden area to an existing operation will not only draw families to the facility, but they will stay longer if
interesting attractions are provided and continuously improved or changed.
Visitors will increasingly support agri-tourism, as they see that it contributes to the stability of the agriculture industry and helps support rural communities and businesses.

Conclusions

Aquaponic systems are not only eco-friendly, sustainable, provide food security and create sustainable livelihoods, but they are also commercially feasible and make good business senseespecially in a world of
dwindling and escalating costs of natural resources, such as land and water.

References:
[1]

Barrel-ponics (a.k.a. Aquaponics in a Barrel); By Travis W. Hughey, 2005.

[2]

What is Aquaponics?; [http://aquaponicscommunity.com/page/what-is-aquaponics]

[3]

Methods of Aquaponics; An (abbreviated) article from the Aquaponics Journal at:


[http://www.aquaponicsjournal.com/]

[4]

The IBC of Aquaponics; [http://www.backyardaquaponics.com/Travis/IBCofAquaponics1.pdf ]; Published


and Distributed by Backyard Aquaponics; Editors: Joel Malcolm & Faye Arcaro; Edition One; 2011

[5]

RAS: Land-Based Re-circulating Aquaculture systems: a more sustainable approach to aquaculture;


The Alliance for Sustainable Aquaculture and Food & Water Watch; September 2009.
Water Usage in Recirculating Farms; Fact SheetJuly 2011; Recirculating Farms Coalition
Re-circulating Farms: Myths and Facts; Fact SheetJuly 2011; Recirculating Farms Coalition
Aquaponics against Malaria, by Susanne Friend and Tim Mann, Friendly Aquaponics, Inc.; 2011.

[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]

ARTS Concept Note for creating sustainable livelihoods, health, food and energy security for target beneficiaries, download at: [http://www.sankalpacmfs.org/src/wp/Concept_Integrated_Bio_Spi.pdf] ~ 518 kb.

[10]

Aquaponics, Hydroponics and Agri-Tourism, by Rebecca L. Nelson and John S. Pade; Paper prepared for
International Conference and Exhibition on Soilless Culture, 2005, Singapore.

For more information on Aquaponic systems and technologies, please contact:


Subhrankar Mukherjee, PhD,MBA
Affiliations:

e-mail: [subra@sankalpacmfs.org] ; [subhmukh@engr.colostate.edu]

Managing TrusteeSankalpa Trust, Calcutta, India;


SecretarySociety for Appropriate Rural Technology for Sustainability (ARTS);
Affiliate ProfessorColorado State University, Fort Collins, USA;
Project Director & SecretaryTRD Group.

Registered Office: P6 Cluster 2, Purbachal, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700097, INDIA.


Telefax: 33 2335 9812;

Mobile: +91 93392 59812 ; 94330 19821 Website: [www.sankalpacmfs.org/src]

For more details, please download: [http://www.sankalpacmfs.org/asep/Concept.ASEPm.pdf]

Sankalpa Research Center


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IHPASEP Ullon

Document #: AU.IH.PIX.6d

Title Update of Aquaponic & Spirulina Eco Park Photo-Diaryupto 13th February 2013

Date: 14th Feb. 2013


NFS-WBRO: 615(A) / RIF-603

IHPASEP Ullon

Document #: AU.IH.PIX.6d

Title Update of Aquaponic & Spirulina Eco Park Photo-Diaryupto 13th February 2013

Date: 14th Feb. 2013


NFS-WBRO: 615(A) / RIF-603

IHPASEP Ullon

Document #: AU.IH.PIX.6d

Title Update of Aquaponic & Spirulina Eco Park Photo-Diaryupto 13th February 2013

Date: 14th Feb. 2013


NFS-WBRO: 615(A) / RIF-603

IHPASEP Ullon

Document #: AU.IH.PIX.6d

Title Update of Aquaponic & Spirulina Eco Park Photo-Diaryupto 13th February 2013

Date: 14th Feb. 2013


NFS-WBRO: 615(A) / RIF-603

IHPASEP Ullon

Document #: AU.IH.PIX.6d

Title Update of Aquaponic & Spirulina Eco Park Photo-Diaryupto 13th February 2013

Date: 14th Feb. 2013


NFS-WBRO: 615(A) / RIF-603

IHPASEP Ullon

Document #: AU.IH.PIX.6d

Title Update of Aquaponic & Spirulina Eco Park Photo-Diaryupto 13th February 2013

Date: 14th Feb. 2013


NFS-WBRO: 615(A) / RIF-603

IHPASEP Ullon

Document #: AU.IH.PIX.6d

Title Update of Aquaponic & Spirulina Eco Park Photo-Diaryupto 13th February 2013

Date: 14th Feb. 2013


NFS-WBRO: 615(A) / RIF-603

IHPASEP Ullon

Document #: AU.IH.PIX.6d

Title Update of Aquaponic & Spirulina Eco Park Photo-Diaryupto 13th February 2013

Date: 14th Feb. 2013


NFS-WBRO: 615(A) / RIF-603

IHPASEP Ullon

Document #: AU.IH.PIX.6d

Title Update of Aquaponic & Spirulina Eco Park Photo-Diaryupto 13th February 2013

Date: 14th Feb. 2013


NFS-WBRO: 615(A) / RIF-603

IHPASEP Ullon

Document #: AU.IH.PIX.6d

Title Update of Aquaponic & Spirulina Eco Park Photo-Diaryupto 13th February 2013

Date: 14th Feb. 2013


NFS-WBRO: 615(A) / RIF-603

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IHPASEP Ullon

Document #: AU.IH.PIX.6d

Title Update of Aquaponic & Spirulina Eco Park Photo-Diaryupto 13th February 2013

Date: 14th Feb. 2013


NFS-WBRO: 615(A) / RIF-603

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